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Critical Thinking an Integral Core Value to Higher Education Ann arie Lan!a"#i$ciello ollo% College Higher Education in A&erica Nur '() aureen oulder* Ed+* RN

No, -.* -)11

Critical Thinking an Integral Core Value to Higher Education Critical thinking i$ the /roce$$ o0 thinking in a certain 1a%2 Thinking care0ull% 1ith clarit%* de/th* logic* accurac% and o/en"&indedl% i$ thinking criticall%2 The ai& o0 thi$ /a/er i$ to de0ine the /roce$$ o0 critical thinking and identi0% it$ ,alue to higher education* $ociet% and healthcare2 The 0oundation 0or the theor% o0 critical thinking can 3e traced 3ack to ancient Greek /hilo$o/her$2 One /hilo$o/her 1ho $tand$ out a$ ha,ing the greate$t in0luence on critical thinking theor% i$ 4ocrate$2 4ocrate$ ha$ $tood a$ the role &odel o0 intellectual integrit% and in5uir%2 He i$ $een a$ the ideal critical thinker2 He earned thi$ re/utation through hi$ anal%tical &ethod o0 5ue$tioning and cro$$"e6a&ination$ o0 /o$ition$2 4ocrate$ e&3raced the 5ue$tioning critical attitude* /roclai&ing 7The unin5uiring li0e i$ not li0e 0or &an82 He ca&e to 3elie,e that all tradition$ and a$$u&/tion$ 1ere o/en to critical e6a&ination and $hould 3e regularl% $u39ect to $uch2 :+al%* 1;;(* /2 <-=> 4ocrate$? ideal$ on critical thinking 1ere 0urthered 3% @lato and Ari$totle2 All o0 the$e ancient Greek /hilo$o/her$ e&/ha$i!ed that thing$ are o0ten ,er% di00erent on the $ur0ace and that onl% a trained &ind i$ /re/ared to $ee through 1hat the% are reall% like 3eneath the $ur0ace2 :Aoundation 0or Critical Thinking> 4ince the da%$ o0 4ocrate$ &an% educational theori$t$ ha,e added their o1n conce/t$ to de$cri3e critical thinking2 In 1;1) Bohn +e1e% introduced the conce/t o0 7re0lecti,e thought8 in hi$ 1ork 7Ho1 Ce Think82 7+e1e%?$ &o$t 3a$ic a$$u&/tion 1a$ that learning i&/ro,e$ to the degree that it ari$e$ out o0 the /roce$$ o0 re0lection82 :4a&uel* 1;;;> +e1e% $ugge$ted that the re0lecti,e /roce$$ 1a$ onl% /art o0 critical thinking2 He de0ined critical thinking a$ 7Acti,e* /er$i$tent and care0ul con$ideration o0 a 3elie0 or $u//o$ed 0or& o0 kno1ledge in light o0 the ground$ that $u//ort it* and the 0urther conclu$ion$ to 1hich it tend$82 Bohn +e1e% identi0ied

learning to think a$ a /ri&ar% /ur/o$e o0 education :Hal/ern* -))<* /2 D> #rook0ield de$cri3ed the ke% co&/onent$ o0 critical thinking a$E 7 identi0%ing and challenging a$$u&/tion$*8 7e6/loring and i&agining alternati,e$*8 7under$tanding the i&/ortance o0 conte6t* and engaging in relati,e $ke/tici$&28 7:Riddell* -))(* /2 1-1> e!iro1 contended that to enhance critical

thinking %ou ha,e to 5ue$tion2 Fou ha,e to a$k %our$el0 the Cho* Chat and Ch% in order to criticall% think a3out a $ituation or /ro3le&2 The contri3ution o0 the$e educational theori$t$ to the conce/t$ o0 critical thinking ha$ lead to little agree&ent on ho1 to conce/tuali!e critical thinking2 Thi$ al$o lead to a ,ariet% o0 de0inition$ o0 1hat critical thinking i$2 7Richard @aul call$ it the a3ilit% to reach $ound conclu$ion$ 3a$ed on o3$er,ation and in0or&ation28 #arr% #e%er de$cri3e$ it a$ a$$e$$ing the authenticit%* accurac% and 1orth o0 kno1ledge clai&$* 3elie0$* or argu&ent$28:ERIC 1;..> In the earl% 1;;)$ @eter Aacione led an international organi!ed e00ort to de0ine critical thinking2 Thi$ re$earch /ro9ect* re0erred to a$ the +el/hi re/ort 1a$ acco&/li$hed 3% a grou/ o0 =D leading theori$t$* teacher$* and critical thinking a$$e$$&ent $/eciali$t$ in di00erent $cholarl% di$ci/line$ o,er a t1o %ear /eriod2 The +el/hi /anel e6/ert con$en$u$ de$cri3e$ critical thinking and the ideal critical thinker a$ 7Ce under$tand critical thinking to 3e /ur/o$e0ul* $el0"regulator% 9udg&ent 1hich re$ult$ in inter/retation* anal%$i$* e,aluation and in0erence* a$ 1ell a$ e6/lanation o0 the e,idential* conce/tual* &ethodological* criteriological* or conte6tual con$ideration$ u/on 1hich that 9udg&ent i$ 3a$ed2 CT i$ e$$ential a$ a tool o0 in5uir%2 A$ $uch* CT i$ a li3erating 0orce in education and a /o1er0ul re$ource in one?$ /er$onal and ci,ic li0e2 Chile not $%non%&ou$ 1ith good thinking* CT i$ a /er,a$i,e and $el0"recti0%ing hu&an /heno&enon2 The ideal critical thinker i$ ha3ituall% in5ui$iti,e* 1ell"in0or&ed* tru$t0ul o0

rea$on* o/en"&inded* 0le6i3le* 0air"&inded in e,aluation* hone$t in 0acing /er$onal 3ia$e$* /rudent in &aking 9udg&ent$* 1illing to con$ider* clear a3out i$$ue$* orderl% in co&/le6 &atter$* diligent in $eeking rele,ant in0or&ation* rea$ona3le in the $election o0 criteria* 0ocu$ed in in5uir%* and /er$i$tent in $eeking re$ult$ 1hich are a$ /reci$e a$ the $u39ect and the circu&$tance$ o0 in5uir% /er&it2 Thu$ educating $trong critical thinker$ &ean$ 1orking to1ard$ thi$ ideal2 It co&3ine$ de,elo/ing CT $kill$ 1ith nurturing tho$e di$/o$ition$ 1hich con$i$tentl% %ield u$e0ul in$ight$ and 1hich are the 3a$i$ o0 a rational and de&ocratic $ociet%8 :Aacione* -)11* /2 -D>2 Aro& thi$ de0inition 1e can $ee that a critical thinker i$ not a /er$on o0 higher intelligence* or the /er$on 1ith a good &e&or% that kno1$ a lot o0 0act$2 A critical thinker i$ a3le to &ake u$e o0 in0or&ation in order to $ol,e /ro3le&$2 Thi$ de0inition i&/lie$ that critical thinking i$ an intentional* $el0"regulated /roce$$ that utili!e$ cogniti,e $kill$ and /ro,ide$ a &echani$& 0or /ro3le& $ol,ing and deci$ion &aking 3a$ed on logic and rea$oning2 The de0inition al$o i&/lie$ that 1e educate $trong critical thinker$2 Ho1 do 1e educate $trong critical thinker$G The /ractice o0 teaching critical thinking $kill$ i$ not ne12 Critical thinking a3ilit% i$ co&&onl% $een a$ a de$ired education outco&e in relation to /ro0e$$ional and higher education2 an% college$ and uni,er$itie$ no1 o00er cour$e$

$/eci0icall% to enhance $tudent$ learning a3ilitie$ a$ /art o0 the general education re5uire&ent2 Ho1 1ell i$ it 3eing i&/le&ented in higher educationG In 1;;) the +e/art&ent o0 Education relea$ed $i6 goal$ 0or the nation?$ $chool$2 Goal three o0 the National Goal$ 0or Education $tated 7that &ore $tudent$ $hould 3e a3le to rea$on* $ol,e /ro3le&$ and a//l% kno1ledge28 Goal $i6 $/eci0icall% $tated that college graduate$ &u$t 3e a3le to think criticall% 7:O00ice o0 Education Re$earch I&/ro,e&ent* 1;;1> The i&/le&entation o0 the$e goal$ 3rought a3out a $hi0t 0ro&

teacher 0ocu$ed in$truction to a $tudent centered learning to i&/ro,e $tudent critical thinking $kill$2 o$t college 0acult% agree that critical thinking i$ one o0 the &o$t i&/ortant indicator$ o0

$tudent learning 5ualit% and educational outco&e$2 Ha,e college $tudent criticall% thinking $kill$ i&/ro,edG According to a ne1 3ook 7Academically Adrift8 3% @ro0e$$or$ Richard Aru& and Bo$i/a Rok$a the A&erican A$$ociation o0 Uni,er$it% @ro0e$$or$ $till agree$ that critical thinking i$ the hall&ark o0 A&erican education2 The 3ook &ake$ a $trong ca$e through an e&/irical $tud% that 0or a large nu&3er o0 $ucce$$0ul undergraduate$ the% are lea,ing college 1ith le$$ than a,erage critical thinking $kill$* co&/le6 rea$oning and 1riting $kill$2 The author$ al$o i&/l% that college /ro0e$$or$ are not tough enough on college $tudent$ and do not re5uire the& to do enough 1riting in order to enhance critical thinking2 The% al$o indicate that in higher education the /ractice o0 critical thinking i$ &ore o0 a /rinci/le then a /ractice2:N@R -)11> Critical thinking in the healthcare arena and in nur$ing in /articular

Re0erence$ :-)11* Ae3ruar% ;E>2 A Lack of Rigor Leaves Students "Adrift" In College. Retrie,ed No,e&3er 1'* -)11* 0ro& htt/:HHn/r2orgH-)11H)-H);H1<<<<1);(.Hin"college"a"lack"o0"rigor" $tudent$"adr0t +al%* C2 2 :1;;(* Bul% <E>2 Critical Thinking a$ an Outco&e o0 Nur$ing Education2 Chat i$ itG

Ch% i$ it I&/ortant to Nur$ing @racticeG2 Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2 * //2 <-<"<<12 Retrie,ed No,e&3er 1* -)11* 0ro& E#4COdata3a$e$ Aacione* @2 A2 :-)11>2 Critical !"inking# $"at It Is and $"y It Counts. Retrie,ed No,e&3er 1* -)11* 0ro& htt/:HHin$ighta$$e$$&ent$2co&Hde62ht& Aoundation 0or Critical Thinking :n2d2>2 A %rief &istory of t"e Idea of Critical !"inking. Retrie,ed No,e&3er 1* -)11* 0ro& htt/:HH1112criticalthinking2orgH/age$Ha"3rie0"hi$tor%" o0"the"idea"o0"critical"thinkingH=). Hal/ern* +2 A2 :-))<>2 !"oug"t and 'no(ledge# An Introduction to Critical !"inking :=th ed2>2 ah1ah* N2B2: La1rence Erl3au& A$$ociate$2 O00ice o0 Education Re$earch I&/ro,e&ent :1;;1>2 Striving for )*cellence. Retrie,ed No,e&3er 1'* -)11* 0ro& 1112go,in0o2li3rar%2unit2eduHneg/ Riddell* T2 :-))(* arch>2 Critical A$$u&/tion$: Thinking Criticall% A3out Critical Thinking2

Journal of Nursing )ducation, +,* //2 1-1"1-'2 Retrie,ed No,e&3er 1* -)11* 0ro& E#4COdata3a$e$ 4a&uel* 42 42 :1;;;* No,e&3er>2 Reflective !"oug"t, Critical !"inking. Retrie,ed No,e&3er 1'* -)11* 0ro& htt/EHH1112ericdige$t$2orgH-)))"<Hthought2ht& Critical !"inking Skills and !eac"er )ducation. 1;.. E+-;())< Retrie,ed No,e&3er 1* -)11* 0ro& htt/:HHericae2netHedoHed-;())<2ht&