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International Journal of Smart Home Vol. 5, No.

1, January, 2011

End-effector Position Analysis of SCORBOT-ER Vplus Robot
Dr. Anurag Verma1 and Vivek A. Deshpande2
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Principal, G. H. Patel College of Engineering & Technology, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand Gujarat – 388120, India dranuragverma@gcet.ac.in Asst. Professor in Mechanical Engineering, G. H. Patel College of Engineering & Technology, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand Gujarat – 388120, India vivek_deshpande@yahoo.com
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Abstract
This paper features the kinematic analysis of a SCORBOT-ER Vplus robot arm which is used for doing successful robotic manipulation task in its workspace. The SCORBOT-ER Vplus is a 5-dof vertical articulated robot and all the joints are revolute [1]. The kinematics problem is defined as the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space and vice versa. The Denavit-Harbenterg (D-H) model of representation is used to model robot links and joints in this study along with 4x4 homogeneous matrix. SCORBOT-ER Vplus is a dependable and safe robotic system designed for laboratory and training applications. This versatile system allows students to gain theoretical and practical experience in robotics, automation and control systems. The MATLAB 8.0 is used to solve this mathematical model for a set of joint parameter. Keywords: Forward kinematics, Vertical articulated robot, D-H model

1. Introduction
Robot kinematics is the study of the motion (kinematics) of robotic mechanisms. In a kinematic analysis, the position, velocity, and acceleration of all the links are calculated with respect to a fixed reference coordinate system, without considering the forces or moments. The kinematic models are needed for off-line and on-line program generation and for tracking functional trajectories. A robotic manipulator is designed to perform a task in the 3-D space. The tool or end-effector is required to follow a planned trajectory to manipulate objects. The Kinematic model gives relationship between the position and orientation of the end-effector and spatial positions of joint-links.

The kinematic modeling is split into two problems as forward kinematics & inverse kinematics. General methods do exist for solving forward kinematics (2-5). Forward kinematics problem is to determine the position and orientation of the end-effector, given the values for the joint variables of the robot. Inverse kinematics problem is concerned with

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The Zi -1 lies along the axis of motion of the ith joint. iii. shoulder. The DH representation of a rigid link depends on four geometric parameters associated with each links. Figures 1 & 2 identify the joints and links of the mechanical arm. 2 . and axis (i-2). No. Joint distance (di) . elbow. 5. The Xi axis is normal to the Zi-1 axis.1. joint (i-1). was proposed by Denavit & Hartenberg . It has a stationary base. Joint angle (θi) – angle between xi-1 and xi axes measured about the zi-1 axis in the right hand sense. iii. tool pitch and tool roll.International Journal of Smart Home Vol. January. with five revolute joints.so is known as Denavit -Hartenberg (DH) notation [6-7]. iv. Kinematic model of SCORBOT-ER Vplus Robot SCORBOT-ER Vplus is a vertical articulated robot. Link length (ai) – distance measured along xi axis from the point of intersection of xi axis with zi-1 axis to the origin of frame {i}. Link twist (αi) – angle between zi-1 and zi axes measured about xi-axis in the right hand sense. Figure 3 shows a pair of adjacent links.distance measured along zi-1 axis from the origin of frame {i-1} to intersection of xi axis with zi-1 axis.(i-1) and i respectively. The Yi axis completes the right – handed coordinate system as required. These four parameters completely describe any revolute or prismatic joint as follows: i. 1. ii. 2011 determining values for the joint variables that achieve a desired position and orientation for the end-effector of the robot. and pointing away from it. 2. i and (i+1). Denavit & Hartenberg (D-H) notation Figure 2: Robot Arm Joints The definition of a manipulator with four joint-link parameters for each link and a systematic procedure for assigning right-handed orthonormal coordinate frames. Figure 1: Robot Arm Links 2. link(i-1) and link i. ii. one to each link in an open kinematic chain. A frame {i} is assigned to link i as follows: i. their associated joints.

January. Kinematic relationship between adjacent links Once the DH coordinate system has been established for each link. The kinematic parameters according to this model are given in Table 1.35 θi 38. 2011 Figure 3: DH Conventions for frame assigning The kinematic model is shown in Figure 4 with frame assignments according to the Denavit & Hartenberg (D-H) notations. Figure 4: Frame Assignment Table 1: D-H Parameter for Scorbot ER-Vplus Joint i 1 2 3 4 5 αi π/2 0 0 π/2 0 ai (mm) 101.25 220 220 0 0 di (mm) 334.54o 0o Operating range -155o to +155o -35o to +130o -130o to +130o -130o to +130o -570o to +570o 2. This 3 . a homogeneous transformation matrix can easily be developed considering frame {i-1} and frame {i}.2.25 0 0 0 137. No.International Journal of Smart Home Vol.15o -30o 45o -63. 1. 5.

Rotation by angle αi about xi axis i-1 Ti = Tz(θi) Tz(di) Tx(ai) Tx(αi) i-1 Ti = Cθ i − Sθ i  Sθ i Cθ i   0 0  0  0 0 0 0  1   0 0 0 1 0 0  0   1 0  0 0 1 di   0   0 1  0 0 0 1   0 0 0  1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 ai  1 0 0 0   0 0 Cα i − Sα i 0    0  0 Sα i Cα i 0    1  0 0 0 1 i-1 Ti = Cθ i − Sθ iCα i Sθ iSα i aiCθ i   Sθ i Cθ iCα i −Cθ iSα i aiSθ i     0 Sα i Cα i di    0 0 1   0 where Sθi=sin θi. Sαi=sin αi. i. 1. 0T5 = 0T1* 1T2* 2T3* 3T4* 4T5 c1 s 0 T1 =  1 0  0 0 s1 0 − c1 1 0 0 0 a1c1  a1s1   d1   1  0 0  0  1 c2 s 1 T2 =  2 0  0 − s2 c2 0 0 0 a 2 c2  0 a2 s2   1 0   0 1  0 0 0 0  1 d5   0 1 c3 s 2 T3 =  3 0  0 − s3 c3 0 0 0 a3c3  0 a3 s3   1 0   0 1  c4 s 3 T4 =  4 0  0 0 s4 0 − c4 1 0 0 0 c5 s 4 T5 =  5 0  0 − s5 c5 0 0 0 T5 = c1c 234 c5 + s1 s 5 s c c − c s  1 234 5 1 5  s 234 c5  0  c1c 234 s 5 + s1c5 − s1c 234 s 5 − c1c5 − s 234 s 5 0 c1 s 234 s1 s 234 − c 234 0 c1 (d 5 s 234 + a3 c 23 + a 2 c 2 + a1 ) s1 (d 5 c 234 + a3 s 23 + a 2 c 2 + a1 )  (−d 5 c 234 + a3 s 23 + a 2 s 2 + d1 )   1  4 . 2011 transformation consists of four basic transformations as shown in Figure 4 and the joint link parameter as given in Table 1. A rotation about zi-1 axis by an angle θi ii.International Journal of Smart Home Vol. Translation along zi-1 axis by distance di iii. Cθi =cos θi. No. Cαi=cos αi. Sijk=sin(θi+ θj+ θk). January. Cijk=sin(θi+ θj+ θk) The overall transformation matrix. Translation by distance ai along xi axis and iv. 5.

Result For the given set of parameter.6177 -0.5887 -0.7487 [0.0000] 4.International Journal of Smart Home Vol.7864 -0.0000 0. This kinematic model can also be expressed by 12 equations as: nx = c1*c234*c5+s1*s5 ny = s1*c234*c5-c1*s5 nz = s234*c5 ox = c1*c234*s5+s1*c5 oy = -s1*c234*s5-c1*c5 oz = -s234*s5 ax = c1*s234 ay = s1*s234 az = -c234 px = c1*(s234*d5+a3*c23+a2*c2+a1) py = s1*(s234*d5+a3*c23+a2*c2+a1) pz = -c234*d5+a3*s23+a2*s2+d1 3.4090 [-0.5207 [0.0000 0.0000 0.6175] -0.0000 -0.0000 0.4094 [-0.6628 0. Experimental Result: 0 T5 = [0.9208] 0.0000 315.7863 -0.88] 190. No.0000] Matlab Program Output: 0 T5 = [0.27] 1.0000 -0.4629 247.48] 247. The mathematical model is prepared and solved for positioning and orienting the end effector by preparing a programme in MATLAB 8. 5.5212 [0. January.6621 190.6177 -0.0 is made and its output is compared with the experimental result as follows.7494 [0.5893 315. 2011  nx  ny 0 T5 = Te =   nz   0 ox oy oz 0 ax ay az 0 px   py  pz   1   where Te is end-effector transformation matrix. 1. The experimental and theoretical results are 5 . a program in MATLAB 8.4625 0.2512] 0.0. Conclusion The forward kinematic analysis of 5-dof SCORBOT-ER Vplus Robot is investigated.0000 1.

MIT Press. Int.I.E degree from University of Karnatka (1990). Patel College of Engineering & Technology. India. (Mechanical) degree from Nagpur University. December 1982. Shimano. pp. His area of research is robotics. Deshpande obtained his B. operation research & automation. Vivek A. Finite Element Method in Engineering Design & CAD. pp. he is aspiring for post-doctoral research in these areas. Vallabh Vidyanagar. Raipur (2003). India (1997). 6 .P.. Ravi Shankar Shukla University. India (1999). 1981. June 198. [2] Paul. pp. J Nagrath. Computer. He is also a Life Member of ISTE.E. J.E from B. Catalog # 100016 Rev. Robotics. G.International Journal of Smart Home Vol. Robotics Res. [6] R K Mittal. (Industrial Engineering) from R. B. 1. He is a Life Member of ISTE. He is presently working as Principal at G. He has published 27 research papers in International & National Journals/Conferences. Syst.E. He is currently guiding 4 Ph. He has published 09 research papers in International & National Journals/Conferences.E. dissertations. Mr. 2008. "Introduction to Robotics". Cambridge. R.. 2005. [5] Lee. D. "Robotics and Control". P. Vallabh Vidyanagar. Gujarat.D in Mechanical Engineering from research centre NIT Raipur. Pearson Prentice Hall. pp.: Position and velocity transformations between robot end-effector cordinates and joint angles. [7] Saeed B. 2011 approximately same. Cybern. He has also guided 29 M.C. Mayer. Gujarat.: Kinematic control equation for simple manipulators.E. India. [3] Paul. D students. Maharashtra. S. H. His area of research is Mechanism & Machine Theory. Programming and Control. 35-45. Tata McGraw-Hill. 5. Man. Authors Dr. and control. Summer 1983.T Mesra (1992) and Ph. [4] Featherstone. He is presently working as Assistant Professor in Mechanical Engineering Dept. dynamics.: Robot arm kinematics. Patel College of Engineering & Technology. Gujarat. SMC-11. Pt. IEEE Trans. 62-80. 2. Nagpur. No. degree at Sardar Patel University. Maharashtra. India. Niku. 449-455. M. H. R. 81-85. M..: Robot Manipulators: Mathematics. C. February 1996. G. 76-81. He is pursuing Ph. Intelitek Inc. Anurag Verma obtained his B. optimization. Hence this proves the utility of the SCORBOT-ER Vplus robot arm as an educational tool for undergraduate robotics courses. C. References [1] SCORBOT-ER Vplus User's Manual. January. 3rd edition. R. pp. Presently. at G. Tech. 15. His areas of interest are robotics.