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Running head: FOOD SAFETY IN THE KITCHEN

Course Name: Measurement and Evaluation Title of lesson: Food Safety in the Kitchen Target Learners: Senior Group Deborah Aderin Molloy College

FOOD SAFETY IN THE KITCHEN

Taylor, Marienau & Fiddler (2000) explored the learning abilities of adult to be different from the younger students. Adults have special needs as learners, which is taken into consideration when planning the teaching for adults. The book further elaborate on how to integrate the adult learner techniques and strategies to create teaching and learning experience that will enhance the learning of the participants. McGrath ( 2009), agreed to facts that similarities occurs between adults and children in how they learn, however, pointed out that many writers argued that adult learners are different from child learners in many ways. she reviewed how adults learn by examining the theory of adult learning. Knowles (1980) introduced andragogy to show the difference between children and adult learners. Andragogy allowed adults to analyze any materials given to them, and they learn the connection between the materials and their life experiences. He focused on the special needs of adult learners, and he identified five assumptions about adult learning: need to know, selfconcept, prior experience, readiness to learn, learning orientation and motivation to learn. McGrath (2009) emphasized the importance of adults knowing the reason why they have to learn certain materials. Knowles, Elwood, Holton & Swanson (1998) has stated that the students should receive explanation concerning the importance and the benefits of the course, and the need for the students to have the learning objectives. McGrath (2009) analyzed the learners selfconcept as the student having high self-esteem and confident as described by Maslow. This will give the student the courage to participate in the lecture. McGrath (2009) described the student bringing to the classroom prior accumulated experience and knowledge; this will help the student to understand the materials. Knowles et al (1998) has explained that adult students will be resentful when they feel others are imposing on them. Having dialogue with the students in the

FOOD SAFETY IN THE KITCHEN

classroom aids the students understanding of the materials discussed in the class. Motivation plays an important role in adult learning, this drive the participation in the classroom. Knowles et al (1998) stated that motivating factors for adults are internal and external. The internal drive is the self-esteem as described in the Maslow theory, the adult have the sense of belongings in the classroom. The Lecturers recognizing will drive the external factors and praising the students, this also help motivates the students to learn. Having a conducive and safe environment will foster learning. Smith (2002) stated that Knowles wanted to design a unique concept for adult education a based on the idea of andragogy. He reviewed Knowles intellectual contribution to the development of informal adult education theory. He described the informal programs and the learning gained from associational or club life. He commented that organized course is a better instrument for new learning skills, while club experience provides the best opportunity for practicing and refining the things learned to obtain outcomes. Knowles (1980) described the outcomes as the ability of the adult to acquire a matured understanding with an attitude of acceptance and love toward others, developing a dynamic attitude towards life, and ability to react to cause and not the symptoms. He indicated that adults should acquire skills that will contribute to their well-being and of the society. This food safety lesson is designed to educate ten older adult learners to food safety. Older adults can benefit from education on safe food handling and food consumption behavior, and in turn, prevent some of the annual food borne illnesses among this age category. In this lesson, the term older adults refer to individuals age 60 or older. The growing number of adults in the United States population suggests that preventing food borne illness and death among older adults will remain an important challenge. Food safety includes proper storage, hand

FOOD SAFETY IN THE KITCHEN

washing and preparation of the foods. Lack of safe handling practices allow illness-causing pathogens to grow in the foods. Although, younger individuals usually face higher rate of infection from food borne pathogens bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses and their toxins, older adults with very young and the immune-compromised are more likely to have some of the more severe complications from these infections (Kendall, Hillers & Medeiros,2006). According to Center for Disease Control (2010), indicated that for some pathogens, older adults have lower culture confirmed rates of infection than most or all of the other age group despite many age related factors such as decreased stomach acid production, that predispose older persons to gastrointestinal infections and their more severe complications. Culture confirmed rates of infection for people over the age 60 range from 0.1 cases per 100,000 people for Vibrio and Cyclospora to 10.8 cases per 100,000 people for Salmonella. Older adults are at greater risk for food borne illnesses due to the gradual and progressive changes to the immune system. Intestinal motility and mucosal immune function decreases with normal aging, increasing susceptibility to systemic infection. Older adults lose adaptive immune function as a natural part of aging, which in turn reduces immune efficacy. Thus, susceptibility to food bore infection increases in the older adults when they are exposed to newly emerging pathogens. This group is also vulnerable to opportunistic infection due to the suppressed immune system from chronic diseases, as well as therapeutic regimens that may be used to treat the diseases (Gavazzi, Hermann, & Krause, 2004). According to the recent statistics by United States Food and Drug Administration (2011), the burden of food borne illness in the United States is substantial. Each year, one sixth of the population suffers from a food borne illness, and nearly 130,000 people are hospitalized each year from food borne illnesses. Food borne illnesses causes 3,000 deaths each year.

FOOD SAFETY IN THE KITCHEN

The practice of food safety techniques remains paramount among older adults since they are at greatest risk for food borne illnesses. The Centers for Disease Control (2010), established four basic rules to promote food safety at home. The basic rules are clean, separate, cook, and chill. Cleaning involves proper hand washing and cleaning of the kitchen surfaces. Pathogens can be present throughout the kitchen, including on the cutting boards, utensils, sponges, and counter tops. Separating raw foods from ready to eat foods will prevent cross-contamination of bacteria and viruses from food to foods, hands to food, and from kitchen utensils and counters to food. Cooking and reheating foods at required temperature by USDA will destroy the bacteria and the viruses in the foods. The elderly will be encouraged to use a food thermometer to measure the internal temperature of cooked foods. Proper refrigeration of the foods will slow the growth of harmful bacteria. The fridge should be kept at a temperature between 32-40 degrees Faherent temperatures. Temperature over 40 degree can cause bacteria to multiply. Refrigerate perishables items within an hour of purchase, leftover foods should be stored in sealed containers to prevent bacterial growth. The teaching strategies I will be using for this lesson will be a combination of group discussion and role-play in order to have a greater impact on the learners. Discussion will encourage the learners to discover solutions and develop critical thinking. Role-play is used to assist the learners in experiencing feelings and practicing skills. Role-play contains two or more perspectives with brief written solutions, which will be handed to different people to discuss (Siberman & Auerbach, 1998). The location will be in the kitchen, the learners will be seated around the kitchen island in a semi-circle position. A brief group discussion about microorganisms and food will start the

FOOD SAFETY IN THE KITCHEN

lesson. I will open up the discussion about preventing the growth of dangerous microorganisms in the food is the key to reduce millions of illnesses and thousands of death each year. After the discussion, we will watch a youtube video about Food safe in four steps that will last for 31seconds.After watching the video; I will have four volunteers that will role-play the four basic steps of clean, separate, cook and chill. Each session of the role-play will last for about 6090minutes. We will discuss poor hygiene, risky food storage, handling and consumption will cause food borne illness. There will be a poster of BAC, display of hand washing agents, cutting boards, food thermometers, timer, clean pans, crushed ice, cold water and refrigerator thermometers. There will be a poster of the USDA-FDA cold storage chart and cooked food internal temperature chart. After the discussion and the role-play, I will have each student verbally describe how he or she will apply the four basic steps to food safety. By the end of the lesson, the learners will be able to: Students will be able to describe how to properly clean hands and surface Students will be able to identify ways of preventing cross-contamination Students will be able to describe how to determine a properly cooked food Students will be able to explain why refrigerating foods keep it safe to eat

FOOD SAFETY IN THE KITCHEN

References Gavazzi, G.& Krause, K. (2004).Aging and Infectious diseases in the developing world. Clinical Infectious Disease. 39 ( 8 ) 83-91 Kendall., Hillers, V. & Medeiros, L. (2006). Food safety guidance for older adults. Clinical Infectious Disease. 42 (11) 1298-1304. Knowles, M.S, Elwood, R., Holton, R. Swanson (1998).The Adult learner, practices: The definite classic in adult education and human resources development.5th Ed. NewYork: Heineman Knowles, M.S, (1980 ). The modern practice of adult education from pedagogy to andragogy. 2nd edition, NewYork:Cambridge Books. McGrath, V., (2009).Reviewing the evidence on how adult students learn: an examination of Knowles model of andragogy. The Irish Journal of Adult & Community Education: pp 99-110 Silberman, M.L, & Auerbach, C.( 1998). Active training: A handbook of techniques, designs, case examples, and tips (2nd ed.) Califonia: John Wiley&Sons, Inc Taylor, K., Marienau, C.,& Fiddler,M.(2000).Developing adult learners: strategies for teachers and trainers.NewYork: Jossey-Bass www.cdc.gov/foodsafety www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheet/Refrigeration_& food_Safety/index.asp

FOOD SAFETY IN THE KITCHEN