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Two-phase Flow and Boiling Heat Transfer 雙相流與沸騰熱傳 (ESS 6430

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Instructor : Prof. Chin Pan ( 潘欽 教授 ) Office : ESS 507 Tel : 03-5715131-34320 Email : cpan@ess.nthu.edu.tw TA : 傅本然 (office : ESS 425W, ext : 34291) Email : d947103@oz.nthu.edu.tw
1 Engineering & System Science Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.

Course Outline for Fall Semester
Chapter 1 Introduction
1. Scope of the Course 2. Historical Review

2 Engineering & System Science Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.

Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Boiling Heat Transfer and Two-phase Flow
1. Nucleation Theory 2. Bubble Dynamics 3. Interfacial Instability 4. Quality and Void Fraction 5. Two-phase Flow Patterns
3 Engineering & System Science Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.

Chapter 3 Nucleate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer
1. Boiling Incipience and Hysteresis Effect 2. Mechanisms of Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer 3. Correlation Development 4. Nucleation Site Interactions 5. Boiling Chaos

4 Engineering & System Science Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.

. Forced Convective Evaporation 5. Subcooled Boiling Heat Transfer 3.Chapter 4 Nucleate Flow Boiling Heat Transfer and Forced Convective Evaporation 1. Boiling Incipience and Hysteresis Effect 2. Correlation Development for Saturated Flow Boiling and Forced Convective Evaporation 5 Engineering & System Science Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. Saturated Boiling Heat Transfer 4.

Pool Boiling Critical Heat Flux 2. Correlation Development 6 Engineering & System Science Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. Dryout Heat Flux 4. Departure from Nucleate Boiling 3.Chapter 5 Critical Heat Flux 1. .

Transition Boiling 7 Engineering & System Science Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. Dispersed Flow Heat Transfer 4.Chapter 6 Post Critical Heat Flux Heat Transfer 1. Forced Convective Film Boiling 3. . Film Boiling under Pool Boiling Conditions 2. Leidenforst Point Minimum Film Boiling 5.

Three-dimensional Two-fluid Model 4. One-dimensional Two-fluid Model 5.Chapter 7 Conservation Equations for Two-phase Flow 1. Local Instant Equations for Two-phase Flow 3. One-dimensional Homogeneous Flow Model 6. One-dimensional Drift Flux Model 8 Engineering & System Science Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. . Review of Conservation Equations for Single-phase Flow 2.

Interfacial Momentum Transfer Rate 4. Interfacial Energy Transfer Rate 5. . Interfacial Mass Transfer Rate 3. Interfacial Area Density 2. Interactions Between Each Phase and Wall 6.Chapter 8 Closure Issues of Two-phase Flow Models 1. Turbulent Model for Two-phase Flow 9 Engineering & System Science Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.

Two-phase Flow Pressure Drop Based on Two-fluid Flow Model 3. Two-phase Flow Pressure Drop Based on Homogeneous Flow Model 2. . Two-phase Flow Pressure Drop through Fittings Engineering & System Science 10 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.Chapter 9 Two-phase Flow Pressure Drop 1.

. Boiling Channel Analysis Based on One-dimensional Drift Flux Model Boiling Channel Analysis Based on One-dimensional Two-fluid Model Boiling Channel Analysis Based on Three-dimensional Two-fluid Model Multi-dimensional Analysis of Bubbly Pipe Flow Engineering & System Science 11 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. 3. 2.Chapter 10 Steady-state Analysis of Two-phase Pipe Flow 1. 4.

00 3-Channel System (Neutron Feedback and Interaction) (No Nuclear Coupling ) Cα 2Cα 4Cα δu+ i -0.3 -0.0 0.0 0.3 -0.1 0.3 + + + T T T F F F . -0. 2.0 20.05 -0.0 Subcore 1 STABLE -10. 4.1 0. 10 8 Classification of Two-phase Flow Instability Analysis of Ledinegg Instability Linear Stability Analysis Nonlinear Stability Analysis 0.0 Subcore2 Subcore 3 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 Npch Engineering & System Science 12 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.0 N+ 2 10.2 0.05 0.702 Npch = 5.1 0.10 -0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.Chapter 11 Two-phase Flow Instability 1.1 0.219 Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 6 Normal Operating State Nsub 4 UNSTABLE 30.15 0 10 20 30 40 50 + t 60 70 80 90 100 Chaos oscillations Nsub = 3.10 0.2 0. 3.0 0.

. Two-phase Flow Patterns in Microchannels 3. Boiling Heat Transfer in Microchannels Engineering & System Science 13 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. Definition of Microchannels 2. Bubble Dynamics in Microchannels 5. Pressure Drop in Microchannels 4.Chapter 12 Two-phase Flow in Microchannels 1.

.Grade : 一次期中考 35% 一次期末考 35% 作業 20% 平常表現 10% ---------------------------------------------Total : 100% Engineering & System Science 14 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.

Taylor & Francis. 1997. G. Bristol . ANS.UK 4.B.Convective Boiling and Condensation.REFERENCE BOOKS Butterworth.J.. PA. 15 1.. UK 10.Y.Y.. Oxford University Press. 俊傑書局.. 1986 6..I.1992.P.R..2nd Ed.Boiling Heat Transfer .. Oxford. Thome . PA.J.G.G. Kolev. 11.J.Modern Development and Advances. USA 3. N.R. Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer. 1990.Oxford. N. D. J. Collier. 2001. USA 7. Hewitt.. Springer.t. New York.Delhaye. Multiphase Science and Technology. Engineering & System Science Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.1980 2. and Hewitt. 3rd Ed.USA 5. Hsu. Clarendon Press.F. R. USA 9. Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer.W. 3rd Ed. and Zuber.M. Boiling Heat Transfer and Two-Phase Flow . Hemisphere Pub. Transport Process in Boiling and Two-Phase Flow System ..R. Corp. L. Corp.F. and Graham . Multiphase Flow Dynamics: 1.Liquid-Vapor Phase-Change Phenomena.Thermal and Mechanical Interactions. Oxford University Press. Lahey Jr. Hemisphere Pub. Bristol.1992. N. USA 8. Tong.V. Multiphase Flow Dynamics: 2. and Thome. 1994. Taylor and Francis. 沸騰熱傳與雙相流. and Tang.Fundamental..D.3rd Ed. Elsevier Science Publishers. Springer.S. Whalley..(ED). New York.. Y. 潘欽. Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer. 2007. .. 2007.S. Carey. Kolev. 12...I.1986. 1996..

First literature on boiling : “A Tract About Some Qualities of Common Water.1756-1980.“Two-phase flow and heat transfer. .1 Introduction 1-1 Historical Review of Two-phase Flow and Heat Transfer Ref. Hemisphere Publishing Co.Bergles .” By Johann Gottlob Leidenforst in 1756 Engineering & System Science 16 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. 1981.” ch24.Chapter..Washington.” “Two-phase Flow and Heat Transfer in the Power and Process Industries.E.: A.

TW=1800C TW=2400C TW=5400C Engineering & System Science 17 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. Evaporation of a water droplet on hot surface. .

The minimum film boiling point is now referred to as the “Leidenforst Point” q" Nucleate boiling Transition boiling Vapor film boiling ′′ qCHF ′ q′ Min ΔTCHF Engineering & System Science ΔTLeidenfrost ln(Tw-Tsat) 18 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. .

. 1974 Reed. 1750-1850 Industrial Revolution The application of steam engine Steam boat and steam train Problem of explosion due to crud deposition Burstall. 1965 Engineering & System Science Pudney. 1965 19 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.

1850-1930 The laws of thermodynamics 1861 Joule “on the surface condensation of steam’’ 1892 Critical flow of steam-water mixtures was noted by Sawage and Adam 1916 Nusselt published his classical paper on film condensation process 1917 Lord Rayleigh published his very important work on vapor bubble collapse 1930 suggests the point of significant literature generation on boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow 20 Engineering & System Science Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. .

. 1949 ) Rohsenow ( 1952 ) Baker ( 1954 ) Gregorig ( 1954 ) Engineering & System Science Pool boiling Static instability Pool nucleate boiling Film boiling Subcooled flow boiling Two-phase pressure drop Pool nucleate boiling Flow patterns Condensation augmentation 21 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.Two-phase Flow and Heat Transfer during 1930-1970 Investigator Area of activity Jakob & Fritz ( 1931 .1936 ) Pool boiling Nukiyama ( 1934 ) Pool boiling Fritz ( 1935 ) Ledinegg ( 1938 ) Bonilla ( 1941 ) Bromley ( 1950 ) McAdams ( 1949 ) Martinelli ( 1948 .

1964 ) Correlations of flow boiling burnout Engineering & System Science 22 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.Investigator Area of activity Westwater ( 1954-66 ) Photographic studies Katz et al ( 1955 ) Industrial heat exchangers Borishanskii ( 1956 ) Pool nucleate boiling Nishiklawa ( 1956 ) Pool nucleate boiling Isbin ( 1957 ) Critical flows Gambill et al ( 1958 .1961) High Heat fluxes Zuber ( 1958 ) Pool boiling burnout Doroschchuk ( 1959 ) Pool boiling burnout Zenkevich ( 1959 ) Pool boiling burnout Hsu ( 1962 ) Boiling incipience Chen ( 1963 ) Saturated convective boiling Hewitt ( 1963 ) Two-phase film behavior MacBeth ( 1963. .

Investigator Area of activity Merte and Clarke ( 1964 ) Acceleration effects on pool boiling Stevens and Kirby ( 1964 ) Fluid-to-fluid modeling Han and Griffith ( 1965 ) Nucleate boiling analysis Tong ( 1965 ) Textbook Gouse ( 1966 ) Literature reviews Levy ( 1966 ) Two-phase flow models Van Stralen ( 1966 ) Pool boiling of mixtures Grigull ( 1967-68 ) Boiling near the critical point Rose ( 1967 ) Drop condensation Bergles ( 1969 ) Augmentation Ornatskiy ( 1969 ) Correlations of flow boiling burnout Stenning and Veziroglu ( 1969 ) Dynamic instabilities Engineering & System Science 23 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. .

Investigator Area of activity Wallis ( 1969 ) Textbook Ducker ( 1970 ) Two-phase film behavior Lienhard (1970 ) Pool boiling burnout Engineering & System Science 24 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. .

Two-phase flow and boiling heat transfer in microchannels. .Boiling Heat Transfer Two-phase flow in 1980s and early 1990s After the Three Mile Island accident in 1979 and Chernobyl accident in 1986. Engineering & System Science 25 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. Application of boiling heat transfer in microelectronic cooling. boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow related to nuclear safety become very important issues . Boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow using alternative refrigerants becomes important due to concern of global warmup problem. Nonlinear stability analysis of two-phase flow. Multidimensional two-phase flow analysis becomes feasible.

Compendex Web 資料庫收錄文獻數目年度分析Ⅰ Engineering & System Science 26 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. .

Compendex Web 資料庫收錄文獻數目年度分析Ⅱ Engineering & System Science 27 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. .

1-2 Boiling Curve Obtained from Quench of Hot Metal Ball 100 200 Working Fluild : Water Matter : Steel Boiling Curve Quenching Curve 160 80 Boiling Curve Quenching Curve Quenching Time (Sec) 120 60 80 40 40 20 0 100 200 300 400 0 Superheating (K) Engineering & System Science 28 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. Heat Flux ( kW/m2) .

.200 F E 160 D G Heat Flux ( kW/m2) 120 C H 80 B I 40 A 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Quenching Time (Sec) Engineering & System Science 29 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.

Water Film boiling Film boiling and transition boiling Transition boiling and CHF Engineering & System Science 30 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. CHF and nucleate boiling .

.R-141b Single CHF Nucleate Engineering & System Science Film 31 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.

本章結束 Engineering & System Science 32 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. .

1934) Engineering & System Science 33 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.1/1 Nukiyama’s boiling curves for a platinum wire (Nukiyama. .

.1/2 dP dP F ) l /( F ) v dz dz dP dP φl2 = ( F ) /( F )l dz dz dP dP φv2 = ( F ) /( F ) v dz dz X2 =( Lockhart-Martinelli correlation (1949) Engineering & System Science 34 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.

.2/2 φl20 = ( dP dP F ) /( F ) l 0 dz dz Value of φl 0 as a function of pressure and mass quality (Martinelli-Nelson) 2 Engineering & System Science 35 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.

1952 Engineering & System Science 36 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. .1/1 Rohsenow.

1/1 Models for the peak flux in nucleate boiling. (Zuber. . 1958) Engineering & System Science 37 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.

1954) Engineering & System Science 38 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.1/2 Flow pattern map for horizontal flow. (Baker. .

2/2 Engineering & System Science 39 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. .

McAdams. 1949 .Low subcooling L Low G High subcooling H High G ln( q ′′ ) Tw-Tsat=(Tw-Tl)-(Tsat-Tl) 1/1 H ln( T w − T l ) L ln( q ′′) H L ln( T w − T sat ) Engineering & System Science 40 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.

1/1 Journal of heat transfer. . pp207 Engineering & System Science 41 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. august 1962.

24 ]ΔTsat ΔPsat (S ) σ μ l ilv ρ v Engineering & System Science 42 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.Chen’s correlation.75 = 0.24 0.24 0.49 0.45 ρ l0.79Cpl0.5 0. F(Chen) Suppression factor.00122[ 0. .4 kl hc = 0.023[ ] [ ]l ( )( F ) k D μl hNcB kl0.29 0.8 μCp 0. 1963 “ A correlation for Boiling Heat Transfer to Saturated Fluids in Convective Flow 1/2 Reynolds number factor. S(Chen) G (1 − x) D 0.

.2/2 Temperature profiles for pool boiling for convective boiling same supterheat. (Chen) Engineering & System Science 43 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab.

1/1 Bergles. 1969 Engineering & System Science 44 Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-phase Flow Lab. .