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Grid Connection of Wind Farms

Markus Pller and Oscar Amaya/DIgSILENT GmbH

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Grid Connection

Impact on thermal loading of lines/transformers Impact on voltage during normal operation Short circuit currents Power Quality Aspects
Voltage dips because of WTG switching Voltage dips because of transformer inrush Continuous Flicker Harmonics

Behaviour during grid faults/Fault ride through requirements

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Impact on Thermal Loading

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Options for network connection


HV

A Distributed/Embedded B MV Substation
C

C HV Substation

MV

B A

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Impact on Thermal Loading of Lines/Transformers Additionally required transmission lines must be planned based on well defined scenarios, considering size and location of planned wind farms. Load flow studies required for combinations of:
Load level (High-/Low-load) Wind speed level (High-/Medium-/Low wind)

For avoiding investments in new transmission lines which are only required for a few hours per year, probabilities should be assigned to the studied cases. Assessment of potential of dynamic line rating recommended because of the good correlation of transmission line capacity and wind speed.

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Impact on Thermal Limits Example


lod_72882_1 lod_72802_1 lod_70962_1 lod_70892_1 lod_70892..

BANTAM

BAVIANSK

GEELBEK

KOUP

ANTJIESK

2181WOLF 2,07

2181WOLF 2,63

2181WOLF 3,87

BOSKLOOF 2
2181WOLF 74,80 2181WOLF 22,49 2181WOLF 11,41

2181WOLF 0,51

QUARY1_2

PIETM1_2

BANTM2_2

WHITH1_2

BAVIN1_2

GEELB1_2

2181WOLF 2,08

RUITK1_2

KOUP1_2

GEMSB1_2

ANTJK1_2

BOTES_2

WELTV1_2

LEEUG1_2
2181WOLF 11,17 2181WOLF 9,96 2181WOLF 12,93 2181WOLF 11,05 2181WOLF 13,16 2181WOLF 9,64 2181WOLF 14,20 2181WOLF 24,09 2181WOLF 21,81

Continued on Bacchus 132kV diagram


lod_72962_1 lod_72932_1 2181WOLF 74,80

lod_72852_1

lod_70682_1

lod_70922_1

lod_70842_1

lod_70762_1

lod_70732_1

2181WOLF 12,41

2181WOLF 21,81

LEEUG1_1
trf_70682.. 2181WOLF 12,93 2181WOLF 11,05 2181WOLF 13,16 2181WOLF 9,64 2181WOLF 14,20 2181WOLF 24,09

2181WOLF 22,49

2181WOLF 11,41

2181WOLF 11,17

2181WOLF 9,96 2181WOLF 12,40

BOSKLOOF 1

QUARY1_1

PIETM1_1

BANTM1_1

WHITH1_1

BAVIN1_1

GEELB1_1

RUITK1_1

KOUP1_1

GEMSB1_1

ANTJK1_1

BOTES_1

WELTV1_1

2181WOLF 11,45

To DROERIVIER
LEEUG22
2181WOLF 11,45

2181WOLF 9,40

2181WOLF 9,40

lod_70686_1

LAIN132B1

LAIN132 WF

LAIN132B2

LAIN WF Tr 1

LAINGSBURG
2161WOLF WP51WOLF 14,45 14,45 WP51WOLF 6,00 2161WOLF 6,12 M1311CH 28,11

LAIN WF Tr 2

150 MW Wind Park

LAIN33 WF

SWART1

BUFPT1

LADIS13

trf_73002..

LAIN0.69 WF SWART22 BUFPT22

trf_74002..

Ladismith

Voltage Levels
Laingsburg WF

400, kV 220, kV 132, kV 66, kV 33, kV

lod_73006_1

lod_74006_1

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Impact on Thermal Limits Example


2181WOLF 2,07 km 3,36 % 2181WOLF 3,87 km 1,37 %

BOSKLOOF 2
2181WOLF 74,80 km 0,00 % 2181WOLF 22,49 km 0,00 % 2181WOLF 11,41 km 0,00 %

2181WOLF 11,17 km 0,00 %

2181WOLF 9,96 km 0,00 %

2181WOLF 12,93 km 20,17 %

2181WOLF 11,05 km 19,67 %

2181WOLF 13,16 km 18,27 %

2181WOLF 9,64 km 17,76 %

2181WOLF 14,20 km 17,12 %

2181WOLF 0,51 km 0,39 %

GEELB1_2

2181WOLF 2,08 km 0,95 %

QUARY1_2

PIETM1_2

BANTM2_2

WHITH1_2

BAVIN1_2

2181WOLF 2,63 km 6,05 %

RUITK1_2

KOUP1_2

GEMSB1_2

ANTJK1_2

BOTES_2

2181WOLF 24,09 km 16,59 %

Continued on Bacchus 132kV diagram


lod_72962_1 lod_72932_1 2181WOLF 74,80 km 110,86 % 2181WOLF 22,49 km 111,37 % 2181WOLF 11,41 km 112,44 % 2181WOLF 11,17 km 115,48 %

lod_72852_1

lod_70922_1

lod_70842_1

2181WOLF 9,96 km 115,69 % 2181WOLF 12,40 km 120,99 %

2181WOLF 12,41 km 0,00 %

BOSKLOOF 1

2181WOLF 12,93 km 22,62 %

2181WOLF 11,05 km 20,68 %

2181WOLF 13,16 km 20,32 %

2181WOLF 9,64 km 17,88 %

2181WOLF 14,20 km 17,53 %

2181WOLF 24,09 km 16,33 %

QUARY1_1

PIETM1_1

BANTM1_1

WHITH1_1

BAVIN1_1

GEELB1_1

RUITK1_1

KOUP1_1

GEMSB1_1

ANTJK1_1

BOTES_1

120% overload

2181WOLF 9,40 km 31,04 % 2181WOLF 9,40 km 31,04 %

LAIN132B1

LAIN132 W F

LAIN132B2

180,00 MVA 86,01 %

LAINGSBURG
2161WOLF WP51WOLF 14,45 14,45km km 15,97 15,72% % WP51WOLF 6,00 km 14,48 % 2161WOLF 6,12 km 14,59 % M1311CH 28,11 km 7,06 %

2,50 MVA 81,36 %

150 MW Wind Park

LAIN33 WF

2181WOLF 11,45 km 22,97 %

off

2181WOLF 11,45 km 20,83 %

To DROERIVIER

SWART1

BUFPT1

LADIS13

10,00 MVA 14,00 %

LAIN0.69 WF SWART22 BUFPT22

10,00 MVA 60,68 %

Ladismith

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Impact on Thermal Limits - Example

General mitigation options if thermal limits are exceeded: Build a new line Limit wind farm output to 80% during all times (80% of rated output) Limit wind farm output in case of actual line failure (manual or automatic inter-trip). Consider dynamic line rating systems.

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Violation of Thermal Limits Cap Wind Farm Output


12,50 10,00 7,50 5,00 2,50 0,000 -2,50 0,500 1,500 2,500 3,500 4,500 5,500 6,500 7,500 8,500 9,500 10,50 11,50 12,50 13,50 14,50 15,50 16,50 17,50 18,50 19,50 20,50 x-Axis: Windpark Analysis: Wind Speed in m/s Windpark Analysis: Probability in % 160,00 16.624 %
DIgSILENT

120,00

1454 h/year

Y =120,000 MW

80,00

40,00

0,00

-40,00 0,03 x-Axis:

20,03 Windpark Analysis: Cummulative Probability in % Windpark Analysis: Generated Power in MW

40,03

60,03

80,03

100,03

DIGSILENT

High Load Voltage at Laingsburg Wind Farm Connection Point PV-Curve

Plots

Date: 7/23/2009 Annex: 1 /3

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Violation of Thermal Limits Cap Wind Farm Output Not Delivered Energy depends on: Wind conditions (average wind speed) Site-specific aspects Power curve of turbines Rough cost estimates (example): vw=7m/s:
Energy not delivered around 5% of potential energy 150 MW wind-farm: 19 000MWh not delivered -> 23 750 000 R/year

vw=8m/s:
Energy not delivered around 7,5% of potential energy 150 MW wind-farm: 37 000 MWh not delivered -> 46 250 000 R/year

Must be compared to annualized costs of required line upgrade


GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Violation of Thermal Limits Cap Wind Farm Output under Contingency Situations

More cost effective solution: Limitation of wind farm output only in situations in which one circuit is available (planned outage, unplanned outage)

In case of minor overloads (below emergency rating): Manual action of system operator

In case of major overloads (above emergency rating): Automatic inter-trip scheme

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Dynamic Line Rating - Potential Thermal loading of overhead lines depends on:
Ambient temperature Wind speed -> correlation with wind generation

Wind-generators:
cut-in wind-speed: 2.5...4m/s, rated: 12...16m/s But: height, environment etc. must be considered too!
Ambient Temperature Line Rating expressed in MVA at 66 kV* Wind Speed = 0.5 m/s 30 C 35 C 22.6 16.5 Wind Speed = 3.0 m/s 39.9 32.9 Wind Speed = 5.0 m/s 49.5 41.5

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Impact on Voltage Variations

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Voltage Variations

Distribution Grids: Considerable voltage variations for varying MW because of low X/R ratios (large R) Transmission Grids: Substantially less voltage variations for varying MW becaus of high X/R ratios (low R). Contingency cases are more relevant. Mitigation Options:
Q(P)-Characteristic (open-loop voltage compensation) Voltage control (voltage feed-back)

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Voltage Variations - Procedure

Step 1 - System Operator: Identify required reactive power range at connection point Step 2 Wind farm planner: Design the reactive power capability for complying with reactive capability requirements.

- Step 1 might be defined by a general Grid Code requirement -

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Example 1: Connection to Distribution/Subtransmission Grid


lod_72882_1 lod_72802_1 lod_70962_1 lod_70892_1 lod_70892..

BANTAM

BAVIANSK

GEELBEK

KOUP

ANTJIESK

2181WOLF 2,07

2181WOLF 2,63

2181WOLF 3,87

BOSKLOOF 2
2181WOLF 74,80 2181WOLF 22,49 2181WOLF 11,41

2181WOLF 0,51

QUARY1_2

PIETM1_2

BANTM2_2

WHITH1_2

BAVIN1_2

GEELB1_2

2181WOLF 2,08

RUITK1_2

KOUP1_2

GEMSB1_2

ANTJK1_2

BOTES_2

WELTV1_2

LEEUG1_2
2181WOLF 11,17 2181WOLF 9,96 2181WOLF 12,93 2181WOLF 11,05 2181WOLF 13,16 2181WOLF 9,64 2181WOLF 14,20 2181WOLF 24,09 2181WOLF 21,81

Continued on Bacchus 132kV diagram


lod_72962_1 lod_72932_1 2181WOLF 74,80

lod_72852_1

lod_70682_1

lod_70922_1

lod_70842_1

lod_70762_1

lod_70732_1

2181WOLF 12,41

2181WOLF 21,81

LEEUG1_1
trf_70682.. 2181WOLF 12,93 2181WOLF 11,05 2181WOLF 13,16 2181WOLF 9,64 2181WOLF 14,20 2181WOLF 24,09

2181WOLF 22,49

2181WOLF 11,41

2181WOLF 11,17

2181WOLF 9,96 2181WOLF 12,40

BOSKLOOF 1

QUARY1_1

PIETM1_1

BANTM1_1

WHITH1_1

BAVIN1_1

GEELB1_1

RUITK1_1

KOUP1_1

GEMSB1_1

ANTJK1_1

BOTES_1

WELTV1_1

2181WOLF 11,45

To DROERIVIER
LEEUG22
2181WOLF 11,45

2181WOLF 9,40

2181WOLF 9,40

lod_70686_1

LAIN132B1

LAIN132 WF

LAIN132B2

LAIN WF Tr 1

LAINGSBURG
2161WOLF WP51WOLF 14,45 14,45 WP51WOLF 6,00 2161WOLF 6,12 M1311CH 28,11

LAIN WF Tr 2

150 MW Wind Park

LAIN33 WF

SWART1

BUFPT1

LADIS13

trf_73002..

LAIN0.69 WF SWART22 BUFPT22

trf_74002..

Ladismith

Voltage Levels
Laingsburg WF

400, kV 220, kV 132, kV 66, kV 33, kV

lod_73006_1

lod_74006_1

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Voltage Variations/Step 1 Example 1: cosphi constant (=1)


1,08 136.500 MW 1.074 p.u. X =150,000 MW 1.074 p.u. 1.070 p.u. 1.065 p.u. 58.375 MW 47.697 MW 66.198 MW
DIgSILENT

1,05

1.050 p.u.

Y = 1,050 p.u.

1,02

0,99

0,96

0,93 7,50 x-Axis:

47,50 87,50 Laingsburg WF: Active Power in MW LAIN132 WF: Voltage in p.u. - Base Case LAIN132 WF: Voltage in p.u. - Lain132kV_Laingsburg_Off LAIN132 WF: Voltage in p.u. - Laingsburg_Boskloof_Off LAIN132 WF: Voltage in p.u. - Laingsburg_Droerivier_Off

127,50

167,50

207,50

DIGSILENT

High Load Voltage at Laingsburg Wind Farm Connection Point PV-Curve

Voltage

Date: 7/24/2009 Annex: 1 /2

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Voltage Variations/Step 1 Example 1: cosphi(P)-characteristic


1,075 X =150,000 MW
DIgSILENT

1,050

1.050 p.u. 1.044 p.u. 1.038 p.u. 1.037 p.u.

Y = 1,050 p.u.

1,025

1,000

0,975

0,950 0,00 x-Axis:

40,00 80,00 Laingsburg WF: Active Power in MW LAIN132 WF: Voltage in p.u. - Base Case LAIN132 WF: Voltage in p.u. - Lain132kV_Laingsburg_Off LAIN132 WF: Voltage in p.u. - Laingsburg_Boskloof_Off LAIN132 WF: Voltage in p.u. - Laingsburg_Droerivier_Off

120,00

160,00

200,00

DIGSILENT

High Load Voltage at Laingsburg Wind Farm Connection Point PV-Curve - cosphi(P)-characteristic

Voltage

Date: 7/24/2009 Annex: 1 /2

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Voltage Variations- Example 1: Summary

High voltages in case of cos(phi)=1 Small voltage variations if cos(phi) adjusted to actually generated power (absorbing vars for compensating increasing voltage) Voltage control (with voltage feed-back) at wind farm connection point is possible but not required in this particular case because:
Only small voltage steps in case of contingencies Only small voltage variations in case of different operational scenarios (high/low load) No voltage stability issue

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Example 2: Large Wind Farms at Transmission Level

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Voltage vs. Reactive Power Voltage Stability

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Voltage Variations- Example 2: Summary

Small Voltage Variations in function of active power variations (large X/R ratios) High Voltage Variations in case of critical contingencies Voltage control (with voltage feed-back) at wind farm connection point is required for maintaining voltage stability Required reactive power range can be determined by analyzing QVcurves

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Voltage Variations/Step 2 Wind Farm Design

Wind farm design must consider reactive power requirements. Reactive power capability at grid connection point is limited by:
Reactive power capability of wind turbine generators (WTGs) Thermal ratings of cables in the wind farm collector system. Voltage variations at the LV-nodes (voltage range of operation of WTGs)

Requirement for additional reactive power compensation devices (STATCOM, switched shunts) must be taken based on:
Required reactive power capability Required dynamic performance of voltage/reactive power control.

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Reactive Power Voltage Control


cos(phi)=0,95

cos(phi)=0,95

power factor limit

const var limit (recommended)

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Voltage Variations - Wind Farm Design

Wind farm design must consider grid requirements Reactive power capability at grid connection point is limited by:
Reactive power capability of wind turbine generators (WTGs) Thermal ratings of cables in the wind farm collector system. Voltage variations at the LV-nodes (voltage range of operation of WTGs)

Requirement for additional reactive power compensation devices (STATCOM, switched shunts) must be taken based on:
Required reactive power capability Required dynamic performance of voltage/reactive power control.

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Voltage Variations Wind Farm Planning Studies


PV Uset=1,12

DIGSILENT
PowerFactory 14.0.513 /115 kV

CFE/GTZ/DIgSILENT

Tr Trafo-Typ

/20 kV
S5 NA2XS(F)2Y 1x185RM 12/20kV ir 2,50 km

S1 NA2XS(F)2Y 1x185RM 12/20kV ir 2,00 km

S8 S7 S6 NA2XS(F)2Y 1x185RM 12/20kV NA2XS(F)2Y ir 1x185RM 12/20kV NA2XS(F)2Y ir 1x185RM 12/20kV ir 0,80 km 0,80 km 0,80 km

Shunt/Filter S3 S4 max. no.: 3 S2 NA2XS(F)2Y NA2XS(F)2Y ir 1x185RM 12/20kV NA2XS(F)2Y ir 1x185RM 12/20kV ir act. no.: 3 1x185RM 12/20kV 1,00 km 1,00 km 7,00 Mvar 1,00 km

S13 NA2XS(F)2Y 1x185RM 12/20kV ir 0,80 km

Tr8 LV-Trf

Tr7 LV-Trf

Tr6 LV-Trf

Tr5 LV-Trf

Tr1 LV-Trf

Tr2 LV-Trf

Tr3 LV-Trf

Tr4 LV-Trf

Line(3) N2XS2Y 1x.. 1,00 km

WTG 8

WTG 7

WTG 6

WTG 5

WTG 1 S9 NA2XS(F)2Y 1x185RM 12/20kV ir 1,60 km

WTG 2

WTG 3

WTG 4

S16 S15 S14 NA2XS(F)2Y 1x185RM 12/20kV NA2XS(F)2Y ir 1x185RM 12/20kV NA2XS(F)2Y ir 1x185RM 12/20kV ir 0,80 km 0,80 km 0,80 km

S11 S12 NA2XS(F)2Y 1x185RM 12/20kV NA2XS(F)2Y ir 1x185RM 12/20kV ir 0,80 km 0,80 km

Tr16 LV-Trf

Tr15 LV-Trf

Tr14 LV-Trf

Tr13 LV-Trf

Tr10 LV-Trf

Tr11 LV-Trf

Tr12 LV-Trf

Windpark Analysis

WTG 16

WTG 15

WTG 14

WTG 13

WTG 10

WTG 11

WTG 12

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Line(4) N2XS2Y 1x.. 0,80 km

DIgSILENT

Windfarm Red Sunset

Project: Example Graphic: Red Sunset Date: 7/27/2009 Annex:

Voltage Variations Wind Farm Design Studies

P [MW] 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -30 -20 -10 -5 0 10 20 Q [Mvar] 30

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Short Circuit Contribution

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Short Circuit Contribution of Wind Farms

Calculation of max. short circuit currents:


Impact on short circuit ratings of existing components (substations, CB-ratings, cable-/line ratings, transformers etc.) Impact on new components, inside the wind farm

Calculation of min. short circuit currents:


Verification of protection settings

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Short Circuit Contribution of Wind Farms


0,30 ip Fault Cleared
DIgSILENT

0,20

0,10

0,00

-0,10

-0,20

-0,30 -0,10

0,00 Tr2: Phase Current A/HV-Side in p.u. Tr2: Phase Current B/HV-Side in p.u. Tr2: Phase Current C/HV-Side in p.u.

0,10

0,20

[s]

0,30

Fault Current of DFIG with Crow-bar protection


GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Short Circuit Contribution - Modelling DFIG and WTGs with fully rated converter are devices with controlled currents. DFIG is usually equipped with protection mechanisms (Crow-bar, Chopper), which make short circuit behavior highly non-linear. Difficult to model for steady state short circuit analysis, which is typically based on Thevenin-equivalents. No special consideration of WTGs given in IEC 60909. Proposed approach:
Equivalent Synchronous generator approach: Characterizing WTG short circuit currents by subtransient and transient parameters. Approach suitable for planning studies but not for highly accurate studies.

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Power Quality

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Power Quality

Impact on Flicker
Continuous flicker Flicker following switching actions (WTGs, Inrush)

Impact on Harmonics
Harmonic injections Impact on harmonic impedance

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Continuous Flicker Caused by Turbulences Rotational sampling: turbulence variation across the rotor Tower Shadow Torsional oscillation

Applicable Standards: IEC 61000-3-6, IEC 61400-21 Pst<0,35 Plt<0,25

Mexican Grid Code:

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Continuous Flicker - Example


4.00
DIgSILENT

2.00

-0.00

-2.00

-4.00

-6.00 -0.1000 Rotor-Turbulence: vt0

14.041

28.182

42.323

56.465

[s]

70.606

-3.20

-3.60

-4.00

-4.40

-4.80

-5.20 -0.1000

14.041 T3WT1: Total Active Power/HV-Side in MW

28.182

42.323

56.465

[s]

70.606

100

10

0.1

0.01

0.001 0.00 1.25 T3WT1: Total Active Power/HV-Side, Magnitude in MW 2.50 3.75 5.00 [Hz] 6.25

DIgSILENT

Turbulence, Electrical Power and Spectrum of a 5MW Variable Speed Turbine


V0=13.6 m/s

Plots(3)

Date: 10/5/2003 Annex: /1

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Flicker due to Switching Actions

WTGs automatically synchronize to the grid if vw>vcutin Variable speed WTGs: Very smooth synchronisation Fixed speed WTGs: Considerable voltage dip. Mitigation: soft cut-in Wind farm energization causes more considerable voltage dips:
Switching of WTG step-up transformers Switching of main transformer > only during wind farm energization, not repeting events.

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Switching of Fixed Speed Induction Generator Typical start-up procedure

ASM

Turbine pulls up the rotor to 0.9 ..1.1 nnominal Breaker is closed

Zn IG V0 X Approximate Formula

S rG u = Z I = k i ' ' Sn
'' '' n G

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Switching
6000.00 1.025
DIgSILENT

4000.00

1.000

2000.00

0.975

0.00

0.950

-2000.00

0.925

-4000.00

0.900

-6000.00 -0.05 -0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 [s] 0.20 WG 315kW: Phase Current A in A WG 315kW: Phase Current B in A WG 315kW: Phase Current C in A

0.875 -0.05

-0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

[s]

0.20

415V Machines: Voltage Phasor, Magnitude in p.u.

1.003

0.90

0.60 1.000

0.30 0.997 -0.00 0.994 -0.30

0.991 -0.60

0.988 -0.05

-0.00 WG 315kW: Speed

0.05

0.10

0.15

[s]

0.20

-0.90 -0.05

-0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

[s]

0.20

415V Machines: Line-Line Phase Voltage A in kV 415V Machines: Line-Line Phase Voltage B in kV 415V Machines: Line-Line Phase Voltage C in kV

DIgSILENT

Wind Power Integration Training


Asm cut-In, directly on line EMT-simulation

WG

Date: 10/5/2003 Annex: 1 /1

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

With Soft Cut-In


200.00 1.0250
DIgSILENT

0.995 100.00

0.965 0.00 0.935

-100.00 0.905

-200.00 0.05 0.09 Motor 315kW: Phase Current A in A Motor 315kW: Phase Current B in A Motor 315kW: Phase Current C in A 0.13 0.17 [s] 0.21

0.875 0.05 0.09 0.13 0.17 [s] 0.21 415V Machines: Voltage Phasor, Magnitude in p.u.

1.0100

0.90

0.60 1.0040

0.30 0.998 -0.00 0.992 -0.30

0.986 -0.60

0.980 0.05 0.09 Motor 315kW: Speed 0.13 0.17 [s] 0.21

-0.90 0.05 0.09 0.13 0.17 [s] 0.21 415V Machines: Line-Line Phase Voltage A in kV 415V Machines: Line-Line Phase Voltage B in kV 415V Machines: Line-Line Phase Voltage C in kV

DIgSILENT

Wind Power Integration Seminar


Soft cut-in

Motor

Date: 10/5/2003 Annex: 1 /1

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Switching of Variable Wind Generators

SynM

DASM 2

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Connection of Variable Speed WTG


1.025 1.000 0.975 0.950 0.925 0.900 -0.00 0.02 Point of Interconnection: Voltage Phasor, Magnitude in p.u. 0.20 0.10 0.00 -0.10 -0.20 -0.00 PWM Grid Side: Current, d-Axis in p.u. PWM Grid Side: d-Axis Current Reference in p.u. 0.04 0.02 0.00 -0.02 -0.04 -0.00 0.02 2-Winding Transformer: Phase Current A/HV-Side in kA 2-Winding Transformer: Phase Current B/HV-Side in kA 2-Winding Transformer: Phase Current C/HV-Side in kA 0.04 [s] 0.06 0.02 0.04 [s] 0.06 0.04 [s] 0.06
DIgSILENT

DIgSILENT

Wind Power Training Cut-In of Variable Converter driven synchronous machine

Plots

Date: 10/5/2003 Annex: 1 /3

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Connection of Variable Speed WTG


1.025 1.000 0.975 0.950 0.925 0.900 -0.00 0.02 Point of Interconnection: Voltage Phasor, Magnitude in p.u. 0.20 0.10 0.00 -0.10 -0.20 -0.00 PWM Grid Side: Current, d-Axis in p.u. PWM Grid Side: d-Axis Current Reference in p.u. 0.04 0.02 0.00 -0.02 -0.04 -0.00 0.02 2-Winding Transformer: Phase Current A/HV-Side in kA 2-Winding Transformer: Phase Current B/HV-Side in kA 2-Winding Transformer: Phase Current C/HV-Side in kA 0.04 [s] 0.06 0.02 0.04 [s] 0.06 0.04 [s] 0.06
DIgSILENT

DIgSILENT

Wind Power Training Cut-In of Variable Converter driven synchronous machine

Plots

Date: 10/5/2003 Annex: 1 /3

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Harmonic and Inter-Harmonic Injections


Harmonic injections caused by: Power electronics converters modern PWM converters produce high order harmonics Saturation effects (Generator, Transformer)

Inter-Harmonic injections caused by: Effect Voltage distortion depending on network impedance Resonance problems PWM with switching frequency different from multiples of network frequency

Standards: IEC 61000-3-7, IEC 61400-21

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Self Commutated Converter

Udc

Uac

U DC

U AC

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Self Commutated PWM Converter


0.20
DIgSILENT

0.10

0.00

-0.10

-0.20 -0.00 0.02 2-Winding Transformer: Phase Current A/HV-Side in kA 0.15 0.04 0.06 [s] 0.08

0.12

0.09 1100.000 Hz 0.003 kA 0.06 900.000 Hz 0.004 kA 0.03 1950.000 Hz 0.004 kA 2050.000 Hz 0.004 kA

0.00 0.00

1280. 2560. 2-Winding Transformer: Phase Current A/HV-Side, Magnitude in kA

3840.

5120.

[Hz]

6400.

DIgSILENT

Wind Power Training PWM-converter

Currents

Date: 10/5/2003 Annex: 1 /4

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Impact on Harmonic Impedance Voltage source converters:


define a path via the coupling reactance to earth for high frequency harmonics. At low frequency harmonics: Controller transfer function needs to be considered too.

Effect:
Shift of resonance frequencies (towards higher order). Increased harmonic damping

Cable capacitance of wind farm-internal cables. Effect:


Shift of resonance frequencies (towards lower order) Amplification of harmonic background distortion.

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Impact on Flicker and Harmonics - Summary

Analysis of Flicker and Harmonics using IEC 61400-21 data sheet of a typical variable-speed wind generator. Flicker generally low in case of large wind farms because Flickerrelevant turbulences within a wind farm are only weekly correlated Harmonics of modern wind turbines (with IGBT-converters) very low. Almost no harmonic current injections. WTGs can have a positive influence on harmonic impedance characteristics (improved damping, increased resonance frequencies)

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Behaviour During Grid Faults FRT Requirements

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Example: Converter Driven Synchronous Genenrator


1.20
DIgSILENT

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20 0.00 HV: Voltage, Magnitude in p.u. MV BusBar: Voltage, Magnitude in p.u. 0.20 0.40 [s] 0.60

60.00

40.00

20.00

0.00

-20.00 0.00 Cub_1\PCC PQ: Active Power in p.u. Cub_1\PCC PQ: Reactive Power in p.u. 0.20 0.40 [s] 0.60

1.15

1.10

1.05

1.00

0.95

0.90 0.00 Generator: speed 0.20 0.40 [s] 0.60

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

FRT Requirements: Summary Basic FRT-Requirements: WTGs must not disconnect in case of voltage dips WTGs must deliver active power shortly after a voltage dip Advanced FRT-Requirements: WTGs must inject reactive current during a fault (voltage support, protection excitation) WTGs must not absorb reactive power during voltage recovery

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany

Thank You

Markus Pller mpoeller@digsilent.de

Oscar Amay o.amaya@digsilent.de

DIgSILENT GmbH Heinrich-Hertz-Str. 9 72810 Gomaringen www.digsilent.de

GTZ-TERNA Expert Workshop 2009: Grid and System Integration of Wind Energy, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009, Berlin/Germany