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Effect of Eccentricity on Analysis and Design of Isolated Footings

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PAPER ON EFFECT OF ECCENT RICIT Y ON ANALYSIS & DESIGN OF ISOLAT ED FOOT INGS (A CASE ST UDY OF Jammu and Kashmir) Note Right click on images and click view image to see actual size of image ABST RACT Footings are of ten subjected to moments f rom columns in addition to the axial loads. T he presence of certain amount of eccentricity of loading in the f ooting induces moment on f ooting. A caref ul consideration has to be given to the presence of eccentricity, while perf orming the analysis and design of such f ootings, as an increase in eccentricity beyond certain limit renders a considerable area of f ooting inef f ective to resist the stresses due to development of tension. Under these circumstances, the conventional f lexural equation becomes inapplicable, thereby imparting more complexity in the analysis. In this T hesis an attempt has been made to understand the behaviour of f ootings subjected to Uniaxial and biaxial eccentricity. Two cases of uniaxial eccentricity are considered, Case I with column placed away f rom centre of f ooting, load being concentric with the column and Case II with column at centre of f ooting and load placed at certain eccentricity. For each case three conditions of eccentricity are considered ie e=0, eL/6. Complete analysis has been perf ormed using Limit State Method f or SBC = 40, 50, 65 and 100 KN/Sq m which are prevalent in the region under consideration. For biaxial cases two eccentricity conditions with eL/6 and SBC = 100 KN/Sq m have been analyzed. T he analysis of f ooting subjected to biaxial eccentricity was carried out manually and as per charts and tables prevalent in literature. A comparative study was conducted f or both cases with ref erence to the design parameters and permissible values. T he ef f ect of eccentricity on quantity, cost and various other parameters were studied. T he analysis was also carried out using SAP 2000 Sof tware f or both Uniaxial and Biaxial Cases. T he results obtained manually and by the use of sof tware have been compared and dif f erence analyzed. A computer program was developed f or Analysis and Design of f ooting f or Uniaxial and Biaxial cases in M.S. Excel to reduce the iterative work and to save time. It was observed that there is a remarkable increase in quantity of concrete and steel when the loads are eccentric, the increasing f actor being more in case of column placed away f rom the centre of f ooting as compared to the column placed at centre of f ooting. T he results also highlight that the f oundations become highly uneconomical if the geotechnical investigation reveals incorrect values of saf e bearing capacities. 1.0 GENERAL T he f oundation structure is designated as substructure as it is placed below the ground level and the superstructure is placed on the top of it. T he elements of the superstructure transf er the loads and moments to its adjacent element below it and f inally all loads and moments come to the f oundation structure, which in turn, transf ers them to the underlying soil or rock strata. T hus, the f oundation structure ef f ectively supports the superstructure. However, all types of soil get compressed signif icantly and cause the structure to settle. Accordingly, the major requirements of the design of f oundation structures are the two as given below (Clause 34.1 of IS 456 2000):

1. Foundation structures should be able to sustain the applied loads, moments, f orces and induced reactions without exceeding the saf e bearing capacity of the soil. 2. T he settlement of the structure should be as unif orm as possible and it should be within the tolerable limits. It is well known f rom the structural analysis that dif f erential settlement of supports causes additional moments in statically indeterminate structures. T heref ore, avoiding the dif f erential settlement is considered as more important than maintaining unif orm overall settlement of the structure. In addition to the two major requirements mentioned above, the f oundation structure should provide adequate saf ety f or maintaining the stability of structure due to either overturning and/or sliding (Clause 20 of IS 456 2000). It is to be noted that this part of the structure is constructed at the f irst stage bef ore other components (columns / beams etc.) are taken up. So, in a project, f oundation design and details are completed bef ore designs of other components are undertaken. However, it is worth mentioning that the design of f oundation structures is somewhat dif f erent f rom the design of other elements of superstructure due to the reasons given below. T heref ore, f oundation structures need special attention of the designers. 1. Foundation structures undergo soil-structure interaction. T heref ore, the behaviour of f oundation structures depends on the properties of structural materials and soil. 2. Accurate estimations of all types of loads, moments and f orces are needed f or the present as well as f or f uture expansion, if applicable. It is very important as the f oundation structure, once completed, is dif f icult to strengthen in f uture. 3. Foundation structures, though remain underground involving very little architectural aesthetics, have to be housed within the property line which may cause additional f orces and moments due to the eccentricity of f oundation. 4. Foundation structures are in direct contact with the soil and may be af f ected due to harmf ul chemicals and minerals present in the soil and f luctuations of water table when it is very near to the f oundation. Moreover, periodic inspection and maintenance are practically impossible f or the f oundation structures. 5. Foundation structures, while constructing, may af f ect the adjoining structure f orming cracks to total collapse, particularly during the driving of piles etc. 2.0 SUMMARY OF LIT ERAT URE REVIEW 1. In case of f ootings subjected to eccentric loading the design is more cumbersome, because the procedure of f inding the reduced ef f ective width and area of f ooting subjected to an eccentric load is time consuming. 2. Initially the eccentricity of the applied load needs to be calculated. It can be determined f rom the vertical load and the moment data available, but the basic purpose of design is to calculate the dimensions of the f ooting. T he reduced ef f ective dimension cannot be f ound directly. 3. Ef f ective dimensions of the f ooting may be calculated by using the equation B = B -2eb and L = L-2eL Where B = A/L eb, eL = Eccentricities along width and length respectively 4. Method f or calculating ef f ective dimensions of eccentrically loaded f ooting using various derived f ormulae has been devised based on applicability of the combined direct stress and Flexural Formula that is the entire area must be in f ull compression f or the application of the f ormula to be valid.

5. T he dimensions of the f ooting may be calculated as 12 times the eccentricity of the given moments, Mx and My with the value of load. T he maximum and minimum stresses are developed at the critical corners while the stresses at the other pair of diagonally opposite corners are equalized. T his method can also be named as the 12 times eccentricity method of solution. T his method is applicable when there are no space limitations on the dimensions a and b. 6. T he maximum stresses in a rectangular f ooting subjected to vertical load eccentric about both the axis can be determined through a series of approximations based on Newton Raphson Method. It can be used f or conventional calculations and may be programmed f or high speed computing. 7. T he standard bending equation q = P/A + P.ex. x /Iy + P.ey. y /Ix stands good f or small eccentricities, when the f ooting area is in f ull compression, but it f ails f or bigger eccentricities when a part of the f ooting area does not stand f ully on the soil. 8. T he pressure settlement and pressure tilt characteristics of eccentrically obliquely loaded f ootings can be predicted using hyperbolic stress strain curve f or soils. 9. Determination of bearing capacity of eccentrically obliquely loaded f ooting having rough base using concept of one sided f ailure can be analyzed in two parts:a) Bearing capacity of f ooting subjected to eccentric vertical load b) Bearing capacity of f ooting subjected to central oblique load 10. T he applicability of the combined direct stress and f lexure f ormula, i.e., the whole f ooting area must be in f ull compression f or the application of the f ormula to be valid. T his condition is made possible by setting one corner of the rectangular f ooting with zero pressure and the diagonally opposite corner with the maximum allowable soil bearing pressure. By algebraic manipulations, the f ooting dimensions a and b are derived as f unctions of the vertical load, P, the maximum allowable bearing pressure f a, and the moments, Mx and My. 11. Minimum dimensions f or the f ooting of eccentrically loaded f oundations with dif f erent shapes in plan, can be determined by graphoanalytic means. It is based on the f unctional relationship of static and structural parameters (vertical f orces, moments of f orces, shape of the f oundations f ooting, etc.), expressed in relative amounts, and can take into account the action of several combinations of loads in the calculation. 12. T he complication of solving three simultaneous non linear equations f or serviceability limit state analysis of biaxial bending can be avoided in all cases f or which the f ollowing conditions are satisf ied:I) T he cross section is not prestressed. II) T he axial load is equal to zero. III) T he active concrete compression zone is triangular or trapezoidal. IV) Shrinkage is neglected. 13 T he coef f icient of variability of only the angle of internal f riction of soil has a signif icant ef f ect on the f ailure probability of a eccentrically loaded f ooting. 14. In an eccentrically loaded f ooting various combinations of breadth and length of f er themselves as solutions to the f oundation problems within the ground pressures allowed. Where possible, an engineer should pref er a square f ooting to one that is long and narrow. 15. T he tilt of f ooting increases with an increase in the eccentricity and the bearing capacity reduces considerably. T heref ore, f ooting sizes increase and make the design uneconomical. Footing subjected to uniaxial eccentric loads can be designed f or no or negligible tilt by giving the f ooting an angle shape. T he depth of f ooting projection will depend upon the eccentricity width ratio.

2.1 IDENT IFICAT ION OF GAPS 1. T he studies carried out do not highlight the cases of Uniaxial Bending f or various locations of the column with respect to the centre of f ooting. 2. T he studies do not show a comparison of maximum soil pressure developed under eccentrically loaded f ooting as calculated by various methods f or J&K region. 3. Analysis of eccentrically loaded f ootings using a sof tware and comparison of results with the analytical solutions is missing. 4. No evaluation has been done f or the ef f ect of eccentricity on quantities, cost and other parameters f or data pertaining to J&K. 5. Finite Element Modeling and analysis of f ooting with uniaxial and biaxial bending cases has not been carried out f or the study area under consideration. 2.2 IMPORTANCE OF ST UDY 1. T he study will provide a comprehensive comparison of various parameters like area of f ooting, upward soil pressure, depth of f ooting, maximum bending moment etc f or dif f erent eccentricity cases and various saf e bearing capacities as prevalent in J&K. 2. It will highlight the ef f ect of eccentricity on quantity and cost of concrete and steel with respect to the saf e bearing capacities of soil in various regions. 3. Comparative graphs generated f rom this study can be helpf ul to the designers f or the region under consideration. 4. T he study will also provide graphical comparison of saf e bearing capacities v/s gross, net and utilized areas of f ooting. 5. For the various saf e bearing capacities of the study area, this study shall highlight the variation in maximum soil pressure developed as calculated by manual methods and using sof tware. 6. T he study will provide conclusions which will be helpf ul f or the designers of the region to understand the ef f ect of eccentricity on area of f ooting, net upward pressure, maximum bending moment, cost of f ooting etc. 2.3 SCOPE OF T HE WORK 1. T he thesis shall emphasize on the ef f ect of eccentricity on various parameters related to Analysis and Design of Footing wrt the geotechnical data f or J & K. 2. It will also deal with the determination and comparison of Maximum Soil Pressure under eccentrically loaded f ooting by various methods including analysis using SAP-2000. 3. T he thesis shall also contain programs developed on M. S. Excel f or analyzing uniaxial and biaxial bending cases. 4. A comparative study f or both the cases shall be provided with ref erence to the design parameters and permissible values. 5. T he study will also provide graphical comparison of saf e bearing capacities v/s gross, net and utilized areas of f ooting. 6. T he thesis shall also include a study on the ef f ect of eccentricity on quantities, cost and other parameters. 2.4 OBJECT IVES OF T HE WORK T he main objective of the thesis is to analyze and design the isolated f ootings f or dif f erent cases involving uniaxial and Biaxial Bending. T he analysis and design shall be carried out manually and with sof tware. Comparative study shall be carried out f or the generated results and evaluation of eccentricity on quantities, cost and other parameters worked out. Detailed objectives of the work are listed below:1. Analysis and Design of Isolated Footing with Uniaxial Bending using M. S. Excel Program: i. When Column is placed at center of Footing ie e = 0 ii. When Column is placed away f rom the center of Footing with eccentricity e<= L/6 iii. When Column is placed away f rom the center of Footing with eccentricity e >L/6 iv. When Column is placed at center of Footing with eccentricity e <= L/6 v. When Column is placed at center of Footing with eccentricity e > L/6

2. Analysis and Design of Isolated Footing with Biaxial Bending using M. S. Excel Program: i. When Column is placed at center of Footing with eccentricity e <= L/6 ii. When Column is placed at center of Footing with eccentricity e > L/6 3. Finite Element Method Modeling and analysis of Footing with uniaxial and biaxial bending using SAP 2000 4. Determination of maximum soil pressure by manual calculation, by SAP-2000 and as per tables and charts prevalent in the literature 5. Comparative Study of generated results 6. Evaluation of ef f ect of eccentricity on quantities, cost and other parameters. 7. Conclusions and Discussions 8. Limitations 3.0 MET HODOLOGY Following Methodology has been adopted f or the thesis work: 1. Study of various conditions which a f ooting has to satisf y while held in static equilibrium. 2. Identif ication of various cases of Uniaxial and Biaxial bending f or analysis. 3. Identif ication of various Load & Saf e Bearing Capacity Cases. 4. Use of Trial and Error solutions. 5. Use of charts and tables as prevalent in literature. 6. Development of Flowchart f or determining preliminary size of f ooting subjected to vertical loads and moments. 7. Development of M. S. Excel Program f or Design of f ooting. 8. Designing and detailing f or each case. 9. Generation of Finite Element Method Model. 10. Carrying out F.E.M. Analysis. 11. Parametric study f or dif f erent column positions, dif f erent Saf e Bearing Pressures and varying eccentricity. 12. Study of ef f ect of eccentricity on area of f ooting, concrete quantity, steel quantity, cost of concrete, cost of steel and percentage increase in overall cost. 3.1 Following Load Cases and Safe Bearing Capacities have been considered for design of isolated footings:Based on the soil exploration report and various possible cases of Uniaxial and biaxial eccentricity cases as given in 3.1.2, f ollowing cases have been listed which shall be studied in this thesis. T hese cases include a combination of various values of saf e bearing capacities and eccentricity ranging f rom 0 to greater than L/6. T he cases shall be analyzed f or two column positions ie Column at centre and column away f rom the centre of f ooting. For a comparison between the cases, load magnitude has been kept constant.

4.1 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS AND DESIGN FOR CASES I T O XX T he analysis and design of f ootings f or dif f erent cases are summarized below:-

T he above summary reveals that there is a remarkable increase in the dimensions and area of tension reinf orcement required by the f ooting as the eccentricity increases f rom 0 to >L/6. Further f or the same concentrated load and eccentricity condition, the dimensions required are more f or lower saf e bearing capacities. A comparative study of all the design f eatures has been provided in chapter 6. 5.0 FINIT E ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5.1 Graphical comparison of Manual and SAP-2000 Pressures T he variation of pressure as calculated manually and as obtained by SAP-2000is shown in chart 5.1below. Initially the pressure values are almost matching with each other but with an increase in length the manual calculations dif f er f rom the sof tware calculations. T he manual results are higher as compared to the sof tware results.

Chart No 5.1 Pressure Variations for Uniaxial Case, e < L/6 5.2 Graphical comparison of Manual and SAP-2000 Pressures T he variation of pressure as calculated manually and as obtained by SAP-2000is shown in chart5.2.. Initially the pressure values calculated manually are lower than that obtained by SAP 2000.But with an increase in length the manual calculations are higher as compared to the sof tware results.

5.3 Graphical comparison of SAP-2000 Pressures at different sections. T he variation of pressure calculated at f ive cross sections f rom one end to another is shown in chart 5.3. T he pressure values are low at 0 length point and rise almost linearly towards the other end of f ooting. Moreover the pressure values also vary along the width of f ooting. Pressure values are higher at A line and go on reducing towards E line.

5.4 Graphical comparison of SAP-2000 Pressures at different sections. T he variation of pressure calculated at f ive cross sections f rom one end to another is shown in chart 5.4. T he pressure values are low at 0 length point and rise almost linearly towards the other end of f ooting. Moreover the pressure values also vary along the width of f ooting. Pressure values are higher at A line and go on reducing towards E line.

6.0 RESULT S 6.1 GRAPHICAL COMPARISON OF ECCENT RICIT Y Vs COST WIT H COLUMN AT e FROM CENT RE.

T he variation of cost of f ooting with respect to the increase in eccentricity f or dif f erent saf e bearing capacity of soil is shown below. T he curve shows that there is a slight increase in the cost of f ooting f rom eccentricity zero to less than L/6 beyond which there is a sharp increase in the f ooting cost when eccentricity increases to greater than L/6.

CHART 6.1 Eccentricity V/s Cost f or Column at e f rom centre, SBC = 40, 50, 65, 100 KN/Sqm

6.2 GRAPHICAL COMPARISON OF ECCENT RICIT Y Vs COST WIT H COLUMN AT CENT RE. T he variation of cost of f ooting with respect to the increase in eccentricity f or dif f erent saf e bearing capacity of soil is shown in Chart 6.2. T he curve shows that there is a slight increase in the cost of f ooting f rom eccentricity zero to less than L/6 beyond which there is a sharp increase in the f ooting cost when eccentricity increases to greater than L/6.

6.3 GRAPHICAL COMPARISON OF ECCENT RICIT Y Vs AREA WIT H COLUMN AT e FROM CENT RE. T he variation of area of f ooting with respect to the increase in eccentricity f or dif f erent saf e bearing capacity of soil is given in Chart 6.3. T he curve shows that there is a slight increase in the area of f ooting f rom eccentricity zero to less than L/6 beyond which there is a sharp increase in the f ooting area when eccentricity increases to greater than L/6.

6.4 GRAPHICAL COMPARISON OF ECCENT RICIT Y Vs AREA WIT H COLUMN AT e FROM CENT RE. A graphical comparison of Gross, Net and unutilized area of f ooting f or dif f erent saf e bearing capacities of soil is shown in Chart. It can be seen that the unutilized area is more f or higher saf e bearing capacities than lower ones.

CHART 6.4 Gross / Net / Unutilized Area V/s Cost SBC = 40, 50, 65, 100 KN/Sq m 7.0 CONCLUSIONS Following conclusions are drawn based on the cases considered in previous chapters:7.1 Uniaxial Eccentricity:7.1.1 Effect of Eccentricity on Area of Footing 1. With e = 227 mm (eL/6), the % increase in the area of f ooting over and above the case with e = 0 is around 104.14%, 95.77%, 114.6% and 132.5% f or SBC = 40, 50, 65 and 100 KN/Sq m respectively. 7.1.2 Effect of Eccentricity on Net Upward Pressure 1. With e = 227 mm (eL/6), the % increase in net upward pressure over and above the case with e = 0 is around 4.43%, 8.9%, 4.86% and 4.45% f or SBC = 40, 50, 65 and 100 KN/Sq m respectively. 7.1.3 Effect of Eccentricity on Maximum Bending Moment 7.1.3.1 Column placed at e away f rom centre of f ooting 1. With e = 227 mm (eL/6), the % increase in maximum bending moment over and above the case with e = 0 is around 355.56%, 498.5%, 562.04% and 747.04% f or SBC = 40, 50, 65 and 100 KN/Sq m respectively ie bending moment is increasing by 5.03 to 8.47 times.

7.1.3.2 Column placed at centre of f ooting 1. With e = 230 mm (eL/6), the % increase in maximum bending moment over and above the case with e = 0 is around 128%, 168.14%, 177.5% 219.82% f or SBC = 40, 50, 65 and 100 KN/Sq m respectively ie bending moment is increasing by 2.7 to 3.2 times. T hus by placing the column at centre of f ooting, the bending moment is reduced by 0.4 to 0.67 times f or e=230 mm and by 2.75 to 5.27 times f or e= 910 mm. 7.1.4 Effect of Eccentricity on Quantity of Concrete 7.1.4.1 Column placed at e away f rom centre of f ooting 1. With e = 227 mm (eL/6), the % increase in quantity of concrete over and above the case with e = 0 is around 244.69%, 291.2%, 324.55% and 418.7% f or SBC = 40, 50, 65 and 100 KN/Sq m respectively ie quantity of concrete is increasing by 3.45 to 5.18 times. 7.1.4.2 Column placed at centre of f ooting 1. With e = 230 mm (eL/6), the % increase in quantity of concrete over and above the case with e = 0 is around 144.24%, 179.4%, 189.25% and 234.55% f or SBC = 40, 50, 65 and 100 KN/Sq m respectively ie quantity of concrete is increasing by 2.44 to 3.34 times. T hus by placing the column at centre of f ooting, the quantity of concrete is reduced by 15% f or e=230 mm and by 100.45% to 184.15 % f or e=910 mm. 7.1.5 Effect of Eccentricity on Quantity of Steel 7.1.5.1 Column placed at e away f rom centre of f ooting 1. With e = 250 mm (eL/6), the % increase in quantity of steel over and above the case with e = 0 is around 132.8%, 234.72%, 256.21% and 342.31% f or SBC = 40, 50, 65 and 100 KN/Sq m respectively ie quantity of steel is increasing by 2.33 to 4.42 times. 7.1.5.2 Column placed at centre of f ooting 1. With e = 250 mm (eL/6), the % increase in quantity of steel over and above the case with e = 0 is around 37%, 143.1%, 144.65% and 172.03 % f or SBC = 40, 50, 65 and 100 KN/Sq m respectively ie quantity of steel is increasing by 1.84 to 2.72 times. T hus by placing the column at centre of f ooting, the quantity of steel is reduced by 0% to 17 % f or e=230 mm and by 57% to 95.8 % f or e=910 mm. 7.1.6 Effect of Eccentricity on Cost of Footing 7.1.6.1 Column placed at e away f rom centre of f ooting 1. With e = 227 mm (eL/6), the % increase in cost of f ooting over and above the case with e = 0 is around 205.3%, 275%, 304.58% and 395.2% f or SBC = 40, 50, 65 and 100 KN/Sq m respectively. 7.1.6.2 Column placed at centre of f ooting 1. With e = 230 mm (eL/6), the % increase in cost of f ooting over and above the case with e = 0 is around 122.92%, 169.3%, 176.22% and 215.32% f or SBC = 40, 50, 65 and 100 KN/Sq m respectively. T hus by placing the column at centre of f ooting is more economical as the increase in cost is around 13.78 to 15.31 % in case of e = 230 mm and around 82.38 to 180 % in case of e = 910 mm over and above when column is placed at e away f rom the centre of f ooting. 7.2 Biaxial Eccentricity:1. It is observed that a small amount of biaxial eccentricity (0.73 m) which f alls in the category of e > L/6 results in huge soil pressure 192.64 KN/Sq m which is approximately 2 times the saf e bearing capacity of soil.

2. T he manual procedure is quite rigorous and iterative in nature and takes a lot of time to arrive at the maximum soil pressure under the f ooting. T he procedure can be simplif ied by using the standard charts and graphs prevalent in literature. 7.3 Comparison of Maximum Soil Pressure calculated by various methods 7.3.1 Uniaxial Case T he results obtained by hand calculations, as per chart given by Teng and as per table given by Fintel are in close conf irmity. T he variation is around 10 %. But the SAP-2000 results show a variation of 18 % which are lower than hand calculations. 7.3.2 Biaxial Case T he results obtained by hand calculations, as per chart given by Teng and as per table given by Fintel are in close vicinity. T he variation is less than 6 %. But the SAP-2000 results show a variation of 26 % which are lower than other methods. 7.4 DISCUSSION T hus the presence of eccentricity needs a caref ul consideration while designing the f oundation of any structure. T he presence of small eccentricity not only results in development of enormous compressive stress at one end which are much more than the saf e bearing capacity of soil, but it also develops tensile stresses in the f ooting which ultimately renders a part of the f ooting area inef f ective due to reduction in ef f ective length and width of f ooting, thereby f urther aggravating the maximum soil pressure. T his results in f ailure of the soil under the f ooting, tilting and f ailure of f ootings and ultimately f ailure of structure. Also the placement of column plays an important role in economy. Placing the column at centre of f ooting is more economical as the increase in cost is around 13.78% to 15.31 % in case of e L/6 over and above when column is placed at e away f rom the centre of f ooting. 7.5 LIMITAT IONS & FUT URE SCOPE 1. Analysis with/without tension/uplif t at base. 2. Ef f ect of depth and over-burden weight of soil. 3. Dif f erences between f ootings f or braced and un-braced f rames/columns. 4. Ef f ects of ground-beams to assist in resisting moments due to eccentricity.

REFERENCES 1 Brendum T and Nielsen Concrete Sections under Biaxial Bending- Journal of Structural Engineering, No 10, October 1987. 2 Davies G and Mayf ield B Choosing Plan Dimension f or an Eccentrically Loaded Footing Slab- American Concrete Institute Journal, Vol 69, No 5 1972. 3 Gurf inkel G, Analysis of Footing subjected to Biaxial Bending- Journal of Structural Division, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol 96, No ST 6, June 1970. 4 Higleter W. H and Anders J. C, Dimensioning of Footings subjected to Eccentric Loads- Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol III, No 5, May 1985 5 Holmberg A, Discussion on Dimensioning Footings subjected to Eccentric Loads- Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol 14, June 1987 6 Irles R and Irles F, Explicit stresses under Rectangular Footings- Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol 120, No 2, February 1994. 7 Jarquio R and Jarquio V, Design of Footing Area with Biaxial Bending- Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol 109, No 10, October 1983. 8 Mahiyar H and Patel A. N Analysis of Angle shaped f ooting under eccentric loading, Journal of Geotech and Geoenvironment Engg. Volume 126, Issue 12, pp. 1151-1156 (December 2000) 9 Prakash S, Saran S and Sharan U.N, Footings and Consecutive Laws- Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol 110, No 10, October 1984. 10 Plevkov V. S and Polishchuk A. I Assigning Dimensions of the Footing of Eccentrically Loaded Foundations- Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Publisher:- SPRINGER, New York, Vol 30, No 05, September 1993. 11 Saran S and Agarwal R.K, Eccentrically Obliquely Loaded Footing- Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol 115, No 11, November 1989. 12 Saran S. and Agarwal R.K, Bearing Capacity of Eccentrically Obliquely Loaded Footing- Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol 117, No 11, November 1991. 13 Smith J. P, Pardo and Bobet A , Behavior of Rigid Footings on Gravel under Axial Load and Moment Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engg, Volume 133, Issue 10, October 2007. 14 Soubra A. H. Reliability based Analysis and Design of Eccentrically Loaded Footings- Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol 336, No 49- 2009. 15 Wilson K. E. Bearing Pressure f or Rectangular Footings with Biaxial Uplif t, Journal of Bridge Engg. Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 27-33 (February 1997) 16 Bowles J.E, Foundation Analysis and Design, Mc Graw Hill Book Company, New York, London, Mexico, Sydney, Tokyo. 17 Fintel M, Handbook of Concrete Engineering, C.B.S Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi. 18 Jain A.K, Limit State Design, 19 Kurian N.P, Design of Foundation Systems, Narosas Publishing House, New Delhi. 20 Teng W.C, Foundation Design, Prentice Hall of India (Pvt) Ltd, New Delhi. 21 Tomlinson M. J, Foundation Design and Construction, Longman Singapore Publishers Ltd, Singapore. 22 I.S 456 2000, Code of Practice f or Plain and Reinf orced Concrete. 23 I.S 6403 1981, Code of Practice f or Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundation. We at engineeringcivil.com are thankful to Sir Sajad Ahmed Khan, Lecturer I Department of Civil Engineering Government Polytechnic, Leh Ladakh and Dr Hemant Sood, Associate Professor NITTTR, Chandigarh for submitting this research paper to us. We hope this will be of great use to many civil engineering students around the world.

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