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.4.

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Linear
algebra with applications Applied Linear algebra
Linear algebra

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CHAPTER 1 1

1.1

1.2

13

1.3

27

1.4

1.5

1.6

LU

41
57
66

CHAPTER 2 77

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

Cramer

2.5

78

85
91

105

113

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.2.

CHAPTER 3 125

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

152

3.5

3.6

126
133
145
171

182

CHAPTER 4 191

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

192
199

211
223

CHAPTER 5 237

5.1

5.2

Cayley Hamilton

5.3

257

5.4

5.5

276

238
253

261

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5.6

Jordan

.3.

280

CHAPTER 6 287

6.1

288

6.2

301

6.3

Gram-Schmidt

6.4

310

318

331

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Chapter 2

.79.

S = 1 , 2 , 3 2 , 3 , 1 , 3 , 1 , 2 , 2 , 1 , 3

Ans(2, 1, 3)

A=

## an1 an2 ann

A determinant det A
A A
A =

## a1k1 a2k2 ankn k = k1 , k2 , kn

S = 1 , 2 , 3 n
0 k
k =
1 k
n n 2 3

A =

a11 a12
= a11a22
a21 a22

a12a21

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.80.

A =

a11 a12
a21 a22

A a11a22

a12a21
a11a22 1 , 2 0
a12a21 2 , 1 1

a11 a12
a21 a22

1 0 a11a22 +

1 1 a12a21 = a11a22

a12a21

a1_a2_a3_
an_ 1 , 2 , 3 n

1 2

3 4

1 2
=14
3 4

23=4

6=

2
0

1 3
,
3 2

A 3

## a11 a12 a13

A = a21 a22 a23
a31 a32 a33
= a11a22a33 a11a23a32 a12a21a33 + a12a23a31
+ a13a21a32 a13a22a31

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Chapter 2

.81.

A 3 3! = 6
k

1 , 2 , 3

1 , 3 , 2

2 , 1 , 3

2 , 3 , 1

3 , 1 , 2

3 , 2 , 1

## a13 a22 a31

Sarrus
a11 a12 a13 a11 a12 a13 a11

a12

a22

a23

a21

a22

## a31 a32 a33

a32

a33
+

a31
+

a32
+

a31

Sarrus 3 4
Sarrus Pierre F. Sarrus
1798-1861

4 a11a24a33a42

Ans 1

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.82.

1 2 2
3 2 2 2
2 2 3

1 2 2 1
2 2 2 =2
2 2 3 2

2
2
2

2 1
2 2
3 2
+ +
= 123+222+222

2
2
2
+
222 221 322

= 2

0
a

a
0

b
c = 0
0

4 A 5
a11 a23 a35 a41 a54

## a11 a23 a35 a34 a52

a11, a411

a35, a34 3

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Chapter 2

.83.

2-1
S ={1, 2, 3, 4, 5}(a)13425 (b)34251

det (A)A 5
(a)a13 a41 a34 a25 a52

## 4 a11 a2x a3y a44 x = y = a1w a23 a35 a44

w = s =
0
1
1

1
0
1
x
2
0

1
x
x

x
1
1

b
b
b

c
c
c

x
0 = 3 x
1

x
f x = 1
2
a

a
a
a

1
1
0

4
x
0
b
x
1

x
x
1
c
0 x2
x

a
0
0

e
b
0

f
g
c

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.84.

A 2
A 2

A=

A = 0 A

A =

a b
1
det (A) = ((tr (A))2
2
c d

tr (A2))

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Chapter 2

.85.

2.2

A n A j i n

Mij A aij

cofactor Aij
1

i+j

## aij Aij cof aij =

Mij

A = A i

A =

aik

k=1

i+k

Mik =

n
k=1

aik Aik

2 1 1
1 3 1
1 1 4

1 1
2 1
A =1
1 2+1
+3
1 2+2
1 4
1 4
2 1
+1
1 2+3
= 3 + 3 7 1 = 17
1 1

1 3
2 1
A =1
1 1+3
+1
1 2+3
1 1
1 1
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.86.

+4

3+3

0
m
n
p

x
1
0
0

2
1

1
=
3
y
0
1
0

1 + 4 5 = 17

z
0

0
1

0 x y z
m 1 0 0
n 0 1 0
p 0 0 1
x y z
=p
1 4+1 1 0 0 + 1
0 1 0
p

=
+y
=

pz

1
1

1+3

xm

3+2

0 x y
1 4+4 m 1 0
n 0 1

x z
+ x
1 0

1+2

m 0
n 1

m 1
n 0
ny

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Chapter 2

.87.

a
0

1
1
1

1
x
0

1
0
y

1
0
= xyz
0

0
a

0
0

1
0

0
a

xy + xz + yz

3 n
0
1

0
0

1
a 0
0
1
0 a
0
0
a
0
0
1+1
= a( 1)
0
a
0 0
a
0
n 1
1 0
a
= aan 1 = an
0
0 1
a
0 0
n+1
0
+ ( 1)
0
n

a 0
1

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.88.

= an + ( 1)n + 1 ( 1)1 +

= an + ( 1)2n + 1an + 2 = an

0
0

0
a2

b1

b2

b3

a3

0
0

a4

b4

2 = an

a1

an

1
a1 0 0 b1
a2 b2 0
0 0
0 a2 b2 0
= a1 b3 a3 0 b4 a2 b2
0 b3 a3 0
b3 a3
0 0 a4
b4 0 0 a4
a2 b2
a2 b2
= a1 a4
b4 b1
b3 a3
b3 a3
= a1 a4 (a2 a3
= (a1 a4

b2 b3)

b1 b4)(a2 a3

b4 b1 (a2 a3

b1
0
0

b2 b3)

b2 b3)

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Chapter 2

.89.

2-2

1
2
3
a

4
2
3
0

0
0
b
0

2
0
0
1

d
1
4
0

3
c
7
0

2
0
0
0

0
0
1
0

a
0
7
0

5
b
2
0

0
0
c
0

2
3
4
d

1
0

2
2

3
3

0
0

0
0

1
0

4 5
4 3
2 0
4 6

0 5

0 1 0 0 0 0
0
1
0
0

1
0
1
0

0
1
0
1

0
0
1
0

0
0
0
1
0

0
0
0
0
0

2
0
0
0
0

0
3
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
4

0
0
5
0
0

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.90.

0 0 0 0 0 a
0 0 0 0 b 0
0 0 0 c 0 0
0 0 d 0 0 0
0 e 0 0 0 0
f 0 0 0 0 0

a 0 0 0 0 0
0 b 0 0 0 0
0 0 c 0 0 0
0 0 0 d 0 0
0 0 0 0 e 0
0 0 0 0 0 f

A n aij |i

j| > 1 aij = 0

B A11 a11
det (A) = a11 A11

## a212 det (B)

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. .
, 2013.07
.
IISBN 978-957-11-7203-3()
1.
313.3

102013249

5B89

## A Short Course in Linear Algebra

106 3 3 9 4
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