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Mariano Marcos State University COLLEGE OF TEACHER EDUCATION Laoag City STYLE VARIATIONS IN TEXTS Report in English 107

- Introduction to Stylistics Jesseca B. Ancheta Rodel Bryan C. Valdez Reporters Style Variation - variation from one identifiable kind of English to another within the same text. LITERATURE AND DIALECT Dialect - comes from the Ancient Greek dialektos discourse, language, dialect, which is derived from dialegesthai to discourse, talk. - may be distinguished from other dialects of the same language by features of any part of the linguistic structurethe phonology, morphology, or syntax. - language of a particular district, class, or group of persons. - encompasses the sounds, spelling, grammar, and diction employed by a specific people as distinguished from other persons either geographically or socially. - a major technique of characterization that reveals the social or geographic status of a character. Two Types of Dialect 1. Standard dialect (also known as a standardized dialect or "standard language") a dialect that is supported by institutions. Such institutional support may include government recognition or designation; presentation as being the "correct" form of a language in schools; published grammars, dictionaries, and textbooks that set forth a "correct" spoken and written form; and an extensive formal literature that employs that dialect (prose, poetry, non-fiction, etc.). There may be multiple standard dialects associated with a single language.

Examples: a. Standard American English(SAE) which is characterized by grammatical (morphological & syntactic) features b. Received Pronunciation (RP) (in UK) which is characterized by phonological features

Style Variations in Texts 2012

2. Nonstandard dialect like a standard dialect, has a complete vocabulary, grammar, and syntax, but is not the beneficiary of institutional support. An example of a nonstandard English dialect is Southern American English or Newfoundland English. The Dialect Test was designed by Joseph Wright to compare different English dialects with each other.

Examples: a. b. African-American English (AAE) Multiple negatives: He don know nothin. Appalachian English Double modals: I might could do that. He useta couldnt swim. a-prefix: go a-fishin, come a-runnin

There are many dialects in the world, hundreds of thousands of them. In Haiti, they speak a dialect of French, called Creole. In many parts of Italy, they speak different dialects of Italian. It could be said that in the United States there are several dialects of English. African-Americans, for example, have historically used a vernacular or folk style of English. Southerners, too, have their own dialect or variant of English. Examples of Dialectical Variations in English 1. Sound System/Phonology Dialectical variation in relation to what part of the country people come from is probably
the most well known kind of language variation. However, there is a tendency for many people to equate dialect with accent (phonetic variation.) Certain dialects in the American English distinguished the vowel in caught from that in cot while others do not. Some dialects pronounce greasy with an /s/ sound ad in others with a /z/ sound. Writers of poems and novels can use deviations from the orthographical system to suggest particular accent (the sound stratum of dialect). 2. Lexis It can be illustrated by the fact that the word hill in the South of England may be replaced fell in the North or tor in the South-west. Pants can be replaced with trousers or jeans.

Some dialects term stomachache as sick to his stomach, sick at his stomach, sick in his stomach, sick on the stomach and sick with stomach.

3. Morphology

Style Variations in Texts 2012

Some dialects form the past tense of the verb treat by adding -ed ending while other dialects use tret. Various dialects in the Atlantic states have clim, clum, clome, or cloome instead of climbed. 4. Syntax

There are variations like give it me, give it to me, and give me it. 5. Grammatical The word while is a conjunction used to introduce subordinate clauses of time in Southern forms of English, as can be seen in sentences like I watched him while he fed the cat. But in many Northern varieties it can also be a preposition with roughly the same meaning as until in Southern varieties. Urban grammar is the study of more complex situations, in cities and areas affected, looking more at younger speakers and phenomena of language change. Examples: 1. An -s ending occurs with all subjects except the third person singular. - Thats what I does, I just ignores em. 2. Double modals are acceptable - He wouldnt couldve worked even if you had asked him. 3. Affirmation and Contradicting - Normal Yes = Aye - Contradicting No = Nay 4. Double and triple negatives - Im not never going to do now. Examples of dialect invocation can be seen in the following excerpt from Roots, II, i by Arnold Wesker.
Mrs. Bryant: Time drag heavy then? Stan: Yearp time drag heavy. She do that. Time drag so slow, I get to thinkin its Monday when its still Sunday. Still, I had my dal gal I say. Yearp. I had that all right. Mrs. Bryant: Yearp. I had that an; a bit more ole son. I shant grumble if I last as long as you. Stan: Yearp. I had my day. An Id do it all the same again, you know that? Do it all the same I would. Mrs. Bryant: Blust! All your drinkin an that? Stan: Hell! Thaas what kep me goin look. Almost anyways. None o them young unsll do it, hell if they will. There ent much life in the young uns. Bunch o week-kneed ruffians. None on em like livin look, none on em! You read in them ole papers what go on look, an you wonder if they can see. You do! Wonder if they got eyes to look around them. Think they know where they live? Course

Style Variations in Texts 2012

they dont, they dont know, not one. Blust! The winter go an spring come on after an they dont see buds an they dont smell no breeze an they dont see gals, an when they see gals they dont know whatta do wi em. They dont!

In this conversation the Norfolk dialect of the two characters is indicated not just by deviant spellings, but also by a number of grammatical markers. The third person present tense of the verbs has no final -s marker, as it would in Standard English (Time drag heavy); adverbs are sometimes realized by the corresponding adjective form (Time drag so slow); the preposition of is replaced by on (none on em); the tag form (do you) see is replaced by look (thaas what kep me goin, look); and double negatives are introduced (they dont smell no breeze). Exercise 1: Analyze as carefully as you can the features which indicate Mrs. Goodalls dialect in the extract below. Is it an accurate reflection of the dialect being represented? Does it matter whether it is or not? What function do you think the dialect representation has in the passage?
Mrs Goodall was a large woman with smooth-parted hair, a common, obstinate woman, who had spoiled her four lads and her one vixen of a married daughter. She was one of those old-fashioned powerful natures that couldnt do with looks or education or any form of showing off. She fairly hated the sound of correct English. She theed and thad her prospective daughter-in-law, and said: Im none as ormin as I look seest ta. Fanny did not think her prospective mother-in-law looked at all orming, so the speech was unnecessary. I towd him mysen, said Mrs Goodall, Ers held back all this long, let er stop as er is. Ed none ha had thee for my tellin - that hears. No, es as fool, an I know it. I says to him. That looks a man, doesnt ter, at thy age, goin am openin to her when ter hears her scrat at th gate, after she;s done gallivantin round wherever shed a mind. That looks rare an soft. But its no use o any talki ng: he answered that letter o thine and made his own bad bargain. (D.H. Lawrence, Fanny and Annie)

Conclusion Standard English is just a variety or dialect of English. It cannot even legitimately be considered better than other varieties. All languages and all dialects are equally good as linguistic systems. All varieties of a language are structured, complex, rule-governed systems which can adequately meet the needs of their speakers for communication.

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In literature, writers tend to integrate their dialects in their literary pieces. Dialectical variations indicate the nationality of the writer, the place where the text is written, the social class of the writer, and the time or the period when the article or the literary piece was written. LITERATURE AND MEDIUM Medium Spoken or written

Spoken Language - It is unrehearsed and produced for external consumption at very high speed. As a consequence, it is full of performance errors. Written Language It usually takes place at a more leisurely pace, and with the opportunity to rework what we say before it is exposed to others. Writers often create special effects by writing in ways which borrow characteristics associated with speech.

You must go back with me to the autumn of 1827, My father, as you know, was a sort of gentleman farmer (Anne Bronte, The Tenant of the Wildfell Hall, Ch. 1)

The direct address to the reader and the monitoring phrase as you know suggest a conversation between intimates. This helps us feel close to the narrator. LITERATURE AND TENOR Tenor It has something to do with the relationship between a speaker and a hearer often characterized by greater or lesser formality (Leech, Deuchar, Hoogenrad, 1982). Typically, then, we choose our tenor to our relationship with the people we are talking to. We will use more technical vocabulary when talking to people who share the same level of understanding and more accessible, common core vocabulary when talking to those who are not equally qualified (e.g. members of the medical profession are thus likely to use, say, tibia when talking to colleagues and shin bone when talking to patients). The tenor of your language varies or changes according to:

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a. Who you are talking to b. The social situation you find yourself in The notion of tenor can be easily extended to apply to the relationship between the writer and the reader, as well as to that existing between characters in a fictional conversation. Let us take a look at these two examples from the introductory parts of two books. Henry Fielding, Tom Jones, Book 3
The reader will be pleased to remember that at the beginning of the second book of this history we gave him a hint of our intention to pass over several large periods of time in which nothing happened worthy of being recorded in a chronicle of this kind. In so doing we do not only consult our own dignity and ease but the good and advantage of the reader

Italo Calvino, If on a Winters Night a Traveler, Ch. 1

Try to foresee now everything that might make you interrupt your reading. Cigarettes within reach, if you smoke, and the ashtray. Anything else? Do you have to pee? All right, you know best.

Comparison Tom Jones Attitude of the Writer Substantiation Polite and Caring The reader will be pleased we gave him a hint the good and advantage of the reader If on a Winters Night a Traveler Impolite and Distracting

Person Reference Language


Try to foresee now everything Cigarettes within reach smoke, ashtray Anything else? Do you have to pee? you know best Third person reference: him, Second person reference: you we Formal: uses decent language Informal: asks personal and appropriately chosen questions, dictates activities, words uses taboo vocabulary Formal relationship Informal relationship

Fieldings polite attitude towards his reader is seen not just in the care he apparently takes to look after his readers interest, but also in the formal third person reference to the reader.

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Calvino, in contrast, is much more informal, almost impolite. The writer gives the reader orders about how to get comfortable before beginning to read, asks very personal questions and uses informal, even slightly taboo vocabulary. The last sentence also indicates informality because it pretends that a conversation is taking place in which the reader has responded to the question which the writer has just asked. Here, then, we see the dimensions of tenor and medium interacting. Giving written text conversational qualities helps to make it more informal, in this case engineering a closer relationship between writer and reader. MEDIUM AND TENOR INTERTWINED Poems usually use formal language. This is partly because it is expected to be serious and so a fairly formal tenor is appropriate. However, poetry also characterizes written form which does not attempt to evoke characters and this fact about medium also pushes towards formality. This does not mean, of course, that all poems, or all parts of poems, will exhibit only written characteristics. To illustrate this, here is a poem titled Adlestrop written by Edward Thomas.
Adlestrop Yes. I remember Adlestrop The name, because one afternoon Of heat the express-train drew up there Unwontedly. It was late June. The steam hissed. Someone cleared his throat. No one left and no one came On the bare platform. What I saw Was Adlestroponly the name And willows, willow-herb, and grass, And meadowsweet, and haycocks dry, No whit less still and lonely fair Than the high cloudlets in the sky. And for that minute a blackbird sang Close by, and round him, mistier, Farther and farther, all the birds Of Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire. Edward Thomas

The poem begins with a written representation of relatively informal spoken language, a representation which continues throughout the poems first stanza. In the first line, the use of the

Style Variations in Texts 2012

initial yes which normally occurs in a second-turn position in a conversation indicates that spoken language is represented and that the I in the poem is replying to someone elses question. In the first two stanzas, the structures we find are short and simple which is a characteristic of spoken language. The lexis is also simple and is used in everyday conversation (exception being unwonted) and the line units are broken up by a series of syntactic boundaries in the middle of the line. After the first two stanzas, the second half of the poem is more of overtly poetic style. The sentences here are longer and complex compared to the first two stanzas. If you read this poem out loud to yourself, you will be able to notice that you react automatically to the change which takes place in the middle of the poem by changing your reading voice. The second half generally comes out at a slower, more even pace than the first half, a little higher pitched and with a smoother, less gravelly voice quality than the first half since the first half of the poem is more conversational. LITERATURE AND DOMAIN Domain the subject and /or function (e.g. the language of advertising, legal language, the language of instruction, and the language of science)
Hugh: Firefly is under deep cover. Has something quite important happened to make him break it like this? Stephen: Well that was the first thought that crossed my mind, Tony, certainly. It looks as if his network has been penetrated by an enemy agent. Hugh: Oh no. Stephen: Yes, I'm afraid so. All his men have been arrested. Glow-worm was shot attempting to cross over into the west and Firefly himself is hiding up somewhere at a safehouse in the east. Hugh: So the whole network has been blown? Stephen: That's right. It's a thundering nuisance. Hugh: It certainly is. Thundering. Stephen: I'm severely vexed, I don't mind telling you. Hugh: I expect a coffee would come in welcome then.

The use of technical lexis like deep cover and code names for the agents clearly places us in onlookers of a conversation between intelligence officers. The humor derives from the fact that the code names also allow Hugh and Stephen to distance themselves from the desperate difficulties which the agents are in, so that they can talk about them as if they were two civil servants discussing mere administrative inconveniences.