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Made BY

Name: Wan Mohd Firdhaus

Class: 2 Ibnu Hayyan

Year: 2009

Teacher: Puan Siti Lina bt Salleh


Title Pap
Meaning Conservation And Preservation 4
Of Living Organisms
Steps Taken to Conserve and Preserve 5
Living Organisms
Meaning The Role Of Humans In 8
Maintaining The Balance In Nature
Over-exploitation of Resource And Other 9
Solving Environment Pollution 11
What You, Government and Community 12
Can Do To Prevent Pollution


1. Thanks to my Science teacher, Puan Siti Lina

because have give me some lesson and how
to make this folio. She is very responsible and
also a knowledge teacher.
2. Also thank you to my parent because give me
a lot of support for me to do this folio and to
my entire friend that have help me to make
this folio.

Meaning Conservation And Preservation Of Living
⇒ Conservation means protecting living
organisms such as plants and animals by
preventing them from being killed, destroyed
or harmed. Preservation means keeping
living organisms the way they are in nature.

Steps Taken to Conserve and Preserve Living


Various steps have been taken by different
organisations to converse and preserve living
organisms. These steps include:
• Setting aside protected areas.
• Setting up man-made habitats.
• Protection living organisms and passing laws
and regulations.
• Recycling and reusing materials.
• Banning the trade of exotic pets.
• Banning the sale of products made from
endangered plants and animals.

Setting Aside Protected Areas

Forest reserves, national and state parks, wildlife
sanctuaries and marine parks should be set aside
as protected areas. This is to ensure that plants,
animals and other living things can live and breed
in safety. In these protected areas, all activities
that can harm or kill living organisms are not
allowed and you can be punished under the law for
such activities.

Setting up Man-made Habitats

Botanical gardens, zoos, animal sanctuaries and
plant nurseries are man-made habitats They are

set up to protect living organisms, to cure them for
diseases and even breed them in captivity.

Protecting Living Organisms and Passing Laws

and Regulations
Laws and regulations are passed to conserve and
preserve living organisms. Many different laws and
regulations have been passed to protect various
types of living organisms and endangered species.

Recycling and Reusing Materials

Most materials come from living organisms. For
examples, paper comes from trees. Recycling and
reusing materials help to save some living things
from being killed or removed.

Banning the Trade of Exotic Pets

Many living organisms such as endangered plants
and animals are put in danger by the pet trade. For
example, hyacinth macaws become endangered as
most of them are kept as pets which do not breed.

Banning the Sale of Products Made from

Endangered Plants and Animals
The sales of products made from endangered
plants and animals should be banned too.

Examples are ivory products made from elephant
tusks and ashtrays made from hand of gorillas.

Conservation and Preservation Activities

A variety of activities have been organised by

various organisations to converse and preserve
living organisms. Recycling, cleaning rivers and
reusing materials are some of the activities
organised by conservation groups. Explain why
everybody should support or take part in the
activities that conserve and preserve living things.
The logo of the giant panda represents an
organisation that support conservation groups from
all over the world. Name the organisation and find
out more about its work.

Meaning Of The Role Of Humans In Maintaining

The Balance In Nature

⇒ Many human activities affect the balance in

nature by causing harm to living organisms
and environment problems. Some of the
environmental issues caused by the negative
effects of human activities are over-

exploitation of the environmental resources,
air pollution, soil pollution and water pollution.

Over-exploitation of Resources
Over-exploitation of environmental resource
means using a resource until it runs out or it is
so badly damaged that it can no longer be used
again. Environmental issues caused by over-
exploitation are:
• Over-fishing which often leads to the
extinction of some species of fish.
• Over-hunting which often leads to the
extinction of some species of animals.

• Land overuse which lowers the yield of crops
as the land becomes less fertile and turns
• Deforestation and loss of wetland which
cause the destruction of habitats that in turn
may lead to the extinction of species.

Air Pollution
Air pollution occurs when harmful substance
called air pollutants are released into the air
leading to:
• Global climate changes caused by
greenhouse gases such as excessive
carbon dioxide and methane gas. They
cause global warming which brings
strong winds, drought, flash floods and
heavy rains that destroy habitats and
their occupations.

Soil Pollution
Soil pollution occurs when harmful substance
called soil pollutants are released into the soil.
Soil pollutants, such as toxic chemicals, pesticides,
fertilisers and waste from dumping ground can
seep into plants that eventually poison the animals
that feed on them.

Water Pollution
Water pollution occurs when harmful substances
called water pollutants are found in the water.
Examples are:
• The released pf untreated sewage into
the water due to poor solid waste
management. This may harm humans and
other living organisms and cause diseases
such as cholera.
• Oil spills or discharge from tankers and
factories into water. Fish and other marine
life will be killed. Marine animals and
seabirds may drown or freeze to death
because the oil causes their fur or feather
to stick together.

Solving Environmental Pollution

Some of the environmental problems can be solved
easily and immediately by individuals. Other
requires the combined efforts of many different
organisations, including governments from various
countries, over long periods of time.

What You Can Do To Prevent Pollution

• Throw all solid waste that cannot be recycled
into litterbins, not into drains or the ground.
• Pour all liquid wastes into sewers and not into
open drains, rivers or the sea.
• Stop using products that contain harmful
substances such as CFCs which can damage
our environment.
• Use product that are made from recycling
materials such as recycling paper.
• Use products that are environment-friendly.
• Take part in projects caring for the
environment such as tree-planting campaigns
and cleaning-the-beach projects.
• Use public transport such as public buses and

What The Community Can Do To Prevent

• Organise campaigns and talks to make the
public more aware of the need to care for the
environment and how environmental problems
can be solved or avoided.
• Organise and sponsor environmental projects
on a large scale such as reforestation projects
and river cleaning projects.

• Support or carry out scientific research to find
the best ways of protecting the environment
and solving its problems.
• Work together with other communities and
organisations in sharing experiences or
expertise in caring for the environment.

What The Government Can Do To Prevent

• Act and sustain the country’s high standards
of a clean and green environment.
• Educate citizens to care for both the local and
global environment.
• Carry out checks and monitor industries that
pollute the environment.
• Promote the use of environment-friendly
products and devices such as unleaded petrol.
• Encourage its citizens to recycle

The End