________________________________________ Made BY Name: Wan Mohd Firdhaus Class: 2 Ibnu Hayyan Year: 2009 Teacher: Puan Siti Lina bt Salleh


Title INTRODUCTION Meaning Conservation And Preservation Of Living Organisms Steps Taken to Conserve and Preserve Living Organisms Meaning The Role Of Humans In Maintaining The Balance In Nature Over-exploitation of Resource And Other Pollution Solving Environment Pollution What You, Government and Community Can Do To Prevent Pollution

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1. Thanks to my Science teacher, Puan Siti Lina because have give me some lesson and how to make this folio. She is very responsible and also a knowledge teacher. 2. Also thank you to my parent because give me a lot of support for me to do this folio and to my entire friend that have help me to make this folio.


Meaning Conservation And Preservation Of Living Organisms

Conservation means protecting living organisms such as plants and animals by preventing them from being killed, destroyed or harmed. Preservation means keeping living organisms the way they are in nature.

Steps Taken to Conserve and Preserve Living Organisms

Various steps have been taken by different organisations to converse and preserve living organisms. These steps include: • Setting aside protected areas. • Setting up man-made habitats. • Protection living organisms and passing laws and regulations. • Recycling and reusing materials. • Banning the trade of exotic pets. • Banning the sale of products made from endangered plants and animals.

Setting Aside Protected Areas
Forest reserves, national and state parks, wildlife sanctuaries and marine parks should be set aside as protected areas. This is to ensure that plants, animals and other living things can live and breed in safety. In these protected areas, all activities that can harm or kill living organisms are not allowed and you can be punished under the law for such activities.

Setting up Man-made Habitats
Botanical gardens, zoos, animal sanctuaries and plant nurseries are man-made habitats They are


set up to protect living organisms, to cure them for diseases and even breed them in captivity.

Protecting Living Organisms and Passing Laws and Regulations
Laws and regulations are passed to conserve and preserve living organisms. Many different laws and regulations have been passed to protect various types of living organisms and endangered species.

Recycling and Reusing Materials
Most materials come from living organisms. For examples, paper comes from trees. Recycling and reusing materials help to save some living things from being killed or removed.

Banning the Trade of Exotic Pets
Many living organisms such as endangered plants and animals are put in danger by the pet trade. For example, hyacinth macaws become endangered as most of them are kept as pets which do not breed.

Banning the Sale of Products Made from Endangered Plants and Animals
The sales of products made from endangered plants and animals should be banned too.


Examples are ivory products made from elephant tusks and ashtrays made from hand of gorillas.

Conservation and Preservation Activities
A variety of activities have been organised by various organisations to converse and preserve living organisms. Recycling, cleaning rivers and reusing materials are some of the activities organised by conservation groups. Explain why everybody should support or take part in the activities that conserve and preserve living things. The logo of the giant panda represents an organisation that support conservation groups from all over the world. Name the organisation and find out more about its work.

Meaning Of The Role Of Humans In Maintaining The Balance In Nature
⇒ Many human activities affect the balance in nature by causing harm to living organisms and environment problems. Some of the environmental issues caused by the negative effects of human activities are over7

exploitation of the environmental resources, air pollution, soil pollution and water pollution.

Over-exploitation of Resources
Over-exploitation of environmental resource means using a resource until it runs out or it is so badly damaged that it can no longer be used again. Environmental issues caused by overexploitation are: • Over-fishing which often leads to the extinction of some species of fish. • Over-hunting which often leads to the extinction of some species of animals.


• Land overuse which lowers the yield of crops as the land becomes less fertile and turns unproductive. • Deforestation and loss of wetland which cause the destruction of habitats that in turn may lead to the extinction of species.

Air Pollution
Air pollution occurs when harmful substance called air pollutants are released into the air leading to: • Global climate changes caused by greenhouse gases such as excessive carbon dioxide and methane gas. They cause global warming which brings strong winds, drought, flash floods and heavy rains that destroy habitats and their occupations.

Soil Pollution
Soil pollution occurs when harmful substance called soil pollutants are released into the soil. Soil pollutants, such as toxic chemicals, pesticides, fertilisers and waste from dumping ground can seep into plants that eventually poison the animals that feed on them.

Water Pollution
Water pollution occurs when harmful substances called water pollutants are found in the water. Examples are: • The released pf untreated sewage into the water due to poor solid waste management. This may harm humans and other living organisms and cause diseases such as cholera. • Oil spills or discharge from tankers and factories into water. Fish and other marine life will be killed. Marine animals and seabirds may drown or freeze to death because the oil causes their fur or feather to stick together.

Solving Environmental Pollution
Some of the environmental problems can be solved easily and immediately by individuals. Other requires the combined efforts of many different organisations, including governments from various countries, over long periods of time.

What You Can Do To Prevent Pollution

• Throw all solid waste that cannot be recycled into litterbins, not into drains or the ground. • Pour all liquid wastes into sewers and not into open drains, rivers or the sea. • Stop using products that contain harmful substances such as CFCs which can damage our environment. • Use product that are made from recycling materials such as recycling paper. • Use products that are environment-friendly. • Take part in projects caring for the environment such as tree-planting campaigns and cleaning-the-beach projects. • Use public transport such as public buses and trains.

What The Community Can Do To Prevent Pollution
• Organise campaigns and talks to make the public more aware of the need to care for the environment and how environmental problems can be solved or avoided. • Organise and sponsor environmental projects on a large scale such as reforestation projects and river cleaning projects.


• Support or carry out scientific research to find the best ways of protecting the environment and solving its problems. • Work together with other communities and organisations in sharing experiences or expertise in caring for the environment.

What The Government Can Do To Prevent Pollution
• Act and sustain the country’s high standards of a clean and green environment. • Educate citizens to care for both the local and global environment. • Carry out checks and monitor industries that pollute the environment. • Promote the use of environment-friendly products and devices such as unleaded petrol. • Encourage its citizens to recycle

The End


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