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THE ROCK CYCLE

-shows relationship between igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock. -rocks are continually formed, changed, destroyed and reconstituted during the rock cycle: Formed/modified by endogenic forces (internal) Destroyed by weather and climate (e ogenic) !econstituted by deposition of sediments GEOTECTONIC " formation, arrangement, structure of the rocks in the crust. !ocks result from distortion of the crust due to endogenic forces. PLUTONIC ROCKS -intrusi#e (granite) crystalli$ed magma. VOLCANIC ROCKS -e trusi#e (basalt) %olidified la#a. Rocks are formed when: &agma rises, cools, solidifies " forms igneous rock: - magma reaches surface " #olcanic/e trusi#e eg. 'asalt - magma cools within the crust " plutonic/intrusi#e eg. (ranite Rocks are mod f ed d!e "o: (reat heat, pressure " metamorphic rock. Rocks are des"ro#ed when: Denudation occurs, weathering, erosion " smaller rock pieces ) sediments - sediments transported and deposited by water, ice, air (agents of erosion) Rocks are recons" "!"ed when: compressed sediments " solid rock (sedimentary rock) - deposited in layers ( strata) $AG$A forms by subducted rock layers melting into the mantle. LITHI%ICATION " sediments compact and turn into solid rock (sedimentary rock) eg. *oose sand " sandstone.

CHARACTERISTICS O% ROCKS
I&neo!s " formed when magma cooled and solidified +g. (ranite, basalt, pyroclasts and la#a Sed men"ar# " compressed remains/sediments of sea creatures/plants/animals/ fragments of rocks. +g. *imestone, %andstone, coal and shale $e"amor'h c " changed sedimentary/igneous rocks due to great heat/pressure or both +g. &arble, ,uart$ite, schist, slate

IGNEOUS ROCK
-formed from solidified magma -plutonic/intrusi#e(granite) -#olcanic/e trusi#e(basalt) -contains crystals - large crystals ) slow cooldown - granite - small crystals ) fast cooldown " basalt GRANITE %OR$ATION -coarse grained igneous rock -magma cooled deep within the crust -contains: minerals of feldspar, -uart$, mica. -color: white, grey, pink, black -large crystals -formed during .aledonian fold mountain building period. -/00 mil. years ago. -used for: kitchen worktops, fireplaces1 building material -found in: 2icklow &ountains, &ourne &ountains, .o. Down. (ASALT %OR$ATION) -fine/medium grained igneous rock -color: black/dark grey -most common e trusi#e rock in 3! --uickly cooled la#a -small crystals -found on the 4ntrim-Derry 5lateau ((iant6s .auseway) "cooled, contracted la#a formed he agonal columns

SE*I$ENTARY ROCK
-formed o#er millions of years -composed of: remains of animals/plants compacted -sandstone and limestone -layers called strata separated by bedding planes -bedding planes "hori$ontal cracks -7oints "#ertical cracks -two types: organic/inorganic sedimentary rock. ORGANIC SE*I$ENTARY ROCK formed from the remains of animal and plant life. INORGANIC SE*I$ENTARY ROCK formed from the broken down remains of pre-e isting rock. PER$EA(LE means that water can pass through. LI$ESTONE) or&an c sed men"ar# rock -most common type in 3! -the 'urren, .o..lare -made up of: cemented compress remains of sea creatures -formed o#er millions of years -present day limestone formed o#er 800 mil. years ago -formed during carboniferous period -colors: grayish white/black/dark grey -easily permeable and weathered -fossils often found (temperature and pressure of formation does not destroy them)

SAN*STONE) nor&an c sed men"ar# rock -coarse rock -color: brown/red -most common type found in 3!: old red sandstone (iron o ide present) -formed appro . /00 mil. years ago (3! desert type climate) -.aledonian fold mountains weathered and eroded "sediments carried by ri#ers and deposited in shallow seas/lakes -also formed from deposits of sediments in ri#er channels/deltas/floodplains eg. .omeragh &ountains, .o. 2aterford, &acgillycuddy6s !eeks, .o. 9erry.

$ETA$ORPHIC ROCK
-formed by changing the appearance/te ture/chemical composition of sedimentary/igneous rock due to great heat(magma) or pressure(folding) -two types: :. ;hermal metamorphism (heat alone) <. !egional metamorphism (great heat and pressure o#er a large area) +g. *imestone turning to marble -.aledonian fold mountain building period " colliding plates of +urasia and 4merica. +=4&5*+% *imestone to &arble " .onnemara, .o. (alway %andstone to ,uat$it " (reat %ugarloaf &ountain, .o. 2icklow .roagh 5atrick, .o. &ayo

$AR(LE -hard crystalline rock -colour: green(.onnemara), red(.ork), pure white marble(!athlin 3sland, 4ntrim, .arrara "3raly) -formed by heat and pressure on limestone -impure marble is not pure white eg. 3ron o ides, silt, sand, clay. -can be cut, polished and used for: kitchen worktops, fireplaces, ornaments, gra#estones +UART,ITE -sandstone changed due to great heat and pressure -spaces in composition were filled with silica and then compressed -light colored rock -often white in color -found on peaks of mountains: .roagh 5atrick, .o. &ayo 1 %ugar *oaf &ountain, .o. 2icklow

THE NORTH A$ERICAN CONTINENT ) ac" -e and "ra . n& '.a"e mar& ns
ACTIVE PLATE $ARGIN /occurs where oceanic plate subducts under continental plate E&0 2est coast of >orth 4merica " 5acific 5late subducts under the >orth 4merican 5late /faulting, mountain building, #olcanoes and earth-uake acti#ity occur. /america6s newest igneous and metamorphic rock forms this way TRAILING PLATE $ARGINS /occurs in the absence of earth-uake or #olcanic acti#ity or fold mountain formation /sedimentary rocks such as limestone and sandstone form here /sediments eroded from mountains transported by ri#ers deposited into seas (limestone/sandstone)

HU$AN INTERACTION 1ITH THE ROCK CYCLE


+UARRYING -important resources: energy and building materials -rock based building materials: stone, gra#el and sand +g. (ranite (igneous rock) *imestone (%edimentary rock) &arble (&etamorphic rock) 2?4; 3% ,@4!!A3>(B -the remo#al of rock from large pits on the +arth6s surface -o#er /00 acti#e pits and -uarries in 3! "solid rock e tracted-raw materials for houses, roads, pa#ing and floors -:00 mill. ;ons per annum up to <0:0 &+;?CD% CF ,@4!!A3>( :. 5lug and feather -holes drilled into the rock -steel wedges/rods inserted in rock to split it -e tracting large pieces used for floor co#ering <. + plosi#e -used to e tract large and smaller pieces of rock -for chipping for roads/fertili$ing land 8. .hanneling -machinery is used to cut large slices of rock --uarrying marble +g. :0,000 years ago (last ice age 3!) , melting of glaciers " rich deposits of rock midland 3! %and/ (ra#els " esker ridges. +iscir !iada- Dublin- (alway (Dublin, &eath, 9ildare, 2estmeath, Cffaly, !oscommon, (alway) 53; "loose sand/gra#el dug directly out of ground ,@4!!A- bedrock blasted then processed +%9+!% " long ridges of stratified sand/gra#el (+iscir !iada)

5C%3;3D+ 3&54.;% CF ,@4!!A3>( :. Direct employment --uarry workers <. .onstruction -aggregates in construction 8. 3ndirect employment -construction employees -in decline (<00Eyr-<F0.000ppl, <00Gyr-:<H.F00ppl) >+(4;3D+ 3&54.;% CF ,@4!!A3>( :. Disual pollution --uarries and pits scar the landscape <. >oise pollution -hea#y machinery -blasting -#ibrations 8. ?ea#y machinery -damage roads /. Dust -polluted air F. 2ater pollution -waste/dust in ri#ers H. 4bandoned -uarries -unauthori$ed rubbish tips CARRARA $AR(LE -found in ;uscany, 3taly. -color: white or blue grey -e ported worldwide -was used for: the 5antheon in !ome /&ichelangelo6s Da#id. -;a7 &ahal, 3ndia. - is used in warm countries keeps cool air in -also used for: countertops, flooring, fireplaces and bathrooms