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# 4 ESO - MATEMTICAS - UNIDAD 2 (Polinomios)

Pg.30 1

xyz

Expresin
Valor

Volumen

Pg.30 2
Pg.30 3

Monomios
3xy

Polinomio
2x z
5
16

3
3

xyz + 3 xy 2 2 x 2 z 3 + 7

14

V = ( x ) ( 2 xy ) ( 3 z + 1) =

6 x 2 yz +2 x 2 y

Permetro = x + 2 x + 2 x =

rea =

5x

( 2 x ) 2 x

1
x
2

Pg.30 4

## a) S es polinomio. Suma de dos monomios

b) S es polinomio. Diferencia de dos monomios
c) No es polinomio. Trmino ( x ) con exponente no natural
d) No es polinomio. Trmino (5 x ) con exponente no natural

Pg.30 5

## a) P(1) = (1) 2 2(1) 15 =

2
P( 0 ) = ( 0 ) 2( 0 ) 15 =
b) x 2 2 x 15 = 0 x = 1

P( 1) = ( 1) 2( 1) 15 =
2

16

12 +15 = 1 16 = 1 4

Pg.30 6

Pg.31 7

Permetro = 2( 4 x 15) + 2( 3 x + 10 ) =

1
x( y x ) =
2

y2

x1 = 5

997.985

x 2 = 3

1
1
xy + x
2
2

14 x
10

P=

12

## P (1000 ) = (1000 ) 2(1000 ) 15 =

2

15

Pg.31 8

15 2
x
8

12 x 2
13 x 222

2 x 2 y (2 4 xy +x )

Pg.31 9 a) ( 2 x 1) ( 2 x 2 + 3x 5 y ) =
b) ( 2 x 1) ( 2 x 2 + 3 x 5 y ) = 4 x 3 + 2 x 2 + 6 x 2 3x 10 xy + 5 y =
c) 2 x 2 ( 2 x 1) ( 4 x 3 3x 2 + 1) = 4 x 3 2 x 2 4 x 3 + 3x 2 1 = x 1
2
2
d) ( 2 x 1 + 4 x 3 3x 2 + 1) = ( 4 x 5 3x 2 + 2 x ) = 16 x +9 x +4 x 24 x
2 x 2 x +
5y
1

4x 3 +
8x 2
10 xy
3x +
5y

10

Pg.31 10 a) 2 + 3 =
Pg.31 11 a)

b) Mximo( 2 [ 2 3] ) = Mximo( 2 6) =

8 x 3 (2 +3 x 3 )

Pg.31 12 AZUL

+
16 x 6
12 x 3

5 xz 2 (x +2 z +3 xz 3 )

b)

Permetro = 2( 3 + 7 + x ) + 2( 2 + x ) =

( )

4 x +24

rea = ( 3 + 7 + x )( 2 + x ) ( 3x ) x 2 = x 2 + 12 x + 20 3x .x 2 =
Permetro = 2( 2 x + 7 + 3 x 5) + 2( 2 x + 3 + x ) =

rea = ( 5 x + 2 )( 3 x + 3) x ( 2 x + 7 ) ( 3 x 1)( 3 x 3) =

Pg.32 13 a) ( 3x ) 2 + 2( 3x ) 2 + 2 2 = ( )
b) ( 2 x ) 2 + 2( 2 x )( 5 y ) + ( 5 y ) 2 = (2 x +5 y )
2
c) ( 2a ) 2 (b 2 ) = (2a +b )(2a b )
3 x +2

1/13

9 x +20

14 x +
10

4 x 2 16 x +3

## 4 ESO - MATEMTICAS - UNIDAD 2 (Polinomios)

Pg.32 14 a) 3 2 + 2 3 5 x + (
b) b 2 + a 4 + 2ba
c) x 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 x

5x )

Pg.32 15 a)
c)

= (3 + 5x)

= b + a2

= ( x + 2)

b)

9
24 xy +
16 x 2 y 2
9a 2 +
12a

d)

b +
4b

b2
14bx 2 +49 x 4

4 x 2 25 y 2

Pg.32 16 a) 2 2 + 2 2 ( 3b / 2) + ( ) = ( 2 + 3b 2) 2
b) x 2 + 25 y 2 + 2 x 5 y = ( x + 5 y ) 2
2
2
c) (3x 3 ) 2 3x 3 3 + ( ) = (3x 3 3)
2
2
d) ( x ) 2 + (3x 2 ) + 2 x 3x = ( x + 3x 2 )
3b / 2

)(
)
Pg.32 17 a) x 2 13 2 = (
b) ( 5 x ) 2 2 5 x y + ( y ) 2 = (5 x y )
c) ( 2a 7b + 2a + 7b )( 2a 7b 2a 7b ) = 4a ( 14b ) =
d) y 2 ( x 2 + 3 2 2 3 x ) = y (x 3)
x+
13

x
13

Pg.32 18 ( a + b ) 3 ( a + b ) 2 ( a + b ) = ( a 2 + 21b + b 2 )( a + b ) = a
( a b ) 3 ( a b ) 2 ( a b ) = ( a 2 2ab + b 2 )( a b ) =
Pg.32 19

LibrosVivos.Net

Pg.33 20

2X3 5X2
+ 10
3
2x
+ 4x +
2
5x + 4x + 10
+ 5x2
10
+ 4x

+3a 2 b +3ab 2 +b 3
a 3 3a 2 b +3ab 2 b 3

b) x5 3x4
+ 17x2 + 2 x3 5x + 2
x5
+ 5x3 2x2
x2 3x + 5
3x4 + 5x3 + 15x2
3x4
15x2 + 6x
5x3
+ 6x + 2
3
5x
+ 25x 10
+31x 8

3x3 + 5x2
x2 + x 3
+ 3x2 + 5x
9x + 15
+ 9x 15
0
4
3
c) 6x 2x + 15x 5 3x 1
6x4 + 2x3
2x3 + 5
+ 15x 5
15x + 5
0
6x3 + x2 7x + 2
6x3 + 2x2
+ 3x2 7x
3x2 + x
6x + 2
+ 6x 2
0

x2 2
2x 5

Pg.33 22

56ab

3x 1
2x2 + x 2

2/13

2 x 2 +x 2

Pg.33 23

)(

## dividendo = ( divisor cociente ) + resto = x 2 1 x 3 + 2 + 3 x =

x4 3x3 + 4x2 9x + m
x4
3x2
3x3 + x2 9x
+ 3x3
+ 9x
2
+x
+m
2
x
3
m3

Pg.33 24

Pg.33 25

x2 + (1/2)x + 1
x2 (3/2)x
x
+1
+x
+ (3/2)
+ (5/2)

Pg.33 26

resto

Pg.34 27 a)

A(1)

x2 + 3
x2 3x + 1

4
3
9
3 5
Cociente =
Resto =

m 3 = 0

m =3

x + (3/2)
x 1

a (12 ) + b(1) + c =

8
0
15 21
7 21

x 5 x 3 +2 x 2 +3 x 2

a +b +c

b)

1
-1
1
1
0
Cociente =
Resto =

3 x 2 5 x +7

21

2
0
2

0
0
0

2
2
0

x3 2

0 2 1 +1
b)
3 4 3 7
2
2 +4 4 +10
5
15 95 460
1 2 2 5 11
3 19 92 453
3
2
Cociente = x 2 x + 2 x 5
Cociente = 3x +19 x +92
Resto =
Resto =
c)
4 0 12 0 9
d)
1 1 1 1 1 1
1
4
4 8 8
1
1 0 1 0 1
4 4 8 8 1
1 0 1 0 1 0
4
x
+
4
x

8
x

8
Cociente =
Cociente = x +x +1
Resto =
Resto =
e)
5 0 0 0 0 0 1
1
5 5 5 5 5 5 Cociente = 5 x +5 x +5x +5 x +5x +5
5 5 5 5 5 5 4 Resto =

Pg.34 28 a)

453

11

Pg.34 29 resto 0 ( 4) 3 5( 4) 2 2( 4) + m = 0 64 80 8 + m = 0
Pg.34 30 resto 130 + 129 + 128 + + 12 + 11 + 1 = 1 +1 +1 +31 +1 =
Pg.34 31

Pg.35 32

31

LibrosVivos.Net

resto 2 = 2(1)

100

5(1)

50

+ k (1) + 5

2 = 25+k +5
3/13

k =0

m =24

## Pg.35 33 a) No es exacta resto = 2( 2) 5 3( 2 ) 4 + 2( 2) 3 + ( 2 ) 2 + 3( 2) 3 = 133

b) S es exacta resto = 2(1) 4 7(1) 3 + (1) 2 5(1) + 9
c) S es exacta resto = ( 5) 3 + ( 5) 2 17( 5) + 15
d) No es exacta resto = ( 7 ) 3 + ( 7 ) 2 12( 7 ) + 7 = 315

=0

=0

Pg.35 34

resto = (1)

2011

2012(1)

2013

=3

## Pg.35 35 Grado resultante = 4

Grado polinomio = 4 1 = 3
Cualquier polinomio de grado 3. Por ejemplo = x 3 2 x + 1
El resultante ser = ( x 3 2 x + 1)( x 5) x 5 x 2 x +11x 5
4

P( 2 ) = 0

## Pg.35 36 Deber ser

Pg.35 37

( 2 ) 3 7( 2 ) + k = 0

k =6

x 2 7 x + 10 ( x 5)( x 2 )

## El resto ser, como mximo, de grado 1

resto( x 5) a( 5) + b = 2
resto( x 2 ) a( 2) + b = 5

La diferencia de ambas da 3a = 3
Resto =
a =
1

Pg.35 38

b =7

ax +b

x +7

LibrosVivos.Net

Pg.37 39 a) Divisores de 15 3 5 1 3 5 15
es raz P( x ) =( x 3)(x
El segundo parntesis es irreducible
b) Divisores de 3 13 x = 1 es raz Q( x ) = ( x + 1) ( x 2 3)
( ) (
)(
)(
)

x =3

Q x

=x +
1

x + 3

## Pg.37 40 No es raz. Porque

Pg.37 41 a)
b)
c)
d)

resto = 5( 5)

Q ( x ) = ( x + 1)( x 1) = ( x
2

R ( x ) = ( x +1)( x 4 )

+5)

x 3

98

+ 5( 5)

49

P( x ) = 4 x 2 25 = 4( x + 5)( x 5)
2

+ 44

+ 1)( x + 1)( x 1)

x =
1

x =
5

x = 1

x =4

S ( x ) = 2( x 2 4) = 2( x 2 2 2 ) = 2( x + 2 )( x 2 )

x =
2

Pg.37 42 a) 2( x 3 + 4 x 2 x + 4) = 2( x 1) ( x 2 + 5 x + 4) = ( )( )(
)
b) ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 6 x 55) = ( )( )(
c) ( x 2 1)( x 2 + 3) = (x +1)(x 1)(x +3)
d) 4 x 2 4 x +1 4 = ( 2 x 1) 2 2 2 = ( 2 x 1 + 2)( 2 x 1 2 ) =
2 x
1

x +
1

x
5

x +
4

x +
1)

x +
11

(2 x

1)(2 x
3)

b + b 2 4ac
b b 2 4ac
s2
2a
2a
2
2
2
2

## x b + b 4ac x b b 4ac = x + b + b 4ac x + b b 4ac =

2a
2a
2a
2a
2a
2a

Pg.37 43

s1

2
b 2 4ac
b

= x +

2a
2a

x2 +

2
2

= x 2 + b x + b b 4ac = x 2 + b x + c
2

a
a
a
4a
4a 2

b
c
x+ =0
a
a

ax 2 +bx +c =0

4/13

## 4 ESO - MATEMTICAS - UNIDAD 2 (Polinomios)

Pg.37 44 Las posibles races enteras han de ser divisores del trmino independiente
Si ste es primo, slo tiene dos divisores, l mismo y la unidad.
Tales divisores pueden estar afectados de los signos
Por tanto, el nmero mximo de posibles races enteras es cuatro.
Pg.37 45 LibrosVivos.Net
Pg.38 46 a) A = ( x 5)(x +1)
)
b) B = x(3x 2 + 5 x 2) = ( )(
2
)(
)
c) C = ( x + 1) ( x 6) = ( )(
d) D = ( x + 1) ( x 3 5 x 2 2 x + 24) = ( x + 1)( x + 2) ( x 2 7 x + 12) =
e) E = x 2 ( x 2 9) = x 2 ( x 2 3 2 ) = x (x +3)(x 3)
2

x x +
2

3x
1

x+
1 x + 3

x 3

(x

+
2 )(x +
1)(x
3)(x
4)

Pg.38 47 a)
b)
c)
d)

P = x 2 ( x 2 1) =

x 2 (x +
1)(x
1)

Q = x 2 7 2 = ( x +7 )( x 7 )

)
(x 2 ) = x (x

R = 2 x x 2 1 =
S = x2

x 2 x 3 4

2 x (x +
1)(x
1)

)(

)(

+ 22 x 3 22 = x 2 x 3 4 x 2 3 4x + 3 42 ( x 3 22 ) =

)(x

)(

4 x 2 3 4 x +3 4 2

e) T = 4( x ) + 12( x100 ) + 9 = ( 2 x )
f) U = x (x 2)
100 2

100 2

)(x

+3 4 x +3 4 2

+ 2 2 x 100 3 + 3 2 = (2 x

100

+3

16

Pg.38 48

[
]
[
]
= x 6 + ( k 2) x 5 2( k + 1) x 4 2( k 2) x 3 + ( 4k + 1) x 2 + ( k 2) x 2k

P ( x ) ( x 2 1) x 2 + ( k 2) x 2k = ( x 4 2 x 2 + 1) x 2 + ( k 2) x 2k =
2

x 6 6x 4 + 9x 2 4

Pg.38 49

2(k +
1) =6

k 2 =0

4k +1 =9

2 k =4

P ( x ) a 0 x n + a1 x n 1 + a 2 x n 2 + + a n 1 x + a n

## Ser divisible entre x 1 si el resto es nulo, es decir, si P(1) = 0

P(1) a0 (1) n + a1 (1) n 1 + a 2 (1) n2 + + a n 1 (1) + a n = a +a +a + +a
0

Pg.38 50

k =2

2
P( x ) = 4 x 4 + 4 x 2 + 1 4 x 2 = ( 2 x 2 + 1) ( 2 x ) 2 = (2 x

n
1

+a n =0

+2 x +1)(2 x 2 2 x +1)

Pg.38 51 LibrosVivos.Net
Pg.40 52 a) rea =
d) volumen =
bh

b) rea = l
e) volumen =
2

x3

## Pg.40 53 a) No es monomio. Exponente no natural

b) No es monomio. Exponente no natural
c) No es monomio. Exponente no natural
d) S es monomio

5/13

r2 h

c) espacio = v t
f) permetro =

2 x +y

## 4 ESO - MATEMTICAS - UNIDAD 2 (Polinomios)

Pg.40 54

x =2
x =0
x =4
x = 2

x 4 2x 2 x + 1
x 3( x +1)
x 2 2 +1
2

x 6 3x 4 2 x 3 + x + 1

Pg.40 55 a) A + D =

7
3
9

b) B C = 3x 4 2 x 4

6 x 2 2 x

c) A B + C = 6 x 2 3x 4 + 2 x 4

d) A D = 6 x 2 ( 2 x ) =

5 4
x + 6x 2
2

4
4
e) B : C = (3x ) : 2 x =

g)
Pg.40 56 a)
c)
Pg.40 57 a)
c)

1
A B C = 6 x 2 3x 4 x 4 =
2

h)

9x10

3 3 1 2 5
x + x
4
2
4
3
2

P +Q = 2 x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2

A
6x 2
=
=
D B 2 x 3x 4

b)

x2 +

1
x
2

d)

2x3

3 2 1
x + x 1
2
2

12 x 3

6x 5

x 3

11
x +3
3

b)

Q R = 4 x 4 + 3 x 3 x + 6

3
2

d)

P + Q + R = 2 x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2

R Q + P = 2 x 4 4 x 3 + x 2 3 x 3

Pg.40 58 a) ( x + y ) 2 4 z ( x + y ) + 4 z 2 =
b) ( 3a 2b ) 2 + 2c( 3a 2b ) + c 2

5 4
x
2

f) D B = ( 2 x ) (3 x 4 ) =

6 x 4 +3 x 3

2
3

5
2

11
x 1
3

x 2 +y 2 +
4z 2 +
2 xy
4 xz
4 yz

9a 2 +4b 2 +c 2
12 ab 4bc +6ca

## Pg.40 59 a) La suma es de grado 7, igual al mayor de ambos

b) El producto es de grado 13, suma de los grados de los factores
c) El cubo es de grado 18, cubo del grado de la base (caso particular de producto)
a) [2x2 + 3 x 1] [3x2 5x + 5] = 5x2 + 2x + 4
b) [3x4 x + 2] [1x4 + 4 x + 1] = 4x4 + 3x + 3
c) [5x3 + 4x2 + 1] + [3x3 + x2 2] = 2x3 3x2 3

Pg.40 60

Pg.40 61
a)
b)
c)

1 4
3
3
2
x + 2 x + 1 3 x 4 x 2 + 4 x 5 x + 3 =
2

3 x 2 4 x 2 4 x 2 5 x + 3 x 4 + 2 x 3 + 1 =
2

4 x 2 5 x + 3 x 4 + 2 x 3 + 1 + 3 x 3 4 x 2 =
2

)(

3 7
x + 6 x 6 2 x 5 9 x 4 x 3 + 4 x 2 9 x +1
2

## Pg.40 62 S, puede ser de grado 2 y tambin de grado 1 de grado 0 (trmino independiente)

( x 3 + 2 x 2 + 3 x 4) + (. x 3 + 3 x + 5) = 2 x +6 x +1
Ejemplo
2

6/13

## 4 ESO - MATEMTICAS - UNIDAD 2 (Polinomios)

2
Pg.40 63 a) ( 2 x 2 ) 2( 2 x 2 )( 3 y ) + ( 3 y ) 2 =
b) ( 3x ) 3 3( 3x ) 2 ( 2 y ) + 3( 3 x )( 2 y ) 2 ( 2 y ) 3 =
2
c) (3x 3 ) 2 2(3x 3 )( x ) + ( x ) =
2
2
d) ( 2 x 4 ) + 2( 2 x 4 )( x 2 ) + ( x 2 ) = 4 x +4 x +x
e) ( 5a ) 2 ( 3b ) 2 = 25a 9b
f) ( 2 xy ) 2 ( 4 zt ) 2 =

4x 4
12 x 2 y +
9y2

9 x 6 6 x 3
8

27 x 3
54 x 2 y +
36 xy 2
8y3
x +x

4x 2 y 2
16 z 2 t 2

Pg.40 64 a) ( 4 x 2 y 2 ) 2( 4 x 2 y 2 )(5 y 2 t ) + (5 y 2 t )
2
b) ( 3) 2 + 2( 3) (6b 3 c 4 ) + (6b 3 c 4 ) =
2
2
c) (5 x 3 z ) (7 y 2 t ) =
2

16 x 4 y 4
40 x 2 y 4 t +
25 y 4 t 2

9
36b 3 c 4 +
36b 6 c 8

25 x 6 z 2
49 y 4 t 2

## Pg.40 65 a) 6x3 2x2 1

6x3 6x2 12x
8x2 12x 1
+ 8x2 + 8x + 16
4x + 15
Cociente =
Resto =

x2 + x + 2
6x 8

6 x 8

4 x +
15

b) 3x4 + x2 2x + 3
3x2 2x + 1
+ 3x4 2x3 + x2
x2 (2/3)x + 2/9
2x3 + 2x2 2x
+ 2x3 (4/3)x2 +(2/3)x
(2/3)x2 (4/3)x + 3
(2/3)x2 + (4/9)x 2/9
(8/9)x +25/9
Cociente =
Resto =

x2

2
2
x+
3
9

x2 + x + 2
6x 8
2
8x 8x 16
3
6x + 6x2 + 12x
6x3 2x2 + 4x 16
4x + 15
6x3 2x2
1
3x2 2x + 1
x2 (2/3)x + 2/9
(2/3)x2 (4/9)x + 2/9
2x3 + (4/3)x2 (2/3)x
3x4 + 2x3 x2
3x4
+ x2 (10/9)x + 2/9
(8/9)x + 25/9

3x2 + x2 2x + 3

8
25
x+
9
9

c) x6 2x3 + 3x 3 2x3 + x 2
2x3 + x 2
x6 + (1/2)x4 x3
(1/2)x3 (1/4)x + 3/2
(1/2)x3 (1/4)x + 3/2
+ (1/2)x4 3x3
3x3 + (3/2)x 3
(1/2)x4 + (1/4)x2 (1/2)x
(1/2)x4 (1/4)x2 + (1/2)x
3x3 + (1/4)x2 + (5/2)x 3
x6 (1/2)x4 + x3
+ 3x3 (3/2)x + 3
x6 2x3 (1/4)x2 + 2x 3
(1/4)x2 + x
+ (1/4)x2 + x
Cociente =
Resto =

1 3 1
3
x x+
2
4
2

x6 2x3 + 3x 3

1 2
x +x
4

7/13

## 4 ESO - MATEMTICAS - UNIDAD 2 (Polinomios)

Pg.40 66 a)
b)
Pg.40 67 a)

3 x 2 3x + 1
=
x 2 + 2x 1
4 x 2 1
=
x2 +3

9x + 4
x 2 + 2x 1

13
x2 + 3

0 2 1 3
1
3 3 1 0
3 3 1
0 3

b)

x3 2x 2 + x 2
=
x2 x + 3

x 1 +

d)

2x 3 + x 2 x + 3
=
x 3 + 2x 1

2+

3x + 1
x2 x + 3

x 2 5x + 5
x3 + 2x 1

b)

1
1
1

c)

4+

3+

0 2 0 1 +1
1 1 1 1 2
1 1 1 2 1

2 1 3 1
2
4 10 26
2 5 13 27

Cociente =
Resto =

Cociente =
Resto =

Cociente =
Resto =

3 x 3 3 x 2 +x

x 4 +x 3 x 2 x 2

2 x 2 5 x +13

27

Pg.41 68 a) P( 1) = 0 ( 1) 3 + ( k + 2)( 1) + 1 = 0
b) P(1) = 4 (1) 4 + k (1) 2 + 2(1) +1 = 4
c) P( 3) = 0 ( 3) 4 + 3( 3) 3 + k ( 3) 2 + ( 3) 6 = 0
k =0

k =
8

Pg.41 69

k =1

x 2 1 ( x + 1)( x 1)

3 0 4 1
3 3 1
1
3 3 1
1
3 0
3 3 1 0
3 0 l
Cociente =
Resto =
1

3x

M (6)

resto =3

## Pg.41 71 Se utiliza, en todos los casos, el teorema del resto

a) P(1) = (1) 7 3(1) 2 +1 = 1 3 +1 =
b) P( 1) = ( 1)101 2 = 1 2 =
c) P( 3) = ( 3) 5 2( 3) 3 + 3 = 343 18 + 3 =
1

328

## Pg.41 72 S es divisible. En efecto, el restote tal divisin es ( 3) 9 + 39

Pg.41 73 Resto P( 1) = ( 1) 157 49( 1) 38 +17 = 1 49 +17 =

= 39 + 39 =

33

## Pg.41 74 Las races son los valores de x que hacen ( )

Y, adems, cualquier producto es nulo, al ser nulo cualquier factor
a) Explcitamente se ven las races
b) Anlogamente, se ven
y adems x 2 5 = 0
x = 9 (imaginarias)
c) Paralelamente, se deducen
P x =0

x =1

x =
2

x =
1

x =
7 3

x =
1

8/13

x =3

x = 5

x =
3 2

## 4 ESO - MATEMTICAS - UNIDAD 2 (Polinomios)

Pg.41 75 a) P( x ) 2( x 3 + 3x 2 x 3)
b)
Pg.41 76

DivisoresDe(3) = [ 1 3]

DivisoresDe(12 ) = [ 1 2 3]

x =
3

x=

x =3

x =
1

x =1

x =3

+1 3
(imaginarias)
2

1 4 8 15
3
3 3
15
1 1 5
0 Resto = 0
es raz
Queda el cociente x 2 x + 5 = 0 1 (4 5) <0 No hay ms races reales
x =3

## Pg.41 77 El bsico ser P( x ) ( x +1)( x 2)( x + 4) = x +3x 6 x 8

Hay infinitos polinomios. Todos los que son equivalentes al precedente.
Basta multiplicar o dividir, todos sus coeficientes por un mismo nmero
El nmero puede ser positivo o negativo, racional o irracional, real o imaginario
3

Pg.41 78

P ( 2 ) = ( 2) + ( 2 ) 7( 2 ) + 7( 2 ) 6 = 32 + 16 56 + 14 6 =
5

5

x =2
x =1

S es raz
No es raz

## Pg.41 79 a) Falso. Si x + 6 divide a L( x ) , este polinomio tiene la raz

Otra cuestin es que L( x ) pueda adems tener o no, la raz x = 6
b) Verdadero. El resto de la divisin de G ( x ) entre x + 5 es G ( 5) = 0
c) Falso. Que B( x ) no tenga races enteras, no significa que hayan de ser reales
d) Verdadero. El polinomio de grado 5 slo se puede factorizar en 5 binomios
e) LA ESPECIFICACIN CORRECTA ES QUE tiene una raz nula
f) Verdadero. Si n = impar es divisible por x +1 y si n = par es irreducible
x =
6

3( x 1)

Pg.41 80

( x + 2)( x 4) =

x 4 4 x 3 3 x 2 +
14 x 8

## Pg.41 81 a) A( x ) ( x +1)( 3x +1)

b) B( x ) ( x + 1) ( x 2 6 x + 9 ) = ( x + 1)( x 3) 2
c) C ( x ) ( x + 1) ( 2 x 2 11x + 15) = ( x + 1)( x 3)( 2 x 5)
d) D( x ) ( x 2 1)( x 2 9) = ( x + 1)( x 1)( x + 3)( x 3)
e) E ( x ) x 3 ( 2 x 7 ) + x( 2 x 7 ) = ( x 3 + x )( 2 x 7 ) = x( x 2 + 1)( 2 x 7 )
x =
1

x =

1 3

x =
1

x =
1

f)

x =3

doble)

x =
1

x =3

x =1

x =
5 2

x =
3

x =0

x =
7 2

x =3

x = 1

1 5
1 3

## F ( x ) ( x 3 +1)( x 3 1) = ( x +1)( x 2 x 1)( x 1) ( x 2 + x +1) = ( x +1)

x 2 ( x 1) x

x =
1

x=

1+ 5
2

x=

1 5
2

x=

x =1

1 3
2

Pg.41 82 Q( x ) = k ( x + 1) ( x 2) ( x 0) k (x x 2 x )
Q( 2) 16 = k [( 2) 3 ( 2) 2 2( 2) ] = k ( 8)
La expresin exacta es Q( x ) = 2 x +2 x +4 x
3

P( x ) ax 2 + bx + c

Pg.41 83
a =1

b a = 2

c a = 3

Races

b =
2

9/13

k =
2

suma = b a
c =
3

producto = c a
P (x ) x 2 2 x 3

## 4 ESO - MATEMTICAS - UNIDAD 2 (Polinomios)

Pg.41 84

x 4 3 x 3 3 x 2 +
11x 6

(x

1)(x
1)(x
3)(x
2)

Pg.41 85 a) P( x ) = x( x 2 + x 6) = ( )( )
b) Q( x ) = x 2 ( x + 3) 4( x + 3) = ( x + 3) ( x 2 2 2 ) =
x x
2

x +
3

c) R( x ) = x 2 ( x 3 x 2 x 2) = x 2 ( x 2) ( x 2 + x + 1) =

(x

+
3)(x +2 )(x
2)

1 + 5
1 5
x

x 2 ( x 2 )
x

2
2

1 + 7
1 7

2
d) S ( x ) = ( x + 1) ( 6 x x 2) = ( x + 1) x 12 x 12 =

e) T ( x ) = x( 2 x 3 + 7 x 2 + 8 x + 3) = x( x + 1) ( 2 x 2 + 5 x + 3) =

( x +1) x 2 x 1

x ( x +1)( x +1) x +
2

)(
)
Pg.41 86 a) P( x ) = (
b) Q( x ) = ( )( )( )( )
)
c) R( x ) = ( x 2)( x + 3) + ( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 + x + 3) = ( )(
2
d) S ( x ) = x( x + 7 x + 12) = ( )( )
e) T ( x ) = ( x + 5)( x 5) + x( x + 5) 2 = ( x + 5) ( x 5 + x 2 + 5 x ) = ( x + 5) ( x 2 + 6 x 5) =
3x
4

x+
1

x +
2

x
2

x +
3

x
3

x +3

x x +3

Pg.41 87

(x

+
5) x +
3 14

x +4

)(x +3 +

P( x ) = x ( x + 2)( x + 3)
2

2x +
1

14

(2 x

3)(x +
2 )(x +
3)

Pg.42 88

## L( x ) = ( x 1) 3 x 2 13x + 4 = (x 1)(x 4)(3x 1)

R ( x ) = ( x 1) ( 2 x 2 11x + 12) = (x 1)(x 4 )(2 x 3)
L( x ) ( x 1)( x 4 )( 3 x 1)
L( x )
3 x 1
=
R( x ) = 2 x 3
R ( x ) ( x 1)( x 4 )( 2 x 3)

Pg.42 89

Permetro =

Pg.42 90

3x

rea =

3 2
x
4

Altura =

3
x
2

## Polgono Fucsia Es un polgono incompleto e incongruente. En efecto:

Las dimensiones horizontales facilitan 2 + 8 + x = 2 x + 1 + 4 x = 5
Las dos cotas verticales (x y 5), de la izquierda resultan incompatibles
En otro caso, el lado derecho vertical (no acotado) no se puede calcular.

Polgono Naranja Los lados vertical (v) y horizontal (h) no acotados sern
Dimensin vertical ( 8) + ( x ) + ( 5) = ( 9) + ( 2 x ) + ( v )
Dimensin horizontal ( x + 3) + ( 5) + ( x ) = ( 2) + ( 7 ) + ( h )
Permetro = lados consecutivos (sentido horario) a partir del inferior (7) =
v =4 x

h =2 x
1

= 7 + 4 x + 2x 1 + 2x + x + 9 + 5 + 8 + x + 3 + x + 2 + 5 =

6 x +42

## rea = rectngulos consecutivos verticales, de izquierda a derecha =

= ( 2 x ) + ( x + 3 2 )( x + 5) + ( 7 x 1)( 5 + x + 8) + ( x 1)( 2 x + 9 ) + ( x 2 x ) =
= ( 2 x ) + ( x 2 + 6 x + 5) + ( x 2 7 x + 78) + ( 2 x 2 + 7 x 9) + ( 2 x 2 ) = 4 x 4 x +74
2

10/13

## 4 ESO - MATEMTICAS - UNIDAD 2 (Polinomios)

Pg.42 - 91

Volumen = x( x 1)( x 2 ) =

x 3 3 x 2 +2 x

## Pg.42 92 Por condicin 2 es P( x ) = ( 2 x 2 + 1)(ax + b) 2ax +2bx +ax +b

Por condicin 1 es 2a = 8 a = 4 P(x ) =8 x +2bx +4 x +b
Y por condicin 3 es P( 2 ) = 56 8( 2) 3 + 2b( 2 ) 2 + 4( 2) + b = 56
3

P( x ) = 8 x 3

El polinomio es

b = 16 9

32 2
16
x +4x
9
9

Pg.42 93

## V. Cono radio = 3 altura = 5

A. Cilindro radio = 3 altura 5

F(3)
G(3)
E(3)

Pg.42 94

( x + c ) 3 x 3 + 3cx 2 + 3c 2 x + c 3 = x 3 6 x 2 + ax + b
3c 2 = a
3c = 6
c =
2

15
48
36
c3 = b

a =
12

b =
8

Pg.43 95 a) x 2 4 x 2 + 9 2 x 2 x 4 2 x x +1
b) x 6 + 2 x 5 + x 4 2 x 5 4 x 4 2 x 3 + 3x 4 + 6 x 3 + 3x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 1 x 6 + 2 x 3
2 x +6 x +4 x +2 x +1
2

Pg.43 96 a) x 5 5 x 3 + 4 x 2 3x 2 = x 5 + ( a 2) x 4 + ( b 2a ) x 3 + ( 2 2b ) x 2 3x 2
4 = b 2a
5 = a 2
6
5
b) x 6 x 5 2 x 4 4 x 2 + 4 x + 8 = x + ( a 1) x ( a + 2) x 4 + ( b 2a ) x 3 ( b + 4) x 2 + ( 4 2b ) x + 8
2 = ( a + 2 ) a = 0
1 = a 1
b 2a = 0

4 = ( b + 4 ) b = 0
4 = 4 2b b = 0
a =
3

b =
2

a =0

Pg.42 97

R ( x ) ax 2 + bx + c

b =0

R ( 0 ) 4 = a ( 0 ) + b( 0 ) + c

R(x ) ax +bx +4
2
R ( 1) 9 = a( 1) + b( 1) + 4 a b = 5

## R(1) 5 = a (1) + b(1) + 4 a + b = 1

2

2a = 6
Pg.42 98

2b = 4

a =3

P ( x ) ax 2 + bx ( x 3)

b =
2

2a = 7 2

2b = 5 2

Pg.42 99

P ( x ) = x 2 kx + t ( x 2 ) = x 2 4 x + x

Pg.42 100

y = x 2 + 2x 3

Pg.42 101

Hipotenusa =

Pg.42 102

( 2n

R( x )

3 x 2 2 x +4

P(1) 6 = ( a + b )( 2 ) a + b = 3

P( 1) 2 = ( a b )( 4 ) a b =1 2
a =
7 4

c =4

b =
5 4

k =4

t =4

Races = (10) ( 3 0)
( 2n + 1) 2 + ( 2n 2 + 2n ) 2

+ 2n +1) =
2

x =
3

= 4n 4 + 8n 3 + 8n 2 + 4n + 1 =

2 n 2 +2n +1

Q( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x 1)( x 3)

x =1

n entero y positivo

Races:
Para x = 0 , entre -2 y 1, Q ( 0) = ( + 2)( 1)( 3) = +6 > 0
x < 2 Q( x ) < 0 (negativa )
2 < x < 1 Q( x ) > 0 ( positiva )
1 < x < 3 Q( x ) < 0 (negativa )
3 < x Q( x ) > 0 ( positiva )
x =
2

11/13

x =1

x =3

## 4 ESO - MATEMTICAS - UNIDAD 2 (Polinomios)

S (t) =

Pg.142 103

1 2
at + v0 t + s 0
2

M ( t ) = 5t 2 + 6t + 3

## a) S, por ser de grado 2 en t 2 a = 5

( gravitatoria )
b) S, por ser ahora

v0 = 0

a =9,8

Pg.143 104 a)

BaseDepsito = ( 20 2 x ) ( 20 2 x )

4(10 x )

s0 = 3

s0 = 0

V = 4 x(10 x ) V (x ) =4 x 80 x +400 x
b) V ( 0) = 4( 0) 3 80( 0) 2 + 400( 0) =
3
2
V (1) = 4(1) 80(1) + 400(1) =
3
2
V ( 2 ) = 4( 2) 80( 2) + 400( 2 ) =
3
2
V ( 3) = 4( 3) 80( 3) + 400( 3) =
3
2
V ( 4 ) = 4( 4 ) 80( 4 ) + 400( 4 ) =
3
2
V ( 5) = 4( 5) 80( 5) + 400( 5) =
3
2
V ( 6 ) = 4( 6) 80( 6 ) + 400( 6) =
c) El mximo est en el entorno del valor de
Por aproximaciones:
2

v0 = 6

a =10

324

512

588

576

500

384

x =3

x = 3,2 V = 591,87
x = 3,32 V =592,59

x = 3,3 V = 592,59
x = 3,33 V =592,59

x = 3,4 V = 592,42
x = 3,34 V =592,59

Pg.43 105

## ( 2 x + 3)( x 4 + x 6) ( 2 x + 3)( 2 x 10)

Suma de races =
Pg.43 106

3
3 + 10
+5 =
=
2
2

7
2

x =
10 3

2(2 x +
3)(x
5)

=3,5

Opcin a)

( mx n ) 3 m 3 x 3 3m 2 nx 2 + 3mn 2 x n 3 = ax 3 60 x 2 + bx 125
n = 3 125 = 5 ( mx 5) 3 m 3 x 3 15m 2 x 2 + 75mx 125
60 = 15m 2 m = 2 a = m 3 = 8 75m = b = 150
a b = 8 150 =
Opcin d)
1200

Pg.43 107
Pg.43 108

Q ( x ) cociente

P( x ) = ( x 2 1)Q( x ) + 4 x + 4

## resto P(1) = 12 1 Q( x ) + 4(1) + 4 = 0 + 4 + 4 =

( ) + ( x ) + 16 = 0

Opcin d)

12 ( 4 16 ) < 0

## sin races reales

Q( x ) x ( x + x + 16) = 0 x = 0 al menos una raz real
R ( x ) x 2 + 10 x + 20 = 0 5 2 20 > 0 dos races reales
S ( x ) x ( 28 x 2 + 35`+14 ) = 0 x = 0 al menos una raz
Hay tres (3) polinomios que tienen al menos una raz real Opcin b)
P( x ) x 2

Pg.43 109 P( x ) ( x x1 )( x x 2 )( x x3 ) x 3 ( x1 + x 2 + x3 ) x 2 + ( x1 x 2 + x 2 x3 + x3 x1 ) x ( x1 x 2 x3 )
P( 0 ) x1 x 2 x3 c = 2 x1 x 2 x3 = ( x1 + x 2 + x3 ) / 3 = 2 = c = a + b + c
a ( x1 + x 2 + x3 ) = ( 2 3) = 6 b = 4 a = 4 6 =
Opcin b)

a +b =
4

10

12/13

Pg.43 1

a)

Pg.43 2

P( 2) =

Pg.43 3

a) El del mayor

Pg.43 4

b)

x (x +
1)(x +2 )

( 2) 3
2

2 ( 2) 1 =
2

2(b +h )

P( 1) =

b)

( 1) 3
2

P Q 2 3 = 5

a) 5x4 3x2 + x 1
5x4 + 5x2 + 5x
2x2 + 6x 1

x3 x 1
5x

b) 4x3 2x + 2
4x3 4x2 4x
4x2 6x + 2
+ 4x2 + 4x + 4
2x + 6

x2 + x + 1
4x 4

2 ( 1) 1 =
2

R4

Cociente =
Resto = 2 x

1
2

5x
2

Cociente =
Resto =

+6 x 1

4 x 4

2 x +6

## No se puede aplicar Ruffini. Los divisores no son binomios

Pg.43 5

4 5 3
2
4 16 22
2 8 11 19
Cociente = 2 x +8x +11
Resto =

a)

b)

19

( 3ab c ) 2

Pg.43 7

(2 x

Pg.43 8

P ( 4 ) ( 4 ) + k ( 4 ) + ( 4 ) 4( 4 ) + ( 4 ) 4 = 0

Pg.43 9

## No, porque el resto de su divisin es

Pg.43 10

= ( 3ab ) 2( 3ab )( c ) + ( c ) =
2

)(

) (

y + 3y 2 z 2x 2 y 3y 2 z = 2x 2 y
5

20 2 2 5

40

Pg.43 6

0 3 +4 2
3
3 9 18 42
1 3 6 14 40
Cociente = x 3x +6 x 14
Resto =
1

9a 2 b 2 6abc +c 2

3y 2 z

4x 4 y 2
9y4z2

Opcin b)

1024 + 256k = 0

P ( 1) ( 1)

P ( x ) = ( x + 1) ( 6 x 2 + 7 x 20 ) =

13/13

Opcin b)

(x

71

k =
4

1 = 1 1 = 2

+
1)(2 x +
5)(3 x
4)