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\

es{b,c4h..fta;;m.

I.'
:ffU1;newdknsrc'aseolacae
\ equarron h,oh*r aep adrcbqe

-e

a
"r

.,/::f.tl'"

p"n-r

"**

s,!i;h;;?:

*"",'han

:f"?"J,1".:t:fi li":Jj;l:".,:!"1#!,!:"At""
h

,he hqhes, app,ierl

: ! | n:. b :'!. a ;i; ; ;, ;;i; ; ; t;): ii ; :ilT;:!:f,:


dee d, u,e! jlejEterer usq,
|!e".\i:::n! yolt:se
E.wL.!!ants
,e-ctelecllb
ht\de:s
4Ld an its th
\ap t Bedn.i ae ckre:
.@) is6.! d h^p,_^

;111y,"1..9
1"-t.s9
2"'e _ t
araq"
tna
te
.ppiea
b ,i

,x1,

"

sh*, _",,.d

heEE_

i ;;;i" : i,; ; i;: i,;;::,

^,tj

#i{;{f{#{ilf,#EfriiW

:#;JffE;ffiJiffilffi
fi ,q ii ;:.,:"":xi1*i",i:lJi?;:i::i:;i:;:"ti

c c* *me aa mpai,we re*_.

r;t!::t:t;:!';e-rfii:"*i#tzi:;::ii
i:{"J:i
*,'",'t
:,,i:::; r i&:i: ::"",: 1; !"; ;;i;; ;i ;;z
".d,"tbs"i.,..;t;i;;;);
; ; : 6 0. ., j
i:
zx:;
,,,
i,:i". :#:z::i?"
"
"
"'
" .ed"-;;;.
"e,";:;
LA;:;;;:;,r","sis

trii:ljtfi$!:i:i#.:t:y:1[:;'.::Izxr::;i"

E^'tthe

: Eliiilt i! :J.E!,{ l

., !,?

1t,"

"

:,.H;AH?,i3[: 1",y.[tf li:riilJijSj.lax::,:


:1"%lj;"",ffi:,li:kfi::,*'"pe,a

on n ihd use

#i!t,$i1il;f#fl*':;inti

C-equa b

rhe sum

oral lhe capac rances.

l"'= 1/Cr + llC)+

l/c r

os.d ir dc cncu ls lo

a@.

(Feterro Fiqure

2.lwral islh

a cedam cncurl conla n nq lhrce ca

/'s

smod

d'

larad and

s qhipulsaron5 tr.u Fnuloraqp


curen uPand/o'down

10 l

st rc etectidt .haqes
Dc cncLiE b snaath aut shqht pttsatias tn L1e

Capactors

6etl

in

They

aNpt etutans

when therc is

l/cL

.oo?.li an a..n.ur ihe erled v. !o ra90 r


A-equa lo lhe mai mum nsranraneDrsvdtaqe.
B-t'e:rer!han rhp ma, mum inea^ianeou< vorraqe
l7 Esrh hema mum nqa a^oous lonaqq
The

efrect4 vattage ot stne


tne ib peak vattage

wave

a 707

fh. ate.tie

squate
thc AC

vattaqe atsa

aled

vanage, ]s the vottase

ltre)
vatnetes

attetElns cunent is

Peak vattaqe is

the @at nean

.r I

c,'a"'c.

disiance helween rhe p ares and nveGey

fi

e.u,l

's

pdpor

= o 0125 nicrctatad

6oto. Unress.rhee

"

al'

-*

*a

***"..o"
',.i

curcnl or volage

ed any vaues S.:

r.:.

capacnat
the

Ihe thickness at the dietecttc (he dEtance betueen


the pktes) The cl6et the phtes ate together, the
stanget the eiecti.at lietd wtt be and the gteatet the

se specr

in an ac c rcuir a,e assumed

.t.

""" '"",." ",""',,; ".""", ", "tectrc4y


1 rhe a'ea otlhe pr.Es fhe rateetthe date a,n.
2

+ I /Cr

WhenaAa2nrdot tud a o.a5.n1ctuta,atl, ara.


nictatazd dpadtat ate enn,Ed tn sens, i:

neTued br h6t ot

or e ecticiry a capac lor can slore

1/C,

tectrc B hade (ib

dietectic
sknt) rhe hiqhet the dietdrb canstant,
the ateatet the capaciy

Atnost a neasrina instunents 6e'l lat etect,. :


setoitnq ne.sttD rho etbcrvc tns) vatres : .

ln

untes pakvatues, peak to peakvatues. at e. :


specilicauy cated out. erecttue vBi:::

vatt6 arc

aoli.

Wren diflercnl Gled capacilors aG cdnre:

parare n a crcuir Ihe rota capacrance s


(Nore cr =c, +c,+ca )
capacirance ol lrre rowes .
capa.iran.e or rhe

equa lo rhe sum or

hghef

rhe capactances

at tha hdivtduat ca@ctarces

30r2.whn ndudo.s ae connade


m&reiicrierds orM.;
iducrordo nor afrecl ihe olhere)

rhe rorarrnducta^ce s (where lrro

lNolo: Lr = Lr +

L? +

L.

'he 'nd

that the@ 6 aa rnd).hte .atDxna the bkt


^2! i. the sun ot lhe individua t ind\a!2.ccr
tance

8oi3. (Be'erloFqure3 )When moGthan


or dllenr nducrd^ces aG connecred n

(Noler

horsepower = 7a6 wars)

a a 12 vorrioror requ rnq 3 ampaGs


c rwd ghts requnns 3 ahperei a"h t" a ,.a -r

equalofie ndu.ian.eotlrre h
ihe sum oi
rdua ndudan.e\

requalro

3ors. whch rcqures rhe mosLer

ndr.
fhe tuo 21 vok, 3 anp trghts Gqjre

A-

essihanrhe nd0crdnceollhet
B-equar to rhe nducrance olrhe h
equa lothesumonhe ndrvrdu; nducran.es.

Ons moro (75

Th,eepos

One healnq

TT=

||h

L/Lr

+.

llL)+ l/T l

(Nde

per.e pr.en

oi ohs

,oaaE"-;

ei.nenr

rrofeposa=7!6wa q

hlo., narc n1rcla6 havj'1


fhe thre,.

conrarning rhree capac 106 wrh ca

p.str.n

Ehts rcqone 3 btat at 5a watb

rhe anrcanist.n tisht Equres 72 ||ats


rhe talat pawet the geneatu nust p

rrowmu.h np!'powere rr2a

!ol r hoEeoowsd.;

(Nde: r rrosepowa 746 wdc)


=

Ihe pawet prcdwd br an etectrc

ik

vatta@ and its cunent

hoFepawea at autptt pawet

ds.rceune

oaa

wft

ot

iryut

oawe atrs 716w;

atlpulpa||elbulrMneedan|y1

sd

so2lwhencalculalLngPowerin

oaop!ro3L U ! 6nla n nq r /e rampe n


',"d-"."hdMalegaJfcol5ohm'lr.
reorrcd

more rhan rhp appareni porer in an ndu.tv6

Le$

tun

rhe

Ttue pawet h ah AC cinu't is the pndoct at the


vanage and anty that pad at

ahn lahas Antt a.rnent

at 5 6

iat .0rcn1s

25.2

t ahps

rnt

"

i h i...wer.24 voidceectr.doio

hal s30

How much power

lNor t ho,sepots

at an et,pdnc

4)n

natot

= 746

cjtc'it

anps
)sh ea.h tan1 fhe

u(ui

appded poqe'

Ddet

attuts

tess

***i ".u "t"i " " 'v

han the appatent poher n


qc
cantanne erhet

"rcur

.023. (Ferer ro Fisu. 4) Ndw muolr powei

dand

the vanage da
the nrnbet at wads rcqui@d tiivide

tatun ra ltrd
the danaqe tat he btal h.6epawe, bv the demat

equ)rateat ot the enrc ency

whch are rsualed I'om dach olheris masud ln

-.r!",..rne

etect,tcat arcsu,e

Etecticat prcssute

so2i, A21
Wt ar is rne

atfi.tenE betuen th.

i. neasutqd

in vat6

vo r source srequ red rolum

"o

tqe

crcp

5h43w,is!oa

aoos eact eeido,r

s aE he EsDoE ate al h padlel a.tu\s

thP

2lratt

t.sistile cncutt fhe Dawet is the ptudLct al L,e


.t the ctt6.t tines the rcsbl"dce.

P=t,^R=23'. s-

2,645 wans

ez.(RolorroFsu.65)wharislheinpedanceoranacs,i6sc.cuilcd^ssringol6nindudrorwrha reaciancol
10 ohms, a capadiidr w rh a retura
rsisror wlih a rosislan.o ot 3 ohms?

with rcsistat R' disc nectett, the


Danllel rcsstance at 4 1nd E? rn patanet\|nh & and Bj,
whrh a'e in senes Ihe tdtat rcsistan.. rs latnd by th.

6o2G, (Rero.loFioure7 ) lr16s slor

dtt e rc n c e b etu e 4
.nd lha apddve leclare
To'at t@cbnce E 1A-4=6 ahns.
fh. mp4daw i the squarc rcat al tha Gsistan.e
.qoarcd plus the tuctaw squarctl fhis is the sque
t@t ol 64 plus 36, ot ka qure rcat at 1ao.
fh. cncuit inwda.@ is 10 ahns

f he t6ta t ed. m k
t

lhe ir!fu.t]ve

hts c t td tt ts I he

ro F qurc 6 ) rr GS d
rhe jundion or & 6nd F3 as s

602!. iFarer

l&cl.m

(t

=
I

t-

L+.']

L_"- _ l

when rcs6tat

&

is ditunrected

tad anty rhe rcs6tane ol B,


Eea6e \6 apen (it has a break

in

t), tiF,*Ebnce

ae*d,

e2-

.;"bdoir"

4 ;.E 4 RdE;;;

(Rererro Fioure3.)

wrh

9-

oaranerw

h: ror

A vattnete, nust atways be cameded n a cn aj


paEttet wth the uhit whose vothgs E b b. heatured

3o3o, Whicb lem neans oor ampre?

i-

Thenellrcue,x"hilliIneansq.llfusandlh

36i.

A cabin enlry tiqht oi

vorlaq acrcss rh

fhe @en.reutt

to.wan

to wars and a dome ltohr.r


a 3o{oii $uftifih.
ghl is msasured. ii

B-rra flhe volaoe adoss rbe 20 wad


C-one rhtrd olrhe
!oraq.

thc^t a Ereat Aj atver

w/ be

ohr

'npu

when Mts aE tunectat in paauet rcs


<atrce. the \alagr acrces each at the tahs

3o2,(Fer&roF gure9 I Horman!

3032 A 1.r.ohm rcsislor srobeinsta ed n 6 series. mri


carydg.05amperc Flowmucboorerwinrhercstsi.rhA

[-I
L_,-'jl
I " --

P= t,

Ihelfttannelel6lnslalledacr6
wro.g

the

annetet

6)x

bh a't

l'::3"i::tr::h" b.reo)

te^ E corcd h
Iiohtbulb

w)x

'

F =a a5, \ 14- A.Us wats


nitiwads

0 a35 tuads is 35

b"l ,l.

eddr\ s |rcnq

rcad the .u,rent

rtawo

. );h

;rl

6035, Whi.h rc'tu res lhe mosl e edt ca powerz

(Nde:1 hv*pows= 746 waht


I Yrrr

Four 30 waft ramps artanged tr

ch

s 7s percenr

a 12{orl para

! r cons n nq ol
iqhrassembr,eslvh ch qurc

rwo

anperes each dumq

Ihe 1/s.hdsepawet notat bpedrnq at 75 percent,Ftti


c'6ncy uses 193.93 watts at pawet.
fhe lout 30 watt ht ps tse 12o Mtts at powet.
Ihe antcatlisan lisht ctrcut us6 144 ||ars ot paw.t
403?. Wha( unil is used ro express

ect ca powet

connected in seties

qte

this

circLt. va|aqa at3.avans

Ihe anperc

rs

6036- whar

s ihe

bu b

a neasu al etecticat cunent

desgied io.

operallng ,es sla


a 23

voisysremt

panrrer dncu i cons sr n9 olwo res


s lhe value ol each,esslo4

Whal

a 3o.tuadtightbLtb opeturn1 rn a 23
hbt rcsisbhce (ope,atins tesistaw ) ot 26

h*.

13

ahns

tar rcstsrance al the

p,ovi'le th)s @srstane, therctorc ea

tue rn Pahttet th?t

A
B
c

the claenr s oqlarin a ponds 0r lhe.rcur


Theloiarcliicnr 3cqua[orhe
rhrctrqh lh. trdividua bhiches ol rhe . ,ctr
Trie curi.nl ii anpcros can be
EMF n vorrs by ihe slm or rhe sisro6 in ohms

<
au!*ion., rrrhonoi!.rr,.{

I h;d.h;.
3o4r.

Ac

r.ulhas anapp edvol

cons si ng or a i 0 ohn rsrslo

'oao
ohm,es

A diade Grhet a sencanductat or.


diada) rs an er.ctan.he.k valrc

a diode alaws etactans to pass in

btxks thett fio|| h ke rcveEe dtcc

6&i.

.,e dtrecr.n

hr

Tnnsrer oi erecrica ene.qy I

tr.

B
C

sror whal is rhe vo raoedr

An anp at.txent
ar

esa 1a or

drop

thoLah crrcss.r)nn
' th. 10 .nn
ara$
rcesL,
ta^

is ca ed arcaplransrer
wirr cause orcessrye

ar

nq

a.d

rn

4o.2,Irlhree rcssro6 0,3 Dh s

candLdor,

it indLces

30

3e0lBt ta&)

aMr

a vakaee

ro F!!re I i ) Find rhe


rhe w ,e bdrween po nrs c and D

3o&.1Fe'dr

rhecanlir\alychangingcurcdn

fhete i a vatta@ ol24 volts act6s thes. tuo pa,attet


ftsisLore, so the turcnt thtuqh the

E4

_9!
) Find he vorb3e

do$

th6

Canbne resistots R,

swithRtins,Fies

d rcierei.e ro recrcal rcss

A-Two lect

cal dev ces wi


ros sbnce ir rhey a,e .on^edled n ss, es as lhey wilr

have lcdn^edted in para e.


one ol lnree bdbs
a parare

B-lt

'n

Aneld'icaldevidelharhasarrqh,esislai.e! use

utb

be sotved in taut steps:

6isld3

a4

&:i'

.htt

in

pshtet

,b|des

a paxt tar

cilNnEsisbftew]Ilbe'whehane
circuit t*isbhce ihdes$
go.a.

6n

qr'l'ng.rculs

\rvhar h6ppens ro rhe ddnenr n a

vorale sl.p up

a-Trr8 ctriiont ssiepped dowi by a 1 lo 4 ro


a-Th6 cu.6nt s slepped up bya 1 ro 4 r1l'o
c-Th6 curcd does nol chanoe
Iha.awet lvalta@,n6 cua t) rn the se.andary
na.slomet ts eqnl to the Da@t A th
vatt @ in the sffindary ts laut hn
ne rcnt in trc *caadat E a

at a

au.{r.i,i ErDh.ibo., e$d


ao!e. (Reier

ro Fillurc

I r.r.;i..r

l3 ) oelerm

to Flqu@ 14)

rhe rora rcstsianca orhi

q"':

fhe tatat rcstsl.na cah bs tatnd n tuo steps:


1. c.nbine GsBtan.es R, tu,andB4inpatanet

F=L

L, !,1

B, B'

.n,a-ls
cLn,.nr natun1

R,

a'6'i
n

thts

cncrt is 1 4 anps

Canbine rcsistanEs

Ar

R1+R,

R1,

R, ;

t.+Rs

win causo th6 srstance or a

or

incrca$

th6 cross{eclionai

ln\elseltasiEc@ssse.[an2]a'ea
Ethet deueaslns the tehoth ot l.cteasino the

ct6s

aos2,Thrcughwhichhaledalw maqnerctnesorror.e

sos5.Thevotageddp na.rcu(o

A-rhe vollase

oi lhe c rcu r.

B-oiy

rhe res slance or [ie.on


dhansewith a chaige n e trervolaqsorampeGse.

fhe peheabiltr.ta.haterct is a n
wth which tines dnalnetictot@ ca
has the hjghe* petnaabtity ot ax th

Ihe vatase d,op aq.ss. .ircut k detemned by tua

r4;!,t2@ar1h6.heit

thinss: the

cLdnt awinsth@sh
3053,

tn LhE
A 4s.vorl sourco is 16qunedr

a pa.anercrcut consslnq oJ rhre


Eue whai is the va ue ol eacrr rcs

(the

and the

ahpezsE)

qu*tan, tie rcsEtatu.t

the

thaGlaQ he voxase dnp s detadl

atunt

cncu

's

at

hxetl:

$o,

sipdele2wdbot ,32{ptr

rhe c

du(

in

rcrodre rhe crdu

cncui breaket.1118 E

dds

lo
a

10

a ow

sround

tot a buih in thetnat


dtdir uotaction dev@ katapcns

n he natot oveheats tat any


ke themat
ap the pawet citcui ta '.as.n
the h.tot and alaw

stetxh witl

r5) wrh ihe addnq gear.eqhrw not cohe on lan open

6os4. wr.rr 6 csrecrconm n9 a paa e . rcu l?


roiar resislance witt be smd d

decreaselvhn one

he

on t kee 6 an open n wno Na. ts


wne No le sup?ri* oowet ton the bus t. thp rcd

nat

.ane

the

t3ss1o15t

rcss

Torarvorasedropisrbesamea

wBNo

17

cncuit.

stpdiespatuet

ta the qteen

jndbatot tiohr

3o5s,lRererto Fislre 1s)rtro No 7!,e slsedro


-.omp erc the PUSH.TO rEsrc rcu (

h FEurc

wre No

!p

aG shawn jn th9

pFitih

nd'caror

triE Na

sLpptes po*et ta b.th th

17

8oGo, (Feler o Fqure

ro a5 rang as t t:harns Dr.s<ed


the brtb

n ke lanp

whattr

ha reh hand Lanr

The fue pressure crossreed vatve win nor oo.n

hr,ohri

is saad.

e5e.lReler'oFqu'.r9rwh6i rhe
h0 er6en rishr ,,r no .omsoi ran.o6n;a(u,s,"

*,"

Pela|Pcaprcv.lqs2lvaxDCDawerlm|har
e

apen.a u ro.

d.n
^

rhe:\;kh\

I
a"'

n;mha

lhrcughasanp.rrcuilbrcake,l.lheFuetfues.
c tussleed vdtt

tNde

ff

sLpptie s po||et ta the a,ee. ndrcatat I

'6.)

cetun that

tat the reat

wrc Na 7 tupptp' paw& i bdh the Gd and a,.


i.dicala|xIhtshonke,anpcircunbrcake a he'.t

qearis reracred

C-crose thd

15

i
I

A-,ida;-.,hd'-, r".-.- . 3r'-"'


dr.lRel6,lo Fqu' 16 ) The TcO ELav
2a$G& 6aDDLodlorhbusandrherul
A- iohlhand

n6tba in the ctossl'ed (x'F@d)


the rctat TCA b ctase ontatts 14

fh. tBt-seledot
M.tian

tat

switch

the Y Feed

Pa bn

hnt2cts 1? a, Etar FCF ttase

rank position

'nl.lhe"aoan"cdl'ollhel|.]lanl
and

-n.nt

'1

ttows to @tav

rCA ctasing tanla'ts

,7

'4

au.nbE +rtn4ieEr;;4.
a62rFerP b

F gure 1b

)wrh

p.!
DldLaikrr.wmm'

3oG4, (Fertr o Fq!re 16 Enerc z


)
rue bnr see.or swhh serer,ed Lo

dm'6

ttnen the tud ,elet u \^ tn s n


,, s ppEd +an lre@; bFereD's

paera,ta pd\et

c-s,611

12 13,15,16.

when par-et

rs

'upptEd

lhis cl.\.s

.nr?";

1, c1.". and
,"ja,'P.o h
)n the cicut ",e'a|ze
t t the Fu,"; p-."""

re

eh ham .

s"rl.hs jh, ,

ta the bu, w h the h-] \e

tlrn Da ral (5 6
c-renn *sr,"n tr.ausn,oqnut

;ap.rtut bter{

I #; #i: :- -:",ili"; lri:y- i:"i.ti:ii

Lhe

rcn

r".a .

tht.Lsh the LHraa\ p6a.n

Ir4*E'lals^Ehialalhe.oldre
rct

at

.
t

a.e. rnelt.an no tonset .4 thrcloh s^ k h :


at.t p.c E de.ere,lred ad. thi.hanre,

auneattan no^

l.r

thn'lh sqrch 6 )nbthe a._

;';
;:'.8:":::"t i:f :: * *
",
^

rcv.)ng han he neht hand

^eanD

d,":",r

h*."

30s5, (Ferer ro Fquio 17 )whchorrhecomponenlsis

506, (Feler ro

fhe canponent identified as


fhe coraanent idcntitiett as

Aa inductat is showr br synbol 1 1


A vatiable resistat lpatentnetet) is
A vatabte capacitot is shotrn tr synbat

9ure 17.) rhe eed.darsymborrepre

ffi

t
t
t I

a6r.(BerarroFqorelS )whnrhe andinoaea6aGuD


and lhe lh'oilos arc r6ra'ded, iho warn'nghom win noi

3d,

(F'ar ro Fiqurc 13 ) rhe mnlrcl


be placod in rh nsural pdition wh6n

A
B
Wire Na. 4 is

i. t

e landins geat Mnks han aoud


th6 waoing hah annat saund ften

crcuiL tt it is apq,
thd t.ntJths s@re aB Lp and tha thtudtes aE rctaded
MeNa 2 b h the td waning.|ght cn uil ahdnatk
Wie Na s is in the areen taht

cr

tl

pm[

rhe i6sl c rcuir ro o@al


prevenr ho wamno hom tDm soundino wher

C-mde

rh6 gound t@m lh6

s.*n

tiohl.

tt ke c.ntnl wl@ .wjteh rerc nat tn ka n utEt p6-.


as sh.wn herc, the knding 9e *arning h.n E
saad ehen eithe. thnde B cta.

the

han @utd

be

sLqied thtu

L,dte switch wies 5 atu ta


wiB

i--.6vni-3

1,

the ight gEat switch,

ouenioi!! Erphdbi6
3O6t. (Fldro FauG 19 )Underw
g.oundbepovded rorrrrewarnins honlhrougri bolh sea.
swirches whotr Irre throd es ar closed?
Riohr qear up and r6ngear down

A
c

Lri

sea

up and

^n!wq'

&

Rd.rcrc.i

Wne 5 ts h the tandins s.at ||atnhg ha'n sntnd cncuit.


tllhe@ is an apen inths||ne, he Q.nng hon cann.t set
a ground whn the ,isht hn.ttnq qeat ,s dawn and the teh

arveoulolneura.
dgli sear dD{n

A gound tat the khdins sat waning han is pbvided


thrcuqh both ot the sear switches anry when the isht
tanding geat ts down and the iefr randing Qeat rs up

3o7r.(RererroFs!rele )wrenrhe

wn,.l1,thnugh a ctosedthtodte swikn htu\gh||ne 12


thnLsh the teh 9u, s4t h n its uP pasition, thto\gh wne
5, th,oush tho tioht aw swtch in 4s DAwN @sti6
3o7o. (Rerer lo Fqure rs ) when

radedwrhonyiha rqll1seardown.lhe{ah nqhonw

wne 6 is

han

the

gtuund.nut

fhe hatn en rot saurd

the landrnq geat Mhing


thete
e landinq sea6 atc

wne 5 is nat in th. wanrins han srcuarl cn.ut when

@r2v/henrc,Ptrnq10anee

nca

consiteted b be al ze,o vatase.


att vatbses h.th pastrve an.t

-^M^

n.g.tire arc ,nea.

3073. lFer.r 10 Foure 20 ) Trcu

rcu

'r

rh a

vorheb,

as shown in

rhs.

)Nd/,-

frill

2 is a etubte Esiski nheastat) rhts E har he


wntety rted syhbat Es it can be used anry tat a the

GnEbte rcsrstat wjth anty

tunnectians) ahd

^ro
3 is a tapped

rcsittot

.-e1lase'.negarue,it

c
An apen in th. rcsBtat wrtt ca lse an ntinite tesjstanc," Na

culftht

u.

o|| lh lhe alcur'

SiM na.unent 4a||s

therc js aa
the switch at the lanp, and ke .n

ntaae

drcD

a.tuss

t.Wed at twa ptacq

,especr ro rh" emner

en'nels n6qarve wilh rospe.

o lho base

a P N P ttansstat cantlucts betueen the enine,


.atecbt (is tutned oa) when a snan anoont at cL

er

ttoss hta the base IhE cunent tlows when the


base junc on is lavad biased. I is toNztd hja.d
the b.se is nesaxve th 6pect
the entet

dev ce s rurned

A
A
4

o. when rhe
emner s poslv wirh Espectlo

the bass

base is

ve wirh specr lo the em n6r.


posirivo wrh respecl to the eminr.
base s ^esar

cat*tat ts lutn-Ad o.) when a snan anount .t a,.


uo\6t.nthe base This cuznt uows when the.t

base junctian is t6Mad bias.d. tr is tavatd biased,


the base ts pasrtift wik respect b the enitl;t.

o,ioi
tn

dodes 6 as
607?, Typial applicaliod rorzener

^Nd'd

'ddd-'

nansEtu E paqrve rth @.


s tuNaru
thp -anfiet tthe enrnet base i'ndan

Lh6 base

.ne.t 6

EFtmrt
at

th)s N P N

i'sed) Bas. enrt"r.lnent oE

t , enitet tuned tto6 a' E sh'w

*"i.
eae.tatttpeol'en@adutat d ade that
aa rq htotqn n n t\
Ph; drcdton tlhen a sPacittc
\ahre 6 aDPted betseen the Gt

zaneturcde 6 a

,,",",.

**, " "

"."
h2!Pt6e'aneDatad|!addna6frid

"

; t hF b.e

ard entnerct

thts P N P

lhesafr6DaEly

nrdud' ir
^;;
p,*A.
u'
*"o tt'" "aas' s'nenq PEne na
in"
"
'mie,
hhAk; da^ n an't

r67s.1R6re' roFqu6 22 )wh'.h'lLu


(posr

Grnnqb'asappkahonaidcurcn

/e'naqe)Iow'

FoMdd bs ng or

condur

$rd

zPnerbre3rdDri

dasad he N'naletat s ne

tt

tans stot nave

doibqJ;Lnd;l

^N{oit

.o.o,lFererlo Fisure23)

I Fd''rcs

lr anope^odcuE

so.2, tF o b

ar

gre

24 rWh

'tr

slaremon conte

prcducea0outpur

L ll lllll l*'l"l'l$::u:;"'":'$;

al-l

), -r

o-.,

___

OUTPIJT

INPUTS

!h6

)s an

AR

aate

igj;,,1:,::iX"i":{i,'lJle'nilllti

",ll;"'

a
{
soBi,lFer$toFqurc23) rR:

a
INPUTS

ilidi':

[*krl

l"riii rujrii:i!

,r,;*rit:r'ii,{if*:It:nYnr.tii

OUTPU

,"i i ! Lr
2; ;112 iiix"i; i'l,ltff!aufot"?,:thetr"fr
nu't
np'ts
r* t" *,pu rc a" '
^"n

ola

ffi; :::':'if:xtrff

lyJ:i.:',ti: iiff tii"r,j",

B-2

;:;J:l:l
A-App

rhese ae E \ cLu stvE oR g.te


s th
aLtpur ||nen one end @ty ode nbd has
at

#Appv

Ed.. bo,riawcqd.mcn

omeadru {h,'e

bor.a! d$uron b

B-Fr,Fe

.n

!ro,

he

drelied,ea rh0ouq

sodrum bra'bonare so

-,,i:fJ:,:;"'#T*""'",.aba,h.pL,\\o,h.
E enecL
qe
anduiee||o2

,,"

aU

at th

:f;"i i:'JZn""; ltT".' *

ane o,

E hpu,s bL,

rrre a

| *' 6

'p,lled

th.

b .;

ii:;::!:,:,?;xi::"t:i*-*,"ndwa,e,atuj,hezrca

@s5.A@d'4dbahsrysihl2@
!no oadvorbse=2 1 !olsparcerD rurn,n* ro,_"",".
'oa,oad d2{hhs,s6 anc rhen,e.a _. n,;*;i

A-o52ohm.

rhb,b.re4 h4. rc.taad blale a


|\nen r slppties 10 anpetes ta a 2 ahn ).ed

2s

fhe uo age d@Wed a06s

acd s oraqe uiel p e(i.o {re s rue?


hydrcmd* E"dnq d-s
;".,,." ,".".,,.
""
"

d r3o

Alr
rA sr{r

. qravry.o,edon

il"fii:l;"*^','"
C The

hedromerer read nq q

b-

":L!:xi";+#;:l:,:#1 ::*i f

"""""""

h""apa. rvor ,eo"nery,"q,,a

when test a9 the speth.

gztl,

"

-'','.

"

e*"r,n".r",hr;

ii];! i:"t:::: "y'

'$#!irlW[i:,'#
2

L-

tF8.tui8

sos8. Aru Lycharqed ead.ac'dban

crcasiiqrhesPe.ii,.

havins diffetent valtages,

BalbneshavrnqthesanevallagEbuldrfie|e.:.

pete.haut capacity can be c.nnectetl in pat.t : .:


chaQed at tha ..ne tine t ther ate chaged b! t . : :

,A-mosro rreacd srn r soulon.


C- icase d inremar resisra nce oe
when a tead acrd banery 6 chaged,

both ptat* joh with h@rcqen


the etetotte atu tom suntnc add

sLuLnc acid has a nrch lowet teezng paint than


qatet, and Lhe etectntrb n a tuw c

tee.ng

point

nL.h towet

than that at th.

er*ttaryle

a .onsranr curcnl and conslanlvolage


B consranr cu enr and va.yrngvoiago.
:r!tuNbd wbse mdrytn, rd

in e

idtycha,g.dbt."

a carsbrt-patenliat
1n9

rowrhrough a banery wh e ir

s lJe

n!.harced

a vottase saneqhat hl1hat than

cunenr) Ihe chaQe


's

by a con

A Therora prale aGa ohhe ba{ery


B Trre slrle orcharce dr lrre b3ner"
c The anperc riourcapa.(y orrh banery
wh abatel E chat@dbr rhetuns
the.pen cncu vonage

whenthe batterr is )n a taw srate.tchaee tsvo a2e


E taw znd the cansbnt btage chatlte, wrt put a tatge

9@z frre

the

contnus, th. baleryvo ase hes and


cLnent sains into the ba .ry ded*ses

whn the bEnery is tuty.natqcd,


na$ inta it ta mpensate iot the po

anty

ehbLshtunent

cahthLed mty untit the .

,-

purcose or provid ng a space underned. .1

A-prevenrsednenrbu duprroncontacln9lrie::=

B-a

oyr ror donvecrion or rhe erecrrcryle n


provd6 ror coo ns or rrre pales.

or: :

C-sisurrharhee ecro yrequanlirylioblr!iL- :.


ol plares and p are area s adequat

aspa.e teft betaw the ptates


t t the B@nuhtian ol sednont, thts : .ventira the lettinent trcn cnina
ptares and .a6ihg B shon circuit
Thet.

As the chaae

chaaet (carebd nhase anc

Gtl

rs

ta attaw

s an ndcalo. or imor::
esis/arcgengaly

nue reqardi! r]'e charcns ol sev

A
B

L shr spew n! ar lho cau.aps.


Tox. and cotrosiva dpos rs o{

acitt

baaen*

1- Sane es or dLtielqrl vo raoes (bur sim aIcaoacltes)


can beconnecled n serca r rh ea.
charger. and .harged using rtre conslanr cu ent

ur(apJr ry and 5ame


vocqa.3n be.onnedetr n pdra o wrh eacri orher
and chargad usino rhe conslanl

3. Barlenesot ie sme

vo iage an
capacity musrbedonncred i. sri
across rhe charqer add chaaed usinq the consranr

h nttheintlivbutels.e,enavabt.. -:

tl the ett-tnk .onnectans ate Nt ptupedy


they Mttca6-. a high.ftsEbfte peth

bt

-.

aQe; at a 27 5 v.tt

amou.r or p!1ass qm
erbonare deposils on rerop or nicke cadm um banry

unds cantlant c|rcat chaainI cantt'tans, tha vatue

theen1arsev har6
rnttage al a cen

bandrr bacan s hot atut the et*totle bubbta thk


aus6.me al thadecn lyte ta sa6u outat the top.nhe

when the wabr evapa,2bs tnn the spewed aut


ete.tutyb, it tea@s a depbsit ot pa

||ouit

chaQng at t
be about

Feedrcrre

becdmes absobed intd rlre piares.

nrcket.cadn'on batlery E stJrcd td a tanq pe att ot

x:ne'saneollheeje.lfujylelnlheC
intn lhe ptates, antl the tevet
The etectattle tevet win

||tit

'ise

B ncieased exproson and/orfie hazad


cdontaminalionolboih'ypeso'badetres
ot

tadadtt

tps

at

cteannq

806.

A
B
wru

ap

whqthe bahety

is

siven

3oee, How ran rhe slare-0t.clralqs

and nhk

Etectrcttte lrcn' ane tpe at bafiart


lheolhelFa'lhislasan'bal|ery

53 vons, at 75'F

409s. Ncke cadmium baneies wh crr are sloGd to. a


rons pedod Dr rme wi! srrour a row qud reve because
A o ecl,orl evapo'aleslh,ough lhe vonis

tt a

6015, Thesewicing and chargiiq o


lead acd baneres losiher in lhe s

rh. chffiEhy

entahrnate

bBtud* sepa'ated s epatate chat arng systehs,


facittj-. 4d irebnaran tN

Trre orscrorlre or a nicker-ca

rrre.pecrc sravry orrhe eecbrne


Bya heasu,ed dischaGe.
c - By rhe ov.r ot lhc e ecroryre.
By neasurng

fhe spedtu qtarity

at

ke etectaute

.t

fhevajlaqeolanjckelallniunba

ch.tge .hana6

rhe

tr way b kn w tot sure the anaunt ot chatge


nicket.cadniun batety tns in it (iE sbte at chaQe) 6
to aanptetely dtschatse it a1d then to pul back into it a
known n@bet ot anpe,e hou,s at chaqe
a

B-

n a d scharged cond r on

c-under
As a

a heavy oad condloD

nickotadniun

',sroo, Whal may rcsul t warer s addod ro a ncke!cadmrum barrery when il s nor ru y dharqedz
sone
6.d by thettalE henthebat. A Ex@ssive e ecirc y1e d urion.

banery jJe.ames dts.hatsed,

altha oltdtowBan
bty is tully djschttgEd, s etechrye level is the rowst.

6otr.1h6

6nd.or-chaQe volage ol a 19..ernicke.


crdmilm bandry measured wh es roncharge,

AB-

musl be 1 .2 ro 1 3 vons per ce


musl be 1 .4 vo rs per cen

arer may be added


The tevet at the

etutotyE n a

nbket

catlnin elt

C-dp6nd3 upon cremperalure andlrre meihod used

chanqes Bs the cex is ttischatqetl and chaged The lavet


is tawest
lhe att is dischagetl and highest at tha

fhedd.al..ha@vollaqe'nas'rc
an ctBqa depells @an its En@a

tt watet is .t led to a cett shen sane at the etecttattla


has been absa,bed inID the ptat6 the tewt win bd@ high
when the cet is tuit chlsed sone atthis e,c*s tittuid

A ce ot a 19all banety behg cnaeed at ban


Mpetue at 2ts.5 vatt @retant vattag. woutd Md

wlllikelyspe||odallhecellghenil

wh

aqdq;,;ri;;b;I;.hr

;.':ff;tilllliiSt',1,""ii?,;t"j?"'l"tj.T}:"*t*:?"

**'
ije:iil:lTJflT
:liff
_S-fr6rorrhe&dEm

Bdnercs having dhercnt htbo5, but


tur,,..
*n annettea n sea.s ana aa,sea 6
ue ,_a
"e

nc*as ns,he spec, c

EadeieshaunglhesahebllaoebudtkFI

e uEn.
*i:'f,"T:$'?:x:fl;"****

pe'e no* cap.cu can

rhe

-.e.4 a rn" *.. t.".


stanrmnee
nehad

Hil;f ;i;i:i"rl:fl ,;iffi.i:e*,:ili#";21:

.oer. The

r:;!$xxhiiii*i:ir:"#:,#
itrd,ffj

"""J:lHiili: f ll,it;f

,",:;t:

be,ann.it.a _
",._'_ ,
,r n"y *.,n-*Il,

merhod ueed

ana

"u,en
vo
r.qe and

,o odtv chahc

w,y nq rc raoi.
v.rynq.urenr

;ffi f,f#i #:

!tri
hr.,redi

;ff Hl

A-The roErpa e aa o he baneru


* lhe <ab ol.ha'0" oi lh6 b.[";
L- ne ampsehou apaoj!
dr,;bat"^

ili:f"i:

t::?,:ti!
rh"cu,sa,; rc;!,,u;
;:n;;;i; ;" -

f"iir I:',::3=:."J"T:t:'ff :""t:r"e$:".-

;:#itr##l-!i{'i"!#ffi

A-prvenr sed menr buirddp kon.onracrno,h_


anocaut'nq a shonc/rcu I
r3low ror onvecron ot rhe
ete.rrorda n d:
pov de ror.ootinq orfi Draras
c-.^su* tar rneatir-ryr"irua"fiv-mrru.
or pbbs a"d p re aca
adequare -

"

. ::,r"'trffi ::,: fr!?"#:; ";:# ::k * ** -"


"
,
r,:ff 2:#ti:,Jit,f .;:;ail!;:?H ;ii!:Ji,

^:

ff-"i,Ulf i,"i,["J;]1il,ff

"1*:?jr:1ffi x?:'ill

d+9d41!qs
-1-^B:::.j19I
-" r" ".;";aii,*"+* iirl:Hlliil.:.i::llX"l
(bui simr a, dapacli

ctra,sv,

aa ch-sea

mins

;;;;;iffi ;;;*:

*q*hrkf;';t:":r"""ff r
;;""+lii;l:fl
3 Baner6
d

rhe

emejo

r.qe

tu

::#iJ",'.::i"Ti:Hf;"",i,ffi 1T",

i"r#l::t

c-Hear

or

buo ma*s on rhe hajdwaj.

Nb|et @dnun bddanesart qadedtflsa


ou n",n n tt"r rn",.a*,arut,"tt,
*.

..o

L,h_

=
*i"_J
i:; : "J',f: Hf #':,!, h @,", ",,"e; ;.;;; d -

wffi{!J#6#k:i"il1,##:!,r

a".{b'.E4k"nio".h.w"'t.d.-c.'
amoxni!
;;lls in serioe is an ind
A nona oprario^
B-e,.es5Ns qassiq

po

3(

um

cairon or

'

:'"J:,

"*,","., ",,".,"^"'"'""

canditia'

thisv.tua

haE)dqat thetrP hattGte the

ih.-rol*,sh.-'

a nr.kettaddtun ba ery s trt\ 'hatg'd the


tol'4ebUbLI.slh'
or rneeteer"tvteto
'o
""".i,
'o-e
Gllh@'ghlhe@nyenl
when

when tne watet elapaQtes ftan the speweo aLr

dhiE Pb||det

A-normalbadery

se0.elie

L'n.rsasod ero oson andro' rna hazad


. eonkmina; orborh tPas oibaneret
Ihe chnisfry

Fr;hdae

pales'

ot

teaeacid and naket .adniun balieres

tffi

ane ND. at

bdteri $it tantan

6 aes at banene>

ah

nstdtahaa

tne bahea
fhe d4kal4etevet w r5e
^h.n
prt
rnb
selice
it
is
betate
a n shenrno ch;tue

A
B
c

qDen

How can the slaro of chaqe

'ae

.h.

aa,

rh";.tb..

tr

oi
"
r ,ptu .an;hrt as

tYle at b4neiY

is

By moasuriq lhe spectu gravilv or ihe eleclrolrle


Ev a neasu.ed ds.ha.se
Bi/ rhe lere orrheeedoYle

fhe

segBted sepatd

kat F. rd

rne s.ne at the etedolie tn the .


al. lh. o]ales and he le\ el rin dfup

so3t.

h. dh! ;q kE c$d
Ach

nio ihe

s stated tat a lan1 Peaad ot

6@5.ThesaNioinqandcharcinq orn cke cadmiumaid


read'ac d banerls togerher n 1116 s

;;"-n

.c:eredmlyie becohes abso.bed

al

the

ete.uatvtc

n,,^d,r.tr,*
B

6
state ot chatqe chanaes

s@6, The e ocimlyie ol a nLcka cadfrium ba 6rv is ihe

b amtdetu djthaae t

ta.wn

nadsch3,gedcondrlon
a heaLY oadfttrd I on

C-!nd6,

As a nickel.cadn'tm banqry becones dischaged rohe


at the el{ttaMa 6in9o'1sdbt thepbt4lh6. the bat
Ety ts tu y dtihaoed, rs ete.natrle le r 1 15 r'r e /o wesr

a@t. The

end'ot cliargo volraqo

cadmiun batery, mesutad wlr Le


A-musr be 1.2 rd 1 3 volis per ce

tl

an;et

ruJ

ot a

19 cett

baftery tDins chagetl Bt tuan


voxage ||outd tnd

io*'* "tt*s.-" *re,.,,

te\et ot Lhe el{rotvle rr a n


d.daes a5 he cen )s d sthaaed and 'ha9ed rhe tetet
ni.a *na he cen s a",t aqed antt hiehe.t dt he

fhl

"

..x

thentaprtba't nta

I water s added lo a ncle


;admrmbaten when r snor uLLvLharsed'
A-E{Pqs've e Baro Yie d u on
B E{e55 vetoeq nq slrelvrootiurdurnq

oncharce

fhe end al chaaa nnage, neasrrcd whtte the.en 6 sin


anctuae dependt uPon tsteapen

at anDerc hauts at thage

..n rhen <ane ot the ete'xatte


ab'o'b.,J,nl0 th. ptate s the tevel " rtt be taa htsh

qatcr E.AdAr b a

hat be en

rror.

pL"i'n., An;;d"L,"":.;

cke.cadmium bare ss. a nsa

.r02.

When

a.haruho.urod k

.aomrm baiery, ihe @ls en I


@5 onty

A
ts

B b|| nknat rtsistare ||hte

o&naqe d a high

@te and to

c\el+admuh ba e^
stues

aq.

the

ablb

a nah at;

rhe \qbee and hLe\lLleslsbrc r! atu^etudnun et vat Dleety d the Eab


Enperdture rn re^a the tattaae sntl ntemat re!\.
e\.es< e anaJnt at.haang crned trh Dtudues

. a,or.i.

wh,ch o,,he

io,owna,",,

""..,,;"",,".".

a.on5|an, po 0nlJ thalgno

rem.

sFle;

i,ed

b! h,oh.en

rem.

i,ed by h,orr (en lem.

coElani po enl

a]

(harqmq

>v$e;

one ot the pnbtens rth a mrel ca


o.nger al a themat tunawa, rlthe

rersrdne

this candinan Lan

a!4 tcuEtud4e

c.n

a hrgn ca@F]

drl.haoga;,u ate

i't-f'l
.'

t'- '

Lhe

end oj rhe chaaino .ycte

rcuts n the.etts ar. nrc^


ort at the thaqe .ycta when an ot he an e. -.
b...
h.n the n.ed,rc ptdb rh" o;*,_
'e-^.,J
.aLsed
b' lhe ,le.onaosilan ol 1h.
"1".1-ld;
.ro3. whar rypeolt'n6,snomany"""a
-."^,.,
Gassng

the

""

A[|ediumweghldashedne.

c-A

A-Flqh nemarresnanco nenetedbyh,ah(et

. f

roward

renare stu.rand ong rishl dashes.

A hedtum.weight dashed ti.e is caled a hidden tinp


F u'ed ta sha|| an edqe atabPd not ltsrbte
b the,teE

nedtDn >otiti line rs u,ed as a usbte

Aftenate shanantt tans tisht dash

arthp.