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Ⱦɭʃɚ ɢ ȴɭɛɨɞɪɚɝ ɋɢɦɨɧɨɜɢʄ


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Ⱥɭɬɨɪɫɤɨ ɢɡɞɚʃɟ

ɂɞɟʁɧɨ ɪɟɲɟʃɟ ɩɪɟɞʃɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɤɨɪɢɰɚ ȴɭɛɨɞɪɚɝ ɋɢɦɨɧɨɜɢʄ


Ɂɚɞʃɚ ɫɬɪɚɧɚ ɤɨɪɢɰɚ Ⱥɪɤɚɞɢj Ɋɢɥɨɜ, "ɍ ɩɥɚɜɨɦ ɛɟɫɤɪɚʁɭ", 1918. "Ɍɪɟɬʁɚɤɨɜɫɤɚ
ɝɚɥɟɪɢʁɚ", Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ

Ʉɨɦɩʁɭɬɟɪɫɤɚ ɨɛɪɚɞɚ ɤɨɪɢɰɚ ɂɜɚɧ ɋɢɦɨɧɨɜɢʄ

ɉɪɟɥɨɦ..........

ɒɬɚɦɩɚ................

Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ,2005.

ɉɨɫɜɟʄɟɧɨ ɫɟɜɟɪɟɧɨɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɢɦ ɂɧɞɢʁɚɧɰɢɦɚ, ɠɪɬɜɚɦɚ ɧɚʁɜɟʄɟɝ ɝɟɧɨɰɢɞɚ ɭ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɢ


ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ - ɩɨɱɢʃɟɧɨɝ ɨɞ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɨɝ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ.

    

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ɉɂɋɆɈ ɂɇȾɂȳȺɇɋɄɈȽ ɉɈȽɅȺȼɂɐȿ....................................................

ɈɋɇɈȼɂ ɋȺȼɊȿɆȿɇȿ ɄɊɂɌɂɑɄȿ ɌȿɈɊɂȳȿ ɄȺɉɂɌȺɅɂɁɆȺ.......

ɋɉɈɊɌ ɂ ɄɍɅɌ..............................................................................................

 Ʉɭɥɬ ɬɚɤɦɢɱɟʃɚ...................................................................................
Ʉɭɥɬ ɪɟɤɨɪɞɚ........................................................................................
Ʉɭɥɬ ɬɟɥɚ..............................................................................................
Ɇɨɪɢɫ Ɇɟɪɥɨ-ɉɨɧɬɢ: ɬɟɥɨ ɤɚɨ "ɛɢɜɚʃɟ-ɭ-ɫɜɟɬɭ"............................
Ʉɭɥɬ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟʄɟɝ ɫɜɟɬɚ..........................................................................

ɋɉɈɊɌ ɂ ɄɍɅɌɍɊȺ.......................................................................... ...............



Ɇɚɤɫɏɨɪɤɯɚʁɦɟɪ: ɫɩɨɪɬ ɤɚɨ "ɤɨɧɬɢɧɭɢɬɟɬ ɤɭɥɬɭɪɧɟ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢʁɟ"....
ɋɩɨɪɬ ɢ ɯɪɢɲʄɚɧɫɬɜɨ...........................................................................
ɋɩɨɪɬ ɢ ɩɪɨɫɜɟɬɢɬɟʂɫɬɜɨ....................................................................
U  l ɢ Ʉɚɧɬɨɜ "ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɱɤɢ ɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɢɜ"..................................
ɋɩɨɪɬ ɢ ʁɟɡɢɤ........................................................ .................................
Ƚɨɜɨɪ ɬɟɥɨɦ ɝɥɭɜɨɧɟɦɟ ɞɟɰɟ.................................................................
ɉɥɟɫɧɢ ɩɨɤɪɟɬ........................................................................................
Ɋɭɞɨɥɮ Ʌɚɛɚɧ: ³ɜɚɫɩɢɬɚʃɟ ɩɨɤɪɟɬɨɦ´.................................................
II

ɋɉɈɊɌ ɂ ɎɂɅɈɁɈɎɂȳȺ...............................................................................

ɋɩɨɪɬ ɭ ɫɜɟɬɥɭ ɮɢɥɨɡɨɮɢʁɟ ɢɝɪɟ........................................................


ȿɭɝɟɧ Ɏɢɧɤ: ɢɝɪɚ ɤɚɨ "ɫɢɦɛɨɥ ɫɜɟɬɚ"...............................................
ɀɚɧ-ɉɨɥ ɋɚɪɬɪ: ɢɝɪɚ ɤɚɨ ɩɭɬ ɞɨ ɛɢʄɚ.............................................
Ɋɨɠɟ Ʉɚʁɨɚ: ɢɝɪɚ ɤɚɨ ɛɟɤɫɬɜɨ.............................................................. 

ɋɉɈɊɌ ɂ ɍɆȿɌɇɈɋɌ.....................................................................................

ɋɩɨɪɬɫɤɨ ɢ ɭɦɟɬɧɢɱɤɨ ɬɚɤɦɢɱɟʃɟ.....................................................


ȿɫɬɟɬɢɤɚ ɫɩɨɪɬɫɤɨɝ ɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɚ.............................................................
"ɂɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɧɟ ɚɤɰɢʁɟ"........................................................................
ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩ "ɫɚɜɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨ".......................................................................
ɋɩɨɪɬ ɢ ɞɪɚɦɚ................................................. ...............................................
ɋɩɨɪɬ ɢ ɦɭɡɢɤɚ................................................................................................

ɋɉɈɊɌ ɂ ɉȿȾȺȽɈȽɂȳȺ .......................................................... .........................

"ɋɩɨɪɬɫɤɚ ɩɟɞɚɝɨɝɢʁɚ"...........................................................................
ɒɤɨɥɚ - ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ..................................................................................
"Ɍɟɥɟɫɧɚ ɤɭɥɬɭɪɚ"...................................................................................
ɉɟɞɚɝɨɝɢʁɚ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɚɪɫɤɟ ɬɟɥɟɫɧɟ ɤɭɥɬɭɪɟ.........................................
"ɏɭɦɚɧɢɡɨɜɚʃɟ ɫɩɨɪɬɚ".....................................................................

ɋɉɈɊɌ ɂ ɊȺȾ....................................................................................................

ɂɝɪɚ ɤɚɨ "ɨɞɦɨɪ ɨɞ ɪɚɞɚ".....................................................................


ɒɚɪɥ Ɏɭɪɢʁɟ: ɪɚɞ ɤɚɨ ɢɝɪɚ...................................................................
Ɋɚɞ, ɩɪɚɤɫɚ, ɩɨɟɬɢɱɤɨ, ɢɝɪɚ...................................................................
ɏɟɪɛɟɪɬ Ɇɚɪɤɭɡɟ: "ɨɫɥɨɛɨɞɢɥɚɱɤɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢʁɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ"........

ɀɂȼɈɌ ɄȺɈ ɂȽɊȺ.............................................................................................

ɋɥɨɛɨɞɚɪɫɤɚ ɢɝɪɚ....................................................................................
ɉɪɨɫɬɨɪ ɢ ɜɪɟɦɟ......................................................................................
ɉɪɢɪɨɞɚ.............................. ......................................................................
ɂɝɪɚ ɤɚɨ ɨɛɥɢɤ.........................................................................................
ɂɝɪɚ ɤɚɨ ɤɨɫɦɢɱɤɢ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ............................ .......................................
ɀɢɜɨɬ ɤɚɨ ɢɝɪɚ.........................................................................................

ɎɍɋɇɈɌȿ.......................................................................... ......................................

ɅɂɌȿɊȺɌɍɊȺ..........................................................................................................

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ɍ ɬɨɤɭ ʁɟ ɡɚɜɪɲɧɚ ɮɚɡɚ ɛɨɪɛɟ ɧɚ ɠɢɜɨɬ ɢ ɫɦɪɬ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ ɢ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ. ɋɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɨɫɬ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɬɨɦɟ ɲɬɨ ɨɧ, ɡɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɤɭ ɨɞ
"ɤɥɚɫɢɱɧɨɝ" ɜɚɪɜɚɪɢɡɦɚ (ɤɨʁɢ ɢɦɚ ɪɭɲɢɥɚɱɤɢ, ɭɛɢɥɚɱɤɢ ɢ ɩʂɚɱɤɚɲɤɢ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ),
ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚ ɠɢɜɨɬ ɬɚɤɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɬɜɚɪɚ "ɧɨɜɢ ɫɜɟɬ" - "ɬɟɯɧɢɱɤɭ ɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɭ" ɢ ʃɨʁ
V

ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɟɝ ɞɟɯɭɦɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɧɨɝ ɢ ɞɟɧɚɬɭɪɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɨɝ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ. Ʉɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ʁɟ ɢɫɚɞɢɨ


ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɢɡ ʃɟɝɨɜɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɟ (ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɟ) ɫɪɟɞɢɧɟ ɢ ɫɚɫɟɤɚɨ ɤɨɪɟɧɟ ɩɪɟɤɨ ɤɨʁɢɯ ʁɟ ɰɪɩɟɨ
ɠɢɜɨɬɜɨɪɧɭ ɫɧɚɝɭ. Ƚɪɚɞɨɜɢ ɫɭ "ɛɚɲɬɟ" ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɭ ɤɨʁɢɦɚ "ɪɚɫɬɭ" ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɢɫɚɧɚ
ɛɢʄɚ. ɉɫɟʄɢ ɢɡɦɟɬ ɢ ɨɬɩɚɞ, ɫɦɪɚɞ ɛɟɧɡɢɧɚ ɢ ɤɚɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɟ, ɛʂɟɲɬɚɜɟ ɪɟɤɥɚɦɟ ɢ
ɪɨɬɚɰɢɨɧɚ ɫɜɟɬɥɚ ɩɨɥɢɰɢʁɫɤɢɯ ɤɨɥɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɡɚɜɢʁɚʁɭ ɭ ɧɨʄɢ - ɬɨ ʁɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɚ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɚ
ɱɨɜɟɤɚ "ɫɥɨɛɨɞɧɨɝ ɫɜɟɬɚ". ɍɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʁɭʄɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɭ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɭ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ
ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɫɜɟ ɟɤɫɬɪɟɦɧɢʁɟ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɫɤɟ ɩɪɢɥɢɤɟ, ɭ ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɱɨɜɟɤ ɫɜɟ ɬɟɠɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ
ɨɩɫɬɚɧɟ, ɢ ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɜɟɲɬɚɱɤɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɟ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɢ ɫɚɦɨ ɧɚʁɛɨɝɚɬɢʁɟɦ
ɫɥɨʁɭ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɧɢɲɬɜɚ ɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɭɫɥɨɜʂɚɜɚʁɭ ɞɟɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɧɨ ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɢɫɚʃɟ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɤɚɨ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝ ɛɢʄɚ. "ɏɭɦɚɧɢɡɨɜɚʃɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ" ɫɜɨɞɢ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɦɢɤɪɨ-ɤɥɢɦɚɬɫɤɢɯ
ɭɫɥɨɜɚ, ɫɜɨʁɟɜɪɫɧɢɯ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɢɧɤɭɛɚɬɨɪɚ - ɩɨɬɩɭɧɨ ɤɨɦɟɪɰɢʁɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɢɯ
ɜɟɲɬɚɱɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭ ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɢɫɚɧɢ ʂɭɞɢ. 
ɇɚʁɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɧɢʁɚ ɢɫɬɢɧɚ ɝɥɚɫɢ: ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɩɪɟɠɢɜɢ ɫɦɪɬ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ
ɤɚɨ ʂɭɞɫɤɨɝ ɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɨɝ ɛɢʄɚ. Ɂɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ "ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢ" ɱɨɜɟɤ ɫɚɦɨ ʁɟ
ɩɪɢɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ ʃɟɝɨɜɨ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɨɜɚʃɟ. "ɑɨɜɟɤ-ɩɨɬɪɨɲɚɱ" ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ
ɩɪɟɥɚɡɧɭ ɮɚɡɭ ɭ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɭ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɢɡɚɡɜɚɧɟ ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɟ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɤɚ "ɧɚʁɜɢɲɟɦ"
ɨɛɥɢɤɭ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ: ɱɨɜɟɤɚ-ɪɨɛɨɬɚ. "Ɍɟɪɦɢɧɚɬɨɪɢ" ɢ ɞɪɭɝɟ
ɪɨɛɨɬɢɡɨɜɚɧɟ ɧɚɤɚɡɟ, ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞ ɯɨɥɢɜɭɞɫɤɟ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɟ ɡɚɛɚɜɟ ɤɨʁɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɧɚ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɢɫɚɧɭ "ɜɢɡɢʁɭ ɛɭɞɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ", ɨɬɟɥɨɬɜɨɪɟʃɟ ɫɭ ɨɞ
ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɨɬɭɻɟɧɢɯ ɫɬɜɚɪɚɥɚɱɤɢɯ ɦɨʄɢ ɤɨʁɟ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɭ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ
ɠɢɜɨɬɚ. ɋɬɜɚɪɚ ɫɟ ɧɨɜɚ "ɝɨɫɩɨɞɚɪɫɤɚ ɪɚɫɚ" ɪɨɛɨɬɢɡɨɜɚɧɢɯ ɯɭɦɚɧɨɢɞɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ
ɫɟ ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧɚ ɫ "ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢɦ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɨɦ", ɲɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɫ ʂɭɞɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɭ ɫɬɚʃɭ
ɞɚ ɜɨɥɟ, ɞɚ ɦɢɫɥɟ, ɞɚ ɦɚɲɬɚʁɭ, ɞɚ ɫɟ ɛɨɪɟ ɡɚ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɭ ɢ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ - ɢ ɡɚɝɨɫɩɨɞɚɪɢ
ɡɟɦʂɨɦ. ɍɦɟɫɬɨ ɧɨɜɨɝ ɫɜɟɬɚ, ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɫɟ "ɧɨɜɢ ɱɨɜɟɤ" ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɫɜɟɞɟɧ ɧɚ ɨɧɭ "ɦɟɪɭ
ʂɭɞɫɤɨɝ" ɤɨʁɚ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɭɝɪɨɡɢ ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɢ ɩɨɪɟɞɚɤ.  
ɇɚɭɤɚ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɥɟ ɫɭ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚ ɩɨɥɭɝɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɡɚ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟ ɫɜɟɬɚ ɢ
ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ "ɬɟɯɧɢɱɤɟ ɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɟ". ɇɢʁɟ ɪɟɱ ɫɚɦɨ ɨ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɭ ɩɨɦɨʄɭ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɤɢɯ
ɫɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɚ, ɜɟʄ ɨ ɬɟɯɧɢɡɨɜɚʃɭ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɢɯ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɚ, ɦɟɻɭʂɭɞɫɤɢɯ ɨɞɧɨɫɚ, ɬɟɥɚ
ɱɨɜɟɤɚ... ɋɜɟ ɜɟʄɟ ɩɪɟɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ ɭ ɫɭɪɨɝɚɬ "ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ", ɫɜɟ ɜɟʄɟ
ɞɟɯɭɦɚɧɢɡɨɜɚʃɟ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ ɢ ɫɜɟ ɜɟʄɟ ɞɟɧɚɬɭɪɚɥɢɡɨɜɚʃɟ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɧɚ ɫɭ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɚ ɧɚɫɬɨʁɚʃɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ, ɭ ɫɜɟ ɛɟɫɩɨɲɬɟɞɧɢʁɟɦ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɧɨɦ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɨɦ ɪɚɬɭ,
ɞɚ ɨɫɬɜɚɪɢ ɩɨɬɩɭɧɨ ɤɨɦɟɪɰɢʁɚɥɢɡɨɜɚʃɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝ ɢ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɨɝ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɚ. Ɍɟɲɤɨ
ɞɚ ɫɟ ɞɚɧɚɫ ɦɨɠɟ ɛɟɡɪɟɡɟɪɜɧɨ ɩɨɞɪɠɚɬɢ ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɚɦ ɩɪɨɫɜɟɬɢɬɟʂɫɬɜɚ, Ɇɚɪɤɫɨɜ ɫɬɚɜ
ɞɚ ɱɨɜɟɤ ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɫɟɛɢ ɫɚɦɨ ɨɧɟ ɡɚɞɚɬɤɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɪɟɲɢ, ɩɨɝɨɬɨɜɭ ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɚɦ
ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɦɢɬɭ ɨ "ɫɜɟɦɨʄɢ" ɧɚɭɤɟ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɟ. Ɍɪɤɚ ɡɚ ɩɪɨɮɢɬɢɦɚ ɜɟʄ ʁɟ
ɧɚɧɟɥɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨʁ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɢ ɢ ɱɨɜɟɤɭ ɧɟɧɚɞɨɤɧɚɞɢɜɟ ɢ ʁɨɲ ɧɟɩɪɟɞɜɢɞʂɢɜɟ ɲɬɟɬɟ.
ɋɬɜɚɪɚʃɟɦ "ɩɨɬɪɨɲɚɱɤɨɝ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ", ɲɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɩɪɟɥɚɫɤɨɦ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɭ ɮɚɡɭ
"ɱɢɫɬɟ" ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɰɢʁɟ, ɞɨɲɥɨ ʁɟ ɞɨ ɬɚɤɜɨɝ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɧɨɝ ɫɤɨɤɚ ɭ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɭ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ ɢ
ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ, ɞɚ ʁɟ ɛɭɤɜɚɥɧɨ ɞɨɲɥɨ ɞɨ "ɨɞɛɪɨʁɚɜɚʃɚ" ɠɢɜɨɬɭ ɧɚ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɢ. ɍɦɟɫɬɨ
"ɨɞɭɦɢɪɚʃɚ" (ȿɧɝɟɥɫ) ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ, ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɞɨ ɨɞɭɦɢɪɚʃɚ
ɠɢɜɨɬɚ. Ɍɜɪɞʃɚ ɤɨɧɡɟɪɜɚɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɫɤɢɯ ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɚɪɚ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɚ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ
ɡɚɜɪɲɚɜɚ ɫ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɨɦ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɫɜɟ ɭɜɟɪʂɢɜɢʁɚ. ɍɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɭ ɬɨɦɟ ɧɟ ɛɭɞɟ ɫɩɪɟɱɟɧ,
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ʄɟ, ɜɟʄ ɧɚ ɩɨɱɟɬɤɭ ɬɪɟʄɟɝ ɦɢɥɟɧɢʁɭɦɚ, ɞɨɤɪɚʁɱɢɬɢ ɨɧɨ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɨɫɬɚɥɨ ɨɞ
ɫɜɟɬɚ.
ɇɚɭɱɧɢɰɢɫɭ ʂɭɞɫɤɢ ɨɛɥɢɤ ɭ ɤɨɦɟ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɢɡɭʁɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɟ
ɫɢɥɟ ɞɚ ɛɢ ɨɜɥɚɞɚɨ ʂɭɞɢɦɚ ɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɦ. Ɉɧɢ ɫɭ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢ ɧɚ ɮɚɯ-ɢɞɢɨɬɟ ɤɨʁɢ ɭ
ɬɟɯɧɢɱɤɨɦ ɫɜɟɬɭ, ɝɞɟ ɫɜɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɲɟ "ɧɚ ɞɭɝɦɟ" ɢ ɝɞɟ ʁɟ "ɫɜɟ ɩɨɞ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɨɦ",
ɜɢɞɟ ɢɞɟɚɥ ɫɜɟɬɚ ɤɨɦɟ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɬɟɠɢɬɢ, ɚ ɭ ɱɨɜɟɤɭ-ɦɚɲɢɧɢ "ɜɪɯɭɧɚɰ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɚ".
VI

ɇɚɭɱɧɢɰɢ, ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ "ɫɬɢɰɚʃɟ ɫɬɪɭɱɧɨɫɬɢ" ɩɥɚɬɢɥɢ ɝɭɛʂɟʃɟɦ ʂɭɞɫɤɨɫɬɢ, ɭ ʂɭɞɢɦɚ


ɜɢɞɟ ɧɟɩɪɢʁɚɬɟʂɟ, ɚ ɭ ɦɚɲɢɧɚɦɚ "ɩɪɢʁɚɬɟʂɟ". Ʉɚɨ ɲɬɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɦɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɛɢɬɚɧ
ɱɨɜɟɤ ɜɟʄ ɩɪɨɮɢɬ, ɬɚɤɨ ɧɚɭɱɧɢɰɢɦɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɛɢɬɚɧ ɱɨɜɟɤ ɜɟʄ "ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫ" - ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɞɪɭɝɨ
ɢɦɟ ɡɚ ɩɪɨɮɢɬ, ɚ "ɩɪɨɮɢɬ" ɞɪɭɝɨ ɢɦɟ ɡɚ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɰɢʁɭ. "Ɍɟɯɧɢɱɤɭ ɢɧɬɟɥɢɝɟɧɰɢʁɭ"
ɱɢɧɟ ɨɫɚɤɚʄɟɧɢ ʂɭɞɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɧɢɫɭ ɭ ɫɬɚʃɭ ɞɚ ɢɫɩɨʂɟ ɫɜɨʁɭ ʂɭɞɫɤɨɫɬ. ɋɬɪɚɯ ɨɞ ʂɭɞɢ
ɩɪɟɬɜɚɪɚ ɫɟ ɭ ɦɪɠʃɭ ɩɪɟɦɚ ʂɭɞɢɦɚ. Ɉɧɢ ɫɜɟɫɧɨ ɥɢɲɚɜɚʁɭ ɫɟɛɟ ɨɧɢɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɨɫɬɢ
ɤɨʁɟ ɢɯ ɱɢɧɟ ʂɭɞɢɦɚ ɢ ɛɟɠɟ ɭ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɤɢ ɫɜɟɬ ɝɞɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ "ɟɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɢɲɭ"
ɦɚɲɢɧɚɦɚ, ʂɭɞɢɦɚ, ɠɢɜɢɦ ɫɜɟɬɨɦ... Ɇɨʄ ɧɚɭɤɟ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɟ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɦɨʄ ɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ
ɢ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɰɢʁɟ. Ɍɟɯɧɢɱɤɢ ɫɜɟɬ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɡɚ ʃɢɯ "ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɢ" ɫɜɟɬ ɢ ɧɚʁɜɢɲɢ ɟɫɬɟɬɫɤɢ
ɢɡɚɡɨɜ, ɩɨɩɭɬ Ⱥʁɮɟɥɨɜɨɝ ɬɨɪʃɚ, ɬɨɝ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɬɢɪɚɧɨɫɚɭɪɭɫɚ, ɤɨʁɢ
ɫɢɦɛɨɥɢɡɭʁɟ ɞɨɦɢɧɚɰɢʁɭ "ɬɟɯɧɢɱɤɟ ɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɟ" ɧɚɞ ɱɨɜɟɤɨɦ.
ɋɜɟ ʁɟ ɨɱɢɝɥɟɞɧɢʁɟ ɞɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɫɜɟ ɞɭɛʂɭ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɭ ɢ ɟɤɨɥɨɲɤɭ
ɤɪɢɡɭ ɤɨʁɭ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɲɟ. ɍ ɬɨɤɭ ʁɟ ɩɪɟɥɚɡɚɤ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɢɡ ɫɬɚʃɚ
"ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɫɚɧɨɝ" ɭ ɫɬɚʃɟ ɧɟɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɫɚɧɨɝ ɯɚɨɫɚ, ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɤɪɚʁʃɢ "ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪ"
ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɟɝ ɩɨɪɟɬɤɚ ɧɚ ɧɟɦɨʄ ɞɚ ɭɩɪɚɜʂɚ ɫɜɟ ɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɧɢʁɨɦ ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɨɦ
ɤɪɢɡɨɦ - ɢɡ ɤɨʁɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɩɪɨɢɫɬɟɤɧɟ ɪɭɲɟʃɟ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɢ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɧɨɜɨɝ ɫɜɟɬɚ,
ɢɥɢ ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɟ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ ɧɚ ɡɟɦʂɢ. ɉɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ
ɧɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɫɟ ɫɭɡɛɢɬɢ ɩɭɬɟɦ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɢɯ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɚ ʁɟɪ ɫɭ ɢ ɨɧɟ ɩɨɫɬɚɥɟ ɨɪɭɻɟ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɪɧɚ ɡɚ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚʃɟ ʃɢɯɨɜɢɯ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚ. ȴɭɞɢ ɫɭ ɥɢɲɟɧɢ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɢɯ ʂɭɞɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɚɜɚ: ɩɪɚɜɚ ɧɚ ɠɢɜɨɬ, ɧɚ ɪɚɞ, ɧɚ ɡɞɪɚɜɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɭ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɭ, ɧɚ
ɩɨɪɨɞɢɰɭ, ɧɚ ɫɪɟʄɭ, ɧɚ ɛɭɞɭʄɧɨɫɬ... ɍ ɬɨɤɭ ʁɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫ ɞɟɩɟɪɫɨɧɢɡɨɜɚʃɚ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɟ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɤɨʁɚ ɧɟɦɚ ɧɢɤɚɤɜɭ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɨɫɬ ɡɚ ɫɜɨʁɟ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɤɟ. ɋɜɟɬɨɦ
ɜɥɚɞɚ ɧɟɜɢɞʂɢɜɢ ɢ ɧɟɭɯɜɚɬʂɢɜɢ ɞɭɯ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɮɚɬɚɥɧɚ ɦɨʄ.
Ɇɭɥɬɢɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢ ɤɨɧɰɟɪɧɢ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʁɭ ɦɟɻɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɢ ɩɪɚɜɧɢ ɩɨɪɟɞɚɤ, ɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɫɤɟ
ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɟ, "ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɧɭ ɞɪɠɚɜɭ"... ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɚ ɫɮɟɪɚ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɢ ɰɢɪɤɭɫ,
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɚɪɢ ɞɜɨɪɫɤɟ ɥɭɞɟ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ, ɚ ʁɚɜɧɭ ɪɚɫɩɪɚɜɭ ɨ ɫɭɲɬɢɧɫɤɢɦ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɢɦ
ɩɢɬɚʃɢɦɚ ɡɚɦɟʃɭʁɭ ɮɚɛɪɢɤɨɜɚɧɟ "ɚɮɟɪɟ". "ɉɪɚɜɧɚ ɞɪɠɚɜɚ" ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɢɞɟɨɥɨɲɤɚ
ɦɚɫɤɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɨʁ ɬɢɪɚɧɢʁɢ. ɍ ɤɨɧɚɱɧɨɦ, ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɚ ɫɮɟɪɚ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ
ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɟ ɤɥɚɫɟ ɡɚ ɞɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɡɨɜɚʃɟ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɚ, ɡɚ ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɟ ɜɟɪɟ ɭ ɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɫɤɟ
ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɟ ɢ ɭ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɚ ɪɚɡɭɦɧɨɝ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɬɤɚ ɤɨʁɢ ʄɟ ɛɢɬɢ
ɨɬɟɥɨɬɜɨɪɟʃɟ ɢɞɟʁɚ-ɜɨɞɢʂɚ Ɏɪɚɧɰɭɫɤɟ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɫɤɟ ɪɟɜɨɥɭɰɢʁɟ - ɧɚ ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɫɟ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ
ɦɨɞɟɪɧɢ ɯɭɦɚɧɢɡɚɦ. ɉɨɤɚɡɚɥɨ ɫɟ ɞɚ ʁɟ (Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɚ) "ɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢʁɚ" ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɢ ɨɛɥɢɤ
ɜɥɚɞɚɜɢɧɟ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɧɚɞ ɱɨɜɟɤɨɦ. Ɇɭɥɬɢɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢ ɤɨɧɰɟɪɧɢ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʁɭ
ɟɦɚɧɰɢɩɚɬɨɪɫɤɨ ɧɚɫɥɟɻɟ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɫɤɨɝ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ, ɚ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɩɪɭɠɚʁɭ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ
ɡɚ ɢɡɪɚɠɚɜɚʃɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɟ ɜɨʂɟ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɚ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɭ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚʃɟ ʃɢɯɨɜɢɯ
ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚ. ɋɜɟ ɫɭ ɦɚʃɟ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɫɜɟ ɜɟʄɟ ɧɟɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɫɬɜɨ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɚ ɢɡɪɚɡɢ ɤɪɨɡ
ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɭ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɭ ɫɮɟɪɭ. ɍ "ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɧɢɱɤɢɦ ɬɟɥɢɦɚ" ɫɜɟ ʁɟ ɦɚʃɟ ɩɢɬɚʃɚ ɨɞ
ɤɨʁɢɯ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɫɭɞɛɢɧɚ ʂɭɞɢ. ɋɜɟ ɦɚʃɢ ɛɪɨʁ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɚ ɭɱɟɫɬɜɭʁɟ ɧɚ ɢɡɛɨɪɢɦɚ. ɍɦɟɫɬɨ
ɞɚ ʁɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɢ ɫɭɛʁɟɤɬ, ɝɪɚɻɚɧɢɧ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɩɨɬɪɨɲɚɱ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɚ. ɋɜɟ ɫɟ
ɞɟɲɚɜɚ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɦɚ ɪɨɛɧɨ-ɧɨɜɱɚɧɟ ɩɪɢɜɪɟɞɟ, ɭ ɤɨʁɨʁ ʁɟ ɡɚ ɩɪɨɞɚʁɭ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɚ
ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɚ ɞɨɛɪɚ ɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɚ. "ɉɚɪɟ ɧɟ ɫɦɪɞɟ!" ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɨ ɧɚɱɟɥɨ, ɚ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɚ ɡɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɭ "ɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɫɤɢɯ" ɥɚɠɢ ɢ ɨɩɫɟɧɚ.  
ɒɬɨ ʁɟ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ɭ ɜɟʄɨʁ ɤɪɢɡɢ ɢ ɫɚɦɢɦ ɬɢɦ ɜɟʄɟ ɧɟɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɫɬɜɨ ʂɭɞɢ - ɢɡ
ɱɟɝɚ ɫɟ ɧɟɦɢɧɨɜɧɨ ɪɚɻɚ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɚ ɡɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟɦ ɧɨɜɨɝ ɫɜɟɬɚ ʁɟɪ ʁɟ ɬɨ ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɢ
ɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɢɜ - ɬɨ ʁɟ ɚɝɪɟɫɢɜɧɢʁɟ ɧɚɫɬɨʁɚʃɟ ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɟ ɤɥɚɫɟ ɞɚ ɫɩɪɟɱɢ ʃɟɝɨɜ ɪɚɫɩɚɞ.
ɇɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢ ɡɚɞɚɬɚɤ ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɟ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɨɧɟɦɨɝɭʄɢ ɞɚ ɨɛʁɟɤɬɢɜɧɟ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚ
ɩɪɨɦɟɧɭ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟʄɟɝ ɫɜɟɬɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɧɭ, ɩɭɬɟɦ ɦɟʃɚɥɚɱɤɟ ɩɪɚɤɫɟ ɩɨɬɥɚɱɟɧɢɯ, ɪɟɚɥɧɟ
ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚ ʃɟɝɨɜɭ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɭ. Ɉɬɭɞɚ ʁɟ ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɟ (ɤɪɢɬɢɱɤɨɝ) ɭɦɚ ɢ
VII

"ɩɚɰɢɮɢɤɨɜɚʃɟ" ɩɨɬɥɚɱɟɧɢɯ ʃɢɯɨɜɢɦ ɢɞɢɨɬɢɡɨɜɚʃɟɦ ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢ ɡɚɞɚɬɚɤ ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɟ


ɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɧɟ ɦɚɲɢɧɟɪɢʁɟ. Ʉɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɢɫɚɧɢ ɜɥɚɞɚɪɢ ɫɜɟɬɚ ɪɚɡɜɢʁɚʁɭ ɫɜɟ
ɫɬɪɚɜɢɱɧɢʁɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɟ ɡɚ ɬɟɥɟɫɧɨ ɢ ɦɟɧɬɚɥɧɨ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟ ʂɭɞɢ. ȼɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɚ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚ ɫɜɨɞɢ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɭ ɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɢɫɚʃɚ ɩɨɬɥɚɱɟɧɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɨɦ ɫɟ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚ
ɟɦɚɧɰɢɩɚɬɨɪɫɤɨ ɧɚɫɥɟɻɟ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɫɤɨɝ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢʁɚ ɫɜɟ ɚɝɪɟɫɢɜɧɢʁɢ ɨɞɧɨɫ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ
ɪɚɫɚ, ɧɚɰɢʁɚ, ɪɟɥɢɝɢʁɚ, ɩɨɥɨɜɚ... ɇɚɦɟʄɭ ɫɟ ɜɟɲɬɚɱɤɢ ɢɡɚɡɜɚɧɢ ɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɫɚɧɢ
ɫɭɤɨɛɢ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ʂɭɞɢ ɭ ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɫɚɝɨɪɢ ɜɟɪɚ ɭ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɦɟʃɚɥɚɱɤɚ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɚ.
ɋɬɜɚɪɚʁɭ ɫɟ "ɞɟɠɭɪɧɢ ɤɪɢɜɰɢ" ɭ ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɩɪɨɧɚʄɢ ɭɡɪɨɤ ɧɟɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɧɚ
ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɫɜɟ ɨɛɟɫɩɪɚɜʂɟɧɢʁɢ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɢ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɢɫɤɚɥɟ ɫɜɨʁɟ ɧɟɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɫɬɜɨ. ɇɚ ɬɚʁ
ɧɚɱɢɧ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚ ɫɟ ɤɪɢɬɢɱɤɨ-ɦɟʃɚɥɚɱɤɢ ɨɞɧɨɫ ɩɪɟɦɚ ɫɜɟɬɭ ɢ ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɫɟ ɫɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ
ɮɚɲɢɡɚɦ. ɉɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɚ ɫɬɪɚɯɚ, ɱɢɦɟ ɫɟ ʁɚɜɧɨɫɬ ɩɪɢɩɪɟɦɚ ɡɚ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɭ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɚ ɡɚ
ɦɚɫɨɜɧɨ ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɟ (ɭɤʂɭɱɭʁɭʄɢ ɚɬɨɦɫɤɟ ɢ ɧɟɭɬɪɨɧɫɤɟ ɛɨɦɛɟ) "ɥɨɲɢɯ ɦɨɦɚɤɚ"
ɲɢɪɨɦ ɫɜɟɬɚ, ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢ ɡɚɞɚɬɚɤ ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɟ ɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɧɟ ɦɚɲɢɧɟɪɢʁɟ. ɇɚ
ɞɟɥɭ ʁɟ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ **+,,-‘ -./*: ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɫɜɟ ɜɟʄɟ
ɧɟɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɫɬɜɨ ɤɨʁɟ ɩɪɟɬɜɚɪɚ ɭ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɭ ɫɧɚɝɭ ɪɟɩɪɟɫɢʁɟ ɢ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɰɢʁɟ. ȼɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɢ
ɪɟɠɢɦ ɧɚɫɬɨʁɢ ɞɚ ɢɡɜɪɲɢ ɩɨɬɩɭɧɨ ɤɪɢɦɢɧɚɥɢɡɨɜɚʃɟ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ, ɫɬɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɢ ɯɚɨɫ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɫɚɧ ɫɚɦɢɦ ɧɚɱɢɧɨɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɬɨɬɚɥɢɡɭʁɭʄɟɦ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɭ
"ȼɟɥɢɤɚ ɪɢɛɚ ɩɪɨɠɞɢɪɟ ɦɚʃɭ ɪɢɛɭ!" - ɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɢɲɟ ɫɜɚɤɢ ɩɨɤɭɲɚʁ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɫɬɜɨɪɢ
ɯɭɦɚɧɢ ɫɜɟɬ. Ʉɪɢɦɢɧɚɥɢɡɨɜɚʃɟ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢ ɨɛɥɢɤ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɫɚʃɚ
ɩɨɬɥɚɱɟɧɢɯ ɭ ɞɭɯɨɜɧɭ ɢ ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɭ ɨɪɛɢɬɭ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧɚ ɫɚ
ɫɥɨɛɨɞɚɪɫɤɨɦ (ɤɥɚɫɧɨɦ) ɛɨɪɛɨɦ. ɋɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɨɫɬ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɤɪɢɦɢɧɚɥɢɡɨɜɚʃɚ
ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɬɨɦɟ, ɲɬɨ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɭɤɥɨɧɢ "ɜɢɲɚɤ" ɫɬɚɧɨɜɧɢɲɬɜɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɫɜɨɞɢ ɧɚ
"ɧɟɭɩɨɬɪɟɛʂɢɜɭ ɪɚɞɧɭ ɫɧɚɝɭ": ɨɧɨ ɢɦɚ ɝɟɧɨɰɢɞɧɢ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ. Ȼɢɨɥɨɲɤɨ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟ
ɩɨɬɥɚɱɟɧɢɯ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɧɚʁɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɢʁɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ ʃɢɯɨɜɟ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɟ. Ɍɚʁ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɫɭ ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɟ
ɜɥɚɫɬɢ "ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨ" ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɥɟ ɧɚ ɂɧɞɢʁɚɧɰɢɦɚ ɭ "ɪɟɡɟɪɜɚɬɢɦɚ" ɲɢɪɨɦ ɋȺȾ:
ɩɨɤɪɢɜɚɱɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɛɢɥɢ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɨɦ ɦɚɥɢɯ ɛɨɝɢʃɚ ɢ ɦɟɬɢɥ ɚɥɤɨɯɨɥ ɢɦɚɥɢ ɫɭ
ɭɥɨɝɭ ɤɨʁɭ ɞɚɧɚɫ ɢɦɚ SIDA, ɞɭɜɚɧ, ɞɪɨɝɚ, ɡɚɬɪɨɜɚɧɚ ɯɪɚɧɚ...
ɒɬɨ ʁɟ ɛɪɠɢ ɨɛɪɬ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ, ɭɬɨɥɢɤɨ ɢɦɚ ɦɚʃɟ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɡɚ ʂɭɞɫɤɨ.
Ʉɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚ ɩɨɪɨɞɢɰɭ ɢ ɫɜɟ ɞɪɭɝɟ ɨɛɥɢɤɟ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɨɝ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ, ɢ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢ ɭɫɚɦʂɟɧɨɝ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɤɨʁɟɦ ʁɟ ɫɜɟ ɬɟɠɟ ɞɚ ɩɪɢɯɜɚɬɢ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɨɫɬ ɢ
ɫɭɩɪɨɬɫɬɚɜɢ ɫɟ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɨʁ ɩɨɦɚɦɢ. Ɍɨ ʁɟ ɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɲɤɢ Äɞɟɬɚʂ³ ɤɨʁɢ ɢɦɚ
ɢɡɭɡɟɬɚɧ ɡɧɚɱɚʁ ɡɚ ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɢ ɩɨɪɟɞɚɤ. ɋɜɟ ɜɟʄɚ ɧɟɫɪɟʄɚ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɬɨɪ ɫɜɟ ɜɟʄɟɝ
ɡɥɚ ɭ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɩɪɨɫɟɱɧɢ (ɦɚɥɨ)ɝɪɚɻɚɧɢɧ ɦɚɡɨɯɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɭɬɚɩɚ ɞɚ ɛɢ ɢɡɛɟɝɚɨ
ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɨɫɬ ɡɚ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟ ɫɜɟɬɚ - ɭ ɱɟɦɭ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɢɥɢ ɩɚɫɢɜɧɨ ɫɭɞɟɥɭʁɟ. ɇɢɤɨ
ɜɢɲɟ ʁɚɜɧɨ ɧɟ ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɩɢɬɚʃɟ ɨ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɨɫɬɢ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɡɚ ɭɫɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɟɧɢ "ɪɚɡɜɨʁ"
ɫɜɟɬɚ - ɡɚɬɨ ɲɬɨ ɨɧɚ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚ ɩɪɚɜɨ ɧɚ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɭ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬ. ɍ ɜɟɡɢ ɫ ɬɢɦ, ɧɢʁɟ ɜɢɲɟ
ɢɞɟʁɚ ɨ "ɫɪɟʄɧɨʁ ɛɭɞɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ", ɜɟʄ ɫɬɪɚɯ ɡɚ ɫɨɩɫɬɜɟɧɢ ɠɢɜɨɬ ɝɥɚɜɧɢ ɦɨɬɢɜɚɰɢɨɧɢ
ɮɚɤɬɨɪ ɭ ɩɨɧɚɲɚʃɭ. Ʉɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɢɫɚɧɢ ɱɨɜɟɤ ɢɡɝɭɛɢɨ ʁɟ ɜɟɪɭ ɞɚ ɛɢɥɨ
ɲɬɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɭɱɢɧɢ ɭ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɨʁ ɪɚɜɧɢ, ɢ ɧɚɫɬɨʁɢ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɡɚɛɚɪɢɤɚɞɢɪɚ ɭ
ɚɬɨɦɢɡɨɜɚɧɨɦ ɛɟɡɧɚɻɭ ɢ ɫɬɜɨɪɢ ɫɜɨʁ ɦɢɤɪɨ-ɫɜɟɬ. "ɋɥɨɛɨɞɚ" ɪɨɛɨɜɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ
ɫɜɨɞɢ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɞɚ ɤɭɩɟ ɫɜɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɜɪɫɧɢʁɟ ɢ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɢʁɟ ɧɚɱɢɧɟ "ɛɟɤɫɬɜɚ"
ɢɡ ɫɜɚɤɨɞɧɟɜɧɨɝ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɢɦ ɧɭɞɢ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɚ ɡɚɛɚɜɟ. Ʉɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢ
ɩɚɬɨɥɨɲɤɨɝ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɩɪɢɯɜɚɬɚ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɰɢʁɭ ɤɚɨ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ: ɦɚɥɨɝɪɚɻɚɧɢɧ ʁɟ ɧɚ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɢɫɚɧɢ ɱɨɜɟɤ. Ɉɧ ʁɟ ɭ ɬɨʁ ɦɟɪɢ ɩɨɫɬɚɨ ɠɪɬɜɚ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɧɢɲɬɚɜɢɥɚ, ɞɚ ɭ ɜɢɡɢʁɢ ɤɨɧɚɱɧɨɝ ɢ ɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɭɥɚɪɧɨɝ ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɚ
ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ ɩɪɨɧɚɥɚɡɢ ɭɬɟɯɭ ɡɚ ɫɜɚɤɨɞɧɟɜɧɭ ɩɚɬʃɭ ɤɨʁɭ ɞɨɠɢɜʂɚɜɚ: ɧɚɝɨɧ ɡɚ
ɠɢɜɨɬɨɦ ɩɪɟɬɜɚɪɚ ɫɟ ɭ ɧɚɝɨɧ ɡɚ (ɫɚɦɨ)ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɟɦ. 
VIII

Ʉɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ɤɚɨ ɬɨɬɚɥɢɬɚɪɧɢ ɩɨɪɟɞɚɤ ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧɚɜɚ ɫɟ ɫ ɟɦɚɧɰɢɩɚɬɨɪɫɤɢɦ


ɧɚɫɥɟɻɟɦ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɫɤɨɝ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɨɬɜɚɪɚ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɡɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɧɨɜɨɝ ɫɜɟɬɚ, ɢ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢ ɨɛɥɢɤɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɟ ɛɨɪɛɟ ɤɨʁɢ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɢ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ. Ɍɟɪɨɪɢɡɚɦ ʁɟ
ɧɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɢɫɚɧɢ ɨɛɥɢɤ ɛɨɪɛɟ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ -
ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɧɚɫɢʂɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɢɦɚ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɦɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ - ɤɨʁɢ
ɫɚɦɨ ɞɨɩɪɢɧɨɫɢ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɢɪɚʃɭ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɚ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɰɢʁɟ. Ɉɧ ɧɟ ɬɟɠɢ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɭ ɧɨɜɨɝ
ɫɜɟɬɚ, ɜɟʄ ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɭ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟʄɟɝ. Ɍɨ ʁɟ ɫɭɲɬɢɧɫɤɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɤɚ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɪɟɜɨɥɭɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɟ
ɛɨɪɛɟ ɢ ɬɟɪɨɪɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɚɤɰɢʁɚ. ɍ ɬɟɪɨɪɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɦ ɧɚɫɢʂɭ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɚ ɮɚɧɚɬɢɡɚɦ, ɚ ɧɟ
ɜɢɡɢɨɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɫɜɟɫɬ ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɭɦɧɨʁ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɢ. Ɏɚɧɚɬɢɡɚɦ ʁɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɚ ɫɜɟ
ɛɟɫɩɨɲɬɟɞɧɢʁɟɝ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɢɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ ɢ ɧɚɪɨɞɚ ɨɞ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɦɨɧɨɩɨɥɚ. Ɍɢɩɢɱɚɧ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ ʁɟ ɬɡɜ. "ɦɭɫɥɢɦɚɧɫɤɢ ɟɤɫɬɪɟɦɢɡɚɦ": ɨɧ
ʁɟ ɧɟɦɢɧɨɜɧɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɚ ɫɜɟ ɨɱɢɝɥɟɞɧɢʁɟɝ ɧɚɫɬɨʁɚʃɚ Ɂɚɩɚɞɚ ɞɚ ɭɧɢɲɬɢ ɦɭɫɥɢɦɚɧɟ ɢ
ɨɜɥɚɞɚ ɧɚɮɬɧɢɦ ɢɡɜɨɪɢɦɚ. ɂɫɬɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ, "ɛɨɪɛɚ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɬɟɪɨɪɢɡɦɚ" ʁɟ ɧɨɜɚ
ɢɞɟɨɥɨɲɤɚ ɦɚɫɤɚ ɫɚ ɤɨʁɨɦ ɧɚɫɬɭɩɚ ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɢ ɢɦɩɟɪɢʁɚɥɢɡɚɦ, ɤɨʁɚ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚ "ɛɨɪɛɢ
ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ʁɭɞɟɨ-ɛɨʂɲɟɜɢɡɦɚ" - ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɛɢɥɚ ɦɚɫɤɚ ɡɚ ɧɚɰɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ "ɩɪɨɞɨɪ ɧɚ ɂɫɬɨɤ"
(! 01‘ 0 23‘ 45+*0), ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɟ ȳɟɜɪɟʁɚ ɢ ɋɥɨɜɟɧɚ ɢ ɨɫɜɚʁɚʃɟ "ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɚ"
(6*/*05 ,-) ɡɚ ɧɟɦɚɱɤɢ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥ. "Ȼɨɪɛɚ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɬɟɪɨɪɢɡɦɚ" ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɢɡɝɨɜɨɪ ɡɚ
ɭɫɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚʃɟ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɧɨɝ ɬɟɪɨɪɚ ɨɞ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɧɚʁɦɨʄɧɢʁɢɯ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɪɧɚ.
Ɉɧɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɬɟɪɨɪɢɲɭ ɫɜɟɬ, ɭ ɮɨɪɦɢ "ɛɨɪɛɟ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɬɟɪɨɪɢɡɦɚ" ɧɚɫɬɨʁɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ
ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧɚʁɭ ɫɚ ɫɜɚɤɢɦ ɤɨ ɭɝɪɨɠɚɜɚ ʃɢɯɨɜɨ ɧɚɫɬɨʁɚʃɟ ɞɚ ɨɞ ɱɢɬɚɜɨɝ ɫɜɟɬɚ ɫɬɜɨɪɟ ɫɜɨʁ
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɨɧɢ ɥɨɝɨɪ. "Ɂɚɲɬɢɬɚ" ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɧɭɞɢ ɨɞ ɬɟɪɨɪɢɡɦɚ ʁɟ ɦɚɮɢʁɚɲɤɨɝ
ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ: ɨɧɚʁ ɤɨ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɯɜɚɬɚ ɱɟɥɢɱɧɢ ɡɚɝɪʂɚʁ "ɫɜɟɬɫɤɨɝ ɠɚɧɞɚɪɦɚ" ɛɢʄɟ ɢɡɥɨɠɟɧ
ɧɚʁɝɨɪɟɦ ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɨɦ ɬɟɪɨɪɭ. "ɋɜɟɬɫɤɢ ɬɟɪɨɪɢɡɚɦ" ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ "ɝɥɚɜɧɚ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬ ɤɨʁɚ
ɩɪɟɬɢ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɭ" - ɬɨ ɧɟɩɪɟɫɬɚɧɨ ɩɨɧɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɫɥɭɝɟ ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɟ ɲɢɪɨɦ
ɫɜɟɬɚ. Ʉɪɨɡ ɨɞɧɨɫ ɩɪɟɦɚ ɬɟɪɨɪɢɡɦɭ ɦɨɝɭ ɫɟ ɜɢɞɟɬɢ ɩɪɚɜɟ ɚɦɛɢɰɢʁɟ ɢ ɞɨɦɚɲɚʁ
ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɟ: "ɛɨɪɛɚ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɬɟɪɨɪɢɡɦɚ" ɧɟɦɚ ɛɥɨɤɨɜɫɤɢ ɢ ɢɞɟɨɥɨɲɤɢ, ɜɟʄ
ɝɥɨɛɚɥɧɢ ɢ ɚɧɬɢ-ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɢ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ.
ȼɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɟ ɨɥɢɝɚɪɯɢʁɟ ɧɚʁɪɚɡɜɢʁɟɧɢʁɢɯ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɡɟɦɚʂɚ "ɪɟɲɚɜɚʁɭ"
ɫɜɟ ɞɭɛʂɭ ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɭ ɤɪɢɡɭ ɭ ɫɜɨʁɢɦ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɢɦɚ ɬɚɤɨ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɩɪɚɛɚɰɭʁɭ ɧɚ ɥɟɻɚ
ɫɜɟɬɫɤɟ ɫɢɪɨɬɢʃɟ. ɉɪɟɠɢɜʂɚɜɚʃɟ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɧɨ ʁɟ ɭɫɥɨɜʂɟɧɨ ɩʂɚɱɤɨɦ ɢ
ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟɦ ɱɢɬɚɜɨɝ ɫɜɟɬɚ. ɋɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɢɦɩɟɪɢʁɚɥɢɡɚɦ, ɤɨɦɟ ɫɭ ɤɨɤɚ-ɤɨɥɚ
ɢɧɬɟɥɟɤɬɭɚɥɰɢ ɞɚɥɢ ɧɚɡɢɜ "ɝɥɨɛɚɥɢɡɚɦ", ɡɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɤɭ ɨɞ ʃɟɝɨɜɢɯ ɩɪɟɬɯɨɞɧɢɯ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɢɯ ɨɛɥɢɤɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɢɦɚɥɢ ɟɤɫɩɥɨɚɬɚɬɨɪɫɤɢ ("ɉʂɚɱɤɚʁ!") ɢ ɝɟɧɨɰɢɞɧɢ
ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ("ɍɛɢʁ!") - ɢɦɚ ɟɤɨɰɢɞɧɢ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ("ɍɧɢɲɬɢ!"). ɇȺɌɈ, ɆɆɎ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɟ
"ɦɟɻɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢʁɟ" ɫɭ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ Ɂɚɩɚɞɚ ɡɚ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚʃɟ ɟɤɨɰɢɞɧɨɝ
ɬɟɪɨɪɢɡɦɚ ɢ ɧɚ ɬɨʁ ɨɫɧɨɜɢ ɝɟɧɨɰɢɞɧɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɟ. ɍɫɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɫɟ ɧɨɜɢ ɮɚɲɢɡɚɦ ɤɨʁɢ
ɫɟ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɧɨɦ ɢ ɬɨɬɚɥɧɨɦ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɦ ɬɟɪɨɪɭ: ɫɜɚɤɢ ɞɟɥɢʄ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɟ ɢ
ɫɜɚɤɢ ɫɟɝɦɟɧɬ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɨ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɨɜɚʃɟ, ɲɬɨ
ɡɧɚɱɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɫɚɦ ɠɢɜɨɬ ɩɨɫɬɚɨ ɬɟɪɨɪ ɧɚɞ ɱɨɜɟɤɨɦ ɢ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɰɢʁɚ ʂɭɞɫɤɨɝ. ɋɜɟ
ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɢʁɟ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɢɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ ɜɨɞɢ ɪɚɞɢɤɚɥɢɡɨɜɚʃɭ ɝɟɧɨɰɢɞɧɟ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɟ: ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɟ ɫɜɟ ɜɟʄɟɝ ɛɪɨʁɚ ʂɭɞɢ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɢ ɭɫɥɨɜ ɡɚ ɩɪɟɠɢɜʂɚɜɚʃɟ
ɫɜɟ ɦɚʃɟɝ ɛɪɨʁɚ ʂɭɞɢ. ɍ ɬɨɦ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɭ ɫɬɜɨɪɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɬɟɨɪɢʁɚ ɨ "ɡɥɚɬɧɨʁ ɦɢɥɢʁɚɪɞɢ"
ɤɨʁɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɲɤɢ ɨɪɢʁɟɧɬɢɪ ɡɚ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɭ ɩɪɚɤɫɭ ɧɚʁɪɚɡɜɢʁɟɧɢʁɢɯ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɡɟɦɚʂɚ. ȿɤɨɰɢɞɧɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɚ ɩɨɦɚɦɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢ ɫɜɟ ɜɟʄɢ
ɫɬɪɚɯ ɡɚ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɢ ɧɚ ɬɨʁ ɨɫɧɨɜɢ ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɭɫɥɨɜɟ ɡɚ ɪɚɞɢɤɚɥɢɡɨɜɚʃɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɢɯ
ɨɞɥɭɤɚ ɢ ɚɤɰɢʁɚ. ɍɩɨɬɪɟɛɚ ɚɬɨɦɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɧɟɭɬɪɨɧɫɤɢɯ ɛɨɦɛɢ, ɜɟɲɬɚɱɤɢɯ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɢ
ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɭɛɢɬɚɱɧɢɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɚ, ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ "ɨɞɛɪɚɧɭ". ɍ ɝɨɬɨɜɨ
ɫɜɢɦ ɢɡɜɟɲɬɚʁɢɦɚ "ɫɬɪɭɱʃɚɤɚ" Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɟ ɯɟɦɢɫɮɟɪɟ "ɩɪɟɧɚɫɟʂɟɧɨɫɬ" ɩɥɚɧɟɬɟ ʁɟ
IX

"ɧɚʁɜɟʄɚ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬ ɡɚ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ". ɋɬɪɚɯ ɡɚ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɭɫɦɟɪɚɜɚ ɫɟ ɤɚ


ɧɚɪɨɞɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ "ɢɫɭɜɢɲɟ ɦɧɨɠɟ" ɢ ɧɚ ɬɚʁ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɭɝɪɨɠɚɜɚʁɭ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɫɜɢɯ.
Ɋɟɲɟʃɟ ɫɟ ɧɚɦɟʄɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɩɨ ɫɟɛɢ: ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɟ ɦɢɥɢʁɚɪɞɢ "ɩɪɟɤɨɛɪɨʁɧɢɯ" ɧɭɠɧɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ
ɛɢ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɨ ɨɩɫɬɚɥɨ. Ɉɧɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɧɟɲɬɟɞɢɦɢɰɟ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʁɭ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɭ ɢ ɢɫɬɪɟɛʂɭʁɭ
ɧɚɪɨɞɟ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɭ "ɫɩɚɫɢɨɰɢ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ". Ɂɚɩɚɞ ɢɦɚ ɛɨɝɚɬɨ ɢɫɤɭɫɬɜɨ ɭ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɭ
ɧɚɪɨɞɚ: ɢɫɬɪɟɛʂɢɜɚʃɟ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɢɯ ɂɧɞɢʁɚɧɚɰɚ ɨɞ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɨɝ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɢ Ʉɢɧɟɡɚ ɢ ɚɭɫɬɪɚɥɢʁɫɤɢɯ ɞɨɦɨɪɨɞɚɰɚ ɨɞ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɛɪɢɬɚɧɫɤɨɝ
ɢɦɩɟɪɢʁɚɥɢɡɦɚ - ɭɩɭʄɭʁɟ ɧɚ Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɟ "ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢʁɟ" ɭ ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧɭ ɫ "ɜɢɲɤɨɦ"
ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ. ɂɫɬɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ, "ɝɥɨɛɚɥɢɡɚɦ" ɧɚ ɬɟɦɟʂɭ ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɨɝ "ɧɨɜɨɝ ɫɜɟɬɫɤɨɝ
ɩɨɪɟɬɤɚ" ɭɫɥɨɜʂɚɜɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ "ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɟ" ɝɟɧɨɰɢɞɧɟ ɩɥɭɬɨɤɪɚɬɢʁɟ ɤɨʁɚ ɢɦɚ
ɡɚɞɚɬɚɤ ɞɚ, ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢɦ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ ɦɟɪɚɦɚ, ɭɧɢɲɬɢ "ɜɢɲɚɤ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɧɢɲɬɜɚ" ɧɚ ɫɜɨʁɨʁ
ɬɟɪɢɬɨɪɢʁɢ. Ⱦɚʂɢ ɪɚɡɜɨʁ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɩɥɚɬɢʄɟ ɦɢɥɢʁɚɪɞɟ ɧɟɜɢɧɢɯ ʂɭɞɢ, ɫɜɟ ɜɟʄɢ
ɛɪɨʁ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɫɤɢɯ ɜɪɫɬɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɩɪɟɞ ɢɫɬɪɟɛʂɟʃɟɦ, ɫɚɜ ɠɢɜɢ ɫɜɟɬ... ɍ ɤɨɧɚɱɧɨɦ, ɫɜɟ
ɬɨ ɫɥɭɠɢ ɞɚ ɛɢ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɦɢɥɢɨɧɚ ɦɟɧɬɚɥɧɨ ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɢɫɚɧɢɯ "ɛɨɝɚɬɚɲɚ" ɦɨɝɥɨ ɢ ɞɚʂɟ
ɞɚ "ɭɠɢɜɚ" ɭ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɧɨɦ ɛɨɝɚɬɫɬɜɭ ɤɨʁɟ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɟ ɢɡ ɤɪɜɢ ɢ ɩɟɩɟɥɚ, ɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɜɨʁ
ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɭʁɭ ɩɭɬɟɦ ɩɨɥɢɰɢʁɫɤɟ, ɦɚɮɢʁɚɲɤɟ ɢ ɜɨʁɧɟ ɬɢɪɚɧɢʁɟ ɢ ɢɥɭɡɢʁɚ ɤɨʁɟ
ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɚ ɡɚɛɚɜɟ. Ɏɚɧɚɬɢɰɢ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɧɚʁɝɨɪɢ ɫɭ ɬɟɪɨɪɢɫɬɢ: ɨɧɢ
ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʁɭ ɠɢɜɨɬ ɧɚ ɡɟɦʂɢ.
ȿɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɚ ɥɨɝɢɤɚ ɦɨɧɨɩɨɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ, ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ
ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɭ "ȼɟɥɢɤɚ ɪɢɛɚ ɩɪɨɠɞɢɪɟ ɦɚʃɭ ɪɢɛɭ!", ɩɨɫɬɚɥɚ ʁɟ ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɢ
ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɤɨʁɢ ɨɞɪɟɻɭʁɟ ɨɞɧɨɫɟ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɞɪɠɚɜɚ. Ɉɧɨ ɲɬɨ ɧɚɰɢɫɬɢ ɧɢɫɭ ɭɫɩɟɥɢ ɞɚ
ɭɱɢɧɟ ɨɪɭɠʁɟɦ ɢ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɨɧɢɦ ɥɨɝɨɪɢɦɚ, ɩɨɲɥɨ ʁɟ ɡɚ ɪɭɤɨɦ Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɢɦ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɦ ɤɨɧɰɟɪɧɢɦɚ ɩɭɬɟɦ ɧɨɜɰɚ ɢ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢɦ ɭɰɟɧɚɦɚ: ɞɚ ɨɞ ɡɟɦɚʂɚ
ɛɢɜɲɟɝ "ɢɫɬɨɱɧɨɝ ɛɥɨɤɚ" ɫɬɜɨɪɟ ɫɜɨʁ "ɠɢɜɨɬɧɢ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪ", ɚ ɨɞ ʃɢɯɨɜɢɯ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɚ
ɫɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ (ɤɨɤɚ-ɤɨɥɚ) ɪɨɛʂɟ. ȼɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɢ ɤɪɭɝɨɜɢ ȿɜɪɨɩɟ ɩɨɢɫɬɨɜɟʄɭʁɭ
ȿɜɪɨɩɭ ɫɚ "ȿɜɪɨɩɫɤɨɦ ɭɧɢʁɨɦ", ɢɫɬɨ ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɭ ɧɚɰɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɢɞɟɨɥɨɡɢ "ɧɨɜɢ
ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɢ ɩɨɪɟɞɚɤ" ɩɪɨɝɥɚɫɢɥɢ "ȿɜɪɨɩɨɦ". ɍɩɪɚɜɨ ɨɧɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɡɚɥɚɠɭ ɡɚ ȿɜɪɨɩɭ ɤɚɨ
ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɰɭ ɪɚɜɧɨɩɪɚɜɧɢɯ ɧɚɪɨɞɚ ɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɢɧɫɢɫɬɢɪɚʁɭ ɧɚ ʃɟɧɨɦ ɟɦɚɧɰɢɩɚɬɨɪɫɤɨɦ
ɧɚɫɥɟɻɭ - ɧɚʁʂɭʄɢ ɫɭ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɧɢɰɢ "ȿɜɪɨɩɫɤɟ ɭɧɢʁɟ" ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ ɨɪɭɻɟ ɧɚʁɦɨʄɧɢʁɢɯ
ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɢɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɪɧɚ ɡɚ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟ ɟɦɚɧɰɢɩɚɬɨɪɫɤɨɝ ɧɚɫɥɟɻɚ ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɪɨɞɚ.
"ȿɜɪɨɩɫɤɚ ɭɧɢʁɚ" ɝɪɚɞɢ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɢɥɭɡɢʁɢ ɞɚ ɭɥɚɡɚɤ ɭ "ɍɧɢʁɭ" ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɭʁɟ ɫɜɢɦ ɧɚɪɨɞɢɦɚ
ȿɜɪɨɩɟ "ɩɪɨɫɩɟɪɢɬɟɬ ɢ ɛɨʂɢ ɠɢɜɨɬ". Ɉɜɞɟ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɩɨɞɫɟɬɢɬɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɝɥɚɜɧɢ
ɩɪɨɤɥɚɦɨɜɚɧɢ ɰɢʂ ɧɚɰɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɝ "ɧɨɜɨɝ ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɬɤɚ" ɛɢɨ ɞɚ "ɫɜɢ ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɢ
ɧɚɪɨɞɢ ɛɭɞɭ ɫɪɟʄɧɢ"! "ȿɜɪɨɩɫɤɚ ɭɧɢʁɚ" ʁɟ: (1.) ɚɧɬɢ-ʂɭɞɫɤɢ ɢ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɢ ɩɨɪɟɞɚɤ
ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɢɦ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɦɚ ɦɨɧɨɩɨɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ "ɍɧɢɲɬɢ
ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢʁɭ!" ɢ "ɉɚɪɟ ɧɟ ɫɦɪɞɟ!"; (2.) ʃɟɧɚ ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɚ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɚ ɫɮɟɪɚ ɧɟ ɩɪɭɠɚ
ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɡɚ ɢɡɪɚɠɚɜɚʃɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɟ ɜɨʂɟ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɚ, ɜɟʄ ʁɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɢ ɨɛɥɢɤ
ɜɥɚɞɚɜɢɧɟ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɧɚɞ ʂɭɞɢɦɚ; (3.) ɱɢɬɚɜɚ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɚ, ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɚ ɢ
ɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɧɚ ɫɮɟɪɚ ɬɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɬɤɚ ɭɫɦɟɪɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɧɚ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟ ɤɭɥɬɭɪɧɟ ɢ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɚɪɫɤɟ
ɫɚɦɨɫɜɟɫɬɢ ʂɭɞɢ ɢ ɧɚ ʃɢɯɨɜɭ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢʁɭ ɭ ɞɭɯɨɜɧɭ ɨɪɛɢɬɭ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɧɚ ɧɢɜɨɭ
ɢɞɢɨɬɢɡɨɜɚɧɟ ɪɚɞɧɨ-ɩɨɬɪɨɲɚɱɤɟ "ɦɚɫɟ". "ȿɜɪɨɩɫɤɚ ɭɧɢʁɚ" ɧɢʁɟ "ɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɫɤɚ
ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɰɚ ɧɚɪɨɞɚ", ɜɟʄ ɨɛɥɢɤ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɢɯ ɦɭɥɬɢɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɪɧɚ ɭ
ɛɨɪɛɢ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɢɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɪɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɭ ɞɪɠɚɜɭ ɤɚɨ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ
ɨɫɬɜɚɪɢɜɚʃɟ ɫɜɨʁɢɯ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚ ɧɚ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɧɨɦ ɩɥɚɧɭ. Ɉɧɚ ɫɟ ɧɟ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ
ɟɦɚɧɰɢɩɚɬɨɪɫɤɢɦ (ɤɭɥɬɭɪɧɢɦ) ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢʁɚɦɚ ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɪɨɞɚ, ɜɟʄ ɧɚ
ɢɦɩɟɪɢʁɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɦ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢʁɚɦɚ ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɨɝ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ. "ȿɜɪɨɩɫɤɚ ɭɧɢʁɚ" ɧɢʁɟ
ɯɭɦɚɧɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɰɢʂ, ɜɟʄ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɧɚʁɦɨʄɧɢʁɢɯ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɪɧɚ ɡɚ
ɨɫɬɜɚɪɢɜɚʃɟ, ɩɭɬɟɦ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɢɯ "ɦɟɪɚ", ɢɫɬɢɯ ɨɧɢɯ ɰɢʂɟɜɚ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɟ
X

ɏɢɬɥɟɪ, ɩɭɬɟɦ ɨɪɭɠʁɚ, ɩɨɤɭɲɚɨ ɞɚ ɨɫɬɜɚɪɢ ɡɚ ɧɟɦɚɱɤɢ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥ. Ɉɧɚ ʁɟ ɩɪɟɥɚɡɧɚ ɮɚɡɚ
ɭ "ɪɚɡɜɨʁɭ ȿɜɪɨɩɟ" ɤɨʁɢ ɜɨɞɢ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɭ ɧɨɜɨɝ ɮɚɲɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɝ (ɟɤɨɰɢɞɧɨɝ) ɩɨɪɟɬɤɚ.
ɍɩɪɚɜɨ ɨɜɚ ɧɚɫɢɥɧɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɭɫɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɟɧɚ "ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢʁɚ ɧɚɪɨɞɚ ȿɜɪɨɩɟ"
ɞɨɜɨɞɢ ɞɨ ɛɭʁɚʃɚ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɢ ɪɚɫɢɡɦɚ, ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪ ɧɚ ɥɢɲɚɜɚʃɟ ʂɭɞɢ
ɟɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɪɧɢɯ ʂɭɞɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɚɜɚ. Ɍɨ ʁɟ ɭɜɨɞ ɭ ɫɜɟ ɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɧɢʁɟ ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧɟ
ɤɨʁɢ ʄɟ ɫɟ ɪɚɡɜɢʁɚɬɢ ɧɚ ɬɟɦɟʂɭ ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɟ ɥɨɝɢɤɟ ɤɨʁɭ ɧɚɦɟʄɟ ɦɨɧɨɩɨɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ, ɢ ɧɚ ɬɟɦɟʂɭ ɫɜɟ ɡɚɝɚɻɟɧɢʁɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɟ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɟ ɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɨɝ ɩɪɨɩɚɞɚʃɚ
ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɪɨɞɚ. ȿɤɨɰɢɞɧɢ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɬɟɪɨɪɢɡɚɦ ɧɟɦɢɧɨɜɧɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢ
ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɢɡɚɦ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɜɢɲɟ ɧɟ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɛɨɪɛɢ ɡɚ ɪɚɞɧɨ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɢɥɢ ɩɨɬɪɨɲɚɱɤɢ
ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɞ, ɜɟʄ ɧɚ ɛɨɪɛɢ ɡɚ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ. ɍɦɟɫɬɨ ɞɚ ɫɟ "ɭʁɟɞɢʃɚɜɚʃɟɦ ȿɜɪɨɩɟ" ɤɨɞ
ɝɪɚɻɚɧɚ ɪɚɡɜɢʁɚ ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɚɦ ɢ ɬɨɥɟɪɚɧɰɢʁɚ, ɲɬɨ ɛɢ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚɥɨ "ɯɭɦɚɧɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɦ
ɢɞɟɚɥɢɦɚ" ɭ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɚɪɢ ɧɟɩɪɟɫɬɚɧɨ ɡɚɤɥɢʃɭ, ɧɚɪɚɫɬɚ ɫɬɪɚɯ ɨɞ ɛɭɞɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ
ɧɟɬɪɟɩɟʂɢɜɨɫɬ. "ɏɭɦɚɧɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ" ɝɨɜɨɪɢ ɧɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɫɚɤɪɢʁɭ ɫɜɟ ɜɟʄɢ ɤɪɢɦɢɧɚɥ,
ɧɟɡɚɩɨɫɥɟɧɨɫɬ, ɪɚɫɩɚɞ "ɞɪɠɚɜɟ ɛɥɚɝɨɫɬɚʃɚ" ɚ ɫɚ ʃɨɦ ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɧɟ ɡɚɲɬɢɬɟ,
ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɟ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɟ, ɞɪɨɝɢɪɚʃɟ, ɧɚɫɢʂɟ, ɫɚɦɨɭɛɢɫɬɜɚ, ɮɚɧɚɬɢɡɚɦ,
ɟɤɫɬɪɟɦɢɡɚɦ, ɛɭʁɚʃɟ ɫɚɬɚɧɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɫɟɤɬɢ ɢ ɮɚɲɢɡɦɚ, ɪɚɡɛɢʁɚʃɟ ɩɨɪɨɞɢɰɟ, ɫɜɟ ɜɟʄɢ
ɛɪɨʁ ɞɟɰɟ ɛɟɡ ɪɨɞɢɬɟʂɚ, ɬɪɝɨɜɢɧɭ ʂɭɞɢɦɚ ɢ ɞɟɰɨɦ ɪɚɞɢ ɫɟɤɫɭɚɥɧɨɝ ɡɥɨɫɬɚɜʂɚʃɚ ɢ
ʃɢɯɨɜɨ ɭɛɢʁɚʃɟ ɪɚɞɢ "ɞɨɛɢʁɚʃɚ" ɨɪɝɚɧɚ (ɫɚɦɨ ɭ ȿɧɝɥɟɫɤɨʁ ɝɨɞɢɲʃɟ "ɧɟɫɬɚɧɟ" ɩɪɟɤɨ
40 000 ɦɚɥɨɥɟɬɧɟ ɞɟɰɟ), ɲɢɪɟʃɟ ɋɂȾȿ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɟɫɟɬɤɨɜɚɬɢ
ɫɢɪɨɬɢʃɭ, ɭɫɚɦʂɟɧɨɫɬ ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ ɞɨɛɢɥɚ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟ ɟɩɢɞɟɦɢʁɟ... "ȿɜɪɨɩɫɤɚ ɭɧɢʁɚ"
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢ ɪɚɫɢɡɚɦ, ɩɨɩɭɬ ɨɧɨɝ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɫɬɜɨɪɟɧ ɭ ɋȺȾ. ɇɚɪɨɞɢ ɢɡ ɂɫɬɨɱɧɟ ȿɜɪɨɩɟ ɢ
ɫɚ Ȼɚɥɤɚɧɚ ɞɨɛɢʁɚʁɭ ɫɬɚɬɭɫ "ɧɚɪɨɞɚ ɛɟɡ ɤɭɥɬɭɪɟ", ɲɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ "ɧɢɠɢɯ ɛɢʄɚ". ȳɟɡɢɰɢ
 5+ /*+*-ɚ ɧɟ ɫɯɜɚɬɚʁɭ ɫɟ ɤɚɨ ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɚ ɤɭɥɬɭɪɧɚ ɛɚɲɬɢɧɚ, ɜɟʄ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɭ ɩɨɜɨɞ ɡɚ
ɞɢɫɤɪɢɦɢɧɚɰɢʁɭ. Ɇɚɫɨɜɧɚ ʁɟ ɩɨʁɚɜɚ ɞɚ ɫɬɪɚɧɢ ɪɚɞɧɢɰɢ ɫɩɪɟɱɚɜɚʁɭ ɫɜɨʁɭ ɞɟɰɭ ɞɚ ɭɱɟ
ɦɚɬɟɪʃɢ ʁɟɡɢɤ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɧɟ ɛɢ ɭɨɱɢɥɨ ʃɢɯɨɜɨ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɨ ɢ ɡɚɬɨ ɛɢɥɢ ɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɢ
ɩɨɧɢɠɚɜɚʃɭ. Ʉɚɞɚ ɫɟ ɢɦɚ ɭ ɜɢɞɭ ɞɚ ɡɚɧɟɦɚɪʂɢɜ ɛɪɨʁ ɞɟɰɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɰɚ ɫɬɟɤɧɟ ɜɢɲɟ ɢ
ɜɢɫɨɤɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚʃɟ, ʁɚɫɧɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɥɢɲɚɜɚʃɟ ɞɟɰɟ ɦɚɬɟɪʃɟɝ ʁɟɡɢɤɚ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟ
ʃɢɯɨɜɨɝ ɤɭɥɬɭɪɧɨɝ ɛɢʄɚ, ɱɢɦɟ ɫɟ ɫɜɨɞɟ ɧɚ "ɩɪʂɚɜɭ" ɪɚɞɧɭ ɫɧɚɝɭ ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ
"ɩɪɟɞɨɞɪɟɻɟɧɚ" ɞɚ ɨɛɚɜʂɚ ɧɚʁɬɟɠɟ ɢ ɧɚʁɨɩɚɫɧɢʁɟ ɩɨɫɥɨɜɟ.ɍ "ȿɜɪɨɩɫɤɨʁ ɭɧɢʁɢ" ʁɚɫɧɨ
ɫɟ ɨɰɪɬɚɜɚ ɪɚɫɢɫɬɢɱɤɚ ɩɢɪɚɦɢɞɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɨʁ, ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɨʁ ɢ ɜɨʁɧɨʁ
ɦɨʄɢ: ɧɚ ɜɪɯɭ ɫɭ ɇɟɦɚɱɤɚ, Ɏɪɚɧɰɭɫɤɚ ɢ ȿɧɝɥɟɫɤɚ; ɢɫɩɨɞ ʃɢɯ ɫɭ ɂɬɚɥɢʁɚ, ɒɩɚɧɢʁɚ,
ɏɨɥɚɧɞɢʁɚ, Ȼɟɥɝɢʁɚ... Ȼɚɥɤɚɧɫɤɢ ɧɚɪɨɞɢ ɧɚɥɚɡɟ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɞɧɭ ɩɢɪɚɦɢɞɟ. Ɂɚ ʃɢɯ ʁɟ ɭ
"ɭʁɟɞɢʃɟɧɨʁ ȿɜɪɨɩɢ" ɪɟɡɟɪɜɢɫɚɧɨ ɨɧɨ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɤɨʁɟ Ⱥɮɪɨ-Ⱥɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɰɢ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɭ ɋȺȾ.
"ɇɚ ɩɭɬɭ ɡɚ ȿɜɪɨɩɭ" ɛɚɥɤɚɧɫɤɢ ɧɚɪɨɞɢ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɢɡɝɭɛɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɭ (ɤɭɥɬɭɪɧɭ)
ɫɚɦɨɫɜɟɫɬ ɢ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɚɪɫɤɨ ɞɨɫɬɨʁɚɧɫɬɜɨ ɢ ɞɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɧɭ "ɩɪʂɚɜɚ" ɪɚɞɧɚ ɫɧɚɝɚ, ɚ Ȼɚɥɤɚɧ
ɫɟɩɬɢɱɤɚ ʁɚɦɚ ȿɜɪɨɩɟ. Ɉɞ ɛɚɥɤɚɧɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɪɨɞɚ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɚ ɫɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɨɞɪɟɤɧɭ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɚɪɫɤɢɯ
ɦɢɬɨɜɚ, ɤɨʁɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɨɫɧɨɜ ʃɢɯɨɜɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɟ ɢ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɚɪɫɤɟ ɫɚɦɨɫɜɟɫɬɢ, ɞɨɤ
ɫɟ, ɢɫɬɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ, ɨɞ ʃɢɯ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɚ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɞɪɠɟ ɦɢɬɚ ɨ "ȿɜɪɨɩɢ" ɤɚɨ "ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɰɢ
ɫɥɨɛɨɞɧɢɯ ɧɚɪɨɞɚ": ɫɥɨɛɨɞɚɪɫɤɢ ɦɢɬɨɜɢ ɡɚɦɟʃɭʁɭ ɫɟ ɤɨɥɨɧɢʁɚɥɧɢɦ ɦɢɬɨɜɢɦɚ.
"ɍʁɟɞɢʃɟʃɟ ȿɜɪɨɩɟ" ɩɨ ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɨɦ ɦɨɞɟɥɭ, ɚ ɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚ
ɦɭɥɬɢɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɪɧɚ ɢ ʃɢɯɨɜɟ ɛɨɪɛɟ ɡɚ ɞɨɦɢɧɚɰɢʁɭ, ɜɨɞɢ ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧɭ ɫ
"ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɢɡɦɨɦ" ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɫɜɨɞɢ ɧɚ ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧ ɫ ɤɭɥɬɭɪɧɢɦ ɧɚɫɥɟɻɟɦ ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɪɨɞɚ
ɢ ɫ ʃɢɯɨɜɢɦ ɩɪɚɜɨɦ ɞɚ ɞɨɧɨɫɟ ɫɭɜɟɪɟɧɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɟ ɨɞɥɭɤɟ. ɍ ɋȺȾ ɠɢɜɟ ɨɬɩɚɰɢ
ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɧɚɪɨɞɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɢɫɚɧɢ "ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɢɦ ɧɚɱɢɧɨɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ" ɢ
ɤɨɤɚ-ɤɨɥɚ "ɤɭɥɬɭɪɨɦ". ɍ ȿɜɪɨɩɢ ɫɟ ɪɚɞɢ ɨ ɧɚɪɨɞɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɜɨʁ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢ,
ɝɪɚɻɚɧɫɤɢ ɢ ɤɭɥɬɭɪɧɢ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɬɟɬ ɜɟɡɭʁɭ ɡɚ ɡɟɦʂɭ ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ ɢɡɜɨɪɢɲɬɟ ʃɢɯɨɜɨɝ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɨɝ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɚʃɚ ɢ ɡɚ ɱɢʁɭ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɭ ɫɭ ɫɟ ɛɨɪɢɥɢ ʃɢɯɨɜɢ ɩɪɟɰɢ. Ɉɧɚ ʁɟ ʃɢɯɨɜ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɢ ɢ ɞɭɯɨɜɧɢ ɡɚɜɢɱɚʁ ɢ ɨɫɧɨɜ ʂɭɞɫɤɨɝ ɫɚɦɨɩɨɢɦɚʃɚ. "ȿɜɪɨɩɫɤɢ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɬɟɬ" ɧɟ
XI

ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɝɪɚɞɢ ɧɚ ɬɟɦɟʂɭ ɮɨɪɦɚɥɧɢɯ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚ (ɩɨɩɭɬ ɭɫɬɚɜɚ), ɜɟʄ ɧɚ


ɫɥɨɛɨɞɚɪɫɤɨʁ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢʁɢ ɢ ɤɭɥɬɭɪɧɨɦ ɧɚɫɥɟɻɭ ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɪɨɞɚ. ȿɜɪɨɩʂɚɧɢ ɬɪɟɛɚ
ɞɚ ɛɭɞɭ ɭɦɧɢ ɢ ɛɨɪɛɟɧɢ ʂɭɞɢ ɤɨʁɢ ʄɟ ɫɟ ɫɭɩɪɨɬɫɬɚɜɢɬɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɢɦɚ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɚ
ɠɢɜɨɬɚ ɢ ɤɭɥɬɭɪɧɨɝ ɧɚɫɥɟɻɚ ɧɚɪɨɞɚ, ɢ ɤɨʁɢ ʄɟ ɧɚɝɨɦɢɥɚɧɟ ɨɛʁɟɤɬɢɜɧɟ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚ
ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɧɨɜɨɝ ɫɜɟɬɚ, ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɭɦɧɨʁ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɢ, ɩɭɬɟɦ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɟ ɛɨɪɛɟ
ɩɪɟɬɜɨɪɢɬɢ ɭ ɪɟɚɥɧɟ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɫɥɨɛɨɻɟʃɚ. ȿɜɪɨɩɚ (ɫɜɟɬ) ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɧɟ ɛɚɲɬɚ
ɭ ɤɨʁɨʁ ʄɟ ɡɚʁɟɞɧɨ ɞɚ ɪɚɫɬɭ ɰɜɟɬɨɜɢ ɫɜɢɯ ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɢɯ (ɫɜɟɬɫɤɢɯ) ɤɭɥɬɭɪɚ. ɇɢʁɟ ɜɚɠɧɨ
ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɰɜɟɬ "ɜɟʄɢ", ɜɟʄ ɞɚ ɫɜɚɤɢ ɦɢɪɢɲɟ ɫɜɨʁɢɦ ɦɢɪɢɫɨɦ. Ɋɚɞɢ ɫɟ ɨ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚʃɭ
ɢɞɟʁɚ-ɜɨɞɢʂɚ Ɏɪɚɧɰɭɫɤɟ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɫɤɟ ɪɟɜɨɥɭɰɢʁɟ ɤɨʁɢ ɧɢɫɭ ɫɚɦɨ ɯɭɦɚɧɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ, ɜɟʄ ɫɭ
ɩɨɫɬɚɥɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɢ ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɢ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ. ɋɚɦɨ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɛɨɪɛɟ ɡɚ ɧɨɜɢ ɫɜɟɬ
ɟɦɚɧɰɢɩɚɬɨɪɫɤɨ ɧɚɫɥɟɻɟ ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɧɚɪɨɞɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɠɢɜɟ ɭ ȿɜɪɨɩɢ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ
ɪɟɚɥɢɡɭʁɟ. ȿɜɪɨɩɚ ʄɟ ɩɪɟɜɚɡɢʄɢ ɫɜɟ ɞɭɛʂɭ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɭ ɤɪɢɡɭ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟɦ ɧɨɜɨɝ ɫɜɟɬɚ -
ɢɥɢ ʄɟ ɩɪɨɩɚɫɬɢ. ɍɫɜɚʁɚʃɟ "ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɨɝ ɧɚɱɢɧɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ" ɡɚ ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɟ ɧɚɪɨɞɟ ɡɧɚɱɢ
ɫɚɦɨɭɛɢɫɬɜɨ.
ɍ ɫɜɟ ɛɟɫɩɨɲɬɟɞɧɢʁɟɦ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɨɦ ɪɚɬɭ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ, ɧɚ ɫɜɟɬɫɤɨɦ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɭ, ɜɨɞɢ
ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɧɚʁɦɨʄɧɢʁɢɯ ɦɭɥɬɢɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɪɧɚ, ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɟ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɟ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɭ
ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬ ɤɨʁɢɦ ɫɟ ɧɚɫɬɨʁɢ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɞɢɬɢ "ɫɬɚɛɢɥɚɧ ɪɚɡɜɨʁ" ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɝ
ɩɨɪɟɬɤɚ. ɇɟ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚ ɩɪɟɫɬɚɥɚ ɞɚ ɧɚ "ɤɥɚɫɢɱɚɧ ɧɚɱɢɧ" ɛɭɞɟ ɡɚɜɢɫɧɚ ɨɞ
ɟɤɨɧɨɦɢʁɟ, ɤɚɤɨ ɬɨ ɬɜɪɞɢ ȳɢɪɝɟɧ ɏɚɛɟɪɦɚɫ, ɧɟɝɨ ʁɟ ɭ ɩɨɬɩɭɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɞɪɟɻɟɧɚ ɥɨɝɢɰɢ
ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢɯ ɨɞɧɨɫɚ ɭ ɧɚɫɬɨʁɚʃɭ ɞɚ ɨɞ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ ɫɬɜɨɪɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɨ-ɩɨɬɪɨɲɚɱɤɢ
ɥɨɝɨɪ, ɭ ɤɨɦɟ ʄɟ ɪɚɡɦɢɲʂɚʃɟ ɢ ɩɨɧɚɲɚʃɟ ʂɭɞɢ ɭ ɩɨɬɩɭɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɢɬɢ ɩɨɞɪɟɻɟɧɨ
ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɢɦ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɢɦɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ. "ɇɚɞɝɪɚɞʃɚ" ʁɟ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɤɨʁɢɦ
ɬɪɟɛɚ ɩɨɫɬɢʄɢ ɞɚ ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɚ ɥɨɝɢɤɚ ɛɚɡɢɱɧɢɯ (ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢɯ) ɨɞɧɨɫɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɧɟ
ɩɨɤɪɟɬɚɱɤɚ ɫɧɚɝɚ ɭɤɭɩɧɨɝ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɨɝ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ, ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ "ɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɨɫɬ" (ɧɟɤɚɞɚ
"ɩɪɚɜɟɞɧɨɫɬ") ɩɨɫɬɚɥɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɨ ɧɚɱɟɥɨ. ȵɟɧɚ ɞɟɥɚɬɧɨɫɬ ɫɟ, ɩɪɟ ɫɜɟɝɚ,
ɫɜɨɞɢ ɧɚ "ɩɥɚɧɢɪɚʃɟ ɛɭɞɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ", ɲɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɧɚ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɫɭɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɟ ɭ ɩɨɜɟʄɚɜɚʃɭ
ɢɡɜɟɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɟɠɢɜʂɚɜɚʃɚ ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɟɝ ɩɨɪɟɬɤɚ. "ɋɢɥɚɠɟʃɟɦ" ɧɚɞɝɪɚɞʃɟ ɭ ɛɚɡɭ ɤɪɭɝ
ɫɟ ɡɚɬɜɨɪɢɨ: ɞɪɠɚɜɚ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɬɨɬɚɥɢɡɭʁɭʄɢ  + ɤɪɭɩɧɨɝ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ
ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɲɟ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɢ ɨɦɨɝɭʄɢ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɚɧ ɪɚɡɜɨʁ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ (ɩɪɟ ɫɜɟɝɚ ɞɚ ɫɩɪɟɱɢ
ɪɚɡɛɭɤɬɚɜɚʃɟ ɤɥɚɫɧɨɝ ɫɭɤɨɛɚ ɢ ɨɱɭɜɚ "ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɧɢ ɦɢɪ"). ɂɧɫɢɫɬɢɪɚʃɟɦ ɧɚ ɬɟɡɢ ɨ
"ɭɜɨɻɟʃɭ ɟɥɟɦɚɧɚɬɚ ɧɚɞɝɪɚɞʃɟ ɭ ɛɚɡɭ" ɠɟɥɢ ɫɟ ɞɨɤɚɡɚɬɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɪɚɡɭɦ ɧɚɞɜɥɚɞɚɨ
ɫɬɢɯɢʁɭ (ɬɡɜ. "ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɧɢ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ"). ɍ ɫɬɜɚɪɢ, "ɪɚɡɭɦ" ʁɟ ɩɨɫɬɚɨ ɨɛɥɢɤ ɭ ɤɨɦɟ
ɫɟ ɩɨʁɚɜʂɭʁɭ ɢɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɢ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɟ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢʁɟ. Ƚɥɚɜɧɢ ɨɫɥɨɧɚɰ
"ɪɚɡɭɦɚ" ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɢ (ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɢ)  +. ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɫɜɨɞɢ ɧɚ
ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ ɪɚɡɜɨʁ (ɧɚɭɤɚ, ɬɟɯɧɢɤɚ, ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢʁɚ ɢ ɬɫɥ.) ɢ ɡɚɲɬɢɬɭ (ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɚ,
ɩɨɥɢɰɢʁɫɤɚ, ɢɞɟɨɥɨɲɤɚ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢ ɨɛɥɢɰɢ ɪɟɩɪɟɫɢʁɟ) ɭɫɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɟɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɬɤɚ. ɍɫɩɟɲɧɨ
ʁɟ ɢɡɜɪɲɟɧɨ ʃɟɝɨɜɨ ɫɬɟɪɢɥɢɫɚʃɟ, ɨɱɢɲʄɟɧ ʁɟ ɨɞ ɫɜɢɯ "ɜɪɟɞɧɨɫɧɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɪɚɫɭɞɚ" ɢ
ɩɨɫɬɚɨ ɫɥɟɩɨ ɢ ɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɨ ɨɪɭɻɟ ɡɚ ɨɜɥɚɞɚɜɚʃɟ ɱɨɜɟɤɨɦ. Ɋɚɞɢ ɫɟ ɨ ɬɡɜ. "ɭɩɪɚɜʂɚɱɤɨɦ
ɭɦɭ" ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɩɪɢɯɜɚɬɢɨ ɦɨɞɟɪɧɟ ɨɛɥɢɤɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɲɤɨɝ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɚʃɚ ɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɢɯ,
ɩɪɢɥɚɝɨɻɟɧɟ ɢ ɭɫɚɜɪɲɟɧɟ, ɩɪɢɦɟʃɭʁɟ ɭ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɚʃɭ ɩɨɧɚɲɚʃɚ ʂɭɞɢ. ɍ ɬɨɦ ɫɦɢɫɥɭ,
ɫɚɦɨ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɨ ɤɨɧɫɬɢɬɭɢɫɚʃɟ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ, ɧɚɱɢɧ "ɜɨɻɟʃɚ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɟ" ɫɜɟ ɜɢɲɟ ɫɟ
ɨɬɭɻɭʁɟ ɨɞ ʂɭɞɢ ɩɪɢɯɜɚɬɚʁɭʄɢ ɥɨɝɢɤɭ ɬɟɯɧɨɤɪɚɬɫɤɟ ɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɚɨ ɨɫɧɨɜ
ɭɫɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚʃɚ "ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɨɝ" ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɬɤɚ. Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɧɚɫɬɨʁɚɬɢ ɞɚ ɫɟ
ɫɨɩɫɬɜɟɧɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ, ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɧɚɥɚɡɢ ɭ ɜɪɬɥɨɝɭ ɫɜɟɬɫɤɢɯ ɡɛɢɜɚʃɚ, ɤɨɧɫɬɢɬɭɢɲɟ ɧɚ
ɨɫɧɨɜɚɦɚ "ɪɚɡɭɦɚ", ɢɫɬɨ ʁɟ ɲɬɨ ɢ ɩɨɤɭɲɚɬɢ ɭɱɜɪɫɬɢɬɢ ɡɢɞɨɜɟ ɫɜɨɝɚ ɫɬɚɧɚ ɭ ɡɝɪɚɞɢ
ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɪɭɲɢ. ɋɬɚɛɢɥɧɨɫɬ ɫɜɚɤɨɝ ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɚɱɧɨɝ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɨɞ
ɫɬɚɛɢɥɧɨɫɬɢ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɧɨɝ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɬɤɚ. Ⱥɤɨ ɫɭ ʃɟɝɨɜɢ ɬɟɦɟʂɢ ɭ ɤɪɢɡɢ,
"ɪɚɡɭɦɧɢɦ" ɦɟɪɚɦɚ, ɲɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢʁɨɦ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ ɩɨɞ ɩɚɬɪɨɧɚɬɨɦ ɞɪɠɚɜɟ, ɤɪɢɡɚ
XII

ɫɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɭɛɥɚɠɢɬɢ (ɬɡɜ. "ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɫɚɧɚ ɤɪɢɡɚ"), ɛɟɡɛɨɥɧɢʁɟ ɞɨɱɟɤɚɬɢ ʃɟɧɢ


ɭɞɚɪɢ, ɚɥɢ ɫɟ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɪɚɡɪɟɲɢɬɢ. "Ɋɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɚ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚ" ɧɚʁɪɚɡɜɢʁɟɧɢʁɢɯ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɞɪɠɚɜɚ ɫɜɨɞɢ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɢɡɝɪɚɞʃɭ ɨɞɛɪɚɦɛɟɧɨɝ ɛɟɞɟɦɚ ɨɞ ɤɨɝɚ ʄɟ ɫɟ
ɬɚɥɚɫɢ ɤɪɢɡɟ ɨɞɛɢɬɢ ɢ ɩɪɟɥɢɬɢ ɧɚ ɨɧɟ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɧɚʁɦɚʃɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɢ (ɧɚʁɧɟɪɚɡɜɢʁɟɧɢʁɟ
ɡɟɦʂɟ) ɞɚ ɫɟ ɨɞɭɩɪɭ ɤɪɢɡɢ. 
Ʉɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ  +. ʁɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟ ɤɪɢɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɭɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɩɪɭɠɚ
ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɡɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɜɢɡɢʁɟ ɛɭɞɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɡɚ ɢɡɝɪɚɞʃɭ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɧɨɝ ɫɜɟɬɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ
ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɭɦɭ. ɍɦɟɫɬɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɪɚɡɭɦ ɭɫɦɟɪɟɧ ɧɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɢɯ ɨɞɧɨɫɚ ɤɨʁɢ ʄɟ
ɩɪɭɠɢɬɢ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɱɨɜɟɤɭ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɱɨɜɟɤ ɢ ɞɚ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɞɢ ɫɜɨʁ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ, ɨɧ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ
ɩɪɨɞɭɠɟɧɚ ɪɭɤɚ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢɯ (ɩɪɨɮɢɬɟɪɫɤɢɯ) ɩɪɨɰɟɫɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɧɚɫɬɨʁɟ ɞɚ ɱɢɬɚɜ
ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɢ ɠɢɜɨɬ ɩɪɟɬɜɨɪɟ ɭ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɫɨɩɫɬɜɟɧɨɝ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɚ. ɍɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟ ɭɦɚ, ɩɭɬɟɦ
ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɟ ɡɚɛɚɜɟ ɭ ɤɨʁɨʁ ɝɥɚɜɧɨ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɢɦɚ ɫɩɨɪɬ, ɫɚɫɬɚɜɧɢ ʁɟ ɞɟɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɚ
ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɚ "ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɨɝ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ" ɢ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɚ "ɧɨɜɨɝ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ" ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ
ɫɜɟɞɟɧ ɧɚ ɪɨɛɨɬɢɡɨɜɚɧɭ ɧɚɤɚɡɭ. Ʉɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɚ ɬɨɬɚɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɚ ɫɜɟɬɚ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚ
ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɢɫɚʃɟ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɧɚɦɟɬɚʃɟɦ "ʁɟɞɧɨ-ɞɢɦɟɧɡɢɨɧɚɥɧɨɝ" (Ɇɚɪɤɭɡɟ) ɧɚɱɢɧɚ
ɦɢɲʂɟʃɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚ: ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɨɞɧɨɫ ɩɪɟɦɚ ɫɜɟɬɭ;
ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɢɡɨɜɚʃɟ ɫɜɟɝɚ ɢ ɫɜɚɤɨɝɚ; ɤɜɚɧɬɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɭ ɞɢɦɟɧɡɢʁɭ; ɦɢɫɬɢɰɢɡɚɦ ɤɨʁɢ
ɢɦɚ "ɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɭɥɚɪɧɨ" ɩɚɤɨɜɚʃɟ; ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɢɡɚɦ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɚɩɫɨɥɭɬɢɡɨɜɚɧɨɦ
ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɭ ɭɱɢɧɤɚ, ɚ ɨɜɚʁ ɧɚ ɚɩɫɨɥɭɬɢɡɨɜɚɧɨɦ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɭ ɩɪɨɮɢɬɚ... Ɋɚɞɢ ɫɟ ɨ ɧɚɱɢɧɭ
ɦɢɲʂɟʃɚ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧ ɧɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɫ ɟɫɟɧɰɢʁɨɦ (ɫɥɨɛɨɞɚ, ɩɪɚɜɞɚ), ɜɟʄ ɢ ɫ
ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɨɦ (ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ, ɩɪɢɪɨɞɚ), ɲɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɞɚ ɢɦɚ ɮɚɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ
ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ. ɂɫɬɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ, ɢɞɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɚ ɫɥɢɤɚ ɚɧɬɢɤɟ ɢ ɫɪɟɞʃɟɝ ɜɟɤɚ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɨɫɧɨɜ ɡɚ
ɢɡɝɪɚɞʃɭ ɢɞɟʁɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɰɟɧɞɟɧɰɢʁɟ ɤɨʁɚ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧ ɫ ɜɢɡɢɨɧɚɪɫɤɨɦ
ɫɜɟɲʄɭ. ɏɪɢɲʄɚɧɫɤɟ (ɢ ɝɨɬɨɜɨ ɫɜɟ ɞɪɭɝɟ) ɰɪɤɜɟɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɢ ɫɭ ɫɚɜɟɡɧɢɤ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɤɨʁɢ
ɩɨɤɭɲɚɜɚ ɞɚ ɭɧɢɲɬɢ ɫɚɦɨɫɜɟɫɬ ɦɨɞɟɪɧɨɝ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ (ɝɪɚɻɚɧɢɧɚ) ɤɚɨ ɤɨɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɢɜɧɨɝ
ɫɭɛʁɟɤɬɚ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɫɤɨɝ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ ɢ ɤɚɨ ɫɬɜɚɪɚɨɰɚ ɫɜɨɝ ɫɜɟɬɚ. ɏɪɢɲʄɚɧɫɬɜɨ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɟ
ɚɩɨɤɚɥɢɩɬɢɱɤɟ ɪɟɥɢɝɢʁɟ ɞɨɩɪɢɧɨɫɟ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɭ ɫɜɟɫɬɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɩɪɨɩɚɫɬ ɫɜɟɬɚ
ɧɟɦɢɧɨɜɧɨɫɬ. ȳɟɞɧɨ ʁɟ ɤɚɞɚ ɫɟ ɬɚɤɜɚ ɢɞɟɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ ɩɪɨɩɨɜɟɞɚ ɭ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɦɚ ɤɚɞɚ ɧɟ
ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɪɟɚɥɧɚ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬ ɨɞ ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɚ ɫɜɟɬɚ, ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɬɨ ɛɢɥɨ ɭ ɫɪɟɞʃɟɦ ɜɟɤɭ, ɚ
ɞɪɭɝɨ ɤɚɞɚ ɬɚ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɫɜɟ ɪɟɚɥɧɢʁɚ.
Ɇɚɧɢɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɚ ɫɟ ɢɡ ɢɞɟɨɥɨɲɤɟ ɫɟɥɢ ɭ ɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɲɤɭ ɪɚɜɚɧ. ɋɜɟɫɬ ʁɟ
"ɩɪɟɜɚɡɢɻɟɧɚ" - ɛɢɬɧɚ ʁɟ ɩɨɞɫɜɟɫɬ. ɇɚ ɬɨɦ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɭ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɲɟ ɤɚɤɨ ɪɟɤɥɚɦɧɚ
ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɚ, ɬɚɤɨ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɚ (ɢɞɟɨɥɨɲɤɚ) ɫɮɟɪɚ. ɋɜɟ ɫɟ ɱɢɧɢ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɫɩɪɟɱɢ ɞɚ ɱɨɜɟɤ
ɫɯɜɚɬɢ ɫɜɨʁ ɬɪɚɝɢɱɧɢ ɩɨɥɨɠɚʁ ɭ ɫɜɟɬɭ ɝɞɟ ɜɥɚɞɚ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɧɢɲɬɚɜɢɥɨ. Ɋɚɞɢ ɫɟ ɨ
ɦɟɞɢʁɫɤɨɦ ɬɟɪɨɪɭ ɭ ɤɨɦɟ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɚ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɚ ɡɚɛɚɜɟ ɢ ɪɟɤɥɚɦɧɢ ɫɩɨɬɨɜɢ - ɤɨʁɢ
ɫɬɜɚɪɚʁɭ ɤɪɢɜɚ ɨɝɥɟɞɚɥɚ ɭ ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɱɨɜɟɤ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɜɢɞɢ ɫɚɦɨ "ɫɜɨʁ" ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɢɫɚɧɢ ɥɢɤ.
Ʉɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɫɤɢ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬ ɢ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɭ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɞɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɛɢɬɧɚ
ɩɢɬɚʃɚ ɨ ɫɜɨʁɨʁ (ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɨʁ) ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɢ ɢ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɞɚ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɢ ɧɚ ʃɢɯ. Ƚɨɬɨɜɨ
ɱɢɬɚɜ ɦɟɞɢʁɫɤɢ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪ je ɭ ɪɭɤɚɦɚ ɨɧɢɯ ɤɨʁɢ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʁɭ ɠɢɜɨɬ ɢ ɤɨʁɢ
ɦɚɪɝɢɧɚɥɢɡɭʁɭ ɨɧɨ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɛɢɬɧɨ, ɞɚ ɛɢ ɨɧɨɦɟ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɦɚɪɝɢɧɚɥɧɨ ɞɚɥɢ ɫɭɞɛɢɧɫɤɭ
ɞɢɦɟɧɡɢʁɭ. "ɋɟɧɡɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɟ ɚɮɟɪɟ", "ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɟ ɭɬɚɤɦɢɰɟ", ɧɚɫɬɭɩɢ ɦɟɞɢʁɫɤɢɯ
"ɡɜɟɡɞɚ", "ɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɭɥɚɪɧɢ" ɯɨɥɢɜɭɞɫɤɢ ɮɢɥɦɨɜɢ ɢ ɫɚɩɭɧɫɤɟ Ɍȼ ɫɟɪɢʁɟ - ɩɨɫɬɚʁɭ
ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ ɨɞɜɪɚʄɚʃɟ ɩɚɠʃɟ ʂɭɞɢ ɨɞ ɩɢɬɚʃɚ ɨɞ ɱɢʁɟɝ ɪɟɲɟʃɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ
ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɡɚ ʃɢɯɨɜɨ ɢɞɢɨɬɢɡɨɜɚʃɟ. Ȼɥɨɤɢɪɚʃɟ ɫɜɟɫɬɢ ɢ ɞɚɜɚʃɟ ɨɞɭɲɤɚ
ɩɨɬɢɫɧɭɬɨɦ ɛɢʄɭ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ, ʃɟɝɨɜɨɦ ɫɜɟ ɜɟʄɟɦ ɧɟɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɫɬɜɭ, ɫɬɪɚɯɭ, ɡɟɛʃɢ - ɢ
ɨɩɥɨɞʃɚ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɢɦ ɞɭɯɨɦ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɢɡ ɱɟɝɚ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɪɨɞɢ "ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɢ
ɱɨɜɟɤ" - ɬɨ ʁɟ ɫɭɲɬɢɧɚ "ɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɚ". Ɉɬɭɞɚ ɫɜɟ ɜɟʄɢ ɡɧɚɱɚʁ ɫɩɨɪɬɚ. ɍ ʃɟɦɭ ɫɟ
ɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɲɤɚ ɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɚ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɢɧɨɜɢɪɚɧɨʁ
XIII

ȳɭɜɟɧɚɥɨɜɨʁ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɢ  0*-‘ *+‘ 22*02*5: ɲɬɨ ɦɚʃɟ ɯɥɟɛɚ, ɬɨ ɜɢɲɟ ɤɪɜɚɜɢɯ ɢɝɚɪɚ.
ɋɜɟ ɜɟʄɟ ɧɟɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɫɬɜɨ ɩɨɬɥɚɱɟɧɢɯ ɫɚɝɨɪɟɜɚ ɧɚ ɫɬɚɞɢɨɧɢɦɚ - ɬɢɦ ɥɨɦɚɱɚɦɚ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ. ɋɩɨɪɬ ʁɟ ɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɭɥɚɪɧɢ ɨɛɥɢɤ ɭ ɤɨɦɟ ɫɟ ɩɨʁɚɜʂɭʁɟ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɢ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɢɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɢɡɚɦ - ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɚɩɫɨɥɭɬɢɡɨɜɚɧɨɦ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɭ
ɤɜɚɧɬɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɨ ɦɟɪʂɢɜɨɝ ɭɱɢɧɤɚ (ɩɪɨɮɢɬɚ) ɢ ɧɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɦɭɬɢɪɚɧɨɦ
ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɧɨ-ɞɚɪɜɢɧɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɦ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɭ. Ɉɧ ʁɟ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢɯ ɧɚɱɢɧɚ ɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ
ɠɢɜɨɬɜɨɪɧɚ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɚ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɩɪɟɬɜɚɪɚ ɭ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɭ (ɫɩɨɪɬɫɤɭ) ɩɪɚɤɫɭ. ɍɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɫɟ
ɩɨɻɟ ɨɞ ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɢɯ ɢ ɯɭɦɚɧɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ (ɭɦɧɢɯ) ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢʁɭɦɚ, ʁɚɫɧɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɬɟɠʃɚ
ɤɚ ɪɟɤɨɪɞɭ ɜɨɞɢ (ɫɚɦɨ)ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɭ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ. Ɍɟɤ ɤɚɞɚ ɫɟ ɭɨɱɟ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢʁɟ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɚ ɫɩɨɪɬɚ
ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɫɯɜɚɬɢ ʃɟɝɨɜɚ ɫɭɲɬɢɧɚ, ɚ ɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɫɭɲɬɢɧɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɱɢʁɢ ʁɟ ɫɩɨɪɬ
ɤɨɧɞɟɧɡɨɜɚɧɢ ɢɞɟɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɢɡɪɚɡ. Ɉɬɭɞɚ ʁɟ ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧ ɫ ɤɪɢɬɢɱɤɢɦ ɭɦɨɦ ɢ
ɜɢɡɢɨɧɚɪɫɤɨɦ ɫɜɟɲʄɭ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢɯ ɡɚɞɚɬɚɤɚ ɫɩɨɪɬɚ. Ɉɧ ʁɟ ɜɚɫɩɢɬɚʃɟ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ
ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɢɦ ɨɞɧɨɫɢɦɚ ɢ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɫɬɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɞɨɛɢʁɚʁɭ ɦɢɬɫɤɭ ɞɢɦɟɧɡɢʁɭ.
"ɋɩɨɪɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢʁɚ" ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɥɚ ʁɟ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢɯ ɨɛɥɢɤɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɟ
ɬɨɬɚɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɟ ɫɜɟɬɚ. Ʉɚɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɭ ɧɚɰɢɫɬɢɱɤɟ Ɉɥɢɦɩɢʁɫɤɟ ɢɝɪɟ (Ȼɟɪɥɢɧ 1936.) ɫɥɭɠɢɥɟ
ɞɚ ɩɪɢɤɪɢʁɭ ɩɪɚɜɟ ɧɚɦɟɪɟ ɧɚɰɢɫɬɚ, ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚɧɚɲʃɢ ɫɩɨɪɬ ɫɥɭɠɢ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɩɪɢɤɪɢʁɟ
ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɚ "ɭɬɚɤɦɢɰɚ" ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɜɨɞɢ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ Ɂɚɩɚɞɚ ɢ "ɨɫɬɚɥɨɝ" ɫɜɟɬɚ, ɭ ɤɨʁɨʁ
ɧɟɦɚ ɩɨɛɟɞɧɢɤɚ ɢ ɩɨɪɚɠɟɧɢɯ, ɜɟʄ ɨɧɢɯ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɭɧɢɲɬɟɧɢ ɢ ɨɧɢɯ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ʁɨɲ ɭɜɟɤ
ɠɢɜɢ.
Ɂɚɜɪɲɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɩɪɢɱɚ ɨ "ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɨɦ ɫɧɭ". ɍɛɢɫɬɜɨ Ɇɚɪɬɢɧɚ Ʌɭɬɟɪɚ Ʉɢɧɝɚ, ȹɨɧɚ
Ʌɟɧɨɧɚ ɢ ɛɪɨʁɧɢɯ ɛɨɪɚɰɚ ɡɚ ɯɭɦɚɧɢ ɫɜɟɬ ʁɚɫɧɨ ɭɤɚɡɭʁɟ ɧɚ ɬɨ, ɞɚ ʁɟ ɡɚ ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɟ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɟ ɝɪɭɩɚɰɢʁɟ ɢɞɟʁɚ ɨ "ɛɨʂɟɦ ɫɜɟɬɭ" ɧɚʁɜɟʄɚ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬ ʁɟɪ ɩɪɭɠɚ
ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɡɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɟ ɩɥɚɬɮɨɪɦɟ ɤɨʁɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɭɫɦɟɪɢ ɫɜɟ ɜɟʄɟ
ɧɟɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɫɬɜɨ ɩɨɬɥɚɱɟɧɢɯ ɤɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɭ ɧɨɜɨɝ (ɩɪɚɜɟɞɧɨɝ) ɫɜɟɬɚ. ɍɛɢɬɢ ʂɭɞɢɦɚ ɜɟɪɭ
ɞɚ ʁɟ ɛɭɞɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɦɨɝɭʄɚ ɢ ɞɚ ɢɦɚ ɫɦɢɫɥɚ ɛɨɪɢɬɢ ɫɟ ɡɚ ʃɭ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢ
ɡɚɞɚɬɚɤ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɟ ɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɧɟ ɦɚɲɢɧɟɪɢʁɟ. Ɂɚ ɫɜɟ ɜɟʄɟ ɧɟɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɫɬɜɨ ʂɭɞɢ
ɧɢʁɟ ɤɪɢɜ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ, ɜɟʄ ɨɧɢ "ɧɟɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɢ" ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɚɪɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɢɦɚ
ɨɛɟʄɚɥɢ "ɫɪɟʄɧɭ ɛɭɞɭʄɧɨɫɬ". "ȼɢɡɢʁɚ ɛɭɞɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ" ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɪɨɛɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɩɭɬɟɦ
ɬɟɥɟɜɢɡɢʁɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɚ ɩɪɨɞɚʁɟ ɱɨɜɟɤɭ ɬɚɤɨ ɲɬɨ ɦɭ ɫɟ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɦɚɲɬɚ ɨ
ɩɪɚɜɞɢ ɢ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɢ. ȵɨɦɟ ɫɟ ɝɥɨɪɢɮɢɤɭʁɟ (ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɚ) ɬɟɯɧɢɤɚ, ɱɢɦɟ ɫɟ ɫɬɜɚɪɚ
ɢɥɭɡɢʁɚ ɨ "ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɢɜɧɨɦ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɭ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ". ɇɚɭɱɧɢɰɢ ɫɭ "ɡɚɛɪɢɧɭɬɢ" ɲɬɚ ʄɟ
ɫɟ ɞɟɫɢɬɢ ɫɚ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɨɦ ɡɚ ɩɟɬ ɦɢɥɢɨɧɚ ɝɨɞɢɧɚ, ɚɥɢ ɢɯ ɧɟ ɡɚɧɢɦɚ ɲɬɚ ʄɟ ɫɟ ɞɟɫɢɬɢ ɫɚ
ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɨɦ ɭ ɫɥɟɞɟʄɢɯ ɫɬɨ ɝɨɞɢɧɚ. ɍɦɟɫɬɨ ɜɟɪɟ ɭ "ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɢ ɫɚɧ", ɤɨʁɢɦ ʁɟ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɚ ɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɧɚ ɦɚɲɢɧɟɪɢʁɚ ɞɨ ɫɤɨɪɚ ɧɚɫɬɨʁɚɥɚ ɞɚ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɲɟ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɟ ɭ
ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɢ ɩɨɪɟɞɚɤ, ɡɚɫɬɪɚɲɢɜɚʃɟ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɚ "ɬɟɪɨɪɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɦ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɲʄɭ" ɩɨɫɬɚɥɨ ʁɟ
ɝɥɚɜɧɨ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ ɭɱɜɪɲʄɢɜɚʃɟ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɧɟ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɟ ɞɢɤɬɚɬɭɪɟ. 
ɂɞɟɨɥɨɡɢ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɢɝɧɨɪɢɲɭ ɢɫɬɢɧɭ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɫɜɟɬ ɞɨɜɟɞɟɧ ɧɚ ɢɜɢɰɭ
ɩɪɨɜɚɥɢʁɟ. Ƚɪɚɻɚɧɫɤɚ ɤɪɢɬɢɤɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɭɫɦɟɪɟɧɚ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ, ɜɟʄ
ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɨɧɟ ɤɪɢɬɢɤɟ ɤɨʁɚ ɬɟɠɢ ɞɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɢ ɛɢɬɧɚ ɩɢɬɚʃɚ, ɚ ɬɨ ɩɪɟ ɫɜɟɝɚ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɩɢɬɚʃɟ
ɨɨɫɧɨɜɧɨʁɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢʁɢ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ - ɤɨʁɟ ɭɩɭʄɭʁɟ ɧɚ ʃɟɝɨɜɭ ɫɭɲɬɢɧɭ. Ɋɚɞɢ
ɫɟ, ɭ ɫɬɜɚɪɢ, ɨ ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧɭ ɫ ɨɧɨɦ ɤɪɢɬɢɱɤɨɦ ɦɢɲʂɭ ɤɨʁɚ ɬɟɠɢ ɩɪɟɜɚɡɢɥɚɠɟʃɭ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɢ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɭ ɧɨɜɨɝ ɫɜɟɬɚ. Ƚɪɚɻɚɧɫɤɢ ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɚɪɢ ɨɞɧɨɫɟ ɫɟ ɩɪɟɦɚ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɭ ɤɚɨ ɧɟɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɨɦ ɩɨɪɟɬɤɭ, ɲɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɤɚɨ ɞɚɬɨɫɬɢ ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟ
ɞɨɜɟɫɬɢ ɭ ɩɢɬɚʃɟ. Ɉɬɭɞɚ ɨɧɢ ɝɨɜɨɪɢ ɨ "ɧɭɠɧɨɫɬɢ" ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɢɡɨɜɚʃɚ,
ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɢɦɚ ɦɭɥɬɢɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢɯ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢʁɚ ɢ ɧɚ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɭ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ, ɚɥɢ ɧɟ ɝɨɜɨɪɟ ɨ ɧɭɠɧɨʁ ɩɪɨɩɚɫɬɢ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɤɚɨ ʁɟɞɧɨɝ ɨɞ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɢɯ
ɨɛɥɢɤɚ ɭ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɭ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ. Ʉɚɞɚ ɝɨɜɨɪɟ ɨ ɋɋɋɊ-ɭ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ (ɛɢɜɲɢɦ) ɡɟɦʂɚɦɚ
"ɪɟɚɥɧɨɝ ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɢɡɦɚ", ɤɨɤɚ-ɤɨɥɚ ɢɧɬɟɥɟɤɬɭɚɥɰɢ ɩɨ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɭ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛʂɚɜɚʁɭ ɢɡɪɚɡ
XIV

"ɤɨɦɭɧɢɡɚɦ" ɞɚ ɛɢ "ɞɨɤɚɡɚɥɢ" ɞɚ ʁɟ "ɤɨɦɭɧɢɡɚɦ ɩɪɨɩɚɨ", ɢ ɞɚ ɛɢ ɫɟ ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧɚɥɢ ɫ


Ɇɚɪɤɫɨɜɨɦ ɤɪɢɬɢɤɨɦ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɢ ɢɞɟʁɨɦ ɛɭɞɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ. ɍ ɫɜɨʁɨʁ ɢɞɟɨɥɨɲɤɨʁ
ɡɚɫɥɟɩʂɟɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɩɨɞɚɧɢɲɬɜɭ, ɨɧɢ ɩɪɟɜɢɻɚʁɭ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɭ ɫɜɨʁɨʁ ɤɪɢɬɢɰɢ Ɇɚɪɤɫɚ ɞɪɠɟ
ɭɩɪɚɜɨ Ɇɚɪɤɫɨɜɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢʁɟ, ɫ ɬɢɦ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɩɪɢɥɚɝɨɻɚɜɚʁɭ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɚɦɚ
ɨɱɭɜɚʃɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ. Ɏɪɟɧɫɢɫ Ɏɭɤɭʁɚɦɚ ɭ ɫɜɨʁɨʁ ɤʃɢɡɢ "
‘
 ɢ   ‘
" ɝɥɚɜɧɢ ɭɡɪɨɤ ɩɪɨɩɚɫɬɢ "ɤɨɦɭɧɢɡɦɚ" ɧɚ ɂɫɬɨɤɭ ɜɢɞɢ ɭ ɬɨɦɟ ɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɬɚʁ
ɩɨɪɟɞɚɤ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚɨ ɧɚ "ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɧɨʁ ɩɪɚɜɞɢ": ɛɨɪɛɚ ɡɚ ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɧɭ ɩɪɚɜɞɭ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɚɧɬɢ-
ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɢ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ. Ɍɨ ʁɟ ɞɚɜɧɨ ɩɪɟ Ɏɭɤɭʁɚɦɟ "ɭɬɜɪɞɢɨ" Ɉɝɢɫɬ Ʉɨɧɬ, ɤɚɨ ɢ
ʃɟɝɨɜ ɫɥɟɞɛɟɧɢɤ ɉʁɟɪ ɞɟ Ʉɭɛɟɪɬɟɧ: ɛɨɪɛɚ ɩɨɬɥɚɱɟɧɢɯ ɡɚ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɭ ɢ ɩɪɚɜɞɭ ʁɟ
ɤɨɱɧɢɰɚ "ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɚ", ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɨɬɟɥɨɬɜɨɪɟɧ ɭ ɛɭɪɠɨɚɡɢʁɢ, ɲɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɞɚ ɞɨɜɨɞɢ ɭ
ɩɢɬɚʃɟ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ. Ɏɭɤɭʁɚɦɢɧɚ ɤɪɢɬɢɤɚ ɛɢɜɲɢɯ "ɤɨɦɭɧɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ"
ɞɪɭɲɬɚɜɚ ɫɜɨɞɢ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧ ɫ ɬɟɠʃɨɦ ɡɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟɦ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɨ ɭɬɟɦɟʂɟɧɨɝ
ɩɪɢɜɪɟɞɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɬɤɚ ɤɨʁɢ ʄɟ ɫɥɭɠɢɬɢ ɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɟʃɭ ɢɫɬɢɧɫɤɢɯ ʂɭɞɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɚ - ɱɢɦɟ
ɫɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɩɪɟɜɚɡɢʄɢ ɫɜɟ ɞɭɛʂɚ ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɚ ɤɪɢɡɚ ɤɨʁɭ ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ. ɂ
ʃɟɝɨɜɚ ɬɟɨɪɢʁɚ ɭɤɚɡɭʁɟ ɧɚ ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɟ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢʁɟ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɚ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɟ ɦɢɫɥɢ ɧɚ Ɂɚɩɚɞɭ:
ɫɬɜɚɪɢ ɫɟ ɜɢɲɟ ɧɟ ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɭ ɟɫɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɨʁ, ɜɟʄ ɭ ɱɢɫɬɨ ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɨʁ ɪɚɜɧɢ. Ɍɨ
ɡɧɚɱɢ ɞɚ ɫɭ ɞɨɡɜɨʂɟɧɚ ɫɜɚ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɭʁɭ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ - ɩɨ ɰɟɧɭ
ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɚ ɟɦɚɧɰɢɩɚɬɨɪɫɤɨɝ ɧɚɫɥɟɻɚ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɫɤɨɝ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ ɢ "ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɨɝ
ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ". Ɂɚ Ɇɚɪɤɫɚ ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɢɡɚɦ ʁɟ ɩɪɟɥɚɡɧɢ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɨɞ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɤɚ
ɤɨɦɭɧɢɡɦɭ - ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɤɨɧɚɱɧɨ ɩɪɟɜɚɡɢɥɚɠɟʃɟ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɢ ɩɨɱɟɬɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɟ
ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ. ɂɡ ɬɨɝɚ ɫɥɟɞɢ ɞɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ("ɩɨɧɨɜɧɨ") ɭɫɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚʃɟ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ -
ɭɤɨɥɢɤɨ ʁɟ ɨɫɬɜɚɪɟɧ ɤɨɦɭɧɢɡɚɦ. Ⱦɨ ɤɨɝ ɚɩɫɭɪɞɚ ʁɟ ɞɨɲɥɚ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɫɤɚ ɬɟɨɪɢʁɚ ɩɨɤɚɡɭʁɟ
ɢ ɬɨ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ɩɪɨɝɥɚɲɟɧ ɡɚ "ɩɨɫɬ-ɤɨɦɭɧɢɡɚɦ"! ɂɫɬɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ, ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɚɪɢ
ɩɨɩɭɬ ɏɚɛɟɪɦɚɫɚ ɝɨɜɨɪɟ ɨ "ɤɚɫɧɨɦ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɭ" ɤɨʁɢ ɢɦɚ ɛɢɬɧɨ ɞɪɭɝɚɱɢʁɭ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɭ
ɨɞ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɨ ɤɨɦɟ ɝɨɜɨɪɢ Ɇɚɪɤɫ. Ɉɧ ɞɨɛɢʁɚ ɨɧɟ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɟ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɟ Ɇɚɪɤɫ
ɩɪɢɩɢɫɚɨ ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɢɡɦɭ, ɲɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ "ɤɚɫɧɢ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ" ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɚ Ɇɚɪɤɫɨɜɚ
ɢɞɟʁɚ "ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɢɡɦɚ". Ɇɚɤɫ ɏɨɪɤɯɚʁɦɟɪ ɨɞɧɨɫɢ ɫɟ ɩɪɟɦɚ ɫɜɨʁɢɦ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚɦɚ ɢɡ
V ‘ 
 V‘ ɤɚɨ ɱɢɫɬɨ ɚɤɚɞɟɦɫɤɢɦ ɫɬɚɜɨɜɢɦɚ. ȵɟɝɨɜ ɨɞɧɨɫ
ɩɪɟɦɚ ɫɩɨɪɬɭ ɭɤɚɡɭʁɟ ɧɚ ɬɨ, ɞɚ ɨɧ ɫɬɟɪɢɥɢɲɟ ɤɪɢɬɢɱɤɨ-ɦɟʃɚɥɚɱɤɢ ɧɚɛɨʁ ɤɚɞɚ ʁɟ ɭ
ɩɢɬɚʃɭ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɚ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɚ ɫɮɟɪɚ, ɢ ɞɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɩɨɬɩɭɧɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨʂɧɟ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢʁɟ
ɞɚ ɛɢ ɨɱɭɜɚɨ ɢɞɟɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɫɜɨɞ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɭ ɫɩɨɪɬɭ ɩɨʁɚɜʂɭʁɟ ɭ
ɤɨɧɞɟɧɡɨɜɚɧɨɦ ɨɛɥɢɤɭ. ɒɬɨ ɫɟ ɬɢɱɟ ɏɚʁɞɟɝɟɪɨɜɟ "ɛɪɢɝɟ" (
.1*), ɨɧɚ ɢɦɚ
ɚɩɫɬɪɚɤɬɧɢ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ʁɟɪ ɫɟ ɨɞɧɨɫɢ ɧɚ ɚɩɫɬɪɚɤɬɧɢ "ɫɜɟɬ" ɢ ɚɩɫɬɪɚɤɬɧɨɝ "ɱɨɜɟɤɚ".
Ɋɚɞɢ ɫɟ ɨ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨʁ ɛɪɢɡɢ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɝ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ, ɲɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɠɢɜɢ ɭ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɦ ɫɜɟɬɭ ɝɞɟ ɜɥɚɞɚ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɰɢʁɚ. Ɍɨ ɜɢɲɟ ɧɢʁɟ ɛɪɢɝɚ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɦɨɪɚ
ɞɚ ɫɟ ɫɭɱɟʂɢ ɫɚ ɫɜɨʁɨɦ ɧɟɦɢɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɦ ɫɦɪʄɭ, ɜɟʄ ɛɪɢɝɚ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ
ɫɟ ɫɭɱɟʂɢ ɫɚ ɫɜɟ ɪɟɚɥɧɢʁɨɦ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɲʄɭ ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ ɢ ɫɚɦɢɦ ɬɢɦ
ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ. ɍ ɩɪɜɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ, ɛɪɢɝɚ ɫɟ ɧɚɥɚɡɢ ɭ ɫɮɟɪɢ ɧɭɠɧɨɫɬɢ; ɭ ɞɪɭɝɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ
ɛɪɢɝɚ ɫɟ ɧɚɥɚɡɢ ɭ ɫɮɟɪɢ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɟ: ɱɨɜɟɤ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɢɡɛɟɝɧɟ ɫɦɪɬ, ɚɥɢ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ
ɫɩɪɟɱɢ ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɟ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɫɬɜɨɪɢ ɯɭɦɚɧɢ ɫɜɟɬ. ɍ ɨɜɨɦ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɭ ɦɨɠɟ ɛɢɬɢ
ɪɟɱɢ ɢ ɨ ɩɢɬɚʃɭ ɫɦɪɬɢ ɢ ɧɟɫɬɚɧɤɚ. ɋɦɪɬ ɧɟ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɧɟɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɭɤɨɥɢɤɨ ʁɟ ɱɨɜɟɤ
ɨɫɬɚɜɢɨ ɢɡɚ ɫɟɛɟ ɞɟɥɨ ɩɨ ɤɨɦɟ ʄɟ ɛɢɬɢ ɭɩɚɦʄɟɧ, ɚ ɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɞɟɥɨ ɤɨʁɟ ɞɨɩɪɢɧɨɫɢ
ɨɩɫɬɚɧɤɭ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ. ɒɬɨ ɫɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝ (ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝ) ɰɢɤɥɭɫɚ ɬɢɱɟ, ɫɦɪɬ ʁɟ ɭɫɥɨɜ
ɪɚɻɚʃɚ ɧɨɜɨɝ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ - ɨɧɚ ʁɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɜɨɪɧɚ. ɋɭɲɬɢɧɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɟ ɫɦɪɬɢ ʁɟ
ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɰɢʁɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɢɦɚ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɤɢ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɤɢ ɨɛɥɢɤ, ɲɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɟ
ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ, ɚ ɫɚɦɢɦ ɬɢɦ ɢ ɥɚɧɰɚ ɭɦɢɪɚʃɚ ɢ ɪɚɻɚʃɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɱɢɧɢ ɠɢɜɨɬ.
Ʉɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ɧɢʁɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɥɢɲɢɨ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ʃɟɝɨɜɨɝ ɞɭɯɨɜɧɨɝ ɡɚɜɢɱɚʁɚ (7*- +.518*+),
ɜɟʄ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝ ɡɚɜɢɱɚʁɚ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟɦ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ ɢ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɤɚɨ ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɨɝ ɛɢʄɚ; ɨɧ ɧɟ
XV

ɥɢɲɚɜɚ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɫɚɦɨ ʃɟɝɨɜɟ ʂɭɞɫɤɟ ɛɢɬɢ, ɜɟʄ ɞɨɜɨɞɢ ɭ ɩɢɬɚʃɟ ʃɟɝɨɜ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ.
Ʉɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ʁɟ "ɭʁɟɞɢɧɢɨ" ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɭ ɢ ɟɫɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɭ ɛɪɢɝɭ: ɛɨɪɛɚ ɡɚ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ
ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɛɨɪɛɚ ɡɚ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɭ, ɚ ɛɨɪɛɚ ɡɚ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɭ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɛɨɪɛɚ ɡɚ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ.
Ɍɡɜ. "ɥɟɜɢɱɚɪɫɤɚ ɦɢɫɚɨ" ɡɚɬɟɱɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɟɦ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ. Ɉɧɚ ʁɟ ɧɚʁɜɢɲɟ
ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɟ ɢɡɝɭɛɢɥɚ ɭ ɛɟɫɩɥɨɞɧɢɦ ɪɚɫɩɪɚɜɚɦɚ ɨ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɫɬɢ, ɭɦɟɫɬɨ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɭɫɦɟɪɢɥɚ ɤɚ
ɛɭɞɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɚɤɨ ɲɬɨ ʄɟ ɫɟ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɫɚɬɢ ɧɚ ɤɪɢɬɢɰɢ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɤɚɨ ɩɨɪɟɬɤɚ ɤɨʁɢ
ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚ ɠɢɜɨɬ. ɍɦɟɫɬɨ ɞɚ ɫɬɜɨɪɢ ɫɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɟ ɩɨʁɦɨɜɟ ɤɨʁɢ ɨɦɨɝɭʄɚɜɚʁɭ ɞɚ ɫɟ
ɭɨɛɥɢɱɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɚ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢʁɚ ɤɨʁɚ ʄɟ ɛɢɬɢ ɩɭɬɨɤɚɡ ɡɚ ɪɚɞɢɤɚɥɧɢ ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧ ɫ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɨɦ ɤɚɨ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɢɦ ɩɨɪɟɬɤɨɦ, ɨɧɚ ɢ ɞɚʂɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɩɨʁɦɨɜɧɢ
ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɪɢʁ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɫɬɜɨɪɢɥɢ Ɇɚɪɤɫ ɢ ȿɧɝɟɥɫ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ɞɚɜɧɨ
"ɩɪɟɜɚɡɢɲɚɨ", ɤɚɨ ɢ ɏɟɝɟɥɨɜɭ (Ɇɚɪɤɫɨɜɭ) ɞɢʁɚɥɟɤɬɢɤɭ ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ ɦɨɠɟ
ɭɡɟɬɢ ɤɚɨ ɩɨɥɚɡɢɲɬɟ ɡɚ ɤɪɢɬɢɤɭ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ, ʁɟɪ ɫɟ ʃɟɧɚ (ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɚ) ɩɢɪɚɦɢɞɚ
ɫɥɨɛɨɞɟ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɨʁ ɢɡɜɟɫɧɨɫɬɢ. Ʉɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɜɨɡ ɧɢʁɟ ɫɬɚɨ ɭ
ɫɬɚɧɢɰɢ ɭ ɤɨʁɨʁ ʁɟ, ɩɨ Ɇɚɪɤɫɭ, ɬɪɟɛɚɥɨ (ɩɭɬɟɦ ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɟ ɪɟɜɨɥɭɰɢʁɟ) ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ
ɡɚɭɫɬɚɜʂɟɧ, ɢ ɧɚɫɬɚɜɢɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɤɪɟʄɟ - ɜɭɤɭʄɢ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɨ ɤɚ ɩɪɨɜɚɥɢʁɢ. Ɍɟɨɪɢʁɚ
"ɧɚɭɱɧɨɝ ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɢɡɦɚ", ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ ɢɞɟɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɩɚɧɞɚɧ ɬɟɨɪɢʁɢ ɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɭ ɤɚɨ "ɤɪɚʁɭ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɟ", ɢɧɫɢɫɬɢɪɚ ɧɚ ɚɩɫɨɥɭɬɢɡɨɜɚɧɨɦ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɭ ɭɱɢɧɤɚ ɢ ɭ ɬɨɦ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɭ ɧɚ
ɤɜɚɧɬɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɢɦ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟʂɢɦɚ "ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɚ" - ɭɬɚɩɚʁɭʄɢ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɬɚʁ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɭ ɦɭɬɧɟ ɜɨɞɟ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ. ɇɢʁɟ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɧɨ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɫɩɨɪɬ (ɤɚɨ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢ ɪɟɩɪɟɫɢɜɧɢ ɨɛɥɢɰɢ ɬɟɥɟɫɧɨɝ
ɜɟɠɛɚʃɚ), ɚ ɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɢɞɟɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ "ɪɟɤɨɪɞɨɦɚɧɢʁɟ", ɞɨɛɢɨ ɬɚɤɚɜ ɡɧɚɱɚʁ ɭ ɫɨɜʁɟɬɫɤɨɦ
ɞɪɭɲɬɜɭ. ɇɚ ɂɫɬɨɤɭ Ɇɚɪɤɫɨɜɚ ɢɞɟʁɚ ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɥɢɲɟɧɚ ʃɟɧɟ ɯɭɦɚɧɢɫɬɢɱɤɟ
ɫɭɲɬɢɧɟ ɩɪɟɬɨɩʂɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɩɪɚɤɫɭ ɫɬɚʂɢɧɢɡɦɚ; ɧɚ Ɂɚɩɚɞɭ ɦɧɨɝɟ "ɤɨɦɭɧɢɫɬɢɱɤɟ
ɩɚɪɬɢʁɟ", ɩɨɥɚɡɟʄɢ ɨɞ ɞɨɝɦɟ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɋɋɋɊ-ɭ "ɨɫɬɜɚɪɟɧ ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɢɡɚɦ", ɩɪɟɬɨɩɢɥɟ ɫɭ
ɩɪɚɤɫɭ ɋɋɋɊ-ɚ ɭ "ɢɞɟɚɥ ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɢɡɦɚ" ɤɨɦɟ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɬɟɠɢɬɢ. "ɉɪɨʁɟɤɬ ɛɭɞɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ"
ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɧɭɞɢ ɢ ɞɚʂɟ ɫɟ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɬɨɦɟ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ɧɟɩɪɚɜɟɞɚɧ, ɚ ɧɟ
ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɚɧ ɩɨɪɟɞɚɤ. ɇɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢ ɡɚɞɚɬɚɤ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɧɨɝ ɚɧɬɢ-ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɩɨɤɪɟɬɚ
ɧɢʁɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɞɚ ɨɫɥɨɛɨɞɢ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɨ ɨɞ ɭɝʃɟɬɚɜɚʃɚ, ɜɟʄ ɞɚ ɫɩɪɟɱɢ ʃɟɝɨɜɨ ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɟ.
Ɉɬɭɞɚ ɫɜɟɫɬ ɨ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɚɦɚ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ 2.09+.‘ 50*‘ :, ‘ 0.0
ɛɨɪɛɟ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ.
Ȼɨɪɛɚ ɡɚ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ ɨɬɜɚɪɚ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɡɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɝ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɩɨɤɪɟɬɚ ɤɨʁɢ ʄɟ ɩɪɟɜɚɡɢʄɢ ɤɥɚɫɢɱɧɭ ɤɥɚɫɧɭ ɩɨɞɟɥɭ ɢ ɤɥɚɫɧɭ ɛɨɪɛɭ, ɚɥɢ
ɢ ɨɬɜɚɪɚ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɡɚ ɪɚɡɜɨɞʃɚɜɚʃɟ ɛɨɪɛɟ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɭɫɦɟɪɚɜɚʃɟɦ
ɦɟʃɚɥɚɱɤɟ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɟ ɧɚ "ɟɤɨɥɨɲɤɟ ɩɪɨʁɟɤɬɟ" ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɫɜɨɞɟ ɧɚ ɛɟɡɧɚɞɟɠɧɨ ɥɟɱɟʃɟ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ɢ ɧɚ ʃɟɝɨɜɨ "ɭɫɚɜɪɲɚɜɚʃɟ". Ʉɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ ʁɟ
"ɪɚɡɪɟɲɢɨ" ɫɭɤɨɛ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɞɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɢɡɦɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɟ, ɢɡɦɟɻɭ "ɨɛʁɟɤɬɢɜɧɢɯ
ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ" ɡɚ ɪɟɜɨɥɭɰɢʁɭ ɢ ɪɟɜɨɥɭɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɨɝ ɜɨɥɭɧɬɚɪɢɡɦɚ - ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟɦ
ɟɦɚɧɰɢɩɚɬɨɪɫɤɨɝ (ɤɭɥɬɭɪɧɨɝ) ɧɚɫɥɟɻɚ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ, ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɤɚɨ ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɨɝ ɛɢʄɚ ɢ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ. ȳɟɞɢɧɨ ɩɪɚɜɨ (ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɨ ɢ ɟɫɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɨ) ɪɟɲɟʃɟ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɨ
ɤɪɟɧɟ ɭ ɨɩɲɬɢ ɪɚɬ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ, ɲɬɨ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɭ ɫɜɢɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɚ
ɤɨʁɚ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɞɨɜɟɞɭ ɞɨ ʃɟɝɨɜɨɝ ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɚ. ɇɟ ɪɚɞɢ ɫɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɨ ɨɞɛɪɚɦɛɟɧɨʁ,
ɨɫɥɨɛɨɞɢɥɚɱɤɨʁ, ɢɥɢ ɪɟɜɨɥɭɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɨʁ ɛɨɪɛɢ, ɜɟʄ ɨ ɛɨɪɛɢ ɤɨʁɚ ɧɢɤɚɞɚ ɪɚɧɢʁɟ ɧɢʁɟ
ɜɨɻɟɧɚ: ɨ ɛɨɪɛɢ ɡɚ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɡɚ ɨɱɭɜɚʃɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ ɧɚ ɡɟɦʂɢ. Ʉɚɞɚ ɫɟ ɢɦɚ
ɭ ɜɢɞɭ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɬɟɬ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɚ ɫɜɟɬɚ, ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɨɱɢɝɥɟɞɧɨ ɞɚ ɤɨɦɭɧɢɡɚɦ ɧɢʁɟ ɫɚɦɨ
ɫɥɨɛɨɞɚɪɫɤɚ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ, ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɬɨ ɡɚ Ɇɚɪɤɫɚ, ɜɟʄ ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɚ ɧɭɠɧɨɫɬ.
"Ⱦɨɛɪɚ ɫɬɪɚɧɚ" ɝɥɨɛɚɥɢɡɨɜɚʃɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ʁɟ ɬɚ, ɲɬɨ ɨɧɨ ɧɟɦɢɧɨɜɧɨ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢ ɫɜɟɬɫɤɢ ɚɧɬɢ-ɝɥɨɛɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɩɨɤɪɟɬ ɤɨʁɢ ʄɟ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɨɦ ɩɪɟɪɚɫɬɢ ɭ ɫɜɟ
ɪɚɞɢɤɚɥɧɢʁɢ ɫɜɟɬɫɤɢ ɚɧɬɢ-ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɮɪɨɧɬ. Ɉɞ ɛɨɪɛɟ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟʄɟɝ ɫɜɟɬɚ,
ɨɧ ʄɟ ɩɨɫɬɚɬɢ ɛɨɪɛɚ ɡɚ ɧɨɜɢ ɫɜɟɬ. Ɇɚɪɤɫɨɜ ɩɨɤɥɢɱ ɢɡ V  ‘ V:
XVI

"ɉɪɨɥɟɬɟɪɢ ɫɜɢɯ ɡɟɦɚʂɚ, ɭʁɟɞɢɧɢɬɟ ɫɟ!" - ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɚɪɫɤɢ ɢ ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɢ


ɩɨɤɥɢɱ ɩɪɨɛɭɻɟɧɨɝ ɢ ɨɫɜɟɲʄɟɧɨɝ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ. Ɇɚɫɨɜɧɟ ɚɧɬɢ-ɝɥɨɛɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɟ
ɦɚɧɢɮɟɫɬɚɰɢʁɟ ɫɭ ɜɚɠɧɟ, ɚɥɢ ɫɚɦɨ ɭɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɭ ɞɟɨ ɫɜɚɤɨɞɧɟɜɧɟ ɛɨɪɛɟ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ. ɍ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɧɨɦ, ɨɧɟ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɭ ɞɟɨ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɰɢɪɤɭɫɚ ɢ ɭɫɦɟɪɚɜɚʃɟ
ɦɟʃɚɥɚɱɤɟ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɟ ɧɚ ɫɬɪɚɧɩɭɬɢɰɭ. ɉɢɬɚʃɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɟ ɛɨɪɛɟ ɩɪɟ ɫɜɟɝɚ ʁɟ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɨ. ɂɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɧɢ ɨɛɥɢɰɢ ɛɨɪɛɟ ɧɢɫɭ ɡɚɧɟɦɚɪʂɢɜɢ, ɚɥɢ ɨɧɢ ɧɢɫɭ
ɞɨɜɨʂɧɢ ɞɚ ɛɢ ɫɟ ɧɟɲɬɨ ɛɢɬɧɨ ɭɱɢɧɢɥɨ. Ȼɟɡ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɧɟ ɛɨɪɛɟ, ɨɧɢ ɫɟ ɫɜɨɞɟ ɧɚ
ɛɚɰɚʃɟ ɤɚɦɟʃɚ ɭ ɧɚɛɭʁɚɥɭ ɪɟɤɭ - ɤɨʁɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɨɛɭɡɞɚ ɫɚɦɨ ɭɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɫɟ ɭʁɟɞɢɧɟ
ɧɚɩɨɪɢ. Ɉɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɧɚ ɛɨɪɛɚ ɧɟ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɢ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɚʃɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢʁɟ ɧɚɞ ɱɨɜɟɤɨɦ,
ɭɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɫɟ ɨɧɚ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɫɚɦɨɢɧɢɰɢʁɚɬɢɜɢ ɢ ɭɤɨɥɢɤɨ ʁɟ ɫɜɚɤɨ ɫɜɟɫɬɚɧ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɪɚɞɢ ɨ
ɛɨɪɛɢ ɡɚ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ. Ɍɨ ʁɟ ɢɡɚɡɨɜ ɭ ɨɞɧɨɫɭ ɩɪɟɦɚ ɤɨɦɟ ɫɭ ɫɜɚ ɞɪɭɝɚ
ɩɢɬɚʃɚ, ɨ ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɦɨɠɟɦɨ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɫɩɨɪɢɦɨ, ɝɨɬɨɜɨ ɛɟɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɚ. Ɇɟɻɭ ɨɧɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ
ɪɚɫɩɪɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɨ "ɪɚɞɧɢɱɤɨɦ ɩɢɬɚʃɭ" ɢɦɚ ɨɧɢɯ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɧɟɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɧɢ ɡɛɨɝ
ɤɨɧɮɨɪɦɢɫɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɩɨɧɚɲɚʃɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɝ ɞɟɥɚ ɪɚɞɧɢɱɤɟ ɤɥɚɫɟ ɭ ɧɚʁɪɚɡɜɢʁɟɧɢʁɢɦ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɦ ɡɟɦʂɚɦɚ, ɚɥɢ ʁɟ ɬɨ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɚ ɩɨɥɨɠɚʁɚ ɭ ɤɨɦɟ ɫɟ ɨɧɚ ɧɚɥɚɡɢ. Ⱦɚ ɫɚ
ʃɨɦ ɧɢʁɟ "ɝɨɬɨɜɨ" ɤɚɨ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɢɦ ɫɭɛʁɟɤɬɨɦ ɭ ɛɨɪɛɢ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ, ɧɚʁɛɨʂɟ
ɝɨɜɨɪɢ "ɛɪɢɝɚ" ɤɨʁɭ ɩɨɤɚɡɭʁɭ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢ ɡɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɚʃɟ ʃɟɧɟ ɤɥɚɫɧɟ (ɫɚɦɨ)ɫɜɟɫɬɢ ɢ
ɡɚ ɫɩɪɟɱɚɜɚʃɟ ʃɟɧɨɝ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɚɧɝɚɠɨɜɚʃɚ. ɍ ɫɭɲɬɢɧɢ, ɪɚɞɧɢɱɤɨ ɧɟɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɫɬɜɨ
ʁɟ ɫɜɟ ɜɟʄɟ ɢ ɨɬɭɞɚ ɫɭ ɫɜɟ ɛɟɫɩɨɲɬɟɞɧɢʁɢ ɨɛɥɢɰɢ ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧɚ ɫ ʃɢɦ. "ɉɨɬɪɨɲɚɱɤɨ
ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ" ɧɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɢɫɰɪɩɥɨ ɫɜɟ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɚɨ ɨɛɥɢɤ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɪɚɞɧɢɤɚ ɭ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɫɜɟɬ, ɜɟʄ ɫɟ ɪɚɫɩɚɞɚ ɚ ɫɚɦɢɦ ɬɢɦ ɫɟ ɪɚɫɩɚɞɚʁɭ ɢ ɨɝɪɚɞɟ
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɨɧɨɝ ɥɨɝɨɪɚ ɭ ɤɨɦɟ ɫɟ ʁɨɲ ɭɜɟɤ ɧɚɥɚɡɢ ɜɟʄɢɧɚ ɪɚɞɧɢɤɚ. ɒɬɨ ɫɟ ɬɢɱɟ
ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɟ "ɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢʁɟ", ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɢ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɢ ɧɢɤɚɞɚ ɧɢɫɭ ɢɦɚɥɢ ɩɪɢɥɢɤɭ ɞɚ ɱɭʁɭ
ɢɫɬɢɧɭ ɧɢ ɨ ʁɟɞɧɨɦ ɩɢɬɚʃɭ ɨɞ ɤɨɝɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ʃɢɯɨɜɚ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɚ ɢ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ, ɢ ɧɢɤɚɞɚ
ɧɢɫɭ ɤɚɨ ɟɦɚɧɰɢɩɨɜɚɧɢ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɢ ɭɱɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢ ɭ ɞɟɮɢɧɢɫɚʃɭ ɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚʃɭ
ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢʁɟ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ. Ɉɧɢ ɠɢɜɟ ɭ ɫɜɟɬɭ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɬɨɬɚɥɧɚ ɥɚɠ ɢ ɝɞɟ ɧɟɦɚ
ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚ ɩɪɚɜɢ ɢɡɛɨɪ. ɒɬɚ ʄɟ ɫɟ ɞɟɫɢɬɢ ɤɚɞɚ ɫɟ ɨɝɪɚɞɚ ɫɪɭɲɢ - ɭ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɭ ɝɞɟ
ɧɟ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟ ɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɫɤɟ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɩɪɭɠɚʁɭ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɡɚ ɭɫɦɟɪɚɜɚʃɟ
ɧɟɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɫɬɜɚ ʂɭɞɢ ɤɚ ɨɫɬɜɚɪɢɜɚʃɭ ɨɩɲɬɟ-ʂɭɞɫɤɢɯ ɰɢʂɟɜɚ?
ȼɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɚ ɮɢɥɨɡɨɮɢʁɚ ɩɨɬɜɪɞɭ ɡɚ ɢɫɬɢɧɢɬɨɫɬ ɫɜɨʁɢɯ ɫɬɚɜɨɜɚ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɧɚɥɚɡɢ ɭ
ɠɢɜɨɬɭ, ɜɟʄ ɭ ɮɢɥɨɡɨɮɢʁɢ - ɢ ɬɚɤɨ 9‘ 0;0+,-. Ɉɧɚ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɨɞ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɨɬɭɻɟɧɚ ɢ
ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɚ ɭɦɧɨɫɬ ɢ ɤɚɨ ɬɚɤɜɚ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ ɫɩɪɟɱɚɜɚʃɟ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɞɚ ɞɨɧɟɫɟ
ɛɢɬɧɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɟ ɨɞɥɭɤɟ - ɲɬɨ ɫɚɦɨ ɢɞɟ ɧɚ ɪɭɤɭ ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɟɦ ɩɨɪɟɬɤɭ. Ɏɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɥɨɲɤɢ
ɩɨʁɦɨɜɧɢ ɫɜɨɞ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɚ ɜɢɪɬɭɟɥɧɟ ɫɜɟɫɬɢ ɭ ɝɥɚɜɚɦɚ ʂɭɞɢ ɢ
ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟ ɭɦɧɨɝ ɨɞɧɨɫɚ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɩɪɟɦɚ ɫɜɟɬɭ. ɉɪɚɜɨ ɩɢɬɚʃɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɫɚɦɨ
ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɨ ɩɢɬɚʃɟ. Ⱦɚɧɚɫ, ɬɨ ʁɟ ɩɢɬɚʃɟ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɤɚ. "Ɍɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɚ"
ɮɢɥɨɡɨɮɫɤɚ ɩɢɬɚʃɚ ɦɨɝɭ ɛɢɬɢ ɪɚɡɦɚɬɪɚɧɚ ɫɚɦɨ ɭ ɫɜɟɬɥɭ ɨɜɨɝ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɝ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɨɝ
(ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɨɝ) ɩɢɬɚʃɚ. ɍ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɧɨɦ, ɨɧɚ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɭ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɥɚɜɢɪɢɧɬɚ ɭ ɤɨɦɟ
ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɧɟɫɬɚɧɟ ɭɦ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɭ ɫɬɚʃɭ ɞɚ ɪɚɡɨɬɤɪɢʁɟ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɟ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢʁɟ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɚ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ, ɫɩɪɟɱɢ ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ ɢ ɢɡɛɨɪɢ ɫɟ ɡɚ ɯɭɦɚɧɢ ɫɜɟɬ. ȳɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ
ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢɯ ɡɚɞɚɬɚɤɚ ɤɪɢɬɢɱɤɟ ɬɟɨɪɢʁɟ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɨɫɥɨɛɨɞɢ ɭɦ ɨɞ "ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɟ"
ɮɢɥɨɡɨɮɢʁɟ - ɤɨʁɚ ɨɞɜɥɚɱɢ ɭɦ ɨɞ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɢɯ ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɢɯ ɢ ɟɫɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɢɯ
ɩɢɬɚʃɚ ɱɢʁɟ ɪɟɲɟʃɟ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚ ɪɚɞɢɤɚɥɧɢ ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧ ɫ ɜɥɚɞɚʁɭʄɢɦ ɩɨɪɟɬɤɨɦ ɢ
ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɧɨɜɨɝ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ - ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ ɩɪɢɜɢɥɟɝɢʁɚ "ɮɢɥɨɡɨɮɚ" (ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɯ ɧɚ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɚɪɟ
ɭɦɚ) ɢ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ ɨɛɪɚɱɭɧ ɫɚ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɚɪɫɤɨɦ ɛɨɪɛɨɦ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ: ɛɨɪɛɚ ɡɚ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɭ
(ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ) ɛɢɜɚ ɩɪɨɝɥɚɲɟɧɚ ɡɚ "ɧɟɭɦɧɭ" ɞɟɥɚɬɧɨɫɬ ɢ ɫɚɦɢɦ ɬɢɦ ɝɭɛɢ ɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬ
ɢɫɬɢɧɫɤɟ ɦɟʃɚɥɚɱɤɟ ɩɪɚɤɫɟ. ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɢ ɚɧɝɚɠɦɚɧ ɭɤɚɡɭʁɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɜɭ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɭ
ɮɢɥɨɡɨɮɢʁɟ: ɨɧɚ ʁɟ ɩɭɠɟɜɚ ɤɭʄɚ ɭ ɤɨʁɨʁ ɫɟ ɫɤɪɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ
XVII

ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɢɫɚɧɢ ɭɦ. Ɉɧɚ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɭʁɟ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɫɜɟɬɚ ɬɚɤɨ ɲɬɨ ɞɨɩɪɢɧɨɫɢ
ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ ɢ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɤɚɨ ɭɦɧɨɝ ɛɢʄɚ. ɂɫɬɢɧɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɧɚɞɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɚ ɞɚɬɨɫɬ ɞɨ
ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɩɭɬɟɦ ɨɞ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɨɬɭɻɟɧɟ ɧɚɭɤɟ ɢ ɮɢɥɨɡɨɮɢʁɟ. Ɉɧɚ ʁɟ ɭɜɟɤ ɛɢɥɚ
ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɛɨɪɛɚ ɡɚ ʃɭ: ɞɚɧɚɫ ʁɟ ɢɫɬɢɧɚ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ, ɚ ɩɭɬ ɞɨ ʃɟ ʁɟ
ɛɨɪɛɚ ɡɚ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ. Ɍɨ ʁɟ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɢ ɨɫɧɨɜ "ɜɨʂɟ ɡɚ ɦɨʄ" ɫɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɨɝ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ
ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢʁɭɦ ɩɨ ɤɨɦɟ ɫɟ ɨɞɪɟɻɭʁɟ ɢɫɩɪɚɜɧɨɫɬ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɟ ɚɤɰɢʁɟ.
Ʉɪɢɬɢɱɤɚ ɬɟɨɪɢʁɚ ɧɟ ɤɪɢʁɟ ɫɟ ɢɡɚ ɮɢɥɨɡɨɮɫɤɨɝ "ɨɛʁɟɤɬɢɜɢɡɦɚ", ɜɟʄ ɢɦɚ ʁɚɫɧɭ
ɜɪɟɞɧɨɫɧɨ-ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɭ ɨɪɢʁɟɧɬɚɰɢʁɭ: ɨɧɚ ɫɟ ɛɨɪɢ ɡɚ ɭɧɢɲɬɟʃɟ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɢ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ
ɫɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɜɭ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɧɚ ɠɢɜɨɬ ɢ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɭ. Ɉɧɚ ɧɟ ɧɚɫɬɨʁɢ ɞɚ ɢɡɝɪɚɞɢ ɧɟɤɭ ɧɨɜɭ
ɮɢɥɨɡɨɮɢʁɭ, ɜɟʄ ɬɟɠɢ ɞɚ ɭɤɢɧɟ ɮɢɥɨɡɨɮɢʁɭ ɤɚɨ ɩɨɫɟɛɧɭ ɫɮɟɪɭ, ɤɨʁɚ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɭʁɟ
ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɫɜɟɬɚ, ɢ ɞɚ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɭʁɟ ɟɦɚɧɰɢɩɚɬɨɪɫɤɨ ɧɚɫɥɟɻɟ ɦɨɞɟɪɧɨɝ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ
ɤɨʁɟ ʁɟ ɫɢɦɛɨɥɢɱɧɨ ɢɡɪɚɠɟɧɨ ɭ ɢɞɟʁɚɦɚ-ɜɨɞɢʂɚɦɚ Ɏɪɚɧɰɭɫɤɟ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɫɤɟ ɪɟɜɨɥɭɰɢʁɟ:
6/*+<‘ =1 +<‘ U +*0+<. ɍ ɧɟɦɚɱɤɨʁ ɤɥɚɫɢɱɧɨʁ ɮɢɥɨɡɨɮɢʁɢ, ɭ ɤɨʁɨʁ ʁɟ ɭɨɛɥɢɱɟɧɚ
ɫɚɦɨɫɜɟɫɬ ɦɨɞɟɪɧɨɝ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ, ɢɞɟʁɚ ɭɦɚ ɛɢɥɚ ʁɟ ɩɨɜɟɡɚɧɚ ɫɚ ɢɞɟʁɨɦ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɟ. Ⱦɚɧɚɫ ɭɦ
ɧɢʁɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɢ ɭɫɥɨɜ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɟ, ɜɟʄ ɢ ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɟ: ɛɨɪɛɚ ɡɚ ɭɦ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɛɨɪɛɚ ɡɚ
ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ.
Ʉɪɢɬɢɱɤɚ ɬɟɨɪɢʁɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɨɫɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɧɨɜɢɦ ɩɨʁɦɨɜɢɦɚ,
ɩɨɥɚɡɟʄɢ ɨɞ ɬɨɝɚ ɞɚ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢʁɚ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɭɫɥɨɜʂɚɜɚ ʃɟɝɨɜɭ ɤɪɢɬɢɤɭ. Ⱦɜɟ
ɢɞɟʁɟ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɧɭ ɨɫɧɨɜ ɡɚ ɢɡɝɪɚɞʃɭ ɫɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɟ ɤɪɢɬɢɱɤɟ ɬɟɨɪɢʁɟ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ:
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɚ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɰɢʁɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ ɢ ɧɚɫɭɩɪɨɬ ʃɨʁ ɠɢɜɨɬɜɨɪɧɚ ʂɭɞɫɤɚ ɩɪɚɤɫɚ. Ɉɧɟ
ɫɭ ɞɢʁɚɥɟɤɬɢɱɤɢ ɫɭɩɪɨɬɫɬɚɜʂɟɧɟ: ɬɨɬɚɥɢɬɚɪɧɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɚ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɰɢʁɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ
ɜɨɞɢ ɤɚ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢʁɢ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɦɚ ɬɨɬɚɥɢɡɭʁɭʄɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɜɨɪɧɟ ɩɪɚɤɫɟ. Ⱥɤɨ
ɫɟ ɭ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɫɬɢ ʁɨɲ ɢ ɦɨɝɥɨ ɬɜɪɞɢɬɢ ɞɚ ɧɟ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ ʁɚɫɧɨ ɢ ɱɜɪɫɬɨ ɩɨɥɚɡɢɲɬɟ ɡɚ
ɭɬɟɦɟʂɟʃɟ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɨʁ ɤɪɢɬɢɱɤɟ ɬɟɨɪɢʁɟ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ, ɫɜɟ ɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɧɢʁɟ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟ
ɠɢɜɨɬɚ, ɲɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɟɤɨɰɢɞɧɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɨɛʁɟɞɢʃɚɜɚʁɭʄɟ
ɩɨɥɚɡɢɲɬɟ ɤɚɤɨ ɡɚ ɤɪɢɬɢɱɤɭ ɦɢɫɚɨ, ɬɚɤɨ ɢ ɡɚ ɦɟʃɚɥɚɱɤɭ (ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɭ) ɩɪɚɤɫɭ. Ɋɚɞɢ ɫɟ
ɨ ɚɮɢɪɦɢɫɚʃɭ ɫɭɛʁɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɟ ɢ ɨ ɩɪɟɬɜɚɪɚʃɭ ɨɛʁɟɤɬɢɜɧɢɯ
ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɟ, ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɫɬɜɨɪɟɧɟ ɭ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɫɤɨɦ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɭ, ɭ ɪɟɚɥɧɭ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ
ɨɫɥɨɛɚɻɚʃɚ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ. ɉɪɚɜɢ ɫɦɢɫɚɨ ɛɨɪɛɟ ɧɢʁɟ ɩɨɫɬɢɡɚʃɟ ɧɟɤɨɝ ɧɚɞʂɭɞɫɤɨɝ ɰɢʂɚ, ɜɟʄ
ɪɚɡɜɨʁ ʂɭɞɫɤɢɯ ɦɨʄɢ ɢ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ ɤɚɨ ɛɪɚɬɫɤɟ ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɰɟ ɟɦɚɧɰɢɩɨɜɚɧɢɯ ʂɭɞɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ
ɭ ɫɬɚʃɭ ɞɚ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɧɨ ɭɩɪɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɫɜɨʁɢɦ (ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɢɦ) ɠɢɜɨɬɨɦ. Ɉɧɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɡɚɞɚɬɚɤ
ɚɩɫɬɪɚɤɬɧɨɝ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ, ɜɟʄ ɫɜɚɤɨɝ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ. ɑɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɨ ʁɟ ɭɝɪɨɠɟɧɨ ɬɚɤɨ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ
ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɧɨ ɭɝɪɨɠɟɧ ɠɢɜɨɬ ɫɜɚɤɨɝ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ. ɇɟɤɚɞɚ ʁɟ ɱɨɜɟɤ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɚɨ ɱɨɜɟɤɨɦ ɭ ɛɨɪɛɢ
ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɬɢɪɚɧɢʁɟ; ɞɚɧɚɫ ɱɨɜɟɤ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɱɨɜɟɤɨɦ ɢ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɟ ɤɚɨ ɱɨɜɟɤ - ɛɨɪɟʄɢ
ɫɟ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɩɨɪɟɬɤɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚ ɠɢɜɨɬ. ɋɩɪɟɦɧɨɫɬ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɞɚ ɠɢɜɨɬ ɡɚ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɭ
ɩɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɫɩɪɟɦɧɨɫɬ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɞɚ ɠɢɜɨɬ ɡɚ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɱɨɜɟɱɚɧɫɬɜɚ.
Ʉɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɜɪɬɥɨɝ ɫɦɪɬɢ ɩɪɟɬɜɚɪɚ ɫɜɟ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɱɨɜɟɤ ɫɬɜɨɪɢɨ -
ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɟ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɟ, ɬɟɯɧɢɤɭ, ɧɚɭɤɭ, ɟɤɨɧɨɦɢʁɭ, ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚʃɟ, ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɭ,
ɭɦɟɬɧɨɫɬ, ɪɟɥɢɝɢʁɭ, ɫɩɨɪɬ, ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ ɡɚ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɢɫɚʃɟ - ɭ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ ɨɛɪɬ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ,
ɲɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɡɚ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ. ɇɢʁɟɞɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɚ ɫɮɟɪɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɱɨɜɟɤɭ ɫɚɜɟɡɧɢɤ.
Ɉɧ ɧɟɦɚ ɤɨɦɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɨɛɪɚɬɢ ɡɚ ɩɨɦɨʄ ɨɫɢɦ ɞɪɭɝɨɦ ɱɨɜɟɤɭ: ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɨɫɬ ʁɟ
ɟɝɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɢ ɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɢɜ. Ɍɟɤ ɫɚɞɚ, ɤɚɞɚ ʁɟ ɨɫɬɚɨ ɩɨɬɩɭɧɨ ɫɚɦ ɭ ɛɨɪɛɢ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɚ, ɱɨɜɟɤ ɢɦɚ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɞɚ ɢɫɤɚɠɟ ɫɜɨʁɟ ɩɪɚɜɟ ʂɭɞɫɤɟ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɫɬɢ, ɞɚ
ɩɨɫɬɚɧɟ ɢɫɬɢɧɫɤɢ ɑɨɜɟɤ ɢ ɞɚ ɩɪɟɬɜɨɪɢ ɫɜɟɬ ɭ ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɰɭ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɧɢɯ ʂɭɞɢ. ɍ ɬɨɤɭ ʁɟ
ɧɚʁɜɟʄɚ ɢ ɧɚʁɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɧɢʁɚ ɛɢɬɤɚ ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ ɢɤɚɞɚ ɜɨɻɟɧɚ: ɢɥɢ ʄɟ ɱɨɜɟɤ ɞɚ ɩɨɛɟɞɢ
ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɦ, ɞɚ ɨɱɭɜɚ ɠɢɜɨɬ ɧɚ ɡɟɦʂɢ ɢ ɫɬɜɨɪɢ ɫɜɟɬ ɩɨ ɫɜɨɦe ɥɢɤɭ - ɢɥɢ ʄɟ ɛɢɬɢ
ɭɧɢɲɬɟɧ.
 
XVIII



 
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