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Conference 6736: Unmanned/Unattended Sensors and Sensor Networks IV

Tuesday-Thursday 18-20 September 2007 Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 6736 Unmanned/Unattended Sensors and Sensor Networks IV

6736-02, Session 1
Sensor deployment on unmanned ground vehicles
G. R. Gerhart, U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Ctr. (USA) TARDEC has been developing payloads for small robots as part of its unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) development programs. These platforms typically weigh less than 100 lbs and are used for various physical security and force protection applications. This paper will address a number of technical issues including platform mobility, payload positioning, sensor configuration and operational tradeoffs. TARDEC has developed a number of robots with different mobility mechanisms including track, wheel and hybrid track/wheel running gear configurations. An extensive discussion will focus upon omni-directional vehicle (ODV) platforms with enhanced intrinsic mobility for positioning sensor payloads. This paper also discusses tradeoffs between intrinsic platform mobility and articulated arm complexity for end point positioning of modular sensor packages.

approach can be extended for multiple starting points to reach multiple goals. The simulation gives the time taken by the convoy to reach a goal from its initial position. In the battlefield environment, commanders make various tactical decisions depending upon the location of an enemy outpost, minefields, number of soldiers in platoons, and barriers. The simulation can help the commander to make effective decisions depending on battlefield, convoy and obstacles to reach a particular goal. The paper describes the proposed algorithm and gives the simulation results. The paper also gives a number of problems for future research in this area.

6736-05, Session 1
On the reliability of a convoy of unmanned intelligent vehicles and their collaboration and coordination
H. Singh, L. Hua, Wayne State Univ. (USA); G. R. Gerhart, U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Ctr. (USA) There is an increasing interest in the use of a convoy of unmanned intelligent vehicles for defense and security. These vehicles have a number of sensors associated with them. It is very important to have a highly reliable sensor network so as to determine the dynamic reliability of the intelligent vehicle system for a safe battle field environment. The mobility, path planning and navigation of such convoy of vehicles are in the state of infancy. However, it is considered important to develop the reliability techniques so that a commander in the battle of field can predict the reliability of the various stages of the movement of the convoy and then can take decisions depending on reliabilities determined at varies places and time. In this paper a combination of intelligent techniques like fuzzy and neural fuzzy and Boolean algebra techniques are exploited to determine the reliability of the wireless sensor network in the battle field. The branch of reliabilities are determined using intelligent techniques like fuzzy and neural fuzzy while terminal reliabilities are determined using Boolean algebra techniques. Based on this technique, a new algorithm is proposed in determining the dynamic reliability of convoy of unmanned intelligent vehicles. Such a vehicle will help in the collaboration and coordination of the convoy of vehicles.

6736-03, Session 1
Integrated multi-sensor package (IMSP) for unmanned vehicle operations
E. C. Crow, Jr., K. M. Reichard, C. M. Rogan, J. Callen, The Pennsylvania State Univ. (USA) This paper describes recent efforts to develop integrated multisensor payloads for small robotic platforms for operator situational awareness and ultimately for improved robot autonomy. The focus is on enhancements to perception through integration of electro-optic, acoustic, and other sensors for navigation and inspection. The goals are to provide easier control and operation of the robot through fusion of multiple sensor outputs, to improve interoperability of the sensor payload package across multiple platforms through the use of open standards and architectures, and to reduce integration costs by embedded sensor data processing and fusion within the sensor payload package. The solutions investigated in this project to be discussed include: improved capture, processing and display of sensor data from multiple, non-commensurate sensors; an extensible architecture to support plug and play of integrated sensor packages; built-in health, power and system status monitoring using embedded diagnostics/prognostics; sensor payload integration into standard product forms for optimized size, weight and power; and the use of the open Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS)/ Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) AS-4 interoperability standard. This project is in its first of three years and will discuss the applicability of each of the solutions in terms of its projected impact to reducing operational time for the robot and teleoperator.

6736-06, Session 1
Algorithms and evaluation framework for uninhabited vehicles
M. Bernhardt, C. R. Angell, Waterfall Solutions Ltd. (United Kingdom); P. K. Kimber, SELEX Sensors and Airborne Systems Ltd. (United Kingdom) The nature of co-operating Uninhabited Vehicle (UV) systems is such that performance enhancements are likely to be a result of greatly increased system complexity. Complexity emerges through the interaction of multiple autonomous UVs reacting to their current surroundings. This complexity presents a fundamental challenge to the specification, design and evaluation of such systems, and drives the need for new approaches to the systems engineering. For applications involving multiple autonomous UVs, research into collective and emergent behaviour offers potential benefits in terms of improved system performance and the utilisation of individual UVs with lower processing complexity. This paper reports on the development of a new simulation framework that addresses the systems engineering issues and allows novel algorithms to be created and assessed. Examples are given of how the framework has been used to develop and assess the performance of individual and multiple UVs, as well as unattended ground sensors. Furthermore, a variety of novel algorithms developed using the framework are described and example results are provided. These include co-operative UV missions requiring improved detection performance and the improved management of unattended ground sensors to minimise power usage.

6736-04, Session 1
Simulation of convoy of unmanned vehicles using agent based modeling
S. Sharma, H. Singh, Wayne State Univ. (USA); G. R. Gerhart, U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Ctr. (USA) There has been an increasing interest of unmanned vehicles keeping the importance of Defense and Security. A few models for a convoy of unmanned vehicle exist in literature. The objective of this paper is to exploit agent based modeling technique for a convoy of unmanned vehicles where each vehicle is an agent. Using this approach, the convoy of vehicles reaches a specified goal from a starting point. Each agent is associated with number of sensors. The agents make intelligent decisions based on sensor inputs and at the same time maintaining their group capability and behavior. The agents reach the goal by avoiding the obstacles on their path through the use of sub goals. The simulation is done for a battlefield environment from a single starting point to a single goal. This

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Conference 6736: Unmanned/Unattended Sensors and Sensor Networks IV

6736-07, Session 1
Bio-inspired motion planning algorithms for autonomous robots facilitating greater plasticity for security applications
S. V. Desai, U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (USA); Y. Guo, Stevens Institute of Technology (USA); M. E. Hohil, U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (USA) Proposed are techniques toward using collaborative robots for infrastructure security applications by utilizing them for mobile sensor suites. A vast number of critical facilities/technologies must be protected against unauthorized intruders. Employing a team of mobile robots working cooperatively can alleviate valuable human resources. Addressed are the technical challenges for multi-robot teams in security applications and the implementation of multi-robot motion planning algorithm based on the patrolling and threat response scenario. A neural network based methodology is exploited to plan a patrolling path with complete coverage. Also described is a proof-ofprinciple experimental setup with a group of Pioneer 3-DX and Centibot robots. A block diagram of the system integration of sensing and planning will illustrate the robot to robot interaction to operate as a collaborative unit. The proposed approach singular goal is to overcome the limits of previous approaches of robots in security applications and enabling systems to be deployed for autonomous operation in an unaltered environment providing access to an all encompassing sensor suite.

stop when proximity sensor value reaches a limit) while maintaining teleoperations. This architecture involves a server which communicates commands and receives sensor inputs via a wireless modem to the ODIS platform. This server can take requests from multiple client processes which have prioritized access to on-board sensor readings and can command the steering. The clients would include the teleoperation soldier unit, and any number of other autonomous behaviors linked to particular sensor information or triggered by the operator. For instance, the behavior of certain tasks can be controlled by low-latency clients with sensory information to prevent collisions, place sensor pods precisely, return to preplanned positions, home the units location or even perform image enhancements or object recognition on streamed video. This architecture is well-suited for sensor-enabled advanced mobile platforms.

6736-10, Session 2
Autonomous laser accelerometer for platforms and systems
B. V. Melkoumian, Baghron Co. (Russia) New laser accelerometer is presented. Proved method consists in the using of standing wave of coherent radiation in the linear resonator as the sensitive element of the accelerated movement measurement. There are not in the autonomous resonatory device (ARD) any matter parameters altering during movement of the resonator, attached with object to be measured. It provides the best accuracy in the measurements. The devices can be applied as measuring transducers for control and stabilization of movement of the objects with measuring of accelerations and coordinates in demanded operating regions. ARD provides autonomous measurement of acceleration of actual motion at free falling of object as against to all other accelerometers.

6736-08, Session 1
Biomimetic approach for coordination algorithms utilized in distributed multi-robot systems
Y. Meng, Stevens Institute of Technology (USA); M. E. Hohil, S. V. Desai, U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (USA); J. Gan, Stevens Institute of Technology (USA) This paper presents a synergy of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) into a novel hybrid coordination algorithm for distributed multi-robot systems. The intended multi-robot systems are composed of relatively simple, expendable agents with highly decentralized, self-organized behaviors; which as a whole achieve global optimization over a set task. Basically, two coordination processes among the robots will be established. One is a stigmergy-based algorithm using the distributed virtual pheromones to guide the agents’ movement, the other one is interaction-based algorithm, where a global maximum of the attribute values can be obtained through the interaction between the robots. The proposed algorithm has been implemented on an embodied robot simulator Player/Stage under different dynamic environments. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid swarm intelligence based architecture is feasible, efficient, and robust to coordinate a distributed multi-robot sensing system that can be outfitted to handle a specific set of missions with a given sensor suite.

6736-11, Session 2
Preparation and characterization WDM technique for linear disturbance localization in fibre optical sensor
M. Zyczkowski, W. M. Ciurapinski, M. Szustakowski, Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna (Poland) Ordinary perimeter security systems consist of many individual sensors with detection range 200-300 meters. These limitations are connected with physical phenomena that are used in microwave and infrared barriers as well as in ground and fence cable sensors. On the contrary, fiber optic perimeter sensors can be applied in the range of many kilometers and zone length 200-300 meters is degradation of their possibilities. This paper presents investigation results of a new generation of the fiber optic perimeter sensor using WDM technique. These systems can detect a potential intruder and determine its position along a protected zone. The work presents a method of linear localization of disturbance point in the two-interferometer and modalmertic fiber optic sensors in one optical fiber. These sensors are in one fiber optic cable with two- interferometers (Sagnac) and in transmissive configuration. Using WDM technique makes it possible to obtain new technical properties that can broaden effectiveness and scope of application. Arrangement of a laboratory model of the sensors and its signal processing scheme is presented. During research of a laboratory model, it was possible to detect the position of the disturbance in one optical fiber with resolution of about 50m along a 10-km long sensor.

6736-09, Session 1
An architecture to allow hybrid autonomous and teleoperated control of ODIS T2
S. T. Hunt, Wayne State Univ. (USA) and Turing Associates, Inc. (USA); Y. Li, Wayne State Univ. (USA); G. Witus, Turing Associates, Inc. (USA); R. D. Ellis, G. Auner, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, Wayne State Univ. (USA) A fully teleoperated strategy is employed to control mobile platforms used for surveillance such as the ODIS-T2. In this situation, there is no on-board intelligence, and the robot will perform drive and steer and camera functions on demand from the remote operator. As the ODIS platform evolves to accommodate functions beyond surveillance, a more robust hybrid method of control is needed. It is envisioned that as sensor pods are deployed, and articulated arms and employed, and the system is sensor-enabled, the simple master-slave strategy will not be sufficient as the navigation and sensory inputs will become complex. In this paper we provide a tested software/hardware framework that allows the ODIS-T2 platform to offload operator tasks to autonomous behaviors (for instance,

6736-12, Session 2
Classical theory of autonomous laser accelerometer
B. V. Melkoumian, Baghron Co. (Russia) Classical theory of autonomous laser accelerometer based on Galileo transformations and Maxwell equations is proposed. Theory based on quantum operators for laser accelerometer had been published before with same results. • • • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747


Conference 6736: Unmanned/Unattended Sensors and Sensor Networks IV

6736-45, Poster Session
Generalized ambiguity function in the linear canonical transform domain and optical systems
Y. M. Kozlovskii, Institute for Condensed Matter Physics (Ukraine) In this work we combine two concepts the linear canonical transform (LCT) and generalized ambiguity function (GAF). The GAF is proposed as generalization of usually ambiguity function (AF) and it is shown that Wigner distribution function and ambiguity function are only particular cases of generalized distribution. In this work we introduce canonical representation of GAF which is generalization both generalized Wigner function and the GAF. The GAF is characterized by two parameters: t the form representation parameter and p - the FrFT parameter. At we can reconstruct intensity distribution which is registered experimentally in the output plane of optical cascade. As we know in the case of fractional Fourier transform we have rotation matrix with restricted coefficients. The advantage of this method is that in the LCT theory coefficients of matrix are arbitrary. Consequently combination of the LCT and the GAT allows us propose new methods for optical systems describing. The GAF for rectangular impulse is obtained. The scheme of signal intensity distribution reconstruction by the GAF is proposed for rectangular impulse. The results of numerical calculations of rectangular impulse distribution in the fractional Fourier transform domain are presented. It is shown the Wigner function forms as the rotational displacement of ambiguity function on informational diagram. In particular cases of the GAF such method allows us calculate images for rectangular impulse which forms in the output plane of single and double optical stages in the LCT domain.

use of the relatively high bandwidth of such pulses by modulating different spectral portions independently but retaining the phase locking between them. The encoding method is based on special optoelectronic devices (multichannel electro-optic and acousto-optic modulators) designed for this special task. We elaborated prototypes of such devices and planned their integration in complete communication systems. The secure nature of the encoded information lies on the large number of possible phase-amplitude combinations usable for the same information at the same transfer rate. The basic phase relations must be calibrated for the given optical path, so a recalibration is necessary each time the sender or receiver units are moved. This feature excludes unwanted decoding with an arbitrarily placed third party receiver. We performed simulations of the pulse shaping necessary to perform the purposed task. The number of independently modulated spectral channels, N, and the resolution of the phase and amplitude modulation in each channel determine together the number of possible encoding combinations, M. The minimum hardware may allow the transfer of 2^N bits in one pulse, or equivalently, this value of security code deepness. The present technology imposes pulse bandwidth between 10100 nm to process 3-30 spectral channels independently.

6736-13, Session 3
Sensor networks: future technology challenges
J. A. Parmentola, U.S. Army (USA) No abstract available

6736-14, Session 3
Miniature, low-cost unattended sensors and networks for ocean and coastal monitoring
A. Bargnesi, US Navy, Naval Underwater Warfare Ctr. (USA); E. M. Carapezza, B. Javidi, Univ. of Connecticut (USA) No abstract available

6736-46, Poster Session
Application of Bessel beams to wireless optical communications
O. Wilfert, Z. Kolka, Brno Univ. of Technology (Czech Republic); Z. Bouchal, V. Kollarova, R. Celechovsky, T. Medrik, Univ. Palackého V Olomouci (Czech Republic) The paper deals with application of nondiffracting Bessel beams to wireless optical communication. Nondiffracting beams possess unique physical properties originating from a specific form of their spatial spectrum. Up to now, a particular attention has been focused on the nondiffracting beams with microscopic dimensions. Such beams have been successfully utilized in metrological applications, particle manipulations and electron acceleration. In this paper, the nondiffracting beams with a long propagation range are examined and their properties potentially applicable to wireless communications are discussed. In the case of the nondiffracting beam, there is a possibility to control the beam propagation length even if its transverse dimension remains unchanged. The best known zero order Bessel beam with the wavelength lambda remains propagation invariant in a region whose length L depends not only on the diameter of the beam central spot d but also on the diameter of the transmitter D. These parameters are simply related as d = lambda*L/D, so that a narrower beam can reach the same distance if the diameter of the transmitter is enlarged. Furthermore, the intensity profile of the nondiffracting beam can be shaped into a demanded form and can reconstruct itself if the beam passes through objects distorting its amplitude and phase. Our paper is focused on experimental determination of the maximal propagation range of the nondiffracting beam, on an efficiency of the energy transfer and on the beam behavior in atmospheric turbulences.

6736-15, Session 3
Failure prediction for satellite monitoring systems using Bayesian networks
S. Bottone, C. J. Stanek, DataPath, Inc. (USA); M. Spivack, Univ. of Cambridge (USA); M. O’Sullivan, San Diego State Univ. (USA); J. Rosalia, DataPath, Inc. (USA) Predicting failure in complex systems, such as satellite network systems, is a challenging problem. A satellite earth terminal contains many components, such high-powered amplifiers, signal converters, modems, routers, and generators, any of which may cause system failure. The ability to estimate accurately the probability of failure of any of these components, given the current state of the system, may help reduce the cost of operation. Probabilistic graphical models, in particular Bayesian networks, provide a consistent framework in which to address problems containing uncertainty and complexity. Building a Bayesian network for failure prediction in a complex system such as a satellite earth terminal requires a large quantity of data. Software monitoring systems have the potential to provide vast amounts of data related to the operating state of the satellite earth terminal. Measurable nodes of the Bayesian network correspond to states of measurable parameters in the system and unmeasurable nodes represent failure of various components. Nodes for environmental factors are also included. A description of Bayesian networks will be provided and a demonstration of inference on the Bayesian network, such as the calculation of the marginal probability of failure nodes given measurements and the maximum probability state of the system for failure diagnosis will be given. Using the data to learn local probabilities of the network will also be covered.

6736-47, Poster Session
Improving free space optical communication security using femtosecond laser pulses
P. A. Maák, A. Barócsi, L. Jakab, P. I. Richter, Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics (Hungary) In our paper we present a new method for increasing communication security based on hardware codes. This method uses ultrashort (femtosecond) pulses in optical communication over free space. The basic principle is that a given amount of information is encoded in single optical pulses, using amplitude and phase modulation simultaneously. The encoding makes

6736-16, Session 3
Renewable energy for sustainable ocean sensors and platforms
E. M. Carapezza, A. Fagri, T. M. Molter, Univ. of Connecticut (USA) No abstract available

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B. J. 6736-18. In order to show the concept in real life. The main innovation within this sensor spie. Highly reliable discrimination is achieved with a feed-forward neural network classifier trained on a feature space derived from the distribution of wavelet coefficients and higher frequency details found within different levels of the multiresolution decomposition. The APN demonstrator currently consists of the following components. low-cost and mobile system. S. Distinct characteristics arise within the different airburst signatures because HE warheads emphasize concussive and shrapnel effects. Lindquist. The DWT and other readily available signal processing techniques will be used to extract the predominant components of these characteristics from the acoustic signatures at ranges exceeding 2km. The different mortar variants are characterized by variations in the resulting waveform of the event. The process that will be described herein extends current technologies. The waveform holds various harmonic properties distinct to a given mortar/artillery variant that through advanced signal processing techniques can employed to classify a given set. V. The added information is provided to a range limited chemical sensing system that exploits spectroscopy to determine the contents of the chemical event. A. The purpose is to protect military and civilian objects and installations with an all-weather. Exploiting these techniques will help develop a feature set highly independent of range. Session 4 Multi-frame filtering techniques for the detection and recognition of moving objects A. V. Session 4 An algorithm suite to provide detection. therefore employing a slower burning. which emphasis multi modal sensor fusion suites to provide such situational awareness.S. Morcos. while CB warheads are designed to disperse their contents over large areas. Army Research. Distinct characteristics arise within the different mortar variants because varying HE mortar payloads and related charges emphasize concussive and shrapnel effects upon impact employing varying magnitude explosions. Seismic and acoustic signatures from muzzle blasts and impacts of small arms fire and mortars were recorded using 7 seismic arrays and 3 acoustic arrays. E. Arrays were located from 700 m to 18 km from sources. 24-hour. software and a command & control unit. Perez. Morcos. L. (USA) Software algorithms are described that attempt to characterize specific cargoes found in cargo containers crossing security checkpoints at national borders. C. frequency spectrum.Conference 6736: Unmanned/Unattended Sensors and Sensor Networks IV 6736-17. (USA) The US Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research Directorate participated in the joint ARL-NATO TG-53 field experiment at Yuma Proving Ground. differences in the ratio of positive pressure amplitude to the negative amplitude. The development of an adaptive noise floor to provide early event detection assists in minimizing the false alarm rate and increasing the confidence whether the event is blast event or back ground noise. 120mm and 155mm mortar is presented. The CB/HE discrimination algorithm exploits acoustic sensors to provide early detection and identification of CB attacks. modular. and variations in the overall duration of the resulting • spie. Inc. Anderson. U. Location and characterization of these impulsive events is performed. 6736-49. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 5 . Peltzer. Saab Bofors Dynamics AB (Sweden) Area Protection Network (APN) is a concept for autonomous surveillance and perimeter protection. and identification of potential chemical/biological threats resulting from airburst events on the move S. Desai. A two fold problem of energy consumption and line of sight arise with the multi modal sensor suites. Session 5 Area protection network (APN): a concept for autonomous perimeter surveillance and protection including a demonstrator P. Development and Engineering Command (USA) Integrating a sensor suite with ability to discriminate potential Chemical/Biological (CB) events from high-explosive (HE) events employing a standalone acoustic sensor with a Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) algorithm we developed a cueing mechanism for more power intensive and range limited sensing techniques. The process described within will exploit the acoustic properties of the event to provide variant classification as added situational awareness to the solider. Session 5 Cargo identification algorithms enabling unmanned unattended inspection at high throughput portals A. A. Chalmers. Session 4 Seismic augmentation of acoustic monitoring of mortar fire T. Sweden. Initial results from seismic sensors co-located with acoustic arrays indicate that the seismic surface wave is a robust classifier for mortar fire at ranges of 1-3 km from sensor location. • Two optronic (infrared) sensors: PDES • One radar: SIRS77 • An image processing and data fusion software: Impress 6736-19. Differences characterized by variations in the corresponding peak pressure and rise time of the blast. U. Hohil. The integration of these algorithms with the TDOA algorithm provides a complex suite of algorithms that can give early warning detection and highly reliable look direction from a great stand-off distance for a moving vehicle to determine if a candidate blast event is CB and if CB what is the composition of the resulting cloud. and higher frequency details found within different levels of the multiresolution decomposition. It is a network of sensors. M. Sample processing of simulated and actual cargos is included to highlight the expected operational issues such processing will encounter. B.S. American Science and Engineering. The system shall primarily be able to detect and track human activity in the area of interest and also detect and classify behaviour in order to trig appropriate actions. Development and Engineering Command (USA) Feature extraction methods based on the discrete wavelet transform and multiresolution analysis facilitate the development of a robust classification algorithm that reliably discriminates mortar and artillery variants via acoustic signals produced during the launch/impact events. AZ in early November 2005. Highly reliable discrimination will be achieved with a feedforward neural network classifier trained on a feature space derived from the distribution of wavelet coefficients. Hohil. Session 4 Mortar and artillery variant classification by exploiting characteristics of the acoustic signature S. Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control (USA) No abstract available 6736-21. Enabling the event detection algorithm to locate to a blast event using TDOA we then provide further information of the event as either Launch/Impact and if CB/HE. U. E. providing discrimination based on acoustic elements of the blast wave. M. Preliminary analysis of • spieeurope@spieeurope. Desai. Army Engineer Research and Development Ctr. 6736-22. A theoretical architecture of processing cabapabilites is presented utilizing existing networks and deployed inspection systems to potentially provide automated and unmanned verification of cargo with its declared manifest. U. J. suite is the system will provide this information on the move while the chemical sensor will have adequate time to determine the contents of the event from a safe stand-off distance. a fully operational demonstrator was developed during 2006 for the Ground Combat Days in Skövde. Army Research. less intense explosive to mix and spread their contents. Mahalanobis. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used to extract the predominant components of these characteristics from air burst signatures at ranges exceeding 5km.S. 81mm. Utilizing acoustic sensors to exploit the sound waveform generated from the blast for the identification of mortar and artillery variants.

classification probabilities are calculated for the ships on basis of simulated sensor and target data. We have found that the different sensors give complementary information. van den Broek. Strand. port safety and flow management. biometric terahertz and radar sensor. The system also includes “blue force” tracking. Due to the successful demonstration and the great external interest. of South Florida (USA) This paper presents a new technique for automatic detection of marine vehicles in open sea from a buoy camera system using computer vision approach. military. C. Specifically.Conference 6736: Unmanned/Unattended Sensors and Sensor Networks IV • A Command and control unit: WCU • One “high definition” Pan-Tilt-Zoom video camera: Sony EVID70 • A network that connects all units The APN demonstrator can currently detect and track multiple humans and/or vehicles in limited 3D. This systematic approach consists of a set 6 spie. information for the selected ships is compared with information about ships in a database. Within this context we focus here on multi-sensor surveillance of the coastal environment. The Single Picture Integration for Territorial water Surveillance (SPITS) initiative at TNO Defence. Kingston Univ. P. at relatively low resolution. A.e. N. The dataset of 100 images is used to evaluate the performance of proposed • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . van den Broek. etc. Session 5 3D as a foundation for intelligent underwater autonomous mine countermeasures systems M. Next. Experiments on real data shows significant improvement over existing techniques. The tracks are presented on a map in the operator’s graphical user interface. Session 5 A multi-sensor approach for coastal surveillance B. taking images of the surrounding ocean surface and analyzing them on the subject of presence of marine vehicles . the APN team has performed several additional demonstrations in different places in Sweden and abroad. This in turn is creating new opportunities for optoelectronics and photonics professionals to apply their knowledge to security applications. L. Zyczkowski. Using a priori information. this approach is suitable for a short timescales. B. e. Each sensor has its own specific distance range in which it contributes most. face recognition. TNO (Netherlands) Maritime borders and coastal zones are susceptible to threats like drug trafficking. Ciurapinski. M. Security and Safety aims at improving situational awareness in a coastal environment by detecting anomalous behaviour of surface and air targets. In view of these issues. The radar system detects and tracks ships. 6736-27. sanctuary protection personnel. and no manual intervention is required. and in the case of post-event analysis. Langebrake. B. 6736-23. 6736-25.g. i. fiber optic sensors. Session 5 Consistent detection and identification of individuals in a large camera network J. an advanced infrared camera and a laser range profiler. P. television. (United Kingdom) In the wake of an increasing number of terrorist attacks. While there exist many motion detection and tracking algorithms. Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna (Poland) Terrorist threats around the world are accelerating the need for new generation security technologies that combine new physical aspects of sensors with digital signal processors and internet protocol (IP) network. as well as a contentbased retrieval technique for identification. The goal of the system is to detect an approximate window around the ship and prepare the small image for transmission and human evaluation. capable of producing range profiles and ISAR imagery of ships. Fefilatyev. van den Heuvel. Palka. to be able to ascertain whether specific individuals have been at the station previously. infrared and thermovision sensor. The content-based retrieval technique uses MPEG-7 descriptors to identify individuals. consistent detection and labelling of individuals is crucial. In this paper we show trends of technology development different kind of optoelectronics terahertz and radar sensor in their streaming to name of intelligent sensors. A next generation sensor suite mounted on a tower has been defined consisting of a maritime surveillance and tracking radar system. The change detection technique automatically extracts periodically varying elements in the scene using Fourier analysis. Session 5 Trends in optoelectronic security sensors M. or if the resolution allows. the reliable deployment of them in a large network is still ongoing research. Users of such system include border guards. D. escalators and scrolling advertisements. piracy. W. making this system suitable for deployment in large networks. This information is first used to select suspected ships. M. video surveillance. Training is performed online. (USA) It is proposed that high resolution three dimensional (3D) imaging sensors be exploited to form the foundation for a systematic approach to intelligent underwater imaging sensor systems. An important issue for the police is the ability to track individuals and groups reliably through underground stations. In many case sensors used in security are base an optoelectronic technology as chemical and biological sensors. to create intelligent. The classification probabilities are used to evaluate the capabilities for recognizing and identifying non-cooperative ships in coastal waters. Colombo. Goldgof. Univ. S. will be required. Velastin. town transport and another. The operator can easily define multiple alarm zones in the map. Szustakowski. we have developed a change detection algorithm to work reliably in the presence of periodic movements. A multisensor approach reduces the number of misclassifications and reliable classification results are obtained earlier compared to a single sensor approach. The proposed computer vision-based algorithm combines horizon detection method with edge detection and post-processing. on multiple levels and between levels. For longer timescales. If any track enters an alarm zone an alarm is triggered. Integration of optoelectronics sensor with information technology by introduced inside theirs scheme modern algorithm open the door to applying computer based analytical tools. The particular domain of interest is mine countermeasures. proactive security systems capable to recognizing threatening behaviors and patterns and create actionable alerts and alarms to the appropriate responders. We present a study on improving classification results for small sea surface targets using an advanced sensor suite and a scenario in which a small ship is approaching the coast. and constructs a Markov model for the process. 6736-26. other forms of identification such as gait. while simultaneously information from the sensor suite is extracted and • spieeurope@spieeurope. Given the environment under which the system operates. New generation intelligent optoelectronic sensor is playing an increasingly important role in the physical security and video surveillance industry. undermining economical • spie. Orwell. We discuss promising results of ship detection and suggest necessary improvements for achieving better performance. counterterrorism measures are now a main focus of many research programmes. J. Schwering. The intelligent sensors are now needed to build physical integrated security systems for secure importance society structure as airport. W. V. 6736-24. Session 5 Towards detection of marine vehicles on horizon from buoy camera S. Leung. to track individuals through multiple views. The system is intended to work autonomously. Naval Surface Warfare Ctr.

Both of these advantages mean that autonomous object identification based upon 3D is likely to be markedly more accurate and more robust than AOI based upon 2D imagery. Desai. Acoustic scene analysis in such sensor array environment is to achieve high level situation awareness through event specification. and 2 Hz noise limit was determined. Currently. Army Research. for example. 6736-32. association and anomaly detection. moving target detection and tracking. the requirements imposed by new terrorist threats and illegal border crossings have changed the emphasis to the monitoring of light vehicles and foot traffic.08-0. The sensor stability was studied. Goldburt. 6736-29. The minimum detectable level (MDL) was evaluated for 10 Hz oscillation frequency deviation. Javidi. Development and Engineering Command (USA). M. Univ. Carapezza. O. (2) determination of intelligent search patterns (which may depend. Session 6 Surface acoustic wave sensors for detection of ccl3no2 and HCN C. U. The proposed method not only can reliably detect the intended targets. Butman. Prado. and 0. We will report on future seismic detection and identification systems for various military and civil applications. Stevens Institute of Technology (USA). The two chemical agents were chosen due to their different vapor pressure. advantage is that by using 3D imagery it is much easier to deal with the viewing aspect dependence of the problem. MDL assesments indicated 0. Army Research. (3) the basis for intelligent navigation (singularly or in groups). Iancu. Two datasets are used in this study. Using three dimensional images for autonomous object identification (AOI) introduces a number of advantages. Session 6 Novel optical sensor system for ocean monitoring J. Session 6 Changing Requirements and Solutions for Unattended Ground Sensors • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 7 . These results also include the hardware design for up-todate unattended seismic detection and identification systems. Two different polymers were used in our investigations. helicopters and aircraft. ships. on local geographical patterns). Man. A second key advantage is that 3D images have a much weaker dependence on the local environment than 2D images have. made on quartz piezoelectric substrates. sensors are used in multi-modal arrangements. (USA) Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) were first used to monitor VietCong activity along the Ho Chi Minh Trail in the 1960’s. H. The sensors are “delay line” type.Conference 6736: Unmanned/Unattended Sensors and Sensor Networks IV of inter-related components. Toader. seismic and magnetic signatures. trains.18 ppm for hydrogen cyanide. Utilizing Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to describe the signal segments inter and intra sensor signal correlation is extracted based on a Generalized Probability Product Kernel (GPPK). The full description of this method and the complete experimental results will be presented in the final paper. Development and Engineering Command (USA) Acoustic sensor arrays have been frequently deployed in surveillance and monitoring operations. Ar. and the other is from a ground microphone array for pedestrian detection.g. The first component is sensor signal modeling and correlation. V. classification. Infrared cameras are now available with uncooled detector arrays and better resolution at a lower cost. and most important. but also provide a framework for high level data integration and situation analysis. each of which contributes significantly to the solution of the overall problem. Dragulinescu. Coherent. Observation vectors for the data mining algorithm consist of GPPK scores and the current most likely HMM states of all sensor signals. S. He. Grosu. D. To improve performance against targets with lower emissions. Introduced herein is a new acoustic scene analysis method which comprises of two statistical machine learning components. The air brushing technique was selected to deposit the sensitive film onto SAW devices. D. The imagers are equipped with sophisticated image processing capabilities (image enhancement. C. Frequent episodes and association rules are used to create normal profiles of acoustic environment. The main outcome of our effort is detection and identification algorithms and corresponding software for personnel and vehicle detection and identification which were tested in real environment • spie. Grigoriu. N2 it was in the range of 33-230 ppm. SenTech Inc. I. seismic. Employing association rule based data mining method to capture the pattern of occurrences of correlated data readings. Mihalcea. Session 6 A methodology for analyzing an acoustic scene in sensor arrays M. the targets of interest were large military vehicles with strong acoustic. Various commercial satellite services now provide relatively inexpensive long-range communications and the Internet provides fast worldwide access to the data. and finally (4) intelligent target reacquisition. propagation axis X) was chosen for its temperature stability. NBC Defense and Ecology (Romania) The paper reports the experimental results for polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors that were exposed to chloropicrin (CCL3NO2) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). (USA). magnetic and passive infrared) are now being used as activity sensors that cue imagers. E. Other key components of the systematic approach to intelligent underwater mine countermeasures systems based upon 3D include exploiting 3D for (1) intelligent bottom characterization (which impacts. S. U. He. Session 6 Zero False Alarm Seismic Detection and Identification Systems T. Hohil. Inc. Plasma and Radiation Physics spie. heavy and light • spieeurope@spieeurope. The availability of better imaging technology has made imagers the preferred source of “actionable intelligence”. N. Sima. with abstract events and profiles instead of sensor readings. Non-imaging sensors (acoustic. 6736-28.13 ppm for chloropicrin. image compression). Anomaly is declared when the new rules extracted from a test observation vector violate the normal profile rule set. etc. The second component is event association and anomaly detection. General Sensing Systems LLC (USA) General Sensing Systems (GSS) has achieved outstanding and verifiable results in the design and development of various seismic detection and identification systems. Ar. mine burial probabilities and characterization of local clutter). B. A fast GPPK algorithm is used to expedite the calculation. one is collected from an underwater hydrophone array for diver detection. of Connecticut (USA) No abstract available 6736-30.S. Sensor sensivity for chloropicrin (CCL3NO2) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was compared with other common gases such as (Kr. National Institute for Lasers. This led to their use as fire control devices for smart munitions (for example: the Wide Area Mine) and later to monitor the movements of mobile missile launchers. In these applications. Politehnica Bucuresti (Romania). These algorithms provide a zero false alarm rate with no target missing and can be used for many real and important military and homeland security applications. Cristea. Blanaru. Univ. which provides reliable distance measures between HMMs. Quoraishee.. 6736-31. C. M. (Romania). The first and primary component is to use high resolution 3D as the basis for a robust approach to autonomous object detection. N. A. Visible light imagers are more sensitive extending their utility well into the night. The first. e. These new requirements have changed the way UGS are used.08-0. Quartz (ST-cut. S. and especially target identification. while for Kr. Acoustic signals from all sensors are collected and partitioned into short time segments. identification. In the 1980’s. These results include a new seismic miniature sensor design as well as seismic signal recording and research for many traditional and nontraditional targets .walking. C. C.S. The nominal frequency was 70 MHz. running and jumping persons. N2). Viespe. Pakhomov. significant improvement in the capabilities of UGS became possible with the development of digital signal processors. E.

The results show that super-resolution of range data provides the same advantage as image super-resolution. In this paper we present an approach to track repair based on multi-hypothesis sequential probability ratio tests (MHSPRT) that is suitable for real-time video tracking applications. T. The approach also supports fusion of appearance-based features to augment statistical distributions of the track state and enhance performance during periods of kinematic ambiguity. Rosenbush. Rajic. In order for such a system to be able to capture large-depth scenes without any adjustment. the application of image super-resolution algorithms to improve the resolution of range data is examined. Antone. Sensor networks comprise a large number of miniature nodes with sensing. video frame dropout. S. Session 8 Data harvesting using optical wireless communication D. and frame-to-frame registration errors. Air Force Research Lab. Óptica y Electrónica (Mexico). Y. of the Negev (Israel) Networks of sensors are an emerging technology for real-time data gathering in a wide variety of civilian and military applications. computing and wireless communication capabilities and are randomly deployed in an area or volume of interest that may be remote or hazardous especially in defense applications.6 microns by digital P. Another option that avoids this problem consists of placing a specially designed phase mask in the pupil plane of the system. Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico). S. Loyola College in Maryland (USA) Flash LADAR systems are becoming increasingly popular for robotics applications. Session 7 Increasing the depth of field of imaging systems with numerically optimized phase masks Y. Castro. Buahbassuah. Global maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimation techniques resolve conflicts between local track association hypotheses. 6736-39. First. low signal-to noise ratio. The results show that new prospective can be exploited by using high power CoO2 laser sources in optical metrological applications 6736-37. target resolution. Session 7 Super-resolution enhancement of flash ladar range data G. However. D. T. However they usually suffer from a limited depth of field that severely reduces the depth range that can be used in practice. Kedar. Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata (Italy) Digital holography in the mid infrared range is shown to be a feasible technique for optical motrological applications. 6736-34. In this work. Javidi. (USA) No abstract available 6736-50. P. Ferraro. Session 6 Nanomechanical chemical sensors based on functionalized MEMS arrays S. B. of Connecticut (USA) Integral imaging systems permit the capture of threedimensional scenes. Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico). Oak Ridge National Lab. However. they generally provide a lowresolution range image because of the limited number of pixels available on the focal plane array. 6736-38. Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica. we propose to include in the integral imaging system an array of phase masks in order to increase the depth of field of the images. Univ. Using optical wireless communication (OWC) in the form of an illuminating laser beam a population of sensor nodes can be located and mapped with no power expenditure on the part of the nodes and data can be encoded onto the retroreflected beam of light by the sensor node at a minimal energy cost. of Sofia (Bulgaria) No abstract available the method applied to the reconstruction of digitally holograms recorded at CO2 laser wavelength of 10. Four low. Session 7 Local track repair for video tracking on small UAVs S. Castro.6 micron are reported. • spie. Session 7 Imaging and phase measurement of 3D objects at 10. M. R. Univ. Arnon. Experimental results of 8 spie. Univ. quantitative methods for evaluating the performance of these algorithms on range data are developed. L. The depth of field can be increased by stopping down the pupil aperture of the optical system but this solution results in a loss of light gathering power. Edge detection in the range data is used as a benchmark of the data improvement provided by super-resolution. Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica. The technique allows to reconstruct both amplitude and phase of wavefronts scattered by a 3D object. DelMarco. We consider both the pickup and the reconstruction stages. for surveillance and security applications there exist imaging systems with a 360-degree field of • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 .even with the lower spatial resolution of IR recording detectors compared to visible CCD array.Conference 6736: Unmanned/Unattended Sensors and Sensor Networks IV 6736-33. 6736-35. Next the track repair algorithm is described. Meucci. BAE Systems Advanced Information Technologies (USA). A. Evidence is accumulated across video frames by propagating posterior probabilities associated with each track repair hypothesis in the MHSPRT framework. S. P. Finally.resolution range images which are slightly shifted and rotated from the reference image are registered using Fourier transform properties and the superresolution image is built using non-uniform interpolation. Session 7 Integral imaging with increased depth of field by using phase masks A. Chi-square gating is used to form feasible track-to-track associations. Reiter. National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA). De Nicola. Yankov. In this paper we review some theoretical and experimental work in this area and underline some of the challenges and possible solutions. In this work. 6736-36. Hong. D. (USA) Persistent aerial video surveillance from small UAV (SUAV) platforms requires accurate and robust target tracking capabilities. and a set of local hypothesis tests is defined for associating new tracks with coasted tracks. Image super-resolution algorithms are typically rated subjectively based on the perceived visual quality of their results. To reduce computational complexity. video tracks can break due to excessive camera motion. Univ. the approach uses a target dynamics model whose state estimation covariance matrix has an analytic eigendecomposition. of Maryland/College Park (USA). Grilli. Frauel. Session 6 Wide-angle laser rangefinder • spieeurope@spieeurope. Ben-Gurion Univ. It would also be highly desirable to have imaging systems with a large depth of field in order to obtain sharp images over a large depth interval along the optical axis. In this paper. we propose to numerically optimize phase masks in order to increase the depth of field of imaging systems. Univ. Connecting broken tracks (video track repair) is thus essential for maintaining high quality target tracks. Jenkins. Eastman. Óptica y Electrónica (Mexico) Nowadays. It is show that good reconstructions can be obtained. R. Miccio. Super-resolution algorithms are compared for their use on range data and the frequency-domain method is selected. Frauel. an overview of the video tracker technology is presented. namely increased image fidelity. numerical results are reported demonstrating performance on real video data acquired from an SUAV.

Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden). and the pointing mechanism.. 32 polarization levels are used. Junique. It appears that to handle the ever increasing bandwidths.. López Hernández. We present in this work a bidirectional link based on a liquid crystal retro modulator (LCRM). T. vibration. Univ. S. A transmissive multiple quantum well modulator with a modulation bandwidth in excess of 10 MHz was placed in a wide field-ofview cat’s eye optic system. we need to quantify the performance limitations imposed by atmospheric turbulence on specific communication and to develop system configurations that are immune to atmospheric fluctuations. Öhgren. Only time will tell if electro-optic designs (along with photonics) can handle the voluminous amounts of data generated from the now present “information sources”. In 2007. a 3D finite element analysis has been performed. To proof its suitability for space applications. mechanical shock and spie. Phasecompensated optics offers the potential for overcoming these limitations by adaptive tracking of the beam and correction of atmospherically-induced aberrations. to quantify the improvement on the performance of optical communications systems regarding coherent detection. a high reliable diode laser pump module is essential to meet the demanded lifetime requirements of 10 years with a reliability of 0. the smaller diameter of the laser beam allows a higher data security. The optical terminal developed by TESAT Spacecom offers a bandwidth of 5. Also. Session 8 Spaceborne fiber coupled diode laser pump modules for intersatellite communications M. bit-rate increases in communication networks become increasingly sensitive to polarization impairments. Q. Univ.Conference 6736: Unmanned/Unattended Sensors and Sensor Networks IV 6736-40. 6736-43. Schwander. C. the State of Polarization (SOP) change defines the data. L. Tesat-Spacecom GmbH & Co. being the lower limit for the tests and checking of the system. Munuera. Fraunhofer-Institut für Lasertechnik (Germany). a multi polarization modulation is used. due to the non conductive characteristic of the LCRM.22 fiber. the power requirements are low. 6736-41. A. H. Ingenieria y Servicios Aeroespaciales (Spain) The mass and the power consumption are the most constrictive restrictions in an Aerostatic Platform. modulator. Comerón. The system uses two modulation schemes for each direction: in the uplink a carrier constant envelope FSK modulation is used. A. Pirich. the coherent optical terminal will be verified in orbit. avoids the necessity of SOP maintenance in the transmitter. The transmitter consists of a ring oscillator and an optical amplifier. and it measures 50 mm x 50 mm x 20 mm. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 9 . 6736-44. F. In addition. Session 8 A high-speed modulated retro-reflector communication link with a transmissive modulator in a cat’s eye optics arrangement J. it is our intention to elucidate how the addition of phase compensation systems to the transmitter or receiver can reduce the effects of atmospheric propagation and. Noharet. Certainly. Almqvist. To predict the effect of different heat sink materials and to calculate the temperature drop over the module. and the tracking • • spieeurope@spieeurope. The beam aperture of the upward link can be tailored with the compromise between the aperture losses. Pirich. M. Dios.5 Gbps with a range of 10. KG (Germany) Compared to traditional microwave systems for intersatellite communication. Wang. J. Session 8 Ground to survey aerostatic platform bidirectional free space optical link F. In this work. For the down link. Geday. Session 8 Phase compensation considerations on coherent. H. Issues such as chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion have placed more stringent requirements on fiber optics and associated components. Politécnica de Madrid (Spain). Built-in cold and hot redundancy as well as a truly hermetically sealed housing increase the reliability of the pump module. thermal cycling.9998. It restricts the received coherent power levels in atmospheric optical coherent systems and degrades their overall performance by exhibiting severe temporal fading associate with the turbulenceinduced optical phase and amplitude fluctuations. The laser radiation of two diode laser bars consisting of six emitters is coupled in a 100 µm NA=0. electro-optic(photonic) yechniques are the “wat to go”! Though optical fiber exhibits low-loss and high bandwidth. Rodríguez. The rated optical output power of the module described in this paper amounts to 20 W. F. and the higher the final system for a stratospheric survey Aerostat. B. although the main characteristics (modulation schemes. Plum. not a trivial task! Electro-optic (electronic and photonic) designers now face serious complexities as they “push” the technology to the limit.. A laser transceiver with a wavelength around 1550 nm was used to interrogate the modulated retro-reflector and detect the reflected and modulated signal.000 km and a bit error ratio below 1e-9. ACP Consulting (USA) It seems like yesterday that 10Gb/s (OC-192) transmission was the norm in data rates. it increases the error in any coherent free-space communication link. K. The coupling efficiency as well as the mounting accuracy of the optical components have been analyzed by raytracing. Carrasco-Casado. Hoffmann. The bit error rate was evaluated for different experimental configurations and the signal-to-noise ratio was measured as a function of range and angle of incidence. not the SOP. The system will be modified to fulfill the requirements associated to the increasing distances. The use of differential scheme. The requirement to gather and transfer data at faster and faster rates has spurned an evolution in the thought process of electro-optic engineers. A. Wang. For increasing the data rate. 6736-42. Session 8 High-speed information systems A.or higher. the module has been successfully qualified in terms of radiation.e. optical intersatellite links offer numerous advantages like lower weight and power consumption as well as higher bit rates. etc. A. Acreo AB (Sweden) An optical communication link with a modulated retro-reflector in a cat’s eye optics arrangement has been evaluated. Belmonte. del Campo. Consequently. Traub. part of the optical signal is polarization modulated and reflected to the earth. J. increasing the data rate in a 5 fold factor. The use of this device displaces to the terrestrial station the tasks of powering the laser. free-space laser communications system A. in so doing. The particular bit-rate jump to 40Gb/s (OC-768). The range of the distances for the system presented is from 2 to 20 km.) will be maintained. P. i. G. Sjöqvist. M. S. For both components. B. Politécnica de Cataluña (Spain) The same turbulence-induced optical phase perturbations that limit astronomical seeing destroy the spatial coherence of a laser beam as it propagates through the atmosphere. R.

8 ms integration time and are stored as 14-bit digital data. 6737 Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and Applications IV 6737-44. And it is more simple to establish whether FPN is or not from accumulated frame.g. Second. the application of these methodologies has allowed us to characterise the positions and amplitudes of multiple returns. But it is needed to calculate with complex implementation such standard deviation from frame to frame in case of temporal noise. Such crystals incorporate into different spatial structures: multilayer structure with several layers of silicon crystals and conglomerates of large microcrystals surrounded by very small nanocrystalline layer. Milovzorov. McCarthy. Using more advanced signal processing algorithms.Conference 6737: Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and Applications Wednesday-Thursday 19-20 September 2007 Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol.26 eV is related to defects appeared in interface area silicon-silicon dioxide. One such node of polycrystalline silicon film can be used for nanoscale device making. (Taiwan) This work demonstrates a fully phase encryption approach that adopts modified single exposure scheme digital holography. Because bad pixels are the false targets over infrared imaging system for tracking.V. Also. allied to the spatial filtering provided by small active area single-photon detectors. 6737-02. (Russia) We proposing the infrared (IR) device based on polycrystalline silicon layers what differ in sizes of crystals. called the key holograms. (Germany) The IR-Dual-Band-Camera demonstrator collects simultaneously infrared data in the 3-5 µm (mid-wave infrared. or objects with more than one reflective surface. Both cases it is very important to establish the threshold level for identifying at variable operating temperature. but for large crystals is opposite situation: the small value of ratio surface/volume and large area of surface. Forschungsfesellschaft für Angewandte Naturwissenschaften e. Bad pixels from both are classified into clusters and replaced with DSP and FPGA. Buller. (South Korea) 10 spie. Hence. R. mechanically delicate objects. the approach can be used for characterisation of distributed non-cooperative targets at kilometre ranges. Ltd. as measured by the depth resolution at short and long ranges. but the surface area is small. Bad pixels are spatial or temporal noise which arise from dead pixels by fixed signal level and blinking pixels by variable signal level that go beyond the bounds of normal pixel level at the temperature. techniques used for scanning. SELEX Sensors and Airborne Systems Ltd. those must be replaced. as well as the signal analysis methodology and algorithm selection. Poster Session Optical nonlinear switches based on nanocrystalline silicon D. practical applications U. 6737-46. This includes systems designed for short ranges of the order of 150 metres. Adomeit. It can be applicable for sensor and microscale spectroscopic devices design. A. Main contribution to the number of bad pixels is fixed pattern noise(FPN) according to increasing array size. (United Kingdom) Time-correlated single-photon counting techniques have been applied to time-of-flight ranging and imaging. threshold levels of FPN are selected through three temperature sentions experimentally. also. The inherent time gating of the technique. Fluens Technology Group Ltd. An encryption hologram is recorded digitally in a single step by interference with a reference wave from a random phase modulation. This paper will describes recent progress in photon-counting systems performing surface mapping of non-cooperative targets. The input image to be encrypted is hidden by random phase encoded in secrecy. The efficiency of transmission of radiation is sufficient. Lamb. R. Hierarchical structures of grown thin silicon film with small and large nanocrystals we can create new photon detector with redistribution of electrical signal according to applied potentials to various silicon layers. We describe the measurement approach. The second peak is caused by optical response from nanocrystal grain boundary that contain oxygen atoms incorporated in silicon as dipoles inside film. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . Images are typically acquired with a frame rate of 100 Hz at 6. can lead to operation under high ambient light conditions even with low average optical power pulsed sources.hardware is implemented to identify and replace bad pixels in dominance of the temporal noise. The technique is fundamentally flexible: the trade-off between the integrated number of counts (or acquisition time) against range repeatability or depth resolution allows its application in a number of diverse fields. Ebert. and convolution of the result with the impulse response function for decrypting the encrypted information. Session 1 IR-dual-band-camera demonstrator: experimental assessment. Heriot-Watt Univ. The demonstrator is based on a two-layer QWIP focal plane array with 384 x 288 x 2 detector elements. Results of this study demonstrate that the image quality of the decrypted image is satisfactory. Multiplication of the stored encryption hologram is performed by the numerical reconstruction of the decrypted keys. threshold level of temporal noise are selected at current operting environment adaptively. Poster Session Implementation for temporal noise identification using adaptive threshold of infrared imaging system I. Wallace. 6737-45. the silicon film with quartz micro-clusters were investigated as material for making the nonlinear optical transmitter device. Poster Session Securing information using multi-lock singlestep digital holography • spieeurope@spieeurope. First. The optical nonlinear switch device based on the nonlinear optical response of SiOx media inside film was proposed. It is seen the spectral peak with energy 3. studied to observe the various silicon and silicon dioxide fractions. • spie. we have been able to improve the system performance markedly. LWIR) atmospheric windows. (United Kingdom). Such kind of device is combined as photon detection by nanocrystals and electrical signal distribution by single structural node according to the famous logical rules. R. (Russia) SHG spectra from silicon films with different average size of nanocrystalls was studied as possible material for active channel by nonlinear optical switches design. The Raman spectra of films were. even in environments where lowlight level and and/or eye-safe operation is necessary. First 6737-47. Chang. In this paper. The ratio surface/volume for small nanocrystals is high. Milovzorov. This approach rapidly achieves the decrypted procedure once by using a personal computer. Samsung Thales. M. We have demonstrated three-dimensional imaging of metredimensioned objects where reverse engineering methods using cooperative targets cannot be routinely employed: e. The decrypted keys are also recorded as the digital holograms. Lim. Poster Session Infrared device for defence based on polycrystalline silicon D. as well as measurements on distributed targets at longer ranges of the order of 100 metres up to ten kilometres. Furthermore. For films with small silicon crystals (less than 20 nm) the nonlinear optical response contains two spectral peaks. A. there are many small silicon nanocrystalls are bonded with one large silicon crystal. Session 1 Ranging and three-dimensional imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting G. MWIR) and 8-12 µm (long-wave infrared. Fluens Technology Group Ltd. Ming Dao Univ. The differentiation in spatial structure results in different electrical signal propagation and photon detection. Two different dual-band optics were designed and developed. 6737-01.

including several of the current soldier modernization programs.s. Session 1 Multi-aperture imaging device for airborne platforms L. The range limit of the detector is currently <10 meters. ranges. D. M. H. Session 1 New 3-5 micron wavelength range hyperspectral imager for ground and airborne use based on a single-element interferometer D. Maestrini. E.5 optics. extremely efficient all-solid-state intracavity optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as the imaging illumination source.A. Using an integrated FPGA for the histogram analysis of the video signal. C. F# 2 dual field of view optics based on refractive and reflective components and second a pure refractive 100 mm focal • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 11 . thermo-electrically cooled MCT photo-detector. The development of a compact and high performance MWIR step zoom camera based on the 640x480 staring focal plane array (FPA) is described. thanks to the use of a multi-aperture sensor based on micro-optics.3 . Lavacchini. also offering substantial cost reductions.A. Session 1 Electro-optics technology for a new generation of military and law enforcement small equipment C. Andrews (United Kingdom) We describe a compact mid-infrared active spectroscopic imaging system for the rapid. leaks of multispecies hydrocarbon gases and the presence of. A. van Veen. P. the autogating and gain of the image intensifier are optimized for best SNR. Similar ideas for cameras developed to operate in the infra-red could help to drastically reduce the size. Video-like frame rates of 10 f. Handerek. N. D. Even if the equipments have been developed for military applications many other applications such as law enforcements or surveillance can be envisaged. Galileo Avionica S.5um. In addition. The OPO produces up to 250mW of tunable down-converted radiation over the range 1.V. J.S. These modules. Buckwald. CI Systems (Israel) Ltd. Photonis-DEP B. selected liquid-phase organic chemicals. The latter is achieved with a single element interferometer producing an optical path difference (OPD) between the two arms. L. similar commercial instruments based on interferometers are not suitable for pushbroom airborne use. In this paper the instrument design and its advantages are described. Special emphasis is spent on the solutions adopted for the design of this high zoom ratio and fast optics FLIR and on the electronic architecture and algorithms for image processing.A. the system utilises a miniaturised. A. (Netherlands). All the EO assemblies are integrated to form a very small and lightweight Integrated Weapon Sight. Some critical issues regarding the optional interfacing with a separate laser in the application for range gated imaging are discussed. M. With the present work we present a solution to both requirements.p. F. based on different types of gratings for the collection of the spectral information need cooling of the optical elements in order to avoid background signal which significantly limits the dynamic range of the instrument. We will demonstrate how the system has been used to detect. Univ. The camera has a 20 magnification step zoom ranging between 24°x20° for the wide field of view up to 1. and discrimination between. (Italy) spie. • spie. Laurent. (France). extremely light weight cameras working in the visible region of the spectrum. This design. V.2° x 1° for the narrow field of view and an aperture of F#4. 6737-03. In the civil domain. Calamai. narrowband demonstrator will be reported. Toccafondi. weight and cooling requirements of imaging. the system can be tuned across its spectral range in ~1 second. M. Ross.V. (Israel) The mid wavelength range (3-5 micron) hyperspectral imagers. Gil. Session 1 ERICA PLUS: compact MWIR camera with 20x step zoom optics and advanced processing A. N. Olivieri. • spieeurope@spieeurope. Dunn. modern silicon CCD and CMOS image sensors are becoming extremely small. Livi. the results of which will be presented. Based upon the back-scatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) technique. and a Fire Control System. of St. In addition. (Netherlands) High quality night vision digital video is currently required for many observation. so that its interferogram can be stored and Fourier transformed to yield its spectrum. A. The present interferometric configuration combined with proper 2D array detector cold shielding avoids the need for cooling the optics. designs providing wide field-of-view can potentially eliminate the need for sightline steering hardware. which can be used to observe simultaneously in different directions. and at the same time insures the possibility of airborne pushbroom operation. Results from a near-infrared. Session 1 Near to mid-infrared. Due to the nature of the nonlinear crystal employed within the OPO. We present the performance of this IR-Dual-Band-Camera and demonstrate fusion techniques to the pixel-registered dual-band images which show in laboratory tests and field trails promising results with respect to image improvement. C. there have been demonstrations of ultra-flat. A. Stothard. Galileo Avionica (a Finmeccanica company) has developed a family of small equipments based on suites of elctro-optics sensors. BAE Systems plc (United Kingdom) Imaging devices are very attractive as sensors in small airborne platforms and there is a continuing trend toward widespread employment of imaging either alone or in combination with complementary technologies. M. F# 1. 6737-05. so that the package size of commercial miniature cameras is becoming dominated by the image forming optics. but in the near future we hope to significantly improve this by implementing a superior detector exhibiting lower noise.Conference 6737: Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and Applications a 86 mm and 390 mm focal length. stand-off detection ofhydrocarbon vapour and deposited organic liquids. R. have been demonstrated via this technique. M. Porta. 6737-08. (Italy) In the framework of the SOLDATO FUTURO program. Torrini. a Multi Function Target Locator. combined with properly synchronized optical head rotation is suitable also for use on the ground. for a diode pump power of only 3W. J. broadly tunable. M. Santini. 6737-06. Rae.p. This paper describes work on a biologically inspired imaging system offering a wide field of view. surveillance and targeting applications. developed for the UK Ministry of Defence. small and very compact laser rangefinders. even if the latter is only a structure supporting a pinhole. Laycock. van Spijker. de Groot. We obviate the very high cost and complexity of a cooled MCT or InSb video array by raster-scanning the collimated illumination beam over the area of interest and reconstructing the image by sampling sequentially the backscattered radiation at each pixel point with a single element. 6737-07. M. Photonis S. Galileo Avionica S. which is a function of the angular position of a pixel in the field of view along the scan direction. As the field of view is scanned each pixel of the image is measured through all the OPD’s from zero to OPDmax. CMOS Visible sensors up to visual units based on the last generation of color OLED microdisplays. C. supported by Italian Army. 6737-04. The processing electronics is based on a flexible and expandable architecture. Sabatini. Session 1 Performance of compact intensified camera unit (ICU) with autogating based on video signal A. from uncooled V0x 25 nicron thermal imagers. R. P. Cabib. Cocchi. Photonis-DEP B. active hyperspectral imaging system for the detection of gaseous and liquid species D.4. Recently. Giunti. de Witte. designed and built by GA. Torniai. M. W. An overview of the performances is given. We present the performance increase that is obtained when combining a state-of-the-art image intensifier with a low power consumption CMOS image sensor.p. in real time.

A new method for fast 3D image generation employs a single detector in combination with a Hadamard multiplexing technique. When using our coding/decoding scheme with low-noise detectors. This system will be turned ON during the takeoff and landing operations. detecting the resulting intensity distribution. Doing so has a number of potential advantages over existing imaging approaches at these longer wavelengths. which is typically 5 to 15 seconds. • spie. Computational imaging. thereby preventing the detection. In the paper we describe in details the work that has been carried out for fusing a commercial micro mirror sampling element with TOF acquisition methods and known Hadamard multiplexing techniques for implementation of fast and SNR optimized 3D image capture. CAI works by coding optical wavefronts from a scene using a patterned aperture. De Villiers. A. Latest survey indicates more than 60. This paper will consider application of CAI to the visible and IR bands. only 16. Tholl. Slinger. its quality being still acceptable • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 .Conference 6737: Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and Applications 6737-09. The result of the computation is either a classical image or any other form of spatial information. We have used an advanced deconvolution algorithm for the image reconstruction. ZENON short-arc lamps each rated for 300-watt IR power enough to provide a high J/S over the IR spectral range of interest (2-3 micron). McNie. which can be easily jammed with high J/S ratio. It is based on two components: (1) an optical phase element that codifies the wavefront. lensless imagers for the visible and infrared C. A third dimension can be captured using illumination techniques like gated viewing. The DMD provides the spatial pixel structure while the TOF is digitally sampled at high rates. The combination of scene sampling and TOF measurements provides angle-angle-range information which allows the computation of 3D images. M. as for example T-ray imaging. Diehl BGT Defence GmbH & Co. which uses a decentred lens inducing coma as an adjustable and removable phase element. Session 2 Coded aperture systems as nonconventional. Even one such missile can bring down a commercial jet carrying more than 350 passengers. Portilla.000 such missiles currently in existence. Bennett. In this way. which is very robust against high noise levels. implemented on infrared (IR) cameras.000. Payne. We show encouraging preliminary results based on realistic simulations using optical PSFs and noise power spectral density (PSD) laboratory models of two IR imaging systems. Session 1 Hadamard camera for 3D imaging E. 6737-48. The theoretical basics of TOF and Hadamard technique are presented and will be complemented by theoretical explanation of utilizing them for 3D volumetric image generation. tracking and lock-on of jet engine plume. Georgia Institute of Technology (USA) No abstract available 6737-11. This classical approach combines spatial data sampled in pixels and arranged in an image format with digital signal processing to extract spatial information. A. the reconstruction algorithm improves the image quality in all cases. will be located in the vicinity of each jet engine and the FMmodulated noise energy will introduce noise spikes in the missile receiver bandwidth. Indra Sistemas (Spain). Infante. R. These IR sources 12 spie. including low mass. G. Once the aircraft reaches an altitude over 15. Dorronsoro. Session 1 Focus-free NVG development • spieeurope@spieeurope. J. In classical 2D digital imaging spatial information is registered electronically by image plane sensors (CCD or CMOS arrays) which imitate conventional analog films. The system uses low-cost. In a conventional scanning process. (United Kingdom) Coded aperture imaging (CAI) has been used extensively at gamma. J. Session 1 IR system to provide effective IR countermeasure (IRCM) capability to ward off threats posed by shoulder-fired missiles (SFMs) A. Session 2 Low-cost wavefront coding using coma and a denoising-based deconvolution C. we present a simple and low cost solution. M. Ridley. Instead. The proposed IR equipment will provide instant IRCM capability to eliminate the SFM threat posed to passenger jets. H. along with preliminary experimental results. KG (Germany) One development branch of future 2D and 3D digital imaging will lead us from classical imaging to computational imaging. However. D. Without induced optical phase. Several 3D scene elements (voxels) are captured at once during a single scanning event. military aircraft and helicopters. QinetiQ Ltd. M. Computational imaging is the right approach to construct large format 3D images with a small number of detector elements or to capture images in spectral ranges for which electronical focal plane arrays do not exits. on the other hand. Guerrero-Colon. JHA Technical Consulting Services (USA) This paper presents a unique IR sensor technology capable of providing integrated deception and noise jamming IRCM capability to ward off threats from SFM or STINGER missiles operated by terrorist groups. Computer simulations on a commercial jet engine plume indicate that that the radiation intensity from a jet plume will be significantly less (25 to 30 %) during the roll and pitch maneuvers which are common during take-off operations. Barenz.and X-ray wavelengths. Wilson. Imatrics Image Technologies (Spain) and Univ. 6737-12. After N frames of the DMD (where N is number of 2D pixel elements) a data cube is constructed. low volume and various agile/steerable imaging modes. feeds pixelated data into a digital signal processor in a format subjected to processing or hardware constraints. a high resolution 2D sampling micro mirror device (DMD) and a time of flight measurement method (TOF). J. and (2) a numerical deconvolution algorithm that reconstructs the image. N. This will deny detection and tracking of the jet plume to the operator within the time allocated to him. Instituto de Optica (Spain) and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Spain) Wavefront coding (WFC) is a powerful hybrid optical-numerical technique for increasing the depth of focus of imaging systems. the micro-mirror of the DMD can be tilted consecutively towards the scene and a TOF measurement is performed for each pixel separately. Furthermore. the image suffers a graceful degradation. K. the proposed solution provides high quality and robust recovery even for severe defocus. compact. R. de la Fuente. W. diffraction and photon flux reductions can have adverse consequences on the image quality achievable. Finally measurement results of scene image acquisition are going to be demonstrated and discussed as well as expanded by considerations about possible applications as THz-Imaging and the following research steps. but it performs poorly when there are both in and out-of-focus objects in the scene. the pilot can turn OFF the system. de Granada (Spain). some sophisticated optical WFC designs have been used to obtain approximate focus-invariant point spread functions (PSFs). an angle-angle-range 3D image cube with improved SNR is created. M. J. The proposed IRCM system deploys innovative jamming techniques to confuse the IR seeker receiver by introducing sharp FM-modulated noise spikes in the IR receiver bandwidth.5 % of the total IR energy will be in the 23 micron spectral region. then using inverse digital signal processing to reconstruct an image. This and the atmospheric attenuation will reduce further the IR energy to less than 3 % at receiver. As sensor noise increases. A Hadamard algorithm is then employed in order to extract 2D images for each time slice of the data cube. An analysis of these benefits and limitations. Imatrics Image Technologies (Spain). The higher SNR gained with Hadamard camera can be used for range enhancement or optimization of scanning velocity. Jha. Strens. These features allow its application to low cost imaging systems. where conventional refractive and reflective techniques are impractical. D. Traditionally. The signal-to-noise ratio of the of capturing 3D images can be improved using Hadamard encoding techniques. will be presented. Romasew.

The work has provided a variety of solutions based generally on black body technology. M. (Israel). 6737-18. at different ranges and orientations. Eberle. The target to background contrast. A. We present a passive. under different illumination and acquisition configurations. Images were recorded. human eyes or other imaging and non-imaging sensors. The major drawbacks of this solution are that the color impression may be affected and that the protection is limited to specific wavelengths only. Ben-Gurion Univ. Holloway. illumination of the background and illumination of the target. near infrared and visible sensing E. ‘platform to soldier’. ‘air-to-around’ including. Combat Identification is achieved using a combination of situational awareness and target identification capabilities. We have experienced that the amount of induced coma is a key design parameter: while it only slightly affects the in-focus image quality. sensed by a real active sensor during field trials. (United Kingdom) Test and evaluation of missile warning systems is most efficiently performed using electro-optic stimulation systems that can simulate the launch and approach of a missile at operational ranges. Viable options for laser based architectures have been studied and compared against key criteria such as power input/output. gave the same results in both cases. Canevet. There are a number of combat scenarios where CTI could be used: ‘ground-to-ground’ including ‘platform to platform’. H. The calculation of an identification • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 13 . of the Negev (Israel) Night-vision systems in vehicles are a new emerging technology. 6737-15. and ‘ground-to-air’ including ‘platform to air vehicle’ and ‘soldier to air vehicle’. (United Kingdom) Combat Identification is the process of identifying detected objects in the battlefield as friendly. Shvartzer. Analysis of the perception experiments results showed a good concordance between the two sets of images. and is used in conjunction with doctrine. enemy or neutral. These systems have been thoroughly characterised with results matching the required performance. Bürsing. In order to validate the whole model. C. ‘soldier to soldier’. IMODSIBAT (Israel). Oron. when the input power exceeds the threshold power. At input power below threshold. Session 2 Properties of light reflected from road signs in active imaging for driving safety A. As opposed to fixed spectral filters. we developed an analytic model including sensor. whereas the threats can exist in any other laser wavelengths. or eye safety. such as microbolometers. We measured the properties of the reflected light from the three road sign types commonly used with respect to the angle between the laser source and the reflecting plane. Much research and development over recent years has gone into optimising the fidelity and power of these systems in the mid-infrared waveband. Session 2 Evolution of test and evaluation of infrared missile warning systems S. We demonstrate the protection ability of the WPF at several laser wavelengths including protection behavior for single and series of pulses. • spie. Oron. spie. where a spot becomes permanently opaque and remains so even after a long exposure to high power. the UK thermal weapon sight. assisted human vision (binoculars). L. transmission is decreased dramatically. it is determinant for the final depth of focus range. dynamic range. Lapaz. the blur and the noise where added to armoured vehicles signatures in accordance to sensor and atmosphere models.Conference 6737: Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and Applications even when using highly noisy sensors. Forschungsfesellschaft für Angewandte Naturwissenschaften e. atmosphere. for example. We found that different types of signs have significantly different reflection properties. R. ‘soldier to platform’. Protection from high power laser radiation is generally performed using fixed absorptive spectral filters used to block specific laser wavelengths. L. Halstuch. However. R. R. Ltd. modulation performance. QinetiQ Ltd. cameras. B. related to this set of vehicles in the near infrared. R. Reshef. the filter has high transmission over the whole spectral band. image intensifier based devices. the performance of this solution is less efficient for the third road sign type. environmental requirements and engineering complexity. 6737-17. An array of quantum cascade lasers has emerged as the most advantageous solution for the present challenges. Sensor and atmosphere models have been validated separately. The first set submitted to trained observers was made of hybrid images. Recent demands for higher power equipment have pushed development towards a laser based approach. S. 6737-16. In this paper we compare some of the existing technologies and introduce some new technologies including lightweight flexible thermal infrared marking materials for dismounted troops. Singer. Nemet. Indeed. two identification tests have been set up. O’Keefe. The WPF can be readily used for protection of detectors. The second set of images was made with the same targets. Session 2 Validation of a target acquisition model for active imagers using perception experiments F. The impact of gating on observer’s performance was also evaluated. and thermal infrared imagers TI for example. ESL Defence Ltd. B. due to strong retroreflections of the light from road signs. A crucial problem in active (laser-based) systems is distortion of images by saturation and blooming. Yitzhaky. Y. to comprise what is referred to as the joint combat identification marking system. These detection and observation methods are used in conjunction with a corresponding vehicle or personnel marking. this set of real images was built with three different types of gating: wide illumination. night vision goggles or the UK common weapon sight. A. It is concluded from our measurements that the optimal solution for attenuating the retro-reflecting intensity performs well for two of the road sign types. Unfortunately. ‘rotary-wing aircraft-’ and ‘UAV-platform-’ to platform or -soldier. This decreased transmission is limited to the hitting point. visualization and eye effects. solid-state threshold-triggered Wideband Protection Filter (WPF) that blocks the transmission only if the power exceeds a certain threshold. In order to predict the performance of observers using such systems. The perception task has been modelled using the targeting task performance metric (TTP metric) developed by the Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD). Interruption may start from transient saturation and can lead to permanent damage. 6737-14. tactics. The problem exists in imaging sensors comprising of CCDs and other matrix detectors. Not all of these scenarios are currently catered for in all sensor wavebands. KiloLambda Technologies. which permanently block only specific wavelengths.V. techniques and procedures to derive a combatant’s decision to shoot or not to shoot. Session 2 Wideband protection filter: single filter for laser damage preventing at wide wavelength range A. Donval. Current electro-optic cooperative target identification techniques use sensors ranging from human vision. (Germany) High power laser radiation when impinging on imaging or detection systems can seriously interrupt the signal. Session 2 Cooperative target identification marking materials for thermal infrared. Ministry of Defence IDF (Israel). the wideband filter is clear at all wavelengths until it is hit by damaging light. Delegation Generale Pour L’Armament (France) Active night vision systems based on laser diodes emitters have now reached a technology level allowing military applications. State of the art quantum cascade lasers from a research institute have been incorporated into the design of two prototype systems. ‘fixed wing aircraft-’.org/esd • spieeurope@spieeurope. showing different vehicles.

is essentially dependent on the properties of turbulent media. Atmospheric aerosol/dust particles cause attenuation and scattering of radiation that may affect the performance of the imaging • spie. 6737-20. that transfer the NIST scale to the military primary standard laboratories. The fused image can obtain any percentage combination of thermal or intensified imagining. J.and short-exposure turbulence MTF characterization are based on this type of turbulence. etc. a NV calibration facility has been developed at NIST. N. Also. Army Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate (USA). In this work. The NV detectors. the design issues of the improved NV radiometers. The resolution. In different test-sets. as well as MTF. The detailed fabrication processes have been outlined in a multimode optical fiber which is based on conventional MEMS fabrication. Paicopolis. U. A system of this type combines the very high line resolution (as required by Johnson criteria for discrimination at longer target ranges) available from intensifiers with very high spot detection for targets of military interest. the responsivity of the goggle’s photocathode. However. laser sources are frequently used to calibrate a NV detector against a reference detector at the peak wavelength of the test-set LED. nano research. The change in fluctuation correlations of the refractive index can lead to a considerable change in both the MTF form and the resolution value. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . The results of an analysis of human visual performance using the Army’s Night Vision Lab (NVL) model are presented for this dual-band common aperture Sniper Scope that can be mounting on a Sniper weapon. 6737-22. G. between 600 nm and 900 nm. Because of the efficient outof-target blocking of an improved input optics. The NIST NV calibration facility. Hixson. the photodiode works as a field stop and it produces a radiance measurement angle of 15 degrees. biomedical applications. in imaging systems. Session 2 Design and analysis of MEMS-based optical sensor for monitoring density level changes in fluid solution A. chemical and optical properties with high accuracy. The NV detectors are always silicon detectors that are sometimes color-filtered to mimic the spectral distribution of the irradiating source in the test-set. on the basis of LIDAR measurements and model calculations. Session 3 Effects of image restoration on automatic acquisition of moving objects in thermal video sequences degraded by the atmosphere O. the uncertainty of the reticle-radiance calibrations can be too high which is unacceptable for military goggle applications. and the uniform calibration system is discussed. the influence of turbulence and atmospheric scatterers on imaging through the atmosphere is estimated for different scenarios of vertical and slant-path propagation. different sources are used to irradiate the reticle-plane viewed by the test goggles. produces uniform irradiance for the NIST reference detector and also uniform radiance for the NV (test) • spieeurope@spieeurope. S. S. Kopeika. Haik. Also. imaging through the atmosphere. 6737-21. they are also increasingly affected by the atmospheric channel. the distance dependence of the radiance responsivity became negligibly small during calibrations. the photodiode is thermoelectrically cooled to obtain high shunt resistance needed for low output noise and high sensitivity for the NV detector (radiometer). The system uses a common multi-spectral aperture to provide parallax free registered images in each spectrum. Golbraikh. In order to perform uniform NV detector. and goggle calibrations with low uncertainty. different source distributions are applied in the reference and transfer calibrations of the NV detectors used to calibrate test-sets and then goggles. and remote sensing. Ben-Gurion Univ. the long. test-set. Eppeldauer. The sphere radiance is derived from the irradiance responsivity of the reference detector utilizing the known geometry of the flux transfer. which is proposed here for standardized military applications. The results indicate that aerosol small-angle forward scatter causes image blur with a noticeable attenuation of high spatial frequencies for increasing optical depth. (USA) Optical sensor is playing a vital role for monitoring/detecting physical. Numerical results found in this study are very encouraging which leads to believe that newly presented sensor could effectively be used for monitoring density level in fluid solution in real time. A new Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) based optical sensor has been presented to monitor the density level changes in fluid solution. It is usually assumed that the turbulent field is of the Kolmogorov type and. Army Research Lab. These sources are typically LEDs with different spectral distributions and peak 6737-23. and the spectral conversion of the phosphor at the output of the image intensifier. complete design and analysis is reported to demonstrate a new micromachined optical sensor. The intensified image is viewed directly on the fiber optic output of the intensifier. of the Negev (Israel) As modern imaging systems become increasingly sensitive and accurate. P. The spectral responsivity of the goggles can be very different as well resulting in further uncertainty increase in the viewed image which is the spectral product of the reticle-radiance.Conference 6737: Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and Applications 6737-19. Zilberman. The theoretical model is presented based on Fabry-Perot interferometer principle. V. National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA) There is a two and a half orders of magnitude gap between the ~0. Consequently the 64lp/ mm intensified resolution. Implications can be significant for optical communication. Rahman. Ben-Gurion Univ. It is especially important to take into account turbulence characteristics while processing images of objects obtained in the visible or infrared range.1 % (k=2) uncertainty of NIST reference detector calibrations and the uncertainty of field night vision (NV) goggle measurements. equivalent to 2300 resolvable lines is maintained in the intensified channel. Polytechnic Univ. The numerical model is reported with simulated results using MATLAB and commercial Finite Element (FE) software. Session 2 Human visual performance of a dual band I2/IR sniper scope P. even under non-fog conditions. Session 2 Slant-path atmospheric MTF A. (USA). In this paper. microfluidics. E. irradiated by the same source distribution used in the test set. A custom designed eyepiece with a flat panel display overlays the thermal channel image on the intensified image. Battelle Memorial Institute (USA) Modeling results of the human visual perception performance of a dual band near (intensified) and long wave (thermal imager) are presented. The selected silicon photodiode has an increased responsivity in the spectral response range of the NV goggles. experimental data indicates that in the atmospheric boundary layer and at higher altitudes the turbulence can be different from Kolmogorov’s case. Session 2 Uniform calibration of night vision goggles and test sets G. intensified only.S. Y. the aerosol blur is considered to be the primary source of atmospheric blur (the turbulence blur is usually neglected) and is commonly called the adjacency effect. The sensor could also be used in the area of defense sensing. of the Negev (Israel) Automatic acquisition of moving objects from long-distance video sequence is a fundamental task in many applications such 14 spie. The system combines an uncooled focal plane array thermal imager with an intensifier tube to provide a simultaneous fused. or thermal only on demand image. Yitzhaky. can decrease the present measurement uncertainties by about an order of magnitude which is an existing need for safe operations. The uniform goggle-calibration system. In satellite imagery. As the spectral product of the source distribution and the detector responsivity can be very different in these measurements. In the optical design. were also developed at NIST to perform uniform spectral responsivity and high sensitivity. It is well known that the atmospheric optical turbulence plays an important role in optical signal propagation through that medium. Frequently. wavelengths. An integrating sphere.

Corsini. systems based on passive methods for finding the best focus have been presented in the literature. Univ. Porta. to detect the contour of object in a given • spieeurope@spieeurope. We consider an autofocus system split into two main blocks: 1) computation of a focus measure. and possibly improving. M. Romagnoli. sophisticated techniques are required to adapt the recorded signal to the monitor maintaining. Q. for general objects. it is difficult to detect the object contour using the Mumford-Shah model. while the application to IR sensors is scarcely treated in the literature. In this paper. restoring the long-distance thermal videos using a novel blind image deconvolution method developed recently. the model can detect object whose boundary is not necessarily defined by gradient and whose gray structure may be complicated. Park. X. When the distance between the camera and the object is known. microscopy and ordinary video systems. For a stationary camera. we consider that the object to be segmented is made up of some different gray level. etc. J. Session 3 Methods for the visualization of high dynamic range IR images F. and compute the gray difference between the inner narrow band and outer narrow band of the curve. The first block uses a criterion function whose value quantifies the quality of image focus. C. In addition. In this work. and the performance of the algorithm is satisfactory. as computer vision. Galileo Avionica S. Institute of Optics and Electronics (China) In this paper. the frame differencing method was preferred and it can be generalized to situations where the video data can be easily stabilized. using improved Mumford-Shah model to segment the object. typically in the order of 14-15 bits. Ouyang. di Pisa (Italy).A. G. deviation over time duration. It has several items for vision processing. Samsung Thales. This is done here by first.A. So it can fine occlusion occurs when doing object tracking. Ltd. These results correspond to a previous study which demonstrated that image restoration can significantly improve the ability of human observers to acquire moving objects from a long-range thermal video. Therefore. the contour of the object is piecewise-contour of along the edge. Kalman filtering and particle filtering also contribute to enhance the tracking performance. Qi. Pervious studies in the field of automatic acquisition of moving objects ignored the blur in the video frames. to some extent. The purpose of this work is to determine the effect of image restoration (de-blurring) on the ability to acquire moving objects (such as humans and vehicles) automatically. spie. M. the autofocus process is very easy and straightforward. many existing systems use an active sensor to measure the distance to the object. To overcome these drawbacks. They usually employed simple methods for noise reduction (such as temporal and spatial smoothing) and motion compensation (registration of frames). he also noticed that tracking features need to be used adaptively since both foreground and background appearance can be changed as the target object moves from place to place. smoothness and lack of local maxima. (Italy) The definition of automatic focusing techniques is a crucial problem in many applications. These techniques estimate the correct focus from images acquired at different positions of the lens. an open problem. However. reduce the perceptibility of small objects and often prevent the human operator from understanding some of the important details. so we divide the curve into finite segment. Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can be used to segment object without edge and with complex gray structure. Galileo Avionica S. We implemented our algorithm on PowerPC based System for less calculation time. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 15 . Porta. The proposed techniques attempt to combine dynamic range compression and local contrast enhancement to get a better perception of the details and a pleasant display representation. Diani. This approach has some disadvantages as the additional costs for the hardware and the fact that an active system emits energy which can be easily detected. 6737-24. Corsini. M. Masini. may be along several directions) to construct sign table. It is very helpful for real time image processing. We discuss the results obtained on a number of experimental data sets acquired in typical operating conditions and compare the performance of the different visualization techniques in terms of quality of the final image presented to the human operator. Such techniques may be inappropriate for IR sensors or may require important modifications. may reduce the quality of such videos. Zhang. Lee. matching error. which include blur and spatiotemporal-varying distortions.Conference 6737: Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and Applications as surveillance and reconnaissance. IR sensor image input (Using Host PC) 6737-25. This problem has been widely investigated in the literature for the visualization of images acquired in the visible spectral domain. so it is robust to non-rigid pose • spie. First we construct signed distance function. Univ. and therefore. di Pisa (Italy). Therefore. and the definition of proper rendition techniques for IR images is. 6737-27. Session 3 Automatic focusing techniques for IR sensors A. Existing passive autofocus approaches have been proposed with reference to visible cameras. the ability to acquire moving targets automatically. Design and implementation of our algorithm can be divided into 6 steps 1. Romagnoli. For the second block we study the important problem of the optimization of the search process and investigate methods to make it as rapid as possible. Then we used improved Mumford-Shah model to segment image. the image visual quality. (Italy). (USA) Modern thermal cameras have increased sensitivity which implies high dynamic ranges. Galileo Avionica S. compute gray average of narrow band in and out of the curve. Diani. Classical dynamic range compression techniques based on simple linear mapping. and then comparing the automatic acquisition capabilities in the restored videos versus the non-restored versions. This subject has been scarcely investigated in the literature. Each feature is weighted individually according to separability. We analyze and compare different focus measures with reference to some important properties like symmetry. A. and the gray difference among the object points nearby the contour is little. Session 3 Image segmentation based on level set method Y. especially G4 PowerPC core.p. G.p. Session 3 PowerPC-based system for tracking in infrared image sequences J.p. A segmentation model that combines techniques of curve evolution.A. we propose and analyze passive strategies for focusing InfraRed (IR) cameras. Lee. This requires suitable visualization techniques to adapt the large signal variations to the low dynamic range of the display and of the human visual system (less than 8 bit). Modern appearance-based tracking methods such as the mean-shift algorithm use histogram-based object appearance models. adopted a method which based on the times that is odd or even numbers through close curve from the point along a direction (if need. We use Matrox’s Odyssey Xpro+ System. the atmospheric degradations. and 2) research of the best-in-focus lens position. we propose one tracking scheme based on the block matching and employ several features such as intensity. 6737-26. the Mumford-Shah model and level set method was presented. Collins reviewed above tracking methods and emphasized that tracking success or failure depends primarily on how distinguishable an object is from its surroundings. We finally present and discuss examples of results obtained on experimental data sets acquired in outdoor and indoor scenarios. Results show that image restoration can significantly improve the automatic acquisition capability. M. (South Korea) Several powerful algorithms for object tracking have been developed in last two decades. We consider different search approaches and their implementation on IR test bed. The aim of this work is to study new techniques for the visualization of IR images which are capable of accounting for the challenging requirements that must be satisfied by an operating sensor. to classify each pixel into the target region or the background region. A.

A.g. In this paper. R. Katsnelson. capacitance-voltage. oil tanker. The product is architecturally compatible to BIRD384 and contains SCD’s proprietary unique features (e. Di Stefano. “Power-Save”. It is applicable to realistic ship geometries. if the detector exhibits sufficiently high internal gain. (Italy). Fraenkel. Pixels incorporating 5 micron and 10 micron diameter GMAPs have been simulated. Y. fluorescence lifetime measurement and • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . defect monitoring of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) circuits. The stable gain of the device combined with the low operating voltage are unique advantages of this technology for high-performance SWIR imaging arrays 6737-32. Univ. and the noise equivalent power (NEP) is less that 5x10^15 W/Hz^0. For both the sensors. di Pisa (Italy). This is analytically computed as a function of the sensor’s noise features. etc. E. Secondly. The ROIC architecture follows the framework of the previous designs. cross. This high performance is achieved by utilizing an improved pixel design. Giompapa. Session 4 BIRD640: SCD’s high sensitivity VGA VOx µbolometer detector A. A. Mizrahi. bulk and sidewall capacitance effects are significantly reduced. Gini.p. The circuits were optimised with a view to maximising the photon count rate. The rate of photon detection will saturate if the dead time is too large. The current responsivity at 1. a database of images is generated exploiting a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) of the target. O. Target Position Filter(Using PowerPC) 6. Croci. U. S. Results show a significant improvement in the dead time with values of 42 nanoseconds and 47 nanoseconds being observed for the 5 micron and 10 micron GMAPs respectively. the sensor’s resolution and the size of the involved image database. SemiConductor Devices (Israel) In this paper we report preliminary data of BIRD640. Royal Belgian Military Academy (Belgium). It utilizes very high charge compression into a nano-injector. when the sensors described here are introduced in a more complex multisensor system for the maritime surveillance. rise time. Shiloah. 60Hz) VGA format detector with 25 µm pitch. For the IR images simulation. the measured excess noise factor for our device is near unity. A. Time constants generated by Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) transistor bulk and sidewall capacitances adversely affect the dead time of pixels developed in conventional CMOS technology. A. The experimental findings revealed that the presented photodiodes are suitable for imaging applications. G. Extensive effort was invested in reducing the detector and system power dissipation. the proposed algorithm predicts movements of an object using the historical tracking information and it can keep the object tracking. Sinai. Giladi. we use these temperatures and the environment to predict realistic IR images. However. As a result. and subsequent carrier injection to achieve high quantum efficiency and high sensitivity at short infrared at room • spieeurope@spieeurope. The global performance of the classification process is considered by mean of the final confusion matrix of the system.A. The classification of the targets is performed by mean of the sensor’s confusion matrix. uniformity.55 um is more than 1500 A/W. Session 4 Linear array ZnTe/Si heterojunction photodetector for laser detection and imaging applications R. Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland) Single photon detection has a wide variety of scientific and industrial applications including optical time domain astronomy. immigrant boat. Detectors are realized by thermal evaporation of ZnTe film on p-type monocrystalline silicon substrate held at 523K. Northwestern Univ. We obtain internal gain values exceeding several thousand at bias values of less than 1 volt. spectroscopy. As both the diode and the 6737-33. Session 3 Naval target classification by fusion of IR and EO sensors F. This analytical approach can effectively reduce the computational load of a Monte Carlo simulation. Moloney.Get the right object’s position and display(Using Host PC) This proposed tracking algorithm uses the information from IR sensor for tracking objects When the perfect occlusion occurs. obtained after the fusion of the local decisions. of Technology (Iraq) A linear array 1D of ZnTe/Si heterojunction photodiode for laser detection and imaging applications operated at room temperature in the visible and near infrared regions is presented. (USA) Short wave infrared (SWIR) imaging systems have several advantages due to the spectral content of the nightglow and better discrimination against camouflage. One can prove that the noise limitations of the readout can be • spie. G. R. Malkinson. Memis. 16 spie. 6737-30. A. (Italy) This paper describes the classification function of multiple naval targets performed by an infrared camera (IR) and an electrooptical camera (EO). T. A. even at very high gain values. Also. we firstly compute the surface temperatures using the OSMOSIS software that efficiently integrates the dependence of the emissivity upon the surface temperature. The local decisions on the class provided by the two imaging sensors are fused according to a maximum likelihood decision rule. F. SELEX Sistemi Integrati S. L. for the four ships mentioned above. T. M. Achieving single photon detection sensitivity can significantly improve the image quality of these systems. Session 4 A novel SWIR detector with an ultra-high internal gain and negligible excess noise H. The GMAP is fabricated in the bulk layer and the CMOS circuitry is implemented in the upper SOI layers. Coakley. Block Matching (Using PowerPC) 5. Kong. Mohseni. S. N. Here we present the recent results from our novel FOcalized Carrier aUgmented Sensor (FOCUS). R.). the internal noise of the detector and readout circuits are significant barriers to achieve this goal. the existing detectors with internal gain have a very high noise as well. Ambient drift compensation. In imaging applications. which is a high-sensitivity (50 mK \@ F/1. A. fishing boat. A. and the elevation angle. and detectivity are investigated. Amsterdam. that operate in a more complex multisensor system for the surveillance of a coastal region. This is a limiting factor on the dynamic range of the pixel. Schwarzbacher. 6737-31.5 at room temperature. Lapierre. a novel imaging pixel configuration based on a Geiger Mode Avalanche Photodiode (GMAP) and fabricated using a dedicated hybrid bulk Silicon On Insulator (SOI) CMOS process is presented. the dead time is the time during which the detector is inhibited after a photon has been detected. The main characteristics of the liner array photodetector including currentvoltage. The model of the IR and EO sensors in the system uses the widely accepted Johnson criterion. the wavelength. Session 4 Optimisation of a Geiger mode avalanche photodiode imaging pixel based on a hybrid bulk SOI CMOS process N. Ismail. Czyzewski. These simulations together with measured results from fabricated pixels will be presented in the final paper. For the EO camera the image generation is simply obtained by the projection of the three-dimensional CAD on the camera focal plane. The following naval targets are considered: high speed dinghy. CMOS transistors are on the same wafer there is a reduction in pixel area and an additional reduction in the parasitic capacitance effects. This leads to a significant improvement in pixel performance. unlike avalanche-based photodiodes. SELEX Sistemi Integrati S. A. spectral responsivity. It consists of an internal timing machine with a single clock that facilitates the system interface. Bikov.A. Univ. These are significantly better than the performance of the existing room temperature devices with internal gain. Adin.Conference 6737: Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and Applications 2. Unfortunately. 6737-28. Farina. Global motion Compensation (Using PowerPC) 3. Graziano. Region Restriction (Using PowerPC) 4.

low power consumption or wide electrical dynamic range .e. Hence. For the traditional MWIR sensing materials. ranging from night vision to predictive industrial maintenance and medical imaging. Orlando . Warsaw August 2005. A. To achieve a narrowband spectral response with the simplest possible fabrication process. In comparison with planar antenna-coupled microbolometers that consist of both resistive and highly conductive metal strips (acting as antennas). the modified mode-matching technique is ideally suited for rapid multi-variate optimization.Conference 6737: Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and Applications The ROIC supports special “low power” modes. Both dielectric coated sheets and planar multimode antennas have shown that they should be able to produce enough spectral selectivity to allow a three-color system spanning the 7-14 micron band. (USA) TBA 6737-38. d’Electronique de Technologie de l’Information (France) The rapid mastering of the 25 µm amorphous silicon technology allowed ULIS to develop and produce in volume a very compact 160 x 120 with 25 µm pixel-pitch IRFPA for low end camera for imaging or thermographic IR camera. ) and offers an advanced. Minassian. “Advanced Features of SCD’s Uncooled Detectors”. April 2005. Presented at the SPIE Defense & Security Symposium. Since the design space consists of four geometrical parameters and one sheet resistance parameter. April 2006. To take into account those specific needs. ULIS (France) This paper presents an on-chip 13 bits 10 M/S Analog to digital converter specifically designed for infrared bolometric image sensor. 4. O. based on system level modeling. Here we discuss designs that can substantially improve the wavelength selectivity of microbolometers. B. we will look more closely at electrooptical performances of this TEC-less product 160 x 120 as well as the other 25 µm products like the 640 x 480 and 384 x 288. Fieque. In the last part of the paper. ULIS (France). Jung. the readout mechanism is different from traditional IR detectors. McCarley. In this paper. Udi Mizrahi et al. to be Presented at the SPIE Defense & Security Symposium. Trouilleau. 6737-36. The original development • spie. (USA) The objective of this work is to develop an efficient readout for carbon nanotube (CNT) based middle wave IR (MWIR) detectors. The paper will also address SCD’s future roadmap and development directions. L. Xi. C. The junction created by the Schottky contacts can significantly increase the photo current and reduce the noise. Michigan State Univ. J. the spectral response is also calculated using HFSS. is also discussed. The reduction of the pixel-pitch and the innovative package turn this 160 x 120 pixels array format into a low cost product and therefore well adapted for mass production. Yon. P. Session 5 Wavelength-selective infrared detectors D. This trend has strengthened the need of on-chip ADC as the interface between the analog core and the digital processing electronic. A. Orlando . In this work. J. highly reliable. Tissot. This detector has conserved all the innovations developed on the full TV format ROIC (detector configuration by serial link. 6737-35. Finally we describe the design and present the measured performances. Presented at the SPIE Defense & Security Symposium. we present the trade-offs of ADC design linked to infrared key performance parameters and bolometric technology detection method. 6737-39. long-term stability and operational flexibility the BIRD640 serves as an ideal candidate for high end and high resolution uncooled VGA systems. RoHs compliant. By utilizing the Schottky contacts between CNT and electrodes. CNTs have a potential to be efficient infrared (IR) detection material due to their unique electronic properties. Orlando. April 2007.. Dupont. 3. As a one-dimensional nano structural • spieeurope@spieeurope. P. A. U. Lab. Tinnes. With the current move towards submicron technologies. a high level Matlab model has been developed prior to the actual design. However designing an on-chip ADC dedicated to focal plane array raises many questions about its architecture and its performance requirements. Fraenkel et al. including hand-held applications. which covers a large spectrum of infrared applications. The ballistic electronic transport property of CNT makes the noise equivalent temperature difference much smaller comparing with other semi conducting materials. 6737-34. “Uncooled Development Program at SCD”. Session 5 Efficient readout for carbon nanotube (CNT)based IR detectors N. we have also investigated the use of patterned resistive sheets as the frequency-selective absorber. The improvement of the signal to noise ration can be improved as much as 3000 times. where considerable power is saved with only minor performance degradation. the thermal noise at room temperature is significant comparing with the signal. TECless focal plane array very which is well adapted to thermal imaging. of Texas at Austin (USA) Several approaches that produce significant wavelength selectivity in micromachined microbolometer designs will be discussed. bolometers that are much smaller than the wavelength) combined with an antenna.. an industry standard full-wave finite element method EM solver. Mizrahi et al. Session 5 Compact uncooled amorphous silicon 160x120 IRFPA with 25 µm pixel-pitch for large volume applications J. The Univ. These frequency selective surfaces can be achieved using stacks of dielectric coated resistive sheets or by replacing the normal uniform absorbing sheet used in IR microbolometers with true microbolometers (i. Due to the unique structure of the CNT based IR detector. The results of these FEM simulations will be compared to those from the mode matching calculations. “Large Format and High Sensitivity VOx µ-Bolometr Detectors at SCD”. Fraenkel et al. The proper design of the diode can significantly increase the signal noise ration of the CNT based MWIR detectors. stressing further user-interface simplification and power reduction. The experimental results have demonstrated the advantages of the design. Presented at the SPIE International Congress on Optics & Optoelectronics. C. We have developed a modified mode- spie. Robert. We will insist on the wide thermal dynamic range and the low consumption achieved thanks to the mastering of the amorphous silicon technology coupled with the innovation and care in the ROIC design. Legras. the absorption layer in these structures involves only a single resistive layer with patterned holes. Session 5 Model based on-chip 13bits ADC design dedicated to uncooled infrared focal plane arrays B. 1. Session 5 A decade of developments of biologically inspired sensory information processing P. it is possible to have the CNT based IR detector work at room temperature or moderate low • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 17 . matching technique to model the electromagnetic response of these patterned resistive sheets to achieve the required narrowband IR response. the demand for more integrated smart sensors has dramatically increased. With its superior temporal sensitivity. Hence the traditional MWIR detectors normally have to work at extremely low temperature. Neikirk. a diode based readout has been developed. 2. To verify the results of this design optimization. S. Air Force Research Lab. “Recent Developments in SCD’s VOx Bolometric Detectors”. Bolometric infrared sensors are MEMs based thermal sensors.. a semi conductive CNT works as a photodiode. The specific appeal of this unit lies in the miniaturization of the packaging and its extremely light weight.

A. one can find the family of 15 µm pixel pitch detectors including a mid TV format (384 x 288). A.8 µm) at higher operating temperature (HOT) Top=200-240 K and in spectral range from 8 to 12 µm (λp=10-10. Session 5 Simulation of MWIR and LWIR photodiodes based on n+-p and p-n junctions formed in HgCdTe heterostructures M. Kholodnov. The latest detector development concerning the mid-TV format is performed according to very challenging specifications regarding small cost and low power consumption. composition “x” gradient and operating temperature. 18 spie. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . This very promising technology is dedicated for low flux applications as active imagery. F. V. Objective of the present work was to examine the impact of MWIR (λp ranged from 4 to 4. Nikitin.5 µm (peak wavelength λp=4-4. hyperspectral applications or small aperture systems. Sofradir (France) HgCdTe (Mercury Cadmium Telluride / MCT) staring arrays for infrared detection do show constant improvements regarding their compactness and performances.5 µm at Top=80-100 K) performance on variation of doping level. Session 5 Latest developments in MCT infrared staring arrays at Sofradir M. Alpha (Russia).org/ers • spie.Conference 6737: Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and Applications 6737-40. Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics (Russia) Small-pitched megapixel photovoltaic infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA) having ultimate performance in spectral range from 3 to 5. Vuillermet. Novel MBE-grown Hg1-xCdxTe epitaxial multi-layer structures including graded-gap layers are perspective for that purpose due to low growth temperature providing precise control on individual layer thickness and composition “x” gradients. Manissadjian.5 µm) at Top=80-100 K are considered preferable for development of future thermal imaging systems. G. absorption layer thickness.8 µm at Top=200-240 K) Hg1xCdxTe PV device and LWIR (λp ranged from 10 to 10. A. Another development axis at CEA\LETI-LIR and Sofradir concerns the avalanche photodiodes for FPA sensitivity improvement. a TV format (640 x 512) and a double TV format (1280 x 1024). Chekanova. Pistone. Drugova. V. New detectors are now proposed offering system solutions in the different IR wavebands and profiting of the latest technology improvements as well as MCT performance advantages and cost reduction. These Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) are integrated in dedicated tactical Dewars. Among these new detectors. A. • spieeurope@spieeurope. New development results are presented and future trends are discussed. taking advantages on last development in coolers manufacturing and dewar assembly.

5-9 µm wavelength range R. To make the 2. J.2. yielding pulsed mode operation up to 400 K for devices emitting at 4. high power efficiencies (\>25%) and output powers of 2 W in continuous-wave (cw) mode (\>9 W in pulsed mode) have been achieved at room-temperature.8-4. utilising a single pass of the pump beam. This is an advantage especially in low pulse energy applications. Jr. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (Sweden) Efficient laser sources in the 3 . SELEX Sensors and Airborne Systems Ltd. compact laser source of high average power in the 3-5 mm range.3 µm.Conference 6738: Technologies for Optical Countermeasures Monday-Tuesday 17-18 September 2007 Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. Kaspi.13 µm radiation. the optically-pumped semiconductor disc laser (OPSDL) is a promising approach.06 µm Nd-laser to the mid-infrared. Compared to broad-area lasers. Each unstable resonator is realized by polishing a diverging cylindrical mirror at one of the facets. W. 6738-03. The acceptance bandwidth for efficient OPO operation of a 14 mm long ZnGeP2 (ZGP) crystal is approximately 5 nm. C.7 up to an output power of 1. Cooke. Yang. GaInAs/AlGaAsSb ridge-waveguide QC lasers emitting at 3. G.. (USA) We describe optically-pumped type-II mid-infrared lasers based on the antimonides that exhibit very high photon-to-photon conversion efficiencies (~65% \@ 80K) and low waveguide loss (< 3cm-1). F. 6738-04.5-4. (2.5 W at 77 K. K. Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden) and Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden). Dente. drawing examples from recent civil collaborative research projects such as PFIDEL and LAMPS. P.05) output beam for an only 30% reduction in output power. Q. • spieeurope@spieeurope. resulting in 12. 6738-06. Bronner. which in a conventional QPM OPO at degeneracy can be several hundred nanometers. The QPM crystal provides higher nonlinearity and longer interaction lengths. Wagner.3 W at a Qswitch PRF of 25 kHz. the maximum pump beam energy density incident at the ZGP was limited to 0.5 µm wavelength range are needed for directed infrared countermeasures.5 nm are measured for the signal and idler from a periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) OPO with a volume Bragg grating spie. 6738-05.13 µm radiation usable for pumping a second OPO a volume Bragg grating is used as a cavity mirror to limit the bandwidth. For example. applied to infra-red and electro-optic countermeasure systems. the generation of multiple wavelengths or continuum generation from a single pump source . Pasiskevicius.9 µm wavelength these lasers produce a nearly diffraction limited output beam with M2<1. There is potential for further up-scaling the output power and for extension of the emission wavelength beyond 3 µm. L. Tiihonen. Multi-Watt output in continuous wave and pulsed mode operation has been demonstrated. At 1. Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden). Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Festkörperphysik (Germany) An increasing number of security-related applications require compact high-brightness 2-to-5 µ m laser sources. M. Koehler. Session 1 The development and application of photonic technology in infrared and electro-optic countermeasures L. If the application requires a circularly symmetric output beam. Kaufel.4 µm.5-5 µm spectral range GaInAs/AlAsSb/ InP quantum cascade (QC) lasers have been demonstrated recently. 6738 Technologies for Optical Countermeasures IV 6738-02. BAE Systems plc (United Kingdom) In this paper I will discuss recent work at the Advanced Technology Centre of BAE Systems on photonic technology. Despite the broad area of the devices.7 µm are capable of emitting a maximum peak output power of 10. Tilton.55 J.5. Elder.1 W \@ 250 K)corresponding to a power efficiency of 22% at 77 K. Rattunde. M. when coupled with the ultra low-confinement of the transverse optical mode. Laurell. Session 2 High performance optically-pumped antimonide lasers operating in the 2. compared to conventional bulk crystals. G. Session 2 High-brightness 2-to-5 µm semiconductor lasers M. because walk-off is avoided. in particular photonic crystal fibres. Optimization for highest beam quality yields a diffraction limited (M2<1. but also have applications in remote sensing.09 µm with excellent beam quality (M2 <1.6 µm. medicine and spectroscopy. We will present results and discuss the possibilities of a tandem optical parametric oscillator (OPO) scheme for converting the radiation from a 1. tapered diode lasers show a significant improvement of the slow-axis beam quality. Henriksson. output coupler and the OPO is operated so close to degeneracy that all energy is contained in a 2 nm wide region. 66% conversion efficiency to 2. The ZGP OPO used a linear two mirror resonator with a single 15 mm long crystal. Chavez.5 W (M2<3) at -20°C and at a wavelength of 2. Air Force Research Lab. F. V.5 µm spectral range. The laser architecture uses a high power thulium fibre laser as the pump source for a bulk Q-switched Ho:YAG laser.The paper will describe the development of these fibres. For broad-area lasers emitting at 2 µ N. Ongstad. providing an output power of 1. A compact.6 W in the 3. Session 1 Tandem OPO system for mid-infrared generation using quasi phase-matching and volume Bragg grating M. Schulz. • spie.7 µm device at 85K. Schmitz. This is primarily due to the suppression of filamentation as a result of low optical confinement that is afforded by the optically pumped design. T. the lateral beam quality is surprisingly good (typically ~5 times the diffraction-limit) without any lateral mode control. Bandwidths below 0. Gianardi. while linear laser arrays (laser bars) with 19 emitters yield a cw output power of 20 W. Sjöqvist. (AlGaIn)(AsSb)-based quantum-well diode lasers are well suited to cover the 2 . J. ~11 Watts of quasi-cw power is obtained from a 3.5 W.8 µm wavelength range (a conversion efficiency of 52% from pump power incident at the ZGP). L. Session 1 High average power thulium fibre laser pumped mid-IR source I. multi-Watt mid-infrared laser transmitter that uses a novel thermal management approach to enable the cryogenic optically-pumped semiconductor laser to be packaged into a small volume has also been developed. resulting in a brightness of 30 MW/cm2. The design flexibility that these type-II wells provide. R. Our setup uses type I quasi phase-matched (QPM) crystals in a near degenerate OPO to generate 2. J. J. However. To cover the adjacent 3. A. the optically pumped devices achieve higher brightness operation as unstable resonators. The use of Photonic Crystal fibres or holey fibres in countermeasure systems could significantly simplify platform integration by enabling remote location of laser sources. This OPO output has been used as a pump source for a conventional ZGP OPO demonstrating efficient conversion and providing broadband tunable output in the mid-infrared. Kelemen. The paper will also present an overview of developments in the coherent combining of high power fibre laser technology for Laser Directed Energy systems. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 19 . Fuchs. M. The Ho:YAG output was used to pump a ZGP OPO. D. (United Kingdom) Results are presented for an efficient. produce multi-Watt lasers with emission wavelengths ranging from 2 µm to 9. The maximum Ho:YAG output power attained was 27. with a beam quality factor M2 of 2.5) has been achieved using an L-shaped Ho:YAG resonator to allow doublepassing of the pump light through the 1% doped laser rod. which makes the need for bandwidth limiting clear.

The optical gain of active regions containing InAsSb QW with different compositions was calculated using a free carrier gain model. wet and dry chemical etching processes and facet passivation techniques all included in 2" and 3" processing lines for diode lasers. The propagation characteristics of a laser beam passing turbulent air will be numerically simulated with a multiple phase-screen method and a Fourier propagation technique.09 µm) high energy laser system with pulse energies up to 90 mJ at pulse lengths close to 20 ns and repetition rates of 100 Hz. The general architecture of the source is designed to locate the pump laser inside the aircraft while the conversion stages are positioned close to the orientation turret. referred to aerooptic problems and second the atmospheric propagation influence via air turbulence.V. Renz. Tränkle. We report on the development of a Tm:YLFfiber laser (1. Session 3 Development of a compact laser source for airborne countermeasures A. Ctr. National de la Recherche Scientifique (France) We report on the development of a compact laser source devoted to airborne countermeasures.5W in nearly true single frequency operation could be achieved. Said Hassani. Two main causes of laser beam degradations are issued in this • spie. the dimensions of the whole setup are minimized with a special attention on the miniaturization of the OPO cavity whose typical volume is less than 100 cm3. there is the degradation immediately around the fuselage. For the example of high power bars on microchannel coolers.results and developments at FBH G. 6738-10. Deutsches Zentrum für Luft. Lippert. This paper describes the characteristics of a separate confinement heterostructure(SCH) laser design based on type I InAsSbP/InAsSb multiple quantum wells (MQW). These small size OPOs are optimized to produce the required average power under high repetition rate pumping and the emitted output beam quality is typically 1. K. we also discuss other Defence & Security issues that can be addressed by miniature OPOs such as neurotoxic detection by use of a singlemode OPO pumped by micro laser. Wenzel. either for use directly or as a pump source for other gain media such as YAG crystals or fiber lasers. J. • spieeurope@spieeurope.908 µm) pumped Ho:YAG (2. 6738-09. We fabricated a prototype light-emitting diode structure and successfully observed electroluminescence from the confined states of the quantum well in good agreement with our calculations. Similar results seems possible for the wavelength range down to 800nm. at an ever-increasing range of wavelengths. Results on the growth of the InAsSbP waveguide will also be presented.Conference 6738: Technologies for Optical Countermeasures 6738-07. Other properties such as behaviour of the fundamental optical mode and refractive index profile were also determined. Godard. Erbert. Paschke. Beside an overview on current FBH activities examples of monolithic high brightness devices will be given. Session 3 High power semiconductor laser sources for defence and security: a review of current technology J. Session 3 A 2µm-pump-laser-based DIRCM system W. with power conversion efficiency up to 85% and emission wavelength beyond 2000-nm. First. Ferdinand-Braun-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik (Germany) Brightness is one of the most important criteria for diode laser applications beside reliability and efficiency.und Raumfahrt e. In this purpose. Several spectral lines are emitted simultaneously by the use of optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) pumped by a high repetition rate near-IR pulsed laser. An 8X8 band k. The increase in vertical mode size by maintaining a high efficiency is one of the key issues. output power levels of up to 1-kW per bar have been reported. Bell. M. Session 2 Monolithic high brightness diode lasers . We present a review of latest performance in this key technology and discuss potential for further improvements. nLight Corp. the ZGP crystal growth has been investigated. Bugge. Krier. tapered resonator structures are the most promising monolithic approaches for higher output powers. G. (United Kingdom) Among the light emitting materials which can access the 3-5 micron mid-infrared spectral range the InAsSbP alloy system is a promising candidate for applications in the area of both optical countermeasures and free space optical communications. FBH has developed specific designs for fundamental mode lasers. improving performance in existing applications and enabling new developments. K. G. The selection of the proper nonlinear material for each OPO is also a critical issue. The aero-optic influence on the laser beam degradation will be investigated in a laboratory experimental approach with a mid-IR laser beam traversing a transonic free air stream relevant to a real air flow around a fuselage. Different turbulence degrees relevant to propagation directions especially behind aircrafts will be considered. P. H. conversion efficiency and reliability of these devices continues to improve. S. The limitations are given by the impact of high power densities on reliability and such effects like thermal lensing and self focusing. ZnGeP2 (ZGP) is currently the material of choice to operate where conventional nonlinear materials strongly absorb. The technological base consists of MOVPE. In addition to countermeasure applications. Zinc germanium phosphide. Lefebvre. As a first step towards practical realisation of these lasers we report on the fabrication of the laser active region containing a single InAsSb type I strained quantum well grown using liquid phase epitaxy. ONERA (France). Bohn. G. A. (Germany) The improvement of the security of platforms (aircrafts) with countermeasure techniques in the mid-IR especially in the takeoff or landing phase is nowadays more stringent due to upcoming threats. In this context. tapered devices and the implementation of gratings for spectral mode selection. power 6738-12. The first samples with a good optical quality have been obtained and the preliminary results are discussed. Session 2 Mid-infrared InAsSbP/InAsSb quantum well laser diodes M. holographic pattern generation. A. Narrow stripe devices based on ridge waveguide structures can now deliver an output power of nearly 2W in fundamental mode at 1060nm with very low vertical divergence of 15° full width half maximum. Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (Norway) Optical parametric down-conversion in ZnGeP2 (ZGP)-based 20 spie. Session 3 High power and efficient far infrared ZnGeP2based optical parametric oscillator E. (USA) Semiconductor lasers are a key enabling component for advanced optical systems in security and defense. Yin. With implementation of gratings leading to DFB resonators an output power of more than 0. F. These components convert supplied electric current into light. Norwegian Defense Research Establishment (Norway). The available power level. Lancaster Univ. Design issues and characteristics of a monolithic 10W device at 980nm will be given. These were used for simulation of the resulting final device properties and to estimate the threshold modal gain and threshold current density for our InAsSb MQW laser. 6738-08. For power levels approaching the Watt range and above it is quite challenging to get single mode output power from monolithic diode lasers. 6738-11. A high quality laser beam leaving a platform through a variableindex-of-refraction airflow will experience wave-front aberrations and consequently lose its ability to be perfectly focused in the far field. Fricke. Rustad. Stenersen.5 diffraction limited.p method was used to calculate the band • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . to overcome these limitations. Devices with unstable.

6738-16. DG Research-Aeronautics. delivering 9 W of average power.V. Session 5 Anatomy of the MANPAD M.2 m and high resolution imaging sensors with a small pixel pitch. an attack would have a big psychological impact on people and economic activity. However. Sagem SA (France) Commercial aircraft. Scott. Session 4 A real-time sub-µrad laser beam tracking system I. 6738-17. CASAM (Civil Aircraft Security Against Manpads) is a Framework Program 6 (FP6) Project** from the European Commission. The theory of combining micro-lens arrays with large format spatial light modulators for the NIR and the MWIR spectral ranges will be developed. defocus) may be corrected. Measurements at component level. We also demonstrated continuous tuning of the OPO to 9. e. bringing their respective knowledge into a scientific and technical team able to address all technical. A closedloop laser system will bring a step forward to this type of directed jamming system by providing it the new capability to actively track the approaching missile. 6738-13. A specific on-board missile jamming system shall be developed against stringent but competitive requirements dealing with high reliability. Technical Challenges CASAM explores several technological breakthroughs in lasers. i. We discuss the limits of such a beam steering system and describe the performance of a phased array of fibre channels in which the phase of each fibre can be rapidly controlled.5 µm will be presented in order to support the theory. Deutsches Zentrum für Luft. Session 5 The European project CASAM for the protection of commercial airliners in flight J. but provides steering over a limited field of view.und Raumfahrt e. The controller provides a 1 million field programmable gate array (FPGA) to realize a high closed-loop frequency of up to 10 kHz. The system is intended as an addon module for established mechanical mrad tracking systems. Riede.Conference 6738: Technologies for Optical Countermeasures optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) pumped by 2-µm-lasers has proved to be an efficient way of generating high power radiation in the infrared. to the ZGP OPO. W. Interferences and background noise can be eliminated by using a lock-in amplifier. identify its IR seeker type and rapidly return the right jamming laser beam. Time is the most critical parameter and all the sequence of events from the detection of the incoming missile till its succesfull jamming must be done very quickly in order to either be able to protect the aircraft at low altitude or address a multi-threat likely scenario. in Q switched operation. Rungenhagen. 6738-14. A. If the number of pixels of the phased array is sufficiently large. The paper then illustrates how early generation IRSAMs work and finally sets this in the context of platform survivability. KG (Germany) Micro-lens-arrays of large formats are well suited for agile laser beam steering with demonstrated high rates and moderate accuracy. and multi-watt sources in the 3-5 µm spectral range have been reported. From this setup we obtained 915 mW of output power at 8 µm in a beam with M2-value of better than 2. a sub-µrad accuracy of the laser beam tracking system is essential. Phased arrays based on micro-mirrors or spie. consideration must be given to the following aspects: • Environmental friendliness for ground objects and inhabitants close to the airport. This disadvantage can be resolved by combining the blazed grating beam steerer with a phased array. The paper then looks at the signature aspects of the aircraft which drives the choice of the operating waveband of the IR seeker. We present a rugged and reliable real-time laser beam tracking system operating with a high • spie. • high efficiency against the recognized threats and upgradeability for further/future disseminated threats. As a result. H. ZGP is also well suited for conversion to even longer wavelengths. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 21 . financial and legal matters dealing with this challenging topic. For typical diffractionlimited f/10 objectives with a focal length of 1 . The strengths and weaknesses of the options are quickly discussed and this highlights the choice of the Infrared Surface-to-Air Missile (IRSAM) as the most likely external threat to civil aircraft. Vergnolle. as part of mass transportation systems. The paper outlines the concept of adaptive compensation of the wavefront error of each micro-lens telescope in a blazed grating beam steerer. (United Kingdom) This paper describes the options available for a Man-Portable Air-Defence (MANPAD) weapon. An industrial compactRIO programmable automation controller (PAC) is used to develop a deterministic digital PID controller. For example. • Adherence to commercial operation budgets and • spieeurope@spieeurope. high resolution piezoelectric tip/tilt mirror. low cost and minimal installation constraints on the aircraft. Tholl. Diehl BGT Defence GmbH & Co. Session 4 Adaptive Laser Beam Steering with MicroOptical Arrays M. 6738-15. a way to quickly and successfully jam a threat. CASAM’s solution is designed accordingly. (United Kingdom) Phased array beam steering offers a way of rapidly controlling the direction of a laser beam. Beam tracking with a root-mean-squared accuracy better than 50 nrad has been laboratory-confirmed. Cranfield Univ. The functionality of the reconfigurable I/O system is implemented by means of the graphical development environment LabVIEW.6 µm where the conversion efficiency was still 5 %. Buske. The conversion efficiency in the ZGP OPO from 2 µm to 8 µm was 10 %. Blazed grating micro-lens array beam steerers suffer from nonuniformity of the optical parameters across the array which leads to a reduction of the spatial coherence between the interfering beam-lets and an increase in the beam divergence. (Germany) Long-range imaging applications for identification of fast moving objects require a high precision laser beam steering and tracking system to eliminate system vibrations and to compensate for the atmospheric beam wander effect. are a potential target for terrorists because they represent one of the best achievements of our society. Piezoelectric transducers are the appropriate choice for driving the lenslets arrangements which act like a blazed grating structure. D. handling and usage) and. This source covers an important spectral range where few other practical high power sources exist. Project Objectives The global objective of the CASAM Project is to design and validate a closed-loop laser-based DIRCM (Directed IR Countermeasure) module for jamming the potentially Surfaceto-Air Missile(s) fired against a commercial airliner. electro-optical ceramics which cover a broader spectral range up to the MWIR are under development. In the VIS and NIR spectral range large format liquid crystal phased arrays are available for adaptive correction of the wavefront of each microlens in the array. wavefront aberrations of micro-lens arrays (256x256 lenses) and phase shifts of a commercially available liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator (1920x1080 pixels) at 1. Session 4 Phased array beam steering using fibre lasers A. from Majors to SMEs. Richardson. CASAM is focusing on a potential solution to reduce aircraft vulnerability against Man Portable Air Defense Systems (Manpads) during takeoff. several pixels cover one period of the blazed grating and the piston as well as higher wavefront errors (tip/tilt. In this work we have generated high power in the 8-10 µm range by conversion of an efficient 2 µm laser. safety for aircraft (maintenance. The 2 µm source is a fiber laser pumped Ho:YAG laser. putting together a group of 18 Companies. QinetiQ Ltd. ascent and landing. Such a DIRCM system will comply with all commercial air transportation constraints.

The optomechanical turret will achieve outstanding performance in steering and stabilization. Southampton Photonics. Bourdon. Paper’s Table of content would be: Summary 1. When in a MOPA • spieeurope@spieeurope. single-emitter broad-stripe multimode pump diodes. N. ONERA (France) Imaging systems are widespread observation tools used to fulfil various functions such as detection.New. The camera observed a scene comprising different geometrical forms which had to be recognized by the algorithm. Bürsing. low drag. Zervas. identification and video-tracking. These devices can be dazzled by using intensive light sources. O.Innovative and competitive sub-systems 5. The experiments were performed using a black and white TV-CCD-camera. Key requirements for the security of commercial jetliners 4. ONERA (France). Foreseen ground tests 6. high-throughput. e. J. low mass. since it not only prevents the recognizing of well defined symbols. France Tél : +33 158 11 25 37. Conclusion * Jean-François Vergnolle. A technical and architecture validation breadboard will be ground-tested against actual missile seekers. This results in laser systems with long lifetime.Compact Architecture . Dellinger. efficient laser-technology approaches. The main technical challenges are linked to: . Different dazzling conditions were studied by varying the laser repetition rate.) that enables ** • spie. optical fibres. Inc. P. fibre lasers have a very small and compact footprint that facilitates their system integration.g. Session 6 Progress and development in fibre laser technology R. all-guided architecture.V. Eberle. . 75512 PARIS Cedex 15.Conference 6738: Technologies for Optical Countermeasures optics. SPI Lasers plc (United Kingdom) High performance fibre lasers are now well established as an extremely robust and reliable technology enabling a growing and diverse number of demanding industrial. Forschungsfesellschaft für Angewandte Naturwissenschaften e.vergnolle\@sagem. 6738-19. they have superior optical-to-optical. FP6 contract n° AST5-CT-2006-030817 show that dazzling can highly affect the performance of the used pattern recognition algorithms by generating lots of spurious edges which mimic the reference symbol. low life-cycle cost requirements and no induced risk on the ground and during takeoff and landing). electronic stencil cutting. Vasseur. They display no thermal lensing effects. both factors which explain their increasing market share.Reducing optronics volume. B. Forschungsfesellschaft für Angewandte Naturwissenschaften e. medical and defence applications. including fiber lasers and simpler frequency conversion modules (OPO). dazzled by a nanosecond frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. As a measure of correspondence it computes the degree of correlation of the different areas. H. adding into system reliability and • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . (United Kingdom). Durécu. In this paper we studied the influence of laser-dazzling on the performance of pattern recognition algorithms. ONERA (France) Imaging systems are widespread observation tools used to fulfil various functions such as detection.V. due to very low loss. recognition. 22 spie. P. This modular approach results in robust. lasers. Follow-up Project 7. Key to harnessing the benefits of an all-fibre laser configuration is the adopted pump-coupling scheme. mail: jeanfrancois. marking applications. (Germany). low power consumption. mass and costs. All SPI’s laser products use a proprietary cladding-pumping technology (GTWave&#61668. Institut d’Optique (France). covering the 1060nm and 1550nm wavelength regions. recognition. Bourdon. Session 6 Laser-dazzling effects on TV-cameras: analysis of dazzling effects and experimental parameters weight assessment A. The DIRCM modules’ innovative work mainly focuses on the following: . Fibre lasers are usually pumped by combining a number of extremely robust. monolithic all-fibre geometries. dazzling effects in TV-cameras must be better understood. In order to avoid such a disturbance. fibre lasers have been very successful in enabling new applications. such as CO2. which makes them robust and reliable. e. disc drive spot welding. The ways to comply with such challenging requirements and the associated risks are directly linked to significant technological improvements and system architecture simplification through an innovative requirements of airlines and airframers ( low total volume. Compared to rival technologies. 27 rue Leblanc. . schedule and organization 3. They are unique in offering instant turn-on operation without regular tuning and realignment.8mJ and peak power in excess of 15kW. Fibre lasers have an all-fibre. Duchateau. S. but it also creates many false alarms. products are pulsed lasers with energies in the region of 0. In the project framework. which will be the hard core of a future competitive equipment. These lasers have found widespread applications in many precision.g. O. being extremely high gain media (\>50dB small-signal gain per stage) can provide high performance pulsed systems. fibre lasers offer a number of unique characteristics that have resulted in their wide adoption in an increasing number of industrial sectors. medical aesthetics and directed-energy. medical piece part welding. Introduction 2. electrical-to-optical and overall wall-plug efficiencies. 6738-20. The inherently large surface-to-volume ratio facilitates heat removal and minimizes the external cooling requirements. M. The algorithm is based on edge detection and locates areas with similar forms compared to a reference symbol. Durécu. New focal plane array (imagery sensor) will integrate passive and active detection modes. lasers. at 25 kHz repetition rate. the pulse energy and the position of the geometrical forms relative to the laser spot. Finally. LPSS. aircraft installation constraints and impact. Project Objectives. In addition. easily deployable CW/CWM fibre laser/amplifier systems with output power in the 10-400W range. maintenance-free operation. A unique feature of SPI’s pulsed laser is the capability of producing high peak power pulses at very high repetition rates (>400 kHz). telecommunication-grade. All active fibres are designed to be photo-darkening free. In addition to replacing conventional lasers in existing applications.jamming efficiency against most of the IR-guided SAM fired under several constraining but realistic scenarios. Horley. The experiments 6738-21. which results in excellent beam pointing stability compared to conventional lasers. These devices can be dazzled by using intensive light sources. Innovative DIRCM closed-loop solution . medical and defence applications. dazzling effects in TV-cameras must be better understood. DPSS and disk lasers. Vasseur. a specific effort will be made with respect to threat analysis and simulation as well as economic analysis. including stent tube cutting. distributed pump injection and facilitates output power scalability. Fax n°: +33 158 11 70 84. electro-mechanics and processing. SAGEM Défense Sécurité. SPI’s redEnergy&#61668. SPI’s high power fibre lasers are used in a number of industrial. N. The beam quality can be engineered by proper fibre core design to match the application requirements. As a consequence dazzling results in detrimental effects. Norman. as well as directly-emitting mid-infrared semiconductor lasers. high reliability. identification and video-tracking. In order to avoid such a disturbance. automotive plastic welding. rapid prototyping. Session 5 Assessment of laser-dazzling effects on TVcameras by means of pattern recognition algorithms A. (Germany).

and examples are presented that illustrate how changes in pixel format give rise to sometimes startlingly different end results. TNO (Netherlands) Laser countermeasures against Infrared focal plane array cameras aim to saturate the full image. In the traditional Cold War scenario. Different schemes for extraction of range information from the experimental temporal profile are tested and the influence from turbulence effects is investigated. While visual smoke simulation has been successfully implemented by many authors over recent years. 6738-24. scattering and diffraction were discriminated from electronics effects related to charge transfer processes. We proceeded in two steps. Mieremet. This paper will discuss optical mechanisms causing area saturation of focal plane arrays by lasers. First the different dazzling effects were analyzed and classified by their mainspring. and other factors is needed. The focus is then shifted to • spie. Session 6 Laser dazzling of infrared focal plane arrays R. highlighting the problems and benefits of using PC commodity graphics hardware for infrared applications. the need to use an adaptive grid is explained. These simulated images can be used for testing the effects of dazzling on tracking processing. requires an unbiased reconsideration of helicopter survivability. 6738-23. The system is intended to be used for optical range profiling in field experiments. must be conducted on graphics hardware to enable execution at fast rates with good fidelity. In a second step. Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden) Optical range profiling with high resolution can be accomplished using single photon counting time of flight techniques. Pure optical phenomena like multiple reflections. but when occurring need be detected. Helicopters have seen battlefield use since Korea and were used en masse in Vietnam. however. An empirical method for estimating the size of the saturated area in the camera image will be presented. M. Both threat warning and countermeasure technologies need be assessed for their true potential. and reviewing methods for validation. but there is an abundance of ballistic weapons and antitank missiles with optical and electro-optical sights together with infrared guided man-portable missiles. This paper discusses the introduction of a Navier-Stokes staggered grid model into CounterSim. our countermeasures simulation software. Based on this empirical method a technique has been developed to generate synthetically partially saturated images for various laser irradiance levels on the camera. The shift to asymmetric threats. the survivability discussion focuses on ballistic weapons and radiofrequency threats. Problems with alpha blending on graphics hardware are also discussed. the pulse energy or the settings of the camera. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 23 . O. which is computationally expensive. Different dazzling conditions were studied by varying for instance the laser repetition rate. It was then possible to assess the weight of each experimental parameter on dazzling effects. Experimental results from measurements on test targets will be presented. Additionally. H. single photon avalanche detectors and acquisition electronics with high timing resolution provides the tools for improving the range accuracy. Where technology alone does not offer a solution. Experimental results of MWIR laser saturation as a function of laser power are compared with a theoretical model. improved understanding of the interactions between technology. The role of the read-out circuit will be addressed. infrared smoke modelling adds new requirements with additional challenges. Session 6 Infrared smoke modelling in CounterSim R. dazzled by a nanosecond frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. with the implications for management of data storage. covering the initial co-located grid and then the staggered grid. The use of laser pulses in the picosecond regime. J. Jonsson. while photonic threats made a modest appearance in the last stages of the Vietnam War. A. Sjöqvist.Conference 6738: Technologies for Optical Countermeasures In this paper we studied the influence of different parameters on laser-dazzling. Schleijpen. The asymmetric battlefield has few radiofrequency threats. Heikell. Session 6 Helicopters on the asymmetric battlefield: challenges for photonics J. Butters. The methodology used to prevent mass loss and to model thermal cooling is incorporated. The present work aims at identifying areas of photonics that require detailed investigation. Interactions between the laser repetition rate and the camera frequency or the camera exposure time were also observed. which intensified after the terrorist attack in September 2001. spie. tactics. The paper concludes with examples showing real and simulated results. experiments were carried out for different dazzling conditions. P. C. Changes like these call for an evaluation of existing electronic warfare technology and of technologies under development. The grid model is introduced first. Mines with infrared triggers have been reported. particularly when mixtures of smoke products with widely differing properties may be present. M. A. Session 6 Time of flight range profiling using timecorrelated single photon counting L. Detection of optical surfaces with high resolution is of importance for several remote sensing applications. is to have understanding of battlefield signatures-a challenging task when the battle is fought in and above a functioning urban society. The experiments were performed using a black and white TV-CCD-camera. Walmsley. Henriksson. Helsinki Univ. whereas laser trigged devises have not been reported but should be expected. The impact of these heterogeneous smokes on the simulation equations is also discussed. Steinvall. identified and located unambiguously. such as diffraction. 6738-22. van den Heuvel. multiple reflections and optical scatter. highlighting the requirements for greater accuracy than the standard eight bits per channel of visual applications. Chemring Countermeasures (United Kingdom) With the ever-growing demand for increased realism in defence modelling and simulation. situational awareness. useful to design efficient means to protect imaging systems. In this work a system based on time of flight range profiling using time correlated single photon counting techniques is described. K. The analysis of these quantitative results contributes to the better understanding of laser-dazzling. The first requirement. The experimental data will be compared with theoretical models. H. smoke modelling. B. The frequency of hostile activities is low. J. of Technology (Finland) This review is part of a larger work that seeks to improve understanding of survivability of battlefield helicopters on the asymmetric battlefield. L. reviewing the solution techniques for the incompressible Navier-Stokes • spieeurope@spieeurope.

T. to switch between absorption. Raynor. this work lies within the scope of the follow-up of the phenomenon of the turning into a desertification on a space with the heart of the high Oranian southem steppe plains.g. it appears that the main technique is gated UV Raman spectroscopy.Conference 6739A: Electro-Optical Remote Sensing. mainly TNT.etc. and vector set clustering to find a small distinguished subset of closest vectors. Mann. enabling a controlled change of the laser temperature between 77 K and 400 K with heating rates up to 2500 K/s. 6739A-03. V. In many cases. It was found that military grade RDX. while even the most fastidious clean-up leaves microscopic residues. which is sufficiently large to scan across characteristic absorption bands of e. several explosives. Thus fingerprints. are characterized by a strong SHG response under IR excitation by 1064 nm and all explosives have characteristic breakdown spectra. climatic data. These areas along with lessons learned are provided to aid decision makers of future programs when balancing system maturation with meeting operational demand. Session 1 Remote sensing of hazardous materials by using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers F. In contrast to classical laser spectroscopy of light molecules. Wagner. The mapping way is based on two types of criteria: • the criteria related to the satellite picture: geographical location. Ivashov. which is potentially capable to do it is trace detection by laser-based spectroscopy.and reference-mode. J. We developed and tested a Raman system for the field remote detection and identification of explosives on relevant surfaces at a distance of up to30 meters. B. local descriptor calculation for every salient point. these items are prototype. is a major issue in efforts to 24 spie. The favorable tuning characteristics allow us to easily tune the QC laser wavelength on. Session 1 Detection of mine-like objects in high-resolution aerial images A. Photonic Technologies and their Applications 6739A-32. U. one-ofa-kind aircraft systems that have not completed a traditional course of testing. Nagli. Bronner. L. helped us to see the changes arrived in the medium . geometric forms. Hague. Algeria. This was achieved by increasing the operating temperature range through the use of a temperature-variable diamond submount.forward deployed combat arenas. Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Festkörperphysik (Germany) Quantum cascade (QC) lasers have been demonstrated to serve as robust and versatile laser sources for a variety of sensing applications. The module comprises a QC laser mounted on the diamond submount with integrated heater element and temperature sensor. such as timeresolved luminescence. It is vital to determine what kind of traces. C. since the satellite image processing until the geographic information systems (SIG) for the realization of the charts sets of themes. L. Thus. smears and so on could be exploited for standoff detection. In this paper we demonstrate a QC laser module with a significantly extended tuning range of the incorporated Fabry-Perot QC laser. • the criteria of environment: topography. We arrived to conclusion that only a few explosives have sufficient vapor pressure to permit detection of gas clouds from afar. Koehler. C. 6739A-01. This way. in certain cases accompanied by luminescence measurements. Yang. K. the aircraft received only basic stateside testing to characterize sensor performance. Poster Session Space analysis and detection of changes for follow-up of the sand-vegetation components in the Mecheria. S. Utilizing sensor fusion and change detection. Abou Bekr Belkaid Tlemcen (Algeria) The Algerian steppe has become for a few years the theatre of an ecological and climatic • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . Operation Horned Owl is one such experimental quick reaction capability. Remaining testing was conducted concurrent with combat operations to support ground forces. Ltd. The intense degradation for this fragile medium (stranding wind erosion. (Russia) A method for recognizing small-size similar-looking objects in images with minimum prior information is proposed in the paper. Bauman Moscow State Technical Univ. Air Force Academy (USA) Evolving threats encountered by coalition forces during contingency operations drive the need for new and improved airborne intelligence. in fact the area of Mecheria. The use of the approaches based on the exploitation of the satellite data multi dates (1998 & 2004 ) of the sensor Thematic Mapper (TM ) of Landsat 5 permitted us to obtain a gathering of an interpretative photo maps and vegetation index which . Due to accelerated system employment.. 21 Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) and 24 weapons caches totaling over 93. copiously regressive that progressive . Orson. in which an experimental ground-penetrating radar and an off-the-shelf electro-optical and infrared sensor suite were rapidly integrated on a C-12 airframe and deployed to support Operation IRAQI FREEDOM. Techniques of numerical cartography. Session 1 Laser-based spectroscopy for standoff explosives detection M. The QC laser module has been incorporated in a set-up for remote detection of contaminations on test surfaces by backscattering spectroscopy.. and reconnaissance capabilities. Nevertheless. The method consists of three basic stages: salient points detection. Laser Detect Systems. salinisation . such as explosives. N. W. clearing. at a standoff distance. explosives. develop defense against Improvised Explosive • spie. (Israel) Real time detection and identification of minimal amounts of explosives. colours. breakdown spectroscopy. Haddouche.e. in their turn . This nontraditional test approach and application of sensor technology highlights several areas that challenged successful system development.and off-resonance with the characteristic absorption band. area I. A. saving the lives of countless Iraqi citizens and coalition soldiers.) inducing the turning into a desertification require a better comprehension in order to see how to fight against this plague and to adapt an adequate installation to him .. 6739A Electro-Optical Remote Sensing. 6739A-04. Zhuravlev. Razevig.. vapors or • spieeurope@spieeurope. Photonic Technologies and their Applications Wednesday-Thursday 19-20 September 2007 Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. In a first laboratory test. Fabry-Perot QC lasers emitting at around 8 µm could be tuned over a frequency range of 40 1/cm. Univ. overgrazing. At the stage of salient points detection the scale-space representation is used. requires a much broader spectral tuning range of the laser employed. Gated Raman spectroscopy and Second Harmonic Generation. Kirn. the spectroscopic detection of more complex molecules. National Reconnaissance Office (USA). Gaft. This paper discusses the practical application of deploying unique sensor technology in a true operational environment . surveillance. Fuchs. Q. surface contaminations with 10 µg/cm2 TNT could be detected in imaging backscattering spectroscopy.. At the second stage 6739A-02. is the best target and what kind of laser-based spectroscopy is the mostly suitable for such task. Several laser-based spectroscopic techniques. Session 1 Battlefield innovation: a case study of remote sensor development J. It is recognized that the only technique. C4 and Semtex have very strong luminescence. being able to highlight this calamity.000 lbs of explosives were detected and disarmed. B. vegetation. Spatial derivatives are calculated and normalized in such manner to yield high response to blob-like structures in images. (SHG) have been studied as a candidates for explosives microparticles standoff detection and identification.S. which adhere to surfaces that have come into contact with explosives. Wild. i.

Conference 6739A: Electro-Optical Remote Sensing, Photonic Technologies and their Applications
of image analysis the SIFT-descriptor is calculated for each salient point to form a multi-dimensional vector to be used in a clustering algorithm. At the clustering stage a dendrogram is built and the selection process begins by picking a couple of closest vectors. The closest vectors associated with image regions are supposed to represent similar-looking objects, e.g. mines or other human-made objects. Next, the algorithm attempts to add another object or vector cluster by checking the link consistency in the hierarchical tree. If the link doesn’t consistent with the links below the branch is cut and the cluster below this link represents the set of similar looking objects. The developed algorithm was used on an artificial mine field. Aerial images of the field were taken by a consumer camera. It was shown that the described method was capable of detecting the mines. The developed algorithms are planned to be used in humanitarian de-mining operations. produced for broad variety of process-control applications using transmission, reflection, fluorescence and Ramanspectroscopy, but their spectral range is limited to transmission of silica fibers from 0.2 to 2.4µm. Nowadays the longer Mid-IR wavelength range from 2 to 6-10µm may be covered by Chalcogenide IR-glass CIR-fibers, while Polycrystalline PIRfibers from Silver Halides can cover the whole “finger-print” part of spectrum - the most informative on absorption bands of specific molecular vibrations (Fig.1). These specific bands are 100-1000 times more intensive and more narrow than the 2nd & 3rd harmonic bands at the shorter wavelengths <2µm. Remote spectroscopy of chemical reaction, monitoring of exhaust or exhalation gases or invivo tissue analysis on molecular composition could be done by PIR-fiber probes coupling with different type of spectrometers - based on diffraction grating and detector arrays, FTIRinterferometers, IRLED, optical filters or using Tunable Diode or Quantum Cascade lasers. Design of immersion probes for liquids and touch probes for tissues is based on PIR-fiber coupling with a sealed ATRelements made from Diamond, ZnSe or other IR-materials. Choice of PIR-fibers in comparison with a brittle and toxic CIRfibers transmitting in 2-6µm range is done they are very flexible, non-toxic, stable from 5 to 400K and transmit in much broader range from 3 to 17µm. Transmission/Reflection T/R-probes for gases have been designed with IRfibers coupling of dual-pass optical cell with QCL or TDL-spectrometer. In addition to the review on IR-fiber coupled FTIR- and QCLspectroscopy systems the first FlexISpec spectrometer test data will be presented on the innovative prototype of (Fig.2) based on use of diffraction grating with IR-pyrodetector array and PIR-fiber probes. In difference with expensive FTIR- & QCLsystems FlexISpec developed is directed to more cost effective solution for real time process-control in chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries. Fig. 1. Attenuation spectra of IR-fibers Fig. 2. Spectrum of sun-flower oil measured with FlexISpec spectrometer in 5-7mm range with ATR-PIR-probe

6739A-05, Session 1
Lidar for shallow underwater target detection
M. Tulldahl, M. Pettersson, Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden) Small underwater objects such as vehicles and divers can pose threats to fixed installations and ships. For ships, these threats are present both at sea and in harbors. Shallow underwater targets, including drifting mines, are difficult to detect with acoustic methods and thus complementary methods are required. If an airborne platform is available, some of those targets could be detected by passive optical means. However, for sensing from a ship or from land, optical detection can be highly improved by use of a pulsed laser system. We present simulated data of importance for the design of a lidar system with low incidence angle with respect to the water surface. We also present our first experimental data from underwater target detection with an incidence angle of five degrees.

6739A-06, Session 1
Theoretical and experimental analysis of an equivalent model for the investigation of shallow landmines with acoustic methods
L. Capineri, A. Bulletti, G. Borgioli, P. Falorni, L. F. Masotti, S. Valentini, M. Calzolai, Univ. degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); C. Windsor, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (United Kingdom) Acoustic methods have been recently investigated for the detection of shallow landmines. Some plastic landmines have a flexible case which can made to vibrate by an airborne excitation like a loudspeaker. The soil-mine system shows a resonant behavior which is used as a signature to discriminate from other rigid objects. The mechanical resonance can be detected at the soil surface by a remote sensing systems like a laser interferometer. An equivalent physical model of the minesoil system has been investigated having the known physical characteristics of mine simulants. The authors have designed and built a test-object with known mechanical characteristics (mass, elasticity, damping factor). The model has been characterized in laboratory and the results compared with the classic mass-spring loss oscillator described by Voigt. The vibrations at the soil surface have been measured in various positions with a micro machined accelerometer. The results of the simulations for the acceleration of the soil-mine system agree well with the experiment. The calibrated mine model is useful to investigate the variation of the resonance frequency for various buried depths and to compare the results for different soils in different environmental conditions.

6739A-08, Session 1
Adaptive photodetectors using wide-gap photorefractive sillenite crystals for vibration monitoring
I. A. Sokolov, M. A. Bryushinin, A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute (Russia) Detection of low-amplitude acoustic vibrations of real objects, such as ultrasonic transducers, composite materials, biological objects, metal production, is an important scientific and technique problem. Homodyne laser vibrometers are suitable for practical applications in this regard for their high sensitivity which is limited in principle only by shot-noise of the laser used. These vibrometers allow detection at a distance, with high spatial localization of the measurement region and wide frequency range. However, their utilization is restrained by several problems such as slow phase drifts in the interferometer arms due to environmental reasons, necessity of fine optical adjustment and suppression of laser amplitude noise. Photorefractive materials offer a novel elegant way to solve the problem of keeping operation interferometer point constant. The crystal replaces the conventional beamsplitter and can be controlled not only electrically but also optically, i.e. based on the principles of nonlinear optics. In addition, it can be multilayered. Such a multilayered adaptive beamsplitter is nothing else but a volume dynamic hologram recorded by the reference and signal waves. In this paper we present for the first time the results of utilization of wide-gap photorefractive sillenite crystals as adaptive photodetectors (AP) for vibration measurements. The operation of the adaptive system of non-destructive testing was studied for the real operation conditions (diffusely scattering objects). The operation principle of AP is based on the effect of the nonsteady-state photoelectromotive force (photoEMF). The mechanism responsible for the effect can be described as follows. Illumination of wide-gap semiconductor by an interference pattern produces a non-uniform excitation of free carriers (photoconductivity grating). Diffusion of the photo-excited carriers towards the dark regions

6739A-07, Session 1
Mid IR-fiber spectroscopy in 2-17µm range
V. G. Artiouchenko, Fibre Photonics Ltd (United Kingdom); A. Bocharnikov, G. Colquhoun, C. A. Leach, Fibre Photonics Ltd. (United Kingdom); V. Lobachov, T. Sakharova, D. Savitskij, General Physics Institute (Russia) The latest development in IR-fiber optics enables to expand spectral range of processspectroscopy from 2µm up to 17µm (5.000 to 600cm-1). Up to now fiber systems are already • • • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747


Conference 6739A: Electro-Optical Remote Sensing, Photonic Technologies and their Applications
leads to charge redistribution between deep traps in the photoconductor. A space charge field grating arises. Small vibrations of the light pattern excite an alternating current through the crystal. The results of measurements of small vibration amplitudes and resonant frequencies of the diffusely scattering objects including micro-electromechanical systems are presented. The presented adaptive interferometric system can be used for industrial applications. challenging is accurately locating them in space. We present optical sensors that can locate fast moving objects that penetrate into virtual optical screens. Each sensor is composed of several laser sources and detectors, and the 3-dimensional mapping is based on combinations of range measurements, triangulation and geometry. These short-range laser sensors typically have detection ranges from a few centimeters to several meters. The sensors can also operate under noisy external signals, clutter and sunlight. This is obtained by using signal modulation, fast switching of sources and advanced signal processing. Also, robust mechanical design allows for operation under extreme environmental conditions. We will present several sensor configurations, which are characterized by the optical properties of the sources and detectors, as well as their placement. The effects of the sensors’ design parameters on their detection properties and accuracies will be discussed. Also, we will compare the properties of these sensors with other proximity sensors.

6739A-10, Session 2
Waveform analysis of lidar data for targets in cluttered environments
G. Tolt, H. Larsson, Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden) In this paper we study the potential of using deconvolution techniques on full-waveform laser radar data for pulse detection in cluttered environments, e.g. when a land-mine is partly occluded by vegetation. A pulse width greater than the distance between the reflecting surfaces within the footprint results in a signal that is composed by overlapping reflections that may be very difficult to analyze successfully with standard pulse detection techniques. Deconvolution improves the chance of successful decomposition of such multi-modal pulses into the components corresponding to each reflecting surface. In addition, by deconvolving with the recorded emitted pulse, the influence of non-stationary or complex pulse shape is reduced. Experiments with various targets, e.g. land-mines, behind different kinds of obscuration were carried out and analyzed in terms of improved pulse extraction capability and distance accuracy. Some common deconvolution techniques, including the Richardson-Lucy algorithm, were tested. The effect of applying different smoothing filters to reduce the influence of noise on deconvolution and pulse extraction were also studied. It was found that in many situations, surfaces separated by only a small fraction of the pulse width could be revealed but that weak reflections in noisy signals were difficult to detect.

6739A-13, Session 2
Planning of a multiple sensor system for human activities space: aspects of iso-disparity surface
J. Chen, S. Khatibi, W. Kulesza, Högskolan I Kalmar (Sweden) This paper presents a method for planning the position of multiple stereo sensors in an indoor environment. This is a component in an Intelligent Vision Agent System, IVAS. The IVAS is an automatic target detection, identification and information processing system for human activities surveillance. It consists of multiple sensors including their deployment and autonomous servo. The crucial problem for the system is to find the optimal configuration of sensors so that the features of environment and target objects are visible under the required constraints. We propose a new approach to dynamically adjust the multiple stereo pair’s position, pose and baseline length in 3D space in order to get sufficient visibility and accuracy for surveillance, tracking and 3D reconstruction. The paper proposes the visibility constraints to plan the cameras’ positions and poses, a depth accuracy constraint to control the baseline length, and iso-disparity surface approach for camera zooming. A human geometry modelled by a tetrahedron where it’s two upper triangles representing the human fore front is introduced. The dynamically update precise geometry model may optimize the visibility for human self-occlusions. The minimum number of camera’s stereo pairs necessary to cover the target space is optimized by an integer linear programming. The 3D simulations of reconstruction accuracy and the human activities space coverage problem were performed in Matlab. In this paper, we implement the camera auto-disposition, vergence and zooming according to different reconstruction accuracy requirements. The experiments show how the reconstruction accuracy depends on stereo pair’s baseline length and zooming.

6739A-11, Session 2
Restoration algorithm and system performance evaluation for active imaging systems
J. Gilles, Club Laser et Procédés (France) In the first part of this paper, we investigate the effect of the atmosphere turbulence in the case of active imaging systems. The classical filter used in the litterature is the temporal mean filter. This filter gives good results but the edges of the objects are blurred. In order to improve the performance, we propose to use a temporal median filter. We prove that, in a statistical point of view, the median filter is well adpated than the mean filter. It’s main advantage is that it doesn’t create new values which never appear during the acquisition process. Differents results will be showed based on the database acquired by the NATO-TG40 group. We also compare with the results obtained by local Wiener filtering and local Laplacian filtering. In the second part of the paper, we propose a new method to evaluate the performance of this kind of systems. Our method uses some ideas taken from the german TRM3 model. We define a new metric which uses directly the values measured at different locations in the image. This method permits to build a Modulation Transfert Function (MTF) like the one for passive systems. We conduct some experiments on the different systems used in the NATO-TG40 field trials and evaluate their performances. In order to validate this method, we compare it with the results we get by a theoretic MTF model for active imaging systems. We conclude this paper by giving some new perspectives in image restoration algorithm. We currently develop a new algorithm based on warping technics and the first results seems to be very promising.

6739A-14, Session 2
Lightweight compact optical correlator for spacecraft docking
A. Bergeron, P. Bourqui, Institut National d’Optique (Canada); B. Harnisch, European Space Agency (Netherlands) Spacecraft docking is a critical operation in space rendezvous operations. Docking provides the opportunity to joint two vehicles in order to change crews and deliver resources to a spacecraft. One of the main challenges in docking is to perform real-time tracking of the docking point for a precise and rapid feedback to the control system in order to achieve reliable operations. Docking operations founds multiple earth counterpart applications. Many of these earth-based applications concern the use of robotic devices to grab a specific object. In these cases various location parameters of the object are needed, such as rotation angle, scale and position. INO has developed a prototype version of a compact lightweight optical correlator. This version provides a tool for various application evaluations. INO, in collaboration with ESA, studied the use of an optical correlator for various space applications such as rendezvous and docking, landing and star tracking operations. Optical correlator provides beyond real-time image

6739A-12, Session 2
Short-range detection and ranging of fastmoving objects
R. Oron, Y. Leitner, V. Palatnik, KiloLambda Technologies, Ltd. (Israel) Detection of fast moving objects is challenging. Even more

26 • • • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747

Conference 6739A: Electro-Optical Remote Sensing, Photonic Technologies and their Applications
processing capabilities and is well suited for target identification and positioning purpose. Optical correlator is also lightweight and shows low power consumption. In this paper, the latest analyses of the docking application are presented. For evaluation purpose, video sequences of Soyuz docking the International Space Station (ISS) were used. The ISS docking point ISS was used as target to track the relative position, including scale and rotation angle, of the Soyuz vehicle compared to the ISS. This presentation will review the various parameters of this analysis, will present the results obtained with the video sequence. Alternative applications such as landing and star tracking will also be briefly addressed. classified and mapped. The accuracy of the classification was greater than 90%.

6739A-17, Session 3
Optical characterization of small surface targets
P. B. W. Schwering, TNO (Netherlands) Authors: TNO: PBW Schwering, RAW Kemp CSIR: DF Bezuidenhout, FPJ le Roux, RH Sieberhagen IMT: WH Gunter Abstract: Present-day naval operations take place in coastal environments as well as narrow straits all over the world. Coastal environments around the world are exhibiting a number of threats to naval forces. In particular a large number of asymmetric threats can be present in environments with cluttered backgrounds as well as rapidly varying atmospheric conditions. In these conditions the threat contrast may be low and varying, and the amount of background clutter can be severe. These conditions require the electro-optical means of detection and classification to be optimized in order to have more time to act against threats. In particular the assessment of classification means is an important issue. Beside short-range coastal paths, also long-range horizontal paths with variable atmospheric conditions are of interest. Therefore the small differences between types of vessels, can help us determining the classification of the vessel type. But also different small payloads and people on-board can be clues to the classification of the vessel. Operations in warmer environments, limiting the atmospheric transmission due to water vapour absorption are challenging. Understanding of the impact of the warmer environments on the optical characteristics of threats is of great importance. For this purpose a trial was planned to assess the optical characteristics of different types of small surface vessels in a coastal environment. During this trial a number of small targets were used during different parts of the day and night. Furthermore positional as well as atmospheric characterisation was performed as ground truth information. From this data a first analysis was performed showing strong intensity fluctuation in target as well as background signal levels. At longer ranges and in coastal environments these target signals may be well hidden within the background clutter. This data is essential to feed sensor performance models for the assessment of sensor performance in coastal environment.

6739A-15, Session 2
Coherent ladar 3D imaging with S3
J. R. Buck, A. Malm, A. Zakel, B. Krause, B. Tiemann, Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies (USA) The Super-resolution Sensor System (S3) program is an ambitious effort to exploit the maximum information a laserbased sensor can obtain. At Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies (LMCT), we are developing methods of incorporating multi-function operation (3D imaging, vibrometry, polarimetry, aperture synthesis, etc.) into a single device. The waveforms will be matched to the requirements of both hardware (e.g., optical amplifiers, modulators, etc.) and the targets being imaged. The first successful demonstrations of this program have produced high-resolution, three-dimensional images at intermediate stand-off ranges. In addition, heavy camouflage penetration has been successfully demonstrated. The resolution of a ladar sensor scales with the bandwidth as dR = c/(2B), with a corresponding scaling of the range precision. Therefore, the ability to achieve large bandwidths is crucial to developing a high-resolution sensor. While there are many methods of achieving the benefit of large bandwidths while using lower bandwidth electronics (e.g., an FMCW implementation), the S3 system produces and detects the full waveform bandwidth, enabling a large set of adaptive waveforms for applications requiring large range search intervals (RSI) and short duration waveforms. This presentation will highlight the three-dimensional imaging and camo penetration.

6739A-16, Session 3
The application of hyperspectral remote sensing in classification and mapping of the marshland aggressive plant cattail, typha latifolia
G. Liu, J. Allen, Clemson Univ. (USA); G. Kleppel, SUNY/Univ. at Albany (USA); J. Parkey, C. E. Campbell, Clemson Univ. (USA); K. Lu, Towson Univ. (USA) Cattail propagates both sexually and asexually, often in a rapid and aggressive manner. Such infestation develops dense monospecies stands, reduces overall vegetative biodiversity of wetlands, and significantly impacts the wetland ecosystem. It is essential to timely and accurately monitor and map the distribution, density, extent and the aggressive intensity of Cattail in order to help effectively control it and real timely monitor wetland dynamics. Traditional ground surveys are extremely time consuming and even inoperable because of the difficulty in access to the vast marshland areas. Until recently, there have been few available methods for using remote sensing to detect and isolate single plant species like Cattail. In utilizing hyperspectral aerial remote sensing data for this study, a hyperspectral library called the Strom Thurmond Institute Hyperspectral Library (STIHL) was created for the monitoring of wetland species in the Lower Hudson River Watershed areas in New York State. The STIHL fills the gap where spectral profiles of wetland plants are lacking in the current common spectral libraries such as the USGS Vegetation Spectral Library, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library and the Johns Hopkins University Spectral Library. In application of the STIHL, the authors derived the “spectrally pure” Cattail pixels and obtained the typical spectral signals to be used as the supervised classification training signals. An enhanced supervised classification method of Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), with minimum threshold angles was developed and performed. Using the innovative STIHL in hyperspectral signal processing, the aggressive wetland plant Cattail was successfully identified,

6739A-18, Session 3
Influence of Saharan dust on astronomical observation
E. A. Siher, Faculty of Sciences & Techniques, Beni Mellal (Morocco) The site selection for the next generation of the telescopes (ELT: Extremely Large Telescope) need to be very pointed. On the other hand, in a previous study, we showed that the astronomical extinction (AE) can be extracted from the aerosol index (AI) by using the equation of correlation between these parameters (Siher et al. 2004). To use this new tool for the qualification of astronomical sites, we will present, in this paper, our last results concerning the AE and AI correlation. Also, we will sudy the influence of the refelctivity index on tha astronomical extinction.

6739A-19, Session 4
Exploitation of EO Technologies from the EMRS DTC
I. Clark, SELEX Sensors and Airborne Systems Ltd. (United Kingdom) No abstract available • • • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747


Prather. Univ. Photonic Technologies and their Applications 6739A-20. We also describe our work on making highly linear electro-optic modulators for this and other microwavephotonic applications. Fawley. Filtronic Compound Semiconductors Ltd. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). the Electromagnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC) is concerned with research applicable to systems that gather and process electro-magnetic signals. R. Direct sampling and digitisation. using guidedwave and micro-optic components. of Delaware (USA). Filtronic Compound Semiconductors Ltd. Sensors are also required for the delivery of precision effect. will enable such signals to be analysed with much higher resolution than can be achieved with conventional microwave techniques. A. Remote sensing provides the means of achieving many of these goals. G. Kopeika. Jiang. (United Kingdom). • spie. The design concept addresses the need for ease of proliferation by simplifying the system for lower cost and by focussing on key design parameters to reduce laser power requirements. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . sensors are required to determine the extent of functional damage produced and whether any collateral damage has resulted in the area surrounding the target. (United Kingdom) The military commander ideally needs a multi-dimensional (spatial. Mirotznik. with every object of relevance accurately located and characterised. cryogenic cooling. Session 5 Sparse aperture detection and imaging of millimeter sources via optical image-plane interferometry I. (United Kingdom) A concept architecture has been designed to use the advantages of fibre based laser technology in the technique of deriving an RF LO source from ultra stable lasers. temporal. The detection mechanism at microwave frequencies and lower frequencies was found to be microwave enhanced ionization collision frequency. Session 5 Glow discharge detector (GDD) for terahertz and millimeter wave radiation detection and imaging A. An indication is also required of the level of threat posed by enemy manoeuvre to the success of operations. Gotch. was investigated experimentally in order to realize an inexpensive room temperature detector for this unique region. In this paper we describe a novel multiple wavelength optical sampling system architecture for the real-time digitising of microwave signals between 1 and 20 GHz with a target resolution of more than 10 effective bits (\>60 dB spurious free dynamic range). commensurate with more general defence applications as compared with solid-state free-space lasers. 6739A-22. Direct sampling and digitisation of signals at frequencies above a few GHz is difficult to achieve electronically because the rise and fall times of electrical sampling gates are too long. J. Furthermore. Abromovich. Lang. A. Sensor are required to provide day and night all-weather capability. compact sensors for un-manned air vehicles. H. Filtronic Components Ltd. (United Kingdom). 6739A-29. The system aim is to provide -160 dB/Hz phase noise at 1 kHz offset referenced to 10 GHz carrier frequency. Session 4 Challenges in military remote sensing K. propagating in free-space to a collecting aperture. and indirect imaging techniques. D. deriving from direct current gas breakdown. In the UK. Rozban. our preliminary experimental results at 100 GHz and 250 GHz show that the detection mechanism is quite different. S. ESL Defence Ltd. M. Optical sampling pulses can be very much shorter than electrical sampling pulses because of the large optical carrier frequency. White. The Catholic Univ. Schuetz. Session 4 Hybrid optoelectronic vector matrix multipliers using guided-wave and micro-optic components V. Univ. Preliminary experiments results at 3 mm (100 GHz) and around 1 mm (250 GHz) wavelength with several commercial plasma indicator lamps show good response. These include high-power and high-resolution radars operating from unstable platforms. A. Handerek. Zhou. We reject heterodyne technology for a multitude of factors including bulky equipment. The College of Judea and Samaria (Israel). The vector-matrix multiplier is a powerful optical processing architecture that potentially offers very large gains in computation speed. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). long integration times. I. McCarthy. D. Lewis. N. 6739A-54. One approach which may help to meet this need is to use analogue methods in parts of the signal processing chain using optoelectronics. often with very high frequency resolution. followed by Fourier analysis and signal processing. Session 4 Fibre laser based ultra low phase noise LO generation for future radar M. This method is suitable for snapshot-imaging of short- 28 spie. D. C. It is hoped that the ultra-high stability of the pulsed laser source can be married to photonic digital waveform generators (Photonic DDS) to provide a comprehensive solution for advanced high capability radar requirements.5 per lamp. W. spectral) view of the battle-space. When a target is hit. and appears to beat enhanced diffusion current which causes decrease of GDD bias current when radiated by such radiation. M. at standoff ranges sufficient to minimise risk to the sensors themselves. P. Clements. using examples derived from its own programme.2-$0. intelligence (ELINT) and countermeasures (ECM) require realtime analysis of broadband RF signals. In contradiction to this. The construction of a Focal Plane Array (FPA) using them as pixels is advantageous since the cost of each is around $0. and the FPA images will be diffraction limited. Biswas. Filtronic Components Ltd. affordable ESM techniques for complex operational theaters and discriminative electro-optic sensors supported by novel signal processing algorithms to provide real-time operational capability. but has not so far become commercially successful. This presentation will explain how the EMRS DTC is meeting many of these requirements. real-time clutter removal and space-time adaptive beamforming (STAP) for jammer nulling. D. Martin. 6739A-23. Ben-Gurion Univ. S. R. This can be overcome by using a low-jitter optical sampling pulse train to measure the voltage on an electro-optic modulator. The architecture consolidates the advances of key technologies to produce a compact. R.Conference 6739A: Electro-Optical Remote Sensing. (United Kingdom). of America (USA) We attempt to perform real time detection and direct high resolution imaging of millimeter blackbody sources using sparse aperture interferometry. BAE Systems plc (United Kingdom) There is a need for faster processing hardware to provide modern radar systems with advanced capabilities such as multiple hypothesis tracking. Heaton. Electromagnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Ctr. C. Y. An alternate method is to convert the incoming millimeter waves into optical and perform optical image-plane interferometry in real time. Session 4 A novel wavelength division multiplexed system architecture for high resolution sampling and digitisation of broadband microwave signals J. useable and rugged system. long-range operation and rapid large-area search while enabling the detection of low signature/camouflaged/ concealed targets without compromising the ability to operate covertly as far as possible. the experiments show that such glow discharge indicator lamps are preferable candidates for imaging applications. L. 6739A-21. This paper reports investigation of a novel arrangement for this type of processor that is aimed at improving the prospects for commercialisation. Laycock. Challenges for the detection and identification of difficult targets are driving the development of multifunctional sensor systems. of the Negev (Israel) Glow discharge plasma. (United Kingdom) Military applications such as electronic surveillance (ESM). This approach will assist miniaturisation of the processor and improve ruggedness and scalability to large • spieeurope@spieeurope. S. Staniforth.

(USA) Millimeter wave imaging provides the ability to see through various obscurants including smoke. Then homodyne interferometry is performed. D. In this proceeding. Major advantages of THz radiation as compared to other spectral regions are the possibility to penetrate clothes and that THz radiation is not harmful for human health. of Delaware (USA) In previous publications. QinetiQ Ltd. Both have been previously used for visible and infrared applications and we discuss their extension to millimeter wave imagery. 6739A-55. Because Fizeau beam combiners work in the image plane. K. eliminating difficulties associated with resolving out structures whose spatial frequencies are in between that of the single aperture diameter and those of the baselines. Inc. A. Photonic Technologies and their Applications lived phenomena. In this contribution the design and results of a THz stand-off detection system will be presented. which are necessary for a practical implementation of this technology. we detail efforts to create a scanning singlepixel imager based on these results. mosaicing wide fields is possible. we have been able to demonstrate sufficient sensitivity for indoor imaging without illumination. 6739A-26. Semenov.8 THz.. Optimization of an Array Configuration Minimizing Side Lobes. Bryllert. carrier suppression. U. 6739A-27. L. Since the Fizeau setup allows access to large fields. Based on Kogan’s algorithm (Kogan 1997. Optimization of an Array with a Topography Constraint. L. they don’t suffer from ambiguities associated with the interpretation of visibility measurements. A THz laser is used for illumination and a superconducting hot-electron bolometric mixer for detection. The potential applications are reviewed and technological and physics considerations are given in the performance prediction with respect to the frequency. Using these techniques. we choose an antenna array composed of two concentric hexagonal rings. T. Session 6 Development of high power HBV multipliers for millimeter wave applications J. and a wide field of view. Optimization of an Array Configuration with a Donut Constraint. F. Böttger. H. The focus of our work is on the acceleration of these algorithms for real-time processing in a low-power. We provide a discussion of the algorithms used. Stake. i. A. The optical waves are fed via a fiber optic array onto a microlens array which is a scaled down version of the antenna array configuration. Session 6 Stand-off detection with a heterodyne receiver at 0. Terahertz (THz) rays offer an alternative inspection method. we have described a novel technique for millimeter-wave detection based on optical upconversion. J. the developments in technology and the end user requirement indicates a new architecture of imager might offer an attractive prospect.V. Ortiz. These results were obtained without the use of millimeter-wave LNA’s or cryogenic cooling. often encountered in defense and security situations. Office of Naval Research (USA). their application to millimeter wave imaging. Vukusic. (Germany) Suicide bombers and hidden bombs or explosives have become serious threats especially for mass transportation. This design ensures more or less uniform and isotropic spatial frequency coverage. the entrance and exit pupils are replicas of one • spieeurope@spieeurope. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola (Sweden) and Wasa Millimeter Wave AB (Sweden) In order to provide compact solutions and sufficient power levels spie.8 THz H. low-resolution imagery is produced. Krapels. 1998b MMA Memo #202 3. Schuetz. and photodetection. A programme to build a small demonstrator of such a beam-forming system is overviewed. which can be readily captured. References 1. EM Photonics. Therefore new technologies especially for standoff detection of threats are required. Univ. Kelmelis. With moderate LNA gains. The sensor is based on active illumination of the object and sensitive heterodyne detection of reflected and backscattered radiation. The approach presented in this work utilizes a millimeter wave antenna array coupled to an optical interferometer which images directly on a detector array for image read-out. and their implementation. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola (Sweden) and Chalmers Tekniska Högskola (Sweden). Until now there exists no established system which can be used against these threats.und Raumfahrt e. Hübers. Deutsches Zentrum für Luft. The Fourier coverage of this array is the sum of the Fourier coverage of the outer ring plus that of the inner ring added to that of the baselines between the inner and outer • spie. scaled only by a constant factor. Kogan. The optical system is designed to allow for stand-off detection up to 20 m with a spatial resolution less than 2 cm. The main drawback is that pupil-plane interferometers don’t produce images but rather gives the information about the autocorrelation of the object. We instead use a classical image-plane interferometer (Fizeau) setup and direct detection is performed on a CCD array. we preserve homothetic mapping. a Fizeau interferometer is a true imaging device.Conference 6739A: Electro-Optical Remote Sensing. high sensitivity. D. Session 6 Electronic scanning for passive millimetre wave imaging N. W. Inc. Richter. In this paper. We reject pupil-plane (Michelson) interferometry based on a multitude of factors. Prather. This ensures direct imaging over a wide bandwidth with high angular • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 29 . C. Kogan. The imager performance is shown to be diffraction limited. Session 5 Sparse aperture millimeter-wave imaging using optical detection and correlation techniques C. we have been able to achieve NETD’s as low as 1 K /Hz in both 35 GHz and 95 GHz atmospheric transmission windows. fog. The local oscillator required for heterodyne detection is a multiplied microwave source. D. The incoming millimeter signals are fed through electro-optical modulators for upconversion onto an optical carrier. J. J. light-weight device. Samluk. 1997 MMA Memo #171 6739A-56. unmeasured phase changes do not creep in. Kogan. 1998) to reduce the minimizes the maximum sidelobes of the point spread function. Chen. and processed using optical techniques. we explore two techniques for enhancing image quality: speckle imaging and super-resolution. Smirnov. The system operates at 0. The key limitation to their use is amount of processing required to enhance images in real time. 6739A-24. and sand. which can cope with these new challenges. processing. L. Imageplane interferometry has its advantages. A. E. Prather. Curt. The design of the reflective optical system is described and sample images shown. routed.e. These images have yielded interesting phenomenological effects for indoor environments that are detailed herein. which have previously been requirements for reaching these performance levels. and storage. W. However. Salmon. A. such that the outer ring is ~3 times the inner ring. Session 5 Enhancing millimeter-wave data by adapting visible-range image processing techniques F. (USA). dust. (United Kingdom) This paper reviews the use of electronic scanning technology for the passive millimetre wave imagers. EM Photonics. Also since the beams traverse the same paths and superpose. due to the size of the wavelength and quality of current imaging systems. A. 1998b MMA Memo #212 2. We will present the design of the system and its subcomponents as well as the overall performance and discuss future improvements. P. Looking at the mathematics of beam-forming. Unlike its pupil-plane cousin. where each beam is used to make an image of the object and are superimposed. In the design of the Fizeau interferometer. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola (Sweden) and Wasa Millimeter Wave AB (Sweden). The need for delay lines is done away with by mounting all the apertures on the same plane. E.

the best results have been achieved using a filter circuit on AlN instead of quartz. D.). We used mini mirrors for the RF coupling to the mixers.). J. (USA). Deutsches Zentrum für Luftund Raumfahrt e. F. We will present the development of an integrated high power HBV tripler to 94 GHz and a HBV quintupler to 210 GHz. comparable to the free spectral range of the Fabry-Perot resonator. Session 6 Terahertz heterodyne focal plane and imaging array S. V. Cherednichenko. Low local oscillator requirements for HEB mixers (<1000nW) make it possible to use a solid state multiplier LO source to drive the entire array. In both cases an anti-reflection coating has been developed to reduce the reflectivity of the laser facets below 1%. a grating in Littrow configuration is employed for achieving a broadband mode-hop-free tuning. Hensley. An HBV quintupler (x5) with a state-of-the-art conversion efficiency of 11% has been demonstrated at 100 GHz (Bryllert et al. such as military and security • spieeurope@spieeurope. multipliers with a high multiplication factor (\>3) and improved power handling capability. receiving considerable attention for potential applications in various areas.7 THz QCLs in external cavities using two different techniques: a) tuning by varying the cavity length and b) tuning by a 30 spie. highly efficient. Mahler. J. We present experimental results on single frequency tunable 4. We have built a 16 pixel mixer camera suitable for a heterodyne system for frequencies from 300 GHz to a few THz. Due to a rapid improvement of cryo coolers. L. the position of a mirror is moved allowing a mode-hop-free tuning of 0. B. Such compact high power sources will play an important role in THz-radars for standoff detection. Observatoire de Paris (France) Terahertz waves have been recognized as an important frequency range for both imaging and spectroscopic applications in the field of homeland security. 10 mW and at least 10% efficiency has been demonstrated (Xiao et al. In terms of output power.4W at 100 GHz and \>50mW around 200 GHz. (USA). Tredicucci. Univ. which would not require consumables like liquid helium. Besides high sensitivity. Our predictions suggests an output power of \>0. Epion Corp. 6739A-28. and a coarse tuning of 2 cm-1 at the center frequency of 158 cm-1.Conference 6739A: Electro-Optical Remote Sensing. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . Chalmers Tekniska Högskola (Sweden). trace gases detection. Beere. diffraction grating. At short millimetre wavelengths. Physical Sciences Inc. there is room for substantial improvements in terms of output power in the millimetre wavelength range with a proper electrical and thermal design. and wide tuning range are particularly required for spectroscopic applications. narrow linewidth. R.). Xu. Green. (Germany). H. of Cambridge (United Kingdom) Terahertz photonics is an emerging field. Hübers. The Heterostructure Barrier Varactor (HBV) diode is a strong candidate as a compact and efficient terahertz source. According to detailed analysis. and communications. Beltram. providing short cooling time. Terahertz quantum cascade lasers (THz QCLs) with single frequency. and reliable long term operation. A. Fenner. HEB mixers are made on a single wafer. • spie. corresponding to a frequency of 200-300 GHz. Photonic Technologies and their Applications at terahertz frequencies for future heterodyne imaging and radar systems there is a strong need to develop broadband. Previously. Both circuits will be optimised for an input power of 1-2 Watt (at 31-42 GHz). Session 6 Tunable THz quantum cascade lasers with external cavity J. D. H. HEB mixers have been investigated for application in radio astronomy. The mixers are integrated with either a narrow band resonance antenna (for a terahertz radar application) or with a broadband antenna (for thermal imaging). The AlN substrate provides a better heat-sink for the flip-chip mounted diode. superconducting HEB mixers have a large dynamic range. 6739A-30. HBV triplers (x3) have been shown to provide \>200 mW at 114 GHz (Vukusic et al. where a sensitivity of 10 times the quantum limit has been achieved. A.4 cm-1. G. sensing and imaging. M. currently it is possible to consider superconducting detectors for autonomous systems. Allen. Krieg. and they can be easily replaced in the camera depending on the choice of frequency. Drakinskiy. In this paper we present development of a heterodyne focal plane array based on superconducting hot-electron bolometer (HEB) mixers. In the former. Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa (Italy).V. In the latter. With this approach the number of pixels in the camera can be easily extended to more than 100.

detection of DNA. Experimental methods and data will be described to support the performance model. J. Examples will be drawn form the literature and work done by the authors using UV-Laser Induced Fluorescent detection and electrostatic collection subsystems. Briefly described. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 31 . Naval Research Lab. microcopy based methods require a minimum number of threat particles in a field of view). for detection and identification of pathogens. The system uses injection-molded. Baxter. Foot. sample lysis. and the development of a real-time signal acquisition & detection algorithm for determining material type on a particle by particle basis at rates greater than 2. This consists of air collection. Barrington. as well as the time allotted for sample collection.g. The conceptually simple process of capturing only threat particles and rejecting background in fact requires sophisticated particle detection and classification. J. The system is able to scan at rates up to 2o/sec and collects spectra from clouds which can be classified into “biological simulant” or “interferent” classes by the discrimination algorithm. such as air collectors. This paper explores the theoretical parameters of dynamic sorting with particular attention paid to particle loading and coincidence issues as well as the affects of the capture timing and capture efficiency on the enrichment of threat particles in the final analytical sample. Pletcher. This paper will describe the overall BioACE architecture and then concentrate on the various component and system design tradeoffs required to optimize sample enrichment performance. Session 6 Microfluidics-based integrated airborne pathogen detection systems M. M. and biochemical analysis. The Biological Aerosol Capture and Enrichment (BioACE) system is a bio-aerosol sampling device that combines several unique technologies to create physically enriched aerosol samples that can subsequently be interrogated by any number of bio-threat detection techniques.. Updates on instrument designs. system testing. mixing. timing. RNA. viruses. Sarnoff Corp. specifically for pathogens including bacteria. Several key technical and engineering challenges were overcome during the course of this development including a unique solution for compensating particle velocity dispersion within the airflow. A. V. Having separately shown feasibility for each of the constituent technologies. Huston. (United Kingdom) Detection of biological warfare agents must be achieved as far upwind of their potential target as possible to provide the time necessary to adopt an effective protective posture. a common figure of merit for sorting systems. Session 7 Performance analysis for stand-off biological warfare agent detection O. The requirements of the final threat identification system will dictate the form factor for the collected sample. Pletcher. F. and a networked interface to report the results. the fluorescence lidar was taken to US Army Dugway Proving Ground. Enrichment factors. Session 6 UK small scale UVLIF lidar for stand-off airborne BW detection K. For IBADS. 6739B-40. 6739B Optically Based Biological and Chemical Detection for Defence 6739B-34. sample processing and purification. MFSI is the prime contractor on two programs for the US Department of Homeland Security: BAND (Bioagent Autonomous Networked Detector) and IBADS (Instantaneous Bio-Aerosol Detection System). T. microfluidic platforms that interface front-end sampling devices.Conference 6739B: Optically Based Biological and Chemical Detection for Defence Tuesday 18 September 2007 Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. are developing an automated. the dry sample can be transferred into a small quantity of liquid. Steinvall. Keller. This well characterised cloud data from biological simulants and interferents has been utilised to train the discrimination algorithm and to assess the systems’ limit of detection and discrimination ability. K. Session 6 Recent Advances in the Development of a Novel Aerosol Sorting and Deposition System for Biothreat Sensing Applications T. through support from the U. Session 7 A study of aerosol particle sorting to provide enriched samples for improved bio-threat analysis J. The system also participated in trials held in the Standoff Ambient Breeze Tunnel (S-ABT) and the Joint Ambient Breeze tunnel (JABT) at Dugway Proving Ground. L. bioaerosol enrichment system designed for use as part of a biological-threat protection methodology. will be shown to be a poor indicator of performance unless standard operating conditions are used for comparison between different systems. In 2006.S. Defence Science and Technology Lab. Utah where it operated in trials specifically for stand-off detection systems for biological weapons. Department of Homeland Security. high throughput. 6739B-37. A. The active element is a solid state Nd:YAG laser the frequency of which is quadrupled to yield 266nm excitation of 9ns pulses with 40mJ energy. The goal of BAND is to develop an autonomous system for monitoring the air for known biological agents. and conveyed to a dual wavelength ultra-violet laser induced fluorescence (UVLIF) optical trigger used to discriminate potential threat particles from non-threat. sample purification. (USA) Sarnoff Corporation and the Naval Research Laboratory. A small-scale fluorescence lidar has been designed and constructed by Dstl. (USA) Dynamic sorting of threat particles from background clutter and dust prior to collection for analysis can provide substantially enriched samples with the advantages of greater analytical accuracy in shorter periods of time. A. V. and toxins.000 particles per second. This aerosol is then collimated into a narrow particle stream 6739B-41. (USA). Also. The effectiveness of the process is also strongly influenced by the operational conditions including threat and background loads. Fluorescence is collected from 300 to 500nm and is divided into 10 channels to enable discrimination between common fluorescent interferent aerosols and biosimulants. Kullander. Northrup. D. This will dictate if collection is to be done dry or into a liquid as well as the threat concentration and distribution on the final sample (e. Castle. • spieeurope@spieeurope. if desired. the introduction of a robust method for transferring deposited particulate into a 50ul liquid sample has been demonstrated. J. The UVLIF particle classification information then triggers an electrostatic deposition mechanism to deposit only those potential bio-threat particles onto a stainless steel substrate. the goal for the most recent development effort has been the integration and optimization of these technologies into a unit capable of producing highly enriched particulate samples from ambient air. microfluidic circuitry to process large to small liquid volumes for complex reagent metering. E. Microfluidic Systems (USA) Microfluidic Systems is focused on building autonomouslyoperating. MFSI is developing the confirmatory device which must verify the presence of a pathogen with 5 minutes of an air collector/trigger sounding an alarm. low-cost. capture and final threat identification subsystems operating in concert. and biological assay results from both BAND and IBADS will be presented. BioACE uses an airto-air concentrator to highly concentrate the ambient aerosol. Sivaprakasam. L. A system performance model will be presented along with analysis of the optical components and electronic signal processing needed for achieving high sample enrichment. 6739B-36. A. and toxins. Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden) Stand-off biological warfare agent detection has been identified as a promising technology to detect and classify a biological spie. Sarnoff • spie. Finally. McGinn. Non-threat particles are discarded with the exiting airflow. Jonsson. Eversole. T. S.

S. consisting of an array of 64 detectors of low cost smart architecture. Lagueux. identification and quantification of chemicals in the gaseous state are fundamental needs in several fields of applications. Telops has developed the FIRST.E.R. Additional required sensor characteristics include high sensitivity.A. Jennings. Vallières. ICx Mesosystems (USA) No abstract available 6739B-44. P. large format infrared imaging arrays. Liberatore. green and blue regions of the visible spectrum. Chamberland. but also one that provides a “Chemical Map” of the field of view. 6739B-57. Farley. A. O’Dowd.A. DeFreez.R. of Ireland/Galway (Ireland) No abstract available 6739B-42. low false alarms and high-speed (ideally realtime) operation. Hollow-fiber-based sensors in which a fiber acts both as a miniature gas cell with an optical path length of several meters.O. Session 8 Advanced applications to security of IR smart microbolometers C. Figure 1. Viola. to measure radiation emitted from a thermal source at a distance of a few tens meters. This instrument is based on a modular design that includes: a high performance infrared FPA and data acquisition electronics. N. M. and further.and super-micron counting capability R. depending on the specific design of the tag. Greaney. A new approach is required to provide a reliable. Session 7 LBAS: Low Cost Biological Aerosol Sensor R. • spieeurope@spieeurope. all in a compact and robust package. Consorzio C. It is this collective behave we hope to harness to increase the chemical sensitivity of the overall surface beyond that of a single tag. Just as a crystal’s behavior is not just a simple linear superposition of the individual behaviors of isolated single atoms. specific (response restricted to certain actinides and lanthanides) and low cost. I. Only with the recent emergence of high-speed. • spie. each coupled to its own narrow-band optical filter and focusing lens.S. W.O. the probability of correct detection and the false alarm rate as a function of range. Isoamethyrin is a synthetic porphyrin which has been demonstrated to show high selectivity for uranyl ions with an associated colour change on complexation. Inc. The thermal infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been utilized to implement such chemical sensors. Y. EvanesCo Ltd. and as a flexible optical coupler between the source and the multi-spectral detector will be analyzed. L. This paper is analyzing some lidar concepts with respect to the choice of laser source and receiver system and describes the dependence on weather and other atmospheric parameters. Fibre optic sensors are created by revealing an evanescent wave in a section of the fibre and covalently bonding the isoamethyrin to the fibre surface in this region. Neikirk. R. leading to a platform for use in vapor detection without the requirement of a preconcentrator. S. (Italy) Most of the sensors developed up to now for detecting the presence of toxic gases show the limit of a high rate of false alarm and the risk to be excited and alarmed by a wide and undetermined types of gases . with the goal of 32 spie. a high performance Fourier transform modulator. (Canada) Standoff detection. Possible applications and performances with future system evolution will be outlined. instrument. One of the most reliable technique is Spectroscopy especially in the IR field where most of the toxic gases ( natural or man made) have absorption lines: we developed a low cost. Session 8 Chemical agent detection and identification with a hyperspectral imaging infrared Sensor V. A. Fibre optic sensors provide the required speed of response. This paper describes the combination of a low cost sensor platform and smart sensor molecule (Isoamethyrin) for the selective determination of uranyl and other actinide species in water at sub ppm levels. C. National Univ. Sensors created in this manner were found to be fast responding (<5s). These structures can exhibit many of the properties o a crystals and waveguides and are quite similar to a variety of frequency selective surfaces and meta-materials currently under study. Some important receiver operating characteristics are the sensor response time. un-powered resonant chemical surveillance tags for sensitive detection of chemical vapors. Both elastic backscattering and fluorescence are treated. 6739B-58. used in combination with Telops’ proven radiometric and spectral calibration algorithms make this instrument a world-class passive standoff detection system for chemical imaging. enhancing the overall sensitivity of detection. as well as the temporal domain. J. D. Mengali. J. Giroux. sensitive (detection threshold <500ppb). has it been possible to design chemical sensors offering uncompromising performance in the spectral. The Univ. of Texas at Austin (USA) Detection of radiological hazards in the solution phase using conventional means is difficult and impractical. (Italy). P. J. Telops. (Italy). The system with a large area IR micro-emitter and with an IR FPAs large areas Smart Sensors will be presented and discussed.R. passively coupled. Tremlett. We are extending our work on single resonant rf (radio frequency) tags that have already demonstrated the ability to sense a variety of conditions. This paper presents chemical detection and identification results obtained with the FIRST sensor. J. specific and low cost method of protecting sensitive national assets such as water supplies from a terrorist dirty bomb attack. Colour changes occurring as a result of interaction between isoamethyrin and uranyl ions are monitored over 3 wavelength ranges covering the red. Session 8 Resonant chemical surveillance tags D. These devices are wirelessly interrogated using a wide range of radio frequencies. There is an important distinction between the behavior of a single resonant tag sensor and the behavior of a coupled array of resonant sub-elements. Sessler. We will also discuss a net of purely passive. Telops has developed an innovative instrument that can not only provide an early warning for chemical agents and toxic chemicals. Villemaire. Field-portable Imaging Radiometric Spectrometer Technology. A. Session 7 Construction of an optical particle counter with sub. Hayes. Improvements will be analyzed for open path sensors systems. the sensitivity. dual integrated radiometric calibration targets and a visible boresighted camera. resonant tags exhibiting collective phenomena forming a single sensing surface.R. either with spectrometers (with none or moderate imaging capability) or with imagers (with moderate spectral capability). assembled together in an environmentally robust structure. selfcontained . (Italy).S. onboard data processing electronics. Shaw. C. S.Conference 6739B: Optically Based Biological and Chemical Detection for Defence warfare agent containing cloud before it reaches the position of the lidar or a nearby lying area under protection. These modules. K. G. of Texas at Austin (USA) Results will be reported from efforts to develop a self-contained wireless. spatial.O. (United Kingdom). Corsi. multi-sensors integrated systems capable of detecting and identifying species of toxic gases . so to can the collective response of the net can be more than simple addition would suggest. Consorzio C.O. P. J. Session 8 Fibre optic system for detection of uranyl ions in the solution phase N. Consorzio C. O. while the main requirement for these alarm systems should be a low rate of false alarm and overall the capability of identifying the gas species to activate the necessary and urgent countermeasures. We have begun testing of a resonant chemi-tag coupled to a photodiode in contact with chemiluminescent reaction to provide the transduction path. These sensors are interrogated in a non-contact manner and rely on resonance to transmit information about the state of tag. Consorzio • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . Ryan.E. M. The Univ. 6739B-45. J. Park. Melfi. the optical platforms are mature and of relatively low cost with proven reliability in the field. To provide to best field imaging spectroscopy instrument.

The forward I-V characteristics and low reverse-bias voltage (up to -100V) I-V characteristics were measured. sensors. Biosensing with our new technology has been successfully implemented in order to create arrays of immunoglobulins aiming immuno detection. GaN and AlGaN APDs were fabricated into 30µm. F. Integration of all these functions will inherently lead to better cost/ performance ratios. This new technology produces radically new microarray sensing technology and photonics based watermarking technology by the combination of highest level knowledge on the effect of ultraviolet (UV) light on proteins and subsequent knowledge of the reaction between light activated molecules and surfaces. D. van Veen. Improved crystalline and structural quality for GaN and AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers were achieved by employing optimum growth parameters on low-dislocationdensity bulk GaN substrates in order to minimize the defect density in epitaxially grown materials. where the spatial dimensions of individual spots are defined by the area of the focal spot of light on the sensor surface. The use of thin film device technology allows for the fabrication of very thin sensors (e. since they can be fabricated with thin film technology. M. Sonnleitner. De Zwart. which has hampered the development of III-nitride based APDs. It opens the potential for the development of medically relevant multipotent arrays.and 50µm-diameter circular mesas. Y. TNO (Netherlands). Therefore we have developed an optical thin film sensor chip able to detect the decay of food through a specific colour change. all located in less than 1cm2 sensor surface. which can best be described as a thin film enhanced absorption. Skovsen. Houben. A metal cluster film positioned at a well defined distance to a smooth metal surface shows that the minimum of spectral reflectivity strongly depends on the thickness of the interlayer: This setup represents a special kind of reflection interference filter.75V. S. Allard. 6739B-50. Absorption and chemiluminescence readout data are presented that show the high sensitivity and dynamic range of the integrated photonics. Schoo. Zhang. M. This implies that flexibility and wearability of the systems is essential for their success. and interact over a network. Session 9 High-performance GaN and AlxGa1-xN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD on bulk III-N substrates R. E. GaN APDs with UV photocurrent gains \>104 have been demonstrated. Here we present the solution to this problem. Session 9 Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices M. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 33 . J. B. Duroux. Growth of AlxGa1-xN PIN structures with higher Al-content and APD device performance of will these devices be reported. λ < 290 nm. Füreder. integrated in food product packaging). The degradation of the polymer results in reduction of the film thickness and thus in a specific change of the color. L. D. Devices based on polymer semiconductors allow for these demands to be met. In this study. The pattern of immobilized molecules is not restricted to conventional array formats. Koetse. or may even be placed inside the body. 6739B-48. F. bioelectronic. 6739B-49. Session 9 Novel interference film sensor for meet degradation M. Duroux. N. H. A. J. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. Few micrometer spotsize allows for a virtually unlimited number of protein spots. For AlxGa1-xN APDs with higher Al-content. Neves-Petersen. Dupuis. E. G. For AlGaN APDs. often misused and reprinted to feed back old meat into the food supply chain. R. and intrinsically low-cost applications in disposable products. the avalanche gain reaches a maximum value of ~50 at a voltage of 86. A. E.Conference 6739B: Optically Based Biological and Chemical Detection for Defence 6739B-46. the crack-free growth of thick AlxGa1-xN on a bulk GaN substrate has been investigated by employing various strain management layers. each single component is created with a different fabrication technology and therefore the necessary integration of whole readout systems onto a chip is nearly impossible from the technological point of view and also too costly to be commercially viable. no one has been able to create a workable solution to date. (Denmark) Photonic induced immobilisation is a novel technology that results in spatially oriented and localised covalent coupling of biomolecules onto surfaces (industrially and biomedically relevant proteins). We have written complex protein patterns using bitmaps at high resolution onto substrates. Pittner. large area/distributed sensors. and has clear potential for biomedical. There have been multiple academic approaches that integrate optical components like light-sources. van Heck. Arrays of bio-molecules have been created with a high degree of reproducibility. R. breakdown before the electric field reaches the level of the bulk avalanche breakdown field. Petersen. R. TNO Science and Industry (Netherlands). J. P.g. NANOIDENT Technologies AG (Austria) It has been long recognized that the integration of optical readout technology directly onto a chip would rapidly promote the use of lab-on-a-chip technology. P. The growth of GaN-based heteroepitaxial layers on lattice-mismatched substrates such as sapphire and SiC. F. However the documentation completely relies on printed labels. Sharpe. be worn on the skin. B. security markers production. Yoo. However. Ibrisimovic. In such a sensor setup we have integrated a biodegradable polymer which is degraded by the same enzymes and at the same rate as food decay will happen. which for a diffraction limited beam can be less than 1micrometer in diameter. M. T. Enting. Shen. The novel concept allows for the first time to integrate complete illumination and detection capabilities onto microfluidic-based devices. Bauer. preserving their functional properties. In order to restore customer satisfaction the food supply chains have been made transparent from manufacturing level to the end customer. • spieeurope@spieeurope. However. surface chemistry. thereby causing device failure by premature microplasma spie. Vienna Univ. The design of the sensor relates to the phenomenon of “anomalous absorption”. NANOIDENT can print optical readout capabilities directly onto lab-on-chip platforms. process and store data. Session 9 New photonic molecular immobilization technology and its use for nanolabeling. optical filters or lenses onto a single chip. Georgia Institute of Technology (USA) Wide-bandgap GaN-based avalanche photodetectors (APDs) are important for photodetectors operating in the solar-blind UV spectral region. B. we investigate the growth and characterization of GaN and AlGaNbased APDs on GaN substrates. Yoder. Rensing. a high density of defects is introduced. nanotechnology and therapeutical applications (bioactive carrier nanoparticles). M. Pieler. M. In many cases these sensors will be integrated in • spie. Ryou. TNO (Netherlands) Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. ultrasensitive microarray sensing technology and new biomarkers discovery S. With thin film device technology a high level of integration can be achieved with parts that analyse signals. (Austria) Customer Satisfaction has globally deteriorated through multiple meat scandals. flexible or bendable sensors in wearables. Given that suitable protein markers exists for all relevant diseases it is entirely feasible to test for a range of disease indicators in a single test. A. especially if printing and other standard polymer technology such as high precision moulding is applied for the fabrication. The reaction mechanism behind the reported new technology involves light induced breakage of disulphide bridges in proteins upon UV illumination of nearby aromatic amino acids. Epitaxial layers of GaN and AlGaN p-i-n ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes on GaN substrates were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The ultimate size of the immobilized spots is defined by the focal area of the UV beam. J. S. Limb. Aalborg Univ. Session 8 Printed photonics for lab-on-chip applications R. 6739B-47. C. D.

These molecules were deposited on samples coming from the Parisian subway. The microtubes were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Applications for these novel microresonators will be in the area of optical microsensors for a single molecule detection of biological and chemical species. including anti-terrorism and defense sectors. Detection sensitivity and molecule discrimination are studied. These microtubes show a large evanescent field extending many microns beyond the tube radius. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is measured by CRDS in the ppb range with a very compact device developed by the University of Grenoble. Romanini. Finally. The Univ. Triki. Session 9 Combination of a Biological sensor using light emitting bacteria and a UV Spectrometer probe for Homeland Security and Drinking Water Safety J. D. efforts are made to develop rugged and compact experimental designs that can be used for field • spie. microphotoluminescence spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging confocal microscopy. Poster Session Chemical warfare and industrial agents detection and identification by LIBS and CRDS A. But still no universal monitor is available which protects against all kinds of threats and a combination of systems and techniques is required if all criteria are to be met. M. and well adapted to detect small gaseous molecules. Poster Session New optical cylindrical microresonators Y. photodiodes and selective medium chip.V. W. which is an organic molecule containing a few non-metallic • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . fabrication technology and integration of the thin film devices. These may include industrial toxic compounds. are integrated with classic electronic components. The free-standing microtubes were fabricated by using vacuum-assisted wetting and filtration of silica gel through a microchannel glass matrix. Detection experiments of sarin-like molecules characterized by phosphorus and fluorine atoms with an elemental ratio equal to one will be presented.Conference 6739B: Optically Based Biological and Chemical Detection for Defence In this paper we present an optical transmission sensor array based on polymer semiconductor devices made by thin film technology. This combination allows verification of alarm signals from one instrument with the signal of others reducing false alarm rates. Therefore the interest in the last years in on-line Biomonitors has increased significantly. Gun’ko. of Dublin. Chenevier. Measurements will be presented. flexible reflection mode sensor based on the same building blocks. This can not be realised with the use of a single monitor. However. 34 spie. (Netherlands) Analytical Monitoring systems can only cover a part of the range of potential contamination in water. This has resulted in the introduction of new Biomonitors which can provide a (near) real-time information on water quality. using an HF permeation oven. and in a field experiment. light emitting diodes. an analytical sensor (a submersible UV-VIS spectrophotometer probe) will be combined and a software tool will help the user to make better judgements and give more insight information to make decisions. K. This technique is now being adapted to detect and measure a surface contaminated with a chemical warfare agent. such as hydrogen fluoride. Cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) or cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) are optical absorption based technique. Joseph Fourier (France) The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is developing optically based techniques to detect and identify chemical • spieeurope@spieeurope. 6739B-53. Debecker. M. will be presented 6739B-52. we show the first results of the development of an ultra thin. with rapid response time. Univ. near an HF outgassing plant. The organic devices. In the emission spectra of the micro-resonators we find very narrow periodic peaks corresponding to the whispering gallery modes of two orthogonal polarizations with quality factors up to 3200. After a study it was concluded that both the UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the Toxicity Biomonitor are valuable sensors in an Water Security Monitoring System. Together they form a versatile sensor platform that allows for the quantitative measurement of 100 channels and communicates wireless with a computer. 6739B-51. In parallel. which may also be used by terrorist groups. I. the combination of complementary systems into a single integrated monitoring platform will greatly enhance the applicability of real time monitoring devices for water quality monitoring. Pailloux. Appels. both in a laboratory experiment. capable of detection a broad range of contaminants at low concentrations. Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (France). The emphasis is on the sensor principle. Results of both lab and field tests for Homeland Security and Drinking Water Safety monitoring. They can also be used for drinking water protection against Intential Contamination. microLAN B. a biological toxicity monitor (using luminescence bacteria) with the S::CAN spectro::lyserTM. For this the TOXcontrol. Laser Induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a surface analysis determining the elemental composition of the sample without any preparation and contact. the design. Trinity College (Ireland) In this work we describe a novel technique for the production of aluminosilicate microtubes which are shown to act as optical cylindrical microresonators. sensitive. A strong enhancement in photoluminescence decay rates at high excitation power demonstrates the occurrence of amplified spontaneous emission from a single microtube.

Niziol. this dimensionality character and its benefit is partly lost because of usually observed randomization of polymer chains orientation. such materials could address various applications for optical limiting (OL). OL has been investigated in a number of materials with distinct nonlinear mechanisms. Pawlik. 3D lithographic microfabrication. Fetterman. In this wavelengths range. Ecole normale supérieure de Lyon (France). Armatys. Pawlik. Recently [2]. Mitus. Kajzar. Sekkat and W. Quantum Opt. Krupka. Bouit. the ordering of polymer chains is very important. photodynamic cancer therapy and optical limiting). B. dipolar and symmetrical dyes with a strong linear absorption in the NIR (700-900 nm) will be described. Session 1 Tailored molecular systems for efficient thin films second harmonic generation R. 6740-05. Session 1 Broadband optical limiting of covalently fullerene-functionalized carbon nanotubes • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 35 . Kajzar. cubic chi(3) susceptibility. Nonlinear Opt. Wetzel. Murgia. 21 (2006). d’Angers (France) No abstract available 6740-06. 35. Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (France) Quasi 1-D conjugated pi electron polymers emerged as an interesting class of nonlinear optical materials with potential applications in all optical signal processing. L. The rapid development of frequency-tunable pulsed lasers up to telecommunication wavelengths (1400-1600 nm) led to the design of new materials for nonlinear absorption in the NIR region. It is applied for several soluble conjugated polymers such as: poly(3-alkyl thiophenes). P. Kim. Riehl. P. such as gain equalization of Erbium amplifier for telecommunication systems. G. Kajzar. A. C. • spie. Bortnik. Seo. 6740-04. Delaire. electronic in origin. Univ. Y. P. I. B. of California/Los Angeles (USA) No abstract available 6740-03. Humeau. Oligomers of fluorene are of great interest for the design of molecules with enhanced TPA cross-sections in the visible. J. involved in a lot of applications (three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence imaging.). Session 1 New electrooptic polymer configurations for high frequency modulators and digital signal processing applications H. Bretonnière. The unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them very attractive for use in these devices because of spie. An analysis of non-gaussian motion of polymeric chains is presented. Univ. This is arising from the strong pi electron delocalization. [2] G. D. T. Girardot. J. leading a large molecular hyperpolarizabilty gamma xxxx in the electron delocalization direction xxxx and depends strongly on the conjugation length. Session 1 Nonlinear absorption by two-photon absorption in the visible and at telecommunication wavelengths C. However when passing from the molecular to macroscopic level. J. Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland). The degree of orientation was measured by the optical dichroism and their NLO properties were studied by optical third harmonic generation and by the z-scan techniques. C. They are characterized by a large and fast. Univ. Doris. O. Their high TPA efficiency may be interpreted in terms of coherent coupling of transition dipole moments in oligomers. Thales Research & Technology (France) The two-photon absorption (TPA) process. Rãu. Andraud. Piret. Preliminary simulations [2] show that mass transport takes place from illuminated to dark places. Feneyrou. Univ. P. interestingly. the two-photon excitation of the 3MLCT opens the way to a wide range of applications in the near infrared (NIR). Delegation Generale Pour L’Armament (France). In this spectral range. Luc. similarly as in the process of SRG formation in organic systems. These chromophores present nonlinear absorption properties in the range 1400-1600 nm. E. A. Kajzar. K. Bark. we have proposed a simple kinetic Monte Carlo model which mimics some of experimentally known features of mass transport accompanying multiple photoisomerization trans-cis cycles under spatially inhomogeneous light illumination. has been the subject of growing interest in recent years. Univ. B. Cao. POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest (Romania). as the improvement factor may reach value of 5 when passing from a completely disordered (isotropic) system to a monooriented one. We extend the model to account for the effects of light polarization. which. allows to obtain partly oriented thin films. Caria. J. Lemercier. Sahraoui. Maury. Knoll (Eds. Session 1 Engineering and performances of pi conjugated polymers for all optical switching applications I. A. R. 3D optical data storage. d’Angers (France). vol. Joseph Fourier (France). Riehl. Photoreactive Organic Thin Films. depending on deposition conditions. Mitus. B. S. Academic Press (2002). P. Miniewicz. Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (France) The need for passive optical limiters to protect human eyes and sensors from intense laser beams has given rise to the development of optical limiting (OL) devices. 2D and 3D dendrimeric polyfluorene derivatives will be also presented and 6740-08.Conference 6740: Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology Monday-Tuesday 17-18 September 2007 Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. Cao. protection of monostatic LIDAR (light detection and ranging) detectors against intense retro-reflection / backscattering (in addition to or replacement of detector gating) and protection of active imagery systems against laser threat. Baldeck. Zamboni. In this talk we will discuss the techniques which lead to obtaining thin films with oriented polymer chains. Therefore. which will be interpreted on the basis of TPA and TPA induced excited state absorption. F. F. A. Session 1 Rotational contribution to cubic susceptibility of rotaxanes and catenanes in solution F. Session 1 Model kinetics of surface relief gratings formation in organic thin films: a Monte Carlo study A. C. POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest (Romania). Barsu. Czaplicki. F. Chollet. For some of them the figures of merit for all optical switching applications were derived. S. Restricted geometry effects are briefly discussed in light of recent experiments on organometallic Rhutenium complexes. Ecole normale supérieure de Cachan (France). National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan). Univ. R. Delegation Generale Pour L’Armament (France). d’Angers (France) The semi-macroscopic mechanisms responsible for the surface relief gratings (SRG) formation on azobenzene-containing films are far from deep understanding [1]. Kamada. These materials were processed into thin films by solution drawing technique. Sahraoui. K. their TPA properties will be interpreted using theoretical calculations. C. A. d’Angers (France). in order to increase the material performances. G. polyaniline and a soluble form of poly(phenyl vinylene). M. D. B. We will present the effect of coordination for twophoton absorption and optical limiting properties in new Ru and Zn (II) complexes based on oligofluorenes .org/esd • spieeurope@spieeurope. Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (Italy) No abstract available 6740-02. Rãu. 6740 Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology IV 6740-01. O. [1] Z. This model relates the mass transport with a specific reaction of polymeric chains to mechanical forces originated by photoisomerization cycles.

During the past few years. possibly due to an electron transfer effect. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute (Russia) Investigation of electronic kinetic processes in solid state material and especially in semiconductors has great importance because it provides information about the main fundamental characteristics of the material such as energy level structure. Further studies for better understanding of the CNT-C60 interactions in this new OL material by using other optical spectroscopy techniques such as Raman and pump probe are still under investigation. POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest (Romania). B. G. Session 2 Bio-organic materials for electronic and photonic applications J. Univ. J. Steckl. High-resistance wide-gap materials. (USA) No abstract available 6740-16. Univ. and in exciton absorption region with energy of a maximum 2. Grote. investigation. and in the region hv>Eg . Utilization of conventional methods for the characterization of material parameters. Session 2 Biopolymer photonics F. Univ. which also is increased with rise of level excitation. Session 2 Learning from Mother Nature: DNA and other natural materials for biophotonics A.960/1. Session 1 Space-and-time current spectroscopy of widegap semiconductors I. Univ. Grote. GaN nanoparticles in porous glasses. including Poynting vector directions. The second one uses the effect of nonsteady-state photoelectromotive force (photo-EMF). such as photorefractive sillenites.F. d’Angers (France). is difficult due to the influence of the internal space-charge field on the results of the measurement. A space charge field grating arises. of Cincinnati (USA) No abstract available 6740-12. Nonlinear transmittance measurements in the visible-NIR region were carried out using a nanosecond optical parametric oscillator. 6740-13. Session 1 Anisotropy of photoconductivity and nonlinear effect in GaSe M. the manipulation and processing of CNTs have been limited by their insolubility in most common solvents. Tufts Univ. However. Session 1 Cubic effects in doped DNA systems F. Moghaddam Saray. while the modified fullerenes show poorer OL responses. Rãu. in providing walk-off compensation design data. The objective of this study was to investigate the OL properties of some covalently fullerene-functionalized single-walled CNTs suspended in chloroform. E. It is shown. At E || c the considerable photoconductivity is observed only in the region impurity absorption. boron nitride (BN). A. it was shown that the performances of CNTs can be significantly improved by the attachment of organic and organometallic molecules which rely on reverse saturable absorption (RSA). Lee. And at hv<Eg the photoconductivity as in impurity absorption region with energy of a maximum 1. Meissner. The model is validated experimentally by measuring the calculated walk-off angles and the crystal orientation of KTP that correlates to the given Poynting vector. It is supposed. specific properties of charge carriers. that suppression of photoconductivity in the exiton absorption at high levels of excitation is connected with exiton_exciton interaction. (Iran) In work are investigated particularities of photoelectric properties of GaSe monocrystals in the region of absorption edge at various configurations of current contacts at low and high optical excitation levels. The method is useful in reducing uncertainties of OPO designs. polypyrrole nanostructures in chrysotile asbestos matrix are used in the experiments. relative walk-off angles and polarization states in a biaxial nonlinear single crystal with known refractive index dispersion. Diffusion of the photo-excited carriers towards the dark regions leads to charge redistribution between deep traps in the photoconductor. • spie. Bryushinin. Air Force Research Lab. The first one is based on the recording of the dynamic holographic gratings in photorefractive crystals. Omenetto. several functionalization strategies have been proposed in order to overcome the poor solubility without disrupting the physical properties of the nanotubes themselves. The dynamics of spacecharge fields in wide-gap high-resistive materials is very slow (the Maxwell relaxation time is inversely proportional to the conductivity of the material).0 eV are observed. At E&#61534. Air Force Research Lab. parametrically interacting beam wavelengths. A. Krupka.975 eV. The model optimizes phase matching conditions by providing a strategy for walk-off compensation that determines the optimum periodicity of twisttwin Adhesive-Free Bond (AFB(r)) composite pair designs. Small vibrations of the light pattern excite an alternating current through the crystal. Derkowska. Sokolov. There are two modern techniques for wide-gap materials 6740-15. With rise of level excitation is observed suppressions of photoconductivity in the exciton absorption region and increasing in impurity absorption • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . and in confirming the final walk-off corrected design configuration. Illumination of wide-gap semiconductor by an interference pattern produces a non-uniform excitation of free carriers (photoconductivity grating). A. photoconductivity of the material. 6740-09. etc. B. that the form of a spectrum of photoconductivity in the region of absorption edge is determined by two factors: by localization electronic and exciton states along c-axis. (USA) A comprehensive model has been developed to construct phase matching conditions. J. The OL performance of functionalized CNTs was found better than that of their parent nanotubes alone. relaxation processes.of such measurements.Conference 6740: Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology their broadband performance in the visible and NIR region. A. that the localization of electronic state and excitons in the field of one_dimensional fluctuation potential along c_axis results to an anisotropy of spectrum of photoconductivity at various configurations of current contacts. d’Angers (France). 6740-11. due to presence defects of packing and nonlinear light absorption at high excitation levels in the exciton absorption region. These parameters can be measured both using electrical and optical methods. A. (USA) No abstract available 6740-14. It is established. Kajzar. Mikolaja Kopernika (Poland). which results in a nonlinear light absorption. A.c the photoconductivity is observed as in the region hv<Eg . volume charge distribution. (USA) No abstract available 36 spie. Session 1 Walk-off correction in biaxial crystals H. d’Angers (France). Recently. Islamic Azad Univ. for example. J. O. It is generally applicable to biaxial and uniaxial nonlinear crystals. The mechanism responsible for the effect can be described as follows. The latter are preferable because they allow nondestructive testing of materials to be carried out. Karimi. I. molecular crystal SnS2. Univ. H. El-Ghayoury. We demonstrate that the functionalization of the CNTs significantly improve their OL properties of the carbon nonotubes. • spieeurope@spieeurope. Fermi surface shape. Onyx Optics Inc. M.

Beside its favorable infrared transparency (2 µm-12 µm). and high speed modulation [2]. and AlGaInAs/AlInAs which requires the growth of 41 pairs for R=99. and Kurokawa T. In the past few years. J. We proposed an approach which consists in growing orientation-patterned thick layers by Hydride Vapour Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) compatible with freespace beam propagation. of Sheffield (United Kingdom) We report studies of wet etching using a range of etchants on InAs photodiodes used for detection of midwave infrared wavelengths up to 3. Univ. C. H. Kawakami T. Finally. The tunability is achieved with an integrated thermoelectric device and multiple lasers on a single backplane. Etch rates and surface profiles obtained in this work can be used for fabrication of InAs midwave infrared focal plane array. Thales Research & Technology (France) The improvement of tunable laser sources in the mid-infrared region (MIR) appears nowadays as one of the ways to address several defence optronics applications. P. we report the design. These structures suffer from interface roughness near the top layers and from thickness variations of greater than ten percent. Session 3 Tunable wavelength VCSEL quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensors in the 3-6 micron spectral region A. E. threshold current density and external quantum efficiency. such as high nonlinear coefficient and thermal conductivity. The most commonly used material systems for the Distibuted Bragg Reflectors (DBR) are GaInAs/InP which requires the growth of 50 layer pairs to achieve a reflectivity of 99. Techn. References [1] Tadokoro T. Surface profile analysis on all samples showed that higher etching rates were obtained in the direction parallel to the <100\> direction. Higher refractive index contract DBRs reported with fewer mirror pairs are based on the AlGaAsSb/AlAsSb material system [9. and comparison with experimental results. which potentially makes it a good candidate for high average power MIR applications. Lett. The theoretical investigation of the optical properties of the compound semiconductor alloys allows it to select the optimum materials for highly reflective Bragg mirrors. Lett. nonlinear optical materials play a key role as they permit the frequency down-conversion of mature near-infrared solid-state lasers into the desired longer wavelengths. Koch T. gain and external quantum efficiency calculations for the VCSEL structure designed. HCl. The Univ. H. Tell B. Session 3 The effects of monolayer thickness and sheet doping density on dark current and noise current in quantum dot infrared photodetectors C. Lallier. The Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). on top of an Orientation Patterned template (OP-GaAs). Jewell J. Kohl A. Tan. Current-voltage measurements and analysis using scanning electron microscope were carried out to assess the electrical characteristics and surface profiles of the photodiodes. This loss coefficient is low enough to allow the realization of a high power OPO in the MIR band. Growth 175 372-376 6740-20. and to achieve improved performance. The device is based on III-V quaternary semiconductor alloys and is grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy technique. Gerard. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 37 . Dawtson L. We will present results obtained in growing thick-layer (500 µm) on 3 cm long structures with very low optical losses (0. Techn. 1992 IEEE Photon. Burrus C. Tan. high coupling efficiencies into optical fiber [1].Conference 6740: Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology 6740-18. single mode operation. 1995 Electron. Lett. Cryst. This paper will review the recent progresses we achieved with thick OP-GaAs structures. However this surface leakage current was drastically reduced (by ~2 orders of magnitude) when a two steps etching. • spieeurope@spieeurope. However. The development of vertical cavity lasers at 3?m has been centered on the investigation of structures and materials for highly reflective Bragg mirrors grown on InP. Session 3 Fabrication of midwave infrared InAs photodiodes with reduced surface leakage current C. Zhang. This technique exhibits numerous advantages.9% [8]. these structures are easily degraded and are usually difficult to grow [4]. The surface leakage current is highest in devices etched with phosphoric acid based etchant. The authors present the design and performance of a low threshold selectively oxidized Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) fabricated for operation at a wavelength of 3. 1991 IEEE Photon. Lee Y. NO etc) as well as triatomic molecules have absorption bands in the 3-20 micron range. B. The main obstacle to develop GaAs for nonlinear devices is still to find a practical method of periodically patterning the material in order to fulfill QPM requirements. starting with a phosphoric based etchant and finishing off with a sulphuric based etchant. 1997 J. GaAs has also a combination of properties. A. Comprehensive investigation of the dielectric constants and energy band gaps of quaternary semiconductor alloys have been utilized to optimize the structure of the vertical cavity surface emitting laser. M. University of Sheffield (United Kingdom). spie. Fritz I. However this preferential etching rate can be removed by using a 45o wafer rotation with respect to the <100\> direction. thus showing the need for very thick structures to obtain high reflectivity Bragg mirrors. 6740-22. P.01 cm-1). Kohama Y. and Leibenguth.6µm. Faye. 31(15) 1247-1248 [4] Harmand J.10]. and Le Roux G. Souye.0 microns. we have been developing a new technology of Quasi-Phase-Matched (QPM) nonlinear devices based on Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) materials. The study also includes threshold current. fabrication and performance of a tunable VCSEL which can emit within the desired wavelength region of interest for both differential lidar and other detection methods. Okamoto H. and Drummond T. L. T. the device lengths can be extended up to wafer size (2 or 3 inches diameter) without difficulty and many devices with different gratings can easily be fabricated in parallel. 4(5) 409-411 [2] Choa F. First. The differential absorption lidar technique allows for the detection of low concentration of molecules in the atmosphere. High sensitive chemical sensors rely on the resonant absorption of infrared radiation (3-20 microns) of the gas molecules within a contained optical ring. C. of Maryland/College Park (USA) Abstract. In this paper. We present a design which integrates a thermoelectric controller and multi-section lasers to provide continuous tenability. Since few direct lasers exist in the 3-12 µm part of the infrared spectrum. Vines. was used. 6740-23. hydrobromic acid and acetic acid based etchants were found to yield high surface leakage currents while a sulphuric acid based etchant provide the lowest surface leakage current.9% [3]. Juhel M. • spie. benefiting from the GaAs mature processing technologies. GaAs is also a mature material produced in high volume for a wide range of commercial applications. Furthermore. Phosphoric acid. 3 697-699 [3] Blum O. the template pattern dimensions can be set using photolithography with a large versatility. growth rates up to at least 30 µm/h are achievable by our HVPE process with film properties close to those of bulk material. Those devices exhibit such advantages as low threshold currents. Session 3 Thick orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OP-GaAs) for mid-infrared laser sources D. These Bragg mirrors use only 20 pairs of alternating AlGaAsSb/AlAsSb layers to obtain reflectivity of 99%. Many diatomic molecules (CO. The simulation of the designed VCSEL performance has been carried out by evaluation of the important laser characteristics such as threshold gain. Compound semiconductor based long wavelength surface emitting lasers are becoming important light sources for large capacity optical communications and optical interconnection systems.

M. 6740-26.1010cm-2.55ML and sheet doping density of 6&#61620. Sci. A. Wilson. in the middle of the chain (ATP3).D. all thiophenyl derivatives showed large intersystem crossing capabilities and triplet phosphorescence. Bruno.Ti) are suitable for matrix of solid state tunable laser media for ecology monitoring. Shterengas.1010cm-2. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). the sample temperature at t0(P) . All investigated compounds show OPL clamping levels of approximately 3 uJ pulse energy in 30 mM concentration samples. D. Donetsky.55ML and sheet doping density of 6&#61620. Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Univ. S. ATP6 and ATP7 were studied. Kisin. negligible weight losses due to evaporation. Shterengas. but with methoxy groups on the arylalkynyl ligands. Univ. Martinelli “Design of high-power room-temperature continuous-wave GaSbbased type-I quantum-well lasers with λ\>2. and OPL performance. Belenky. All compounds have high transmission in the visible region (above 450 nm) and fluorescence quantum yields in the order of 0. Poster Session Photo-physical properties and OPL of novel thiophenyl containing arylalkynyl Pt(II) compounds E.J. Semicond. The maximum continuous-wave (CW) room temperature output powers for 2. Appl. The Univ. Carlsson. 6740-25. excited state emission lifetimes (fluorescence and phosphorescence). Highest gain was achieved in devices with 2. Ga and In have been studied. Donetsky. David. In the second stage the conditions for growth of single crystals from solid solutions in different levels of Al3+ replaced by Sc. M. NY 11974-2350 1) Power Photonic Corporation.8In0. Ivanova. Lett. Me =Sc. Luryi.]. Technol. Belenky.9ML) and quantum dot layer sheet doping densities (6&#61620. as a base for further detailed study of their properties and possible applications. respectively. The main purpose of the presented investigation has been to clarify the conditions of growth of single crystals by the mentioned solid solutions. B. (Norway). 655 (2004). F. Shterengas. Peshev. a peak power of 2. 2. L.5 Na2O-72. The structure of the single crystals by the obtained solid solutions has been proved to be as Sc2(WO4)3-type structure and the exact chemical composition has been determined by EPMA analyses. ATP6 is similar to ATP4.L. Belenky. the oxide layer thickness at t1(P). G. Towner. M. In the first stage the 27. S Suchalkin and M. IEEE Photon. 90. S. West Univ. 19. as a new tunable laser media D. 011119 (2007). We will discuss a novel ultra-wide.Conference 6740: Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology P. thus having the potential of large nonlinear absorption and good OPL performance. (USA) G.01. Tech. of Sheffield (United Kingdom) We report measurements on a series of quantum dot infrared photodetectors grown with different combinations of monolayer thicknesses (2. 1.2Sb/GaSb heterostructures [4].7µm and 2 W at 2. P. Kisin “High power 2. Y. M.U. 6740-19. D. J.1010cm-2 and 12&#61620.5µm”.org/ers • spie. and R. L. Session 3 Simulation of a small Si plate oxidation in a cwCO2 lase light S.5. layers of thickness below 10 nm grow during the transition period. 2. R. Stony Brook. Al2-X MeX (WO4)3 compounds in which Al3+ could be relatively easy replaced by Me3+ ions of 3d-elements (Cr. two-photon absorption capabilities.5 % will be presented and discussed [2.5WO3 solvent was established as the most suitable for single crystals growing by flux method. Suchalkin. (Norway) The multi-photon absorption and optical power limiting (OPL) properties of several new thiophenyl-containing arylalkynyl Pt(II) complexes with longer arylalkynyl groups. 6740-24. 2. Nikiolov. Balint. Kim. Shterengas. Tober . The characteristics of the double-quantum-well GaSb-based diode laser operating at 2. t0(P) at which the first oxide layer of 1 nm is accomplished. Hopkinson. 19.G.55 and 2. L. voltage-tunable Type-II midIR interband cascade laser based on InAs/Ga0. of Timisoara (Romania) In the spot of cwCO2 laser of power P the temperature of a small bare Si plate increases from T’=300K to an equilibrium temperature T0(P).8-µm lasers [1]. This combination gives a sheet doping density to dot density ratio of approximately unity. 38 spie.1010cm-2). Kisin 1) State University of New York at Stony Brook. Just as PE3. Poster Session Al2-X MeX (WO4)3 single crystal growth. Balint. low viscosity.5 W was recorded in the pulsed mode operation for 2. (Sweden).4µm heavily strained Type-I quantum well GaSb-based diode lasers with more than 1W of continuous wave output power and a maximum power conversion efficiency of 17. 500mW and 160mW. The measurement results were compared with those of the earlier studied PE3 compound. Computation shows that for P bigger than a critical value. The compounds have their thiophene rings either close to the Pt-atom (ATP7). or at the terminal position (ATP4). 2. R. Stony Brook. ATP4. Lett. fluorescence quantum • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . 3. Aivaliotis. D. S. named ATP3. J.L. G. Umeå Univ.V. Its main advantages are: wide concentration range of crystallization. The moment of time t1(P) at which T0(P) is achieved. • spieeurope@spieeurope. Stony Brook Univ. Belenky. The dark current and noise current were higher in devices grown with sheet doping density of 12&#61620. M. L. G. Donetsky. Szabo. Kisin. Gain extracted from noise current showed that it varies reasonably linearly with electric field suggesting that the gain mechanism is photoconductive. All compounds are characterized with absorption and emission spectra.µ m diode at pulsed-current mode demonstrates an output power of 5 W at 20oC. quick homogenization. Lindgren. for dry and wet oxidation and for <100\> and <111\> oriented samples. wide temperature range.4 µm with a room-temperature CW output power of 1050 mW and a maximum power-conversion efficiency of 17. L.5%”. M. 360 (2007). Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Univ. V. V. Belenky . Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (USA) The rapid detection of chemical and biological agents in the air is an important task for the today’s security and defence. Solid state tunable lasers are one of the main instruments for such kind of detection. R. the oxide layer growth speed at t0(P) and t1(P) are computed. L. Poster Session Advances in mid-infrared GaSb-based lasers G. Thiophene units were introduced into the structure as an attempt to modify photo-physical properties and OPL capability. Eliasson. Y. “High-speed wavelength tuning of Mid-IR cascade lasers”. V.L. Ga and In.1010cm-2. Suchalkin.8µm devices were 1W.7 and 2. P. Besides the synthesis of new laser media with broad band laser emission is an extremely important task. M. Some preliminary optical characteristics were measured and discussed. Glimsdal.2. At a given bias voltage the dark current and the noise current was found to be lowest in devices having 2. NY 11790 The latest achievements in design and performance of GaSb based interband lasers will be discussed.

6741-01. SHA-1. We refer to an L-PSK (L-ary Phase Shift Keying) constellation for every sub-band. while much work has been done to classify the performance of the technology. as an instance).Conference 6741: Optics and Photonics for Counter-Terrorism and Crime-Fighting Wednesday 19 September 2007 Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. However. The fifth scenario will concentrate on the development. However. meaning subjects are likely to be concentrating harder on performing well. various remote detection devices and intruder detection devices are used. With the first four i-LIDS scenarios completed. The operator then responds to this threat. At night and under difficult metrological conditions (fog. it is proposed to record the suspected • spie. identification can be done with the higher uncertainty. By defining a requirement for multiple camera tracking and spie. e. In the last situation the information bits could contain biometric data (like a digital signature. while the remaining M . we are looking toward the future of intelligent vision in the security market by adding a fifth scenario to the standard. night) and presence of disturbing elements in the atmosphere (fog. snow) image recognition and. independently of changing the conditions of object illumination (day. Rutyna. Previous work on CCTV operator performance has been carried out by the Home Office Scientific Development Branch (HOSDB). A. The other scenario is even more complex.UK government requirements: Home Office Scientific Development Branch. rain.g. Univ. The main issues related to wireless communication can be identified in: dataintegrity. which have been used to procure a prototype. An innovative modulation and encoding scheme based both on PH-OFDM (Phase Hopping . or in the access to reserved areas. 6741 Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism and Crime Fighting III 6741-37. user authentication. M of the N OFDM carriers are spent for transmitting the data using the Phase Hopping. a threat target image is superimposed over the image of the baggage being screened. is taken into account by protecting both data and the hash bits by FEC (Forward Error Correction) techniques.Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation and on encrypted hash algorithm (such as MD2. At random • spieeurope@spieeurope. Recognition of a person image using the above mentioned detection devices is difficult and his identification almost impossible. industrial objects (atomic power stations. and the like). boundaries. To compensate for this drawback. The operators’ performance will largely determine the level of service provided by the system. highly sensitive optoelectronic system of image registration for its further recognition and identification. They are the link between the system technology and its effective use. detected with radar or thermal camera. The HOSDB and the Security Service identified a need to be able to track targets site-wide using both live and post event imagery. Using this OR the i-LIDS team will develop a full i-LIDS dataset to aid the machine vision community in its development of multiple camera tracking systems. what is more. methods of scene visualization its application possibilities in save and security systems and results of computer modeling of image acquisition. Piszczek. K. A similar system could be used for CCTV operators. Threat Image Projection (TIP) is routinely used in X-Ray baggage scanners to keep operators alert to possible threats. 6741-39. snow) appearing between an object and observation system. by means of multifunctional. The proposed observation system give possibility good quality images. This paper details the requirements for such a system. The paper will be presents idea of active observational system. since apart from the effect of the channel. signal alteration introduced by the communication channel. SHA-384 and SHA-512) is presented. this is frequently the case. networks or databases. of London (United Kingdom) No abstract available 6741-38. degli Studi di Roma Tre (Italy) In recent years wireless technology has become widespread in the design of telecommunications systems. The Detection and Vision Systems group were asked to determine the current state of the market and develop an indepth Operational Requirement (OR) based on government end user requirements.N are used to carry the hashed version of the information availing of a standard OFDM modulation. In the first scenario. testing and evaluation of systems for tracking of people across multiple cameras. P. Poster Session Secure OFDM communications based on hashing algorithms D. D. The proposed systems can be adopted either for a point-topoint data exchange. These are bolometric (uncooled) thermal cameras of middle range of observation and detection (1-2 km) or far-range cameras (6-8 km). Thomas. Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna (Poland) In the systems used for protection of large objects such as airports. MD5. Hosmer. Poster Session Imaging of space with impulse illumination of scenes M. M. and the hash of this data should also be stored in a unit dedicated to the authentication stage. Gong. A threat image would be randomly superimposed over the live CCTV feed and the operator would be expected to respond to this. Session 1 Threat image projection in CCTV N. and privacy of the communications. UK Abstract The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) is the Governments new standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). To solve the above mentioned tasks. providing performance improvement. Session 1 TBA No abstract available 6741-04. B. Home Office Scientific Development Branch (United Kingdom) Multi-Camera Tracking . mutual authentication and communication privacy. 6741-40. Szustakowski. Queen Mary Univ. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 39 . Session 2 Multi-camera tracking: UK government requirements P. SHA-256. Baker. Blasi. There is a need for a test that would be able to be routinely used in a CCTV control room throughout the course of a normal shift to provide management with operational performance data. radars of millimetre wavelengths of mid-range and far-range microwave radars. Neri. chemical plants. Home Office Scientific Development Branch (United Kingdom) Key components in a CCTV system are the operators. Session 1 Holistic video detection S. in addition to the use of FEC. only the bits relative to the characteristics resulting statistically enough stable have to be checked out. It is unsatisfactory to consider the performance of the CCTV technology in isolation from that of the operators. also the variability of the biometric features must be considered. The standard was launched in November 2006 and evaluations will commence in 2007. There have been few studies to give evidence about operator performance. Campisi. such studies used filmed video and subjects who knew they were undergoing testing.

In this • spieeurope@spieeurope. “what to track” in real-time. Then. thus. B. currently most UAV based ISR missions are conducted through manual operation. need the sensor operator’s undivided attention and constant adjustment of the sensor control. Guler. We have demonstrated the Smart Cruise Control system using real UAV videos where roads need to be tracked and buildings need to be monitored. people etc). especially the use of a large number of UAVs simultaneously. flexible and rich representation of the extracted content. The current prototype sensor system has a wireless mesh network backbone which can incorporate a range of sensor types including video. such as detection and tracking of motion blobs are not adequate as multiple humans may merge into a single blob or one human split into multiple site. A. N. The approach proposed is based a multi-dimensional feature vector and its covariance. Session 2 Smart cruise control: UAV sensor operator intent estimation and its application H. Cohen. we propose a Smart Cruise Control system that can learn UAV sensor operator’s intent and use it to complete tasks automatically. Authors’ personal data: Mr Paul Hosmer Detection and Vision Systems Home Office Scientific Development Branch Langhurst House Langhurstwood Road Horsham West Sussex RH12 4WX UK Phone +44 (0)1403 213816 Fax +44 (0)1403 213827 Email paul. Inc. Sarnoff Corp. Event the simplest tasks. Y.gsi. “tracking”. acoustic and chemical.Conference 6741: Optics and Photonics for Counter-Terrorism and Crime-Fighting building this into the i-LIDS standard the UK Government will build a bridge which system developers can use to aid them turn theory into front line application. Availability of tracking within every camera can further improve the accuracy of such association by matching several target’s appearance models with detected regions. The model integrates relative position. the learnt models of both road and the desired operation can be used to complete the task automatically. We will present success and challenges yet to be addressed by the proposed approach. Nevatia. superior mobility and the low risk posed to the pilot and sensor • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . 6741-06. in urban environments. the system can learn not only the preferred operation. The data from these sensors can be correlated and combed for specific targets (vehicles. of Southern California (USA) A necessary component for systems that assist in counterterrorism and crime fighting is an ability to detect and track humans in the environment as humans are the principal agents in committing criminal or terrorist actions. Session 2 Tracking moving objects across nonoverlapping cameras I. from initially manually controlling the UAV sensor to follow a road. The representation for this extracted information has to be in a form that is efficient and readily available for applications upstream including bandwidth limited communications and inference of higher level understanding tasks involving other sensor data such as other cameras. Detection of humans is complex due to changes in image appearance caused by viewpoint changes. (USA) Due to their long endurance. illumination changes and clothing variations. However. Association of objects across non-overlapping cameras is performed by matching detected objects appearance with past observations. Ma.hosmer\@homeoffice. The bottleneck is in monitoring the outputs of these sensors for suspicious activities. when combined produces an efficient overall scene analysis framework. Session 2 Video scene assessment with an unattended sensor network S. Session 2 Detection and tracking of humans in urban environments for visual surveillance Video cameras have become quite inexpensive and quality has improved tremendously. camera) and the content of the imagery that is acquired. Although fully autonomous UAV based ISR system is desirable. For this purpose we present an automatic clustering technique allowing to build a multi-valued appearance model from a collection of covariance matrices. Thus. The proposed approach does not require geometric or colorimetric calibration of the cameras. color and texture descriptors of each detected object. (USA) This paper describes a prototype video imagery based analysis system to monitor remote areas which may be in unfriendly zones to be aware and alert of unusual activity in these territories. The cameras may be placed in a variety of locations such as on light or traffic poles. Furthermore. the proposed system can estimate the operator’s intent from how they control the sensor (e. assessment and prioritization of the scene understanding information and representation of the extracted knowledge. simple methods. defining an appearance model of every detected blob in the network of cameras. Institute of Cybernetics (Georgia) 40 spie. They show good performance compared to previously published • spie. The application requirements impose competing richness of context and bandwidth constraints hence pushing for an efficient. humans are in close proximity and often occlude each other or are occluded by various objects in the scene. The lack of autonomous behaviour greatly limits of the effectiveness and the capability of UAV-based ISR. radar imagery etc. route reconnaissance and site monitoring. Kilosanidze. Kakauridze. for example. We use a part-based model so that humans can be detected even if certain parts are occluded. it is still a distant dream due to the complexity and diversity of combat and ISR missions. We present a highly efficient video content extraction and scene assessment paradigm with algorithms designed after human visual cognition system. Session 2 Real-time object recognition by the photoanisotropic copies B. Miller. Butler. it is feasible to deploy a large network of such cameras in urban environments of interest. Our methods have been evaluated on a number of publicly available datasets. such as route reconnaissance and site monitoring. This application involves analysis and metadata extraction from collected multiple video streams. Cheng.g. such as vehicle tracking. 6741-05. Univ. Using an operator attention model. G. We propose that use of human shape models can allow us to separate individual humans and track them under these conditions. aerial imagery. 6741-07. 6741-09. Therefore. but also the road appearance. D. We will illustrate the method for tracking people in relatively crowded scenes in a collection of indoors cameras taken in a mass transportation 6741-10. Automatic detection and tracking of humans is an important step in providing computer assistant to the security personnel. UAVs have become the preferred platform for persistent ISR missions. intuVision. This paper will briefly describe the i-LIDS project and then detail the work conducted in building the new tracking aspect of the standard. rooftops and walls of buildings. Honeywell Technology (USA) In this paper we present an approach for tracking people across non overlapping cameras. Our 2-tier video tracking approach uses a fast spacebased peripheral vision component and tunnel vision components for object-based detail analysis.

approx. as the amount of aerial videos captured increases. In our earlier works. especially unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is shown that the characteristics of the summary polarization ellipse (ellipticity. Sarnoff Corp. of South Florida (USA). Harvey. VideoQuest also provides spatial. A. Soundararajan. C. A. and chemical visualization of latent prints A. Nothard. and chemical techniques that are often used sequentially. Cantu. J. Session 5 Video face recognition against a watch list J. optical. The method can be used for the creation of automatic recognizer of the most different application.5 mins. V. physical techniques include visualizing the latent print using diverse powders and vapors that selectively polymerize on the • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 41 . with their high maneuverability. With the intention of aiding single camera human gait recognition. tracks and events extracted from videos.g. T. As a result a photoanisotropic copy of an initial object is received. The detection algorithm uses a statistical approach that was originally developed by Viola and Jones and later extended by Lienhart. In comparison with the methods of recognition on the basis of scalar complex-conjugate filtration. J. performance metrics and baseline algorithms have considerable research significance in gauging the progress in any application domain. The objects of amplitude transparent type are considered as an example. The chemistry of latent print residue and current research in the methods to visualize its components will be discussed. Additionally. Session 4 Recent advances in the physical. Session 4 Scene segmentation from multi-spectral imagery to aid automatic human gait recognition D. Univ. In this case the distribution of intensity of polarized light is transformed into distribution of photoinduced anisotropy on the surface of material. The use of dynamic polarization-sensitive materials for obtaining a photoanisotropic copy will allow the recognition of fast variable fields and dynamic objects to be realized in real-time. there is a need for systematic exploitation and effective management of the large amount of aerial videos. since it is invariant to object scaling and displacement. The algorithm uses a feature set that is Haar-like and a cascade of boosted decision tree classifiers as a statistical model. QinetiQ Ltd. R. Pearce. Huang. J. D. surveillance and reconnaissance. amino acids) and the water-insoluble components (e. In this work. we present the results of a face detection and tracking algorithm on broadcast news videos with the objective of establishing a baseline performance for this task-domain pair. we will introduce VideoQuest. and remote sensing. Univ. etc.Conference 6741: Optics and Photonics for Counter-Terrorism and Crime-Fighting A new method of optical image real time recognition by means of photoanisotropic copy is suggested. At consequent transillumination of the photoanisotropic copy received in such way with a parallel circularly polarized beam of nonactinic light the transmitted light becomes elliptically polarized. Session 2 VideoQuest: an advanced aerial video exploitation and management system H. and the development of more sensitive reagents for visualizing the water-soluble components of latent print residue (e. This paper presents the results of real trials with human subjects and a prototype IRIS camera system.broadcast news and meetings. In this paper. P. we need more robust systems to analyze this data and make tasks like face recognition a realistic possibility in challenging environments. the suggested method is easily realized. To quickly retrieve videos in a large-scale video database.) show good performance of the algorithm reflecting the state-of-the-art which makes it an appropriate choice as the baseline algorithm for the problem. S. lipids. Especially promising is the use in the tasks of identification and recognition of dynamic objects in real time. Tracking was accomplished as continuous detection with the detected objects in two frames mapped using a greedy algorithm based on the distances between the centroids of bounding boxes.. Garofolo. Hargreaves. 6741-11. this paper outlines how recovering human gait biometrics from a multi-spectral imaging system can overcome the failings of traditional biometrics to fulfil those needs. In this paper we explore a watch-list scenario spie. Korzhova. Goldgof. In this paper. we used the Intel Open Source Computer Vision Library (OpenCV) implementation of the Haar face detection. and chemical techniques include reacting components of latent print residue with reagent that render color and/or fluorescence to the • spie. J. the system summarizes aerial vidoe hierarchical and based content. temporal and content based indexing. hyperspectral imaging. such as object. M. C. 16 band imagery from the IRIS camera system is used to overcome some of the common problems associated with standard change detection techniques. Optical techniques include viewing the scattering of UV radiation by latent print residue on smooth surfaces and inducing natural (inherent) fluorescence of such residue.. Smart. Bowers. and compares performance to typical broadband camera systems. an algorithm was developed to accurately segment a walking human from multispectral imagery. Kasturi. Independent Scientific Consultant (USA) Latent prints on substrates of varying porosity are visualized by a host of physical. archiving. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (USA) Due to a large increase in the video surveillance data recently in an effort to maintain high security at public places. indexing and analysis capabilities such as sensor metadata enhancement. However. moving target detection and tracking and event detection. The method is to obtain a photoanisotropic copy of object images on the polarizationsensitive material. Butler. Recent developments in visualizing techniques include the use of nanoparticles. a user can search and retrieve mission-relevant information several magnitudes faster than without using our system. M.g. National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA) Establishing benchmark datasets. optical. dried proteins. To effectively and efficiently utilize archived aerial videos. (USA) Aerial platforms. Cheng. long endurance and low-risk to pilots and payload operators have emerged as a preferred means for intelligence. The optimal values for the tunable parameters of this implementation were found through an experimental design strategy commonly used in statistical analyses of industrial processes. These primarily allow both users and developers to compare the performance of various algorithms on a common platform. Boonstra. Manohar. direction of rotation and an azimuth) in the Fraunhofer diffraction region uniquely identify the given object. V. 6741-12. D. (United Kingdom) Primarily focused at military and security environments where there is a need to identify humans covertly and remotely. Abbas. domains . K. an advanced aerial video exploitation and management system that provides realtime aerial video enhancement. VideoQuest allows user to interactively search and browse large aerial video database through a “virtual UAV” GUI that dynamically assembles visual information according to user’s needs. B.).org/esd • spieeurope@spieeurope. The real time definition of the characteristics of the summary polarization ellipse is made by means of diffraction gratings of anisotropic profile and comparison of these characteristics with etalon from database. Fusing the concepts of scene segmentation by spectral characterisation and background subtraction by image differencing gives a uniquely robust approach. Session 2 A baseline algorithm for face detection and tracking in video R. It was shown that when an object image is recorded on polarization-sensitive material by linearly polarized light which is actinic for this material then photoanisotropy is induced in material. Using the VideoQeust system. information retrieval systems. Results on the evaluation set containing 50 sequences (2. 6741-15. Such a method has not been studied up to now and the suggested approach to the task of objects recognition is rather promising. 6741-13. we focused on developing performance metrics and establishing a substantial dataset with ground truth for object detection and tracking tasks (text and face) in two video 6741-16.

Recently. activity recognition and then face or identify recognition. the 12 cameras were connected to a number of 19" rack mounted HP servers. LogicaCMG were invited to conduct a proof of concept of a facial biometric identification system at an airport by integrating a leading algorithm. However. In particular. LogicaCMG achieved 75% detection. 42 spie. at a ratio of two cameras per server. a lot of efforts have been devoted to the development of secure and multi-level biometric authentication • spieeurope@spieeurope. In contrast with traditional approaches based on what a person knows (e. depending on the specific application.0. Each subject was photographed 5 times with subtle changes in the head position. The aim of the proof of concept was to ascertain if a figure of 75% detection could be achieved. By adjusting these and working with the algorithm vendor. LogicaCMG (United Kingdom) In November 2005. stolen. These servers acted as the Tracking Stations performing an analysis of video streams from the connected cameras and sending biometric identification requests to the Watchlist Station of faces that it has detected in the CCTV stream. For testing purposes a number of volunteers were enrolled using a digital SLR camera. the issue of data security and integrity is extremely critical. with integrated frame grabbers. thus leading to a multi-level decision procedure. We then use our simple yet a powerful face recognition system to recognize the faces classified as watch-list faces. To overcome this limitation.0 through to 1. we match video faces against a large database of still images obtained from a previous work in the field from Yahoo News over a period of time. There exist several security techniques to secure biometric data. Univ. The proposed algorithm is extensively tested on the entire CASIA v. showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR). The system was designed as a client-server architecture whose main components are a single Watchlist Station with multiple Tracking Stations all connected to the Watchlist Station. To test our approach. The algorithm automatically searches CCTV streams for faces. A further batch of images was added to ascertain how many false positives would be seen with a database of up to 1000 enrolled images. A biometric multi-level authentication system is able to offer different levels of security and acceptability. Each subject was asked to walk through each location and the algorithm applied a score to each identification ranging from 0. The enrolment images were standard mug shot images. A. • spie. Neri. where watermarking is used in order to hide and keep secret some signature features into a signature image. The system consisted of 12 analogue cameras split into two groups of four and two groups of two. Univ. At the airport location. biometric features cannot be replaced. signatures are intrinsically different from other commonly used biometric data. Testing involved the volunteers mixing with passengers and walking through each location. when compared to existing traditional non-secure correlation based classifiers. the mark is embedded in the high energy regions of the signature image. which can not be extracted from a single signature image. a crop of that image is taken and sent to the Watchlist Station to ascertain if the face matches any of the enrolled suspects on the database. possessing dynamic and statistic properties. due to several inherent advantages they offer over classic methods. When a higher security is needed. Where the watch-list includes those people that we are interested in recognizing. During the testing. An extensive set of experimental results. Campisi. The purpose of the trial was to ascertain if biometric identification algorithms were mature enough to detect non-compliant subjects*at range. Our system uses simple feature machine algorithms from our previous work to match video faces with still images. In order to obtain a method both robust and capable of hiding relevant data while keeping intact the original structure of the host. As a successful identification was made the timeline on the Watchlist Station would show the frame from the CCTV image and the image from the Watchlist database. concerning the system performances will show the effectiveness of our approach. degli Studi Roma Tre (Italy) In the last few years we have witnessed a constant increase of the utilization of biometrics-based authentication systems. Session 5 Iris-based authentication system with template protection and renewability C. degli Studi di Roma Tre (Italy) The most emerging technology for people authentication and identification is biometrics. M. copied. a password) or what a person possesses (e. Session 5 Signature-based authentication system using watermarking in the ridgelet domain E. depending on the width of each thoroughfare that they were required to monitor. biometric authentication approaches are based on who a person is (physiological biometrics) or what a person does (behavioral biometrics). This is a step towards more secure and robust surveillance systems and efficient video data analysis. field of view.5 meters monitoring a range of between 1-7 meters. The Watchlist Station acts as the main identification station trying to identify the faces using a gallery of enrolled “suspects”. a method for protecting and securing the stored biometric templates is proposed. LogicaCMG learned significant lessons around lighting. watermarking techniques can be used. Maiorana. The proposed watermarking technique is designed in the Ridgelet domain which is suited to represent images with sharpen edges. Therefore. whereas a new credit card can be reissued and a new password can be set. Once a face is located.5 meters to 4. lost. Campisi. or forged than a password or a card.g. 6741-18. security is an essential parameter in the design of a biometric based authentication system. Therefore biometric traits are much more difficult to be forgotten. *at range for this purpose was deemed to be several meters • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . in this paper. P. a card). This system can be incorporated into a larger surveillance system equipped with advanced algorithms involving anomalous event detection. like a signature picture. This paper focuses on two vulnerable points of the whole biometric system: the Enrollment Database for user template storage and the Communication Channel between the Enrollment Database and the Matcher. The height of these cameras ranged from 2. depth of field.1 Iris Database. Being a behavioural biometric. In real life biometric applications. By studying the scores we were able to adjust the threshold to a level where the software would still show alerts but eliminate many of the false positives that scored a low score.Conference 6741: Optics and Photonics for Counter-Terrorism and Crime-Fighting where we use an appearance based model to classify query faces from low resolution videos into either a watch-list or a non-watch-list face. once the key is broken or the data are decrypted they are not protected anymore. enrolment images and database size. The marked images can be used for user authentication. letting their static characteristics being analyzed by automatic algorithms or security attendants. A. Template encryption can be used to make the data useless without the knowledge of the key that must be kept secret. These images were then enrolled into the Watchlist Station with unique identifiers. Firth. Neri. However. We do this matching in an efficient manner to come up with a faster and nearly real-time system. In our proposal a signature-based biometric system is implemented. the embedded features can be extracted and used. The aforementioned method allows template renewability applied to iris based authentication and guarantees high security being the match performed in the encrypted domain. exploiting error correction codes tailored on the intra-class and inter-class discriminability. 6741-17. This trial concluded in October 2006. Session 5 Biometric identification of non-compliant subjects at range I. P.

6741-24. and data can be obtained at extended offsets (\> 25 meters). D. QD based security information can be easily destroyed by preset expiration in the presence of timing agents. The exceptional sensitivity of the LDV method supports sensing of cardiovascular. Sirevaag. A. battery powered and with a notebook computer) that includes video tracking of unconstrained examinees. where the information signal is added in the emitter to a chaotic signal and the resulting one is processed at the receiver with other chaotic signal. This situation has been reported previously by us. Koppa. transparent thin-film coating of QDs can be applied to various substrates. National Research Council Canada (Canada) Information retrieval is critical in security technologies such as for status identification and documentation authentication. intent. J.e. emotion. MartinPereda. and provide advanced clinical information relating to cardiac and vascular health including cardiorespiratory interactions. Due to such a feasible tune-ability. S. sensitive and differential assessment of a number of key physiological signs of • spie. previously reported by us. they can provide coded information with their PL wavelength and intensity. sounds and pulses) that can be detected at the skin surface using the LDV method. Session 6 Photo-luminescent quantum-dots used for security identification S. P. eye safe) is technically feasible. Key properties like Fourier plane homogeneity. The feasibility and the basic properties of the proposed method are experimentally demonstrated. Session 6 Theory of dispersion-managed solitons M. in the second step. 6741-25. J. it makes possible object plane phase encoding and enhances the encryption strength and noise tolerances of double random coding. Many physiological activities have mechanical components (in the form of vibrations. F. S. Budapest Univ. A. These capabilities have been integrated into a portable system (ca 10 lbs. We present a new way to codify the information signal in two steps. and higher photo-stability. If the coding wavelengths from the QD PL are designed as the Fraunhoffer lines. Multi-photon excitation (MPE) technologies can further extend applications of QDs to multi-layer information extraction. Remé • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 43 . A. showing reduced system complexity and small size compared to amplitude modulated systems. J. We also propose an optical implementation with a single phase SLM. are selectively responsive to social. physical and cognitive stressors. Ferreira. In general. black lines in solar spectrum. As compared to traditional PL materials. Involved signals are analyzed by timefrequency distributions that show it is not possible to obtain data in a first approach. J. The LDV method provides a basis for comprehensive. For an info-label of 2-millimeter in depth. and have demonstrated their sensitivity to a variety of laboratory maneuvers as well as clinical status. Gross ballistic cardiorespiratory activity can be assessed from clothing or other body wear. Moreover. Washington Univ. they exhibit emission with narrower full width at half maximum. in St. But in any case a time-frequency analyzes shows how to recovery the information if it is not uses in CDMA configuration. also. Gonzalez-Marcos. thus providing a basis for comprehensive and differential assessment. Experimental results of double random phase encryption of phase modulated data prove the long high key-length and very high tampering resistance of the method. these signals yield measures of not only heart rate. impossible to counterfeit. i. Our principal concern has been with cardiorespiratory measures. Washington Univ. at emitter and receiver. Löricz. We have validated the measures within context of conventional methods. Richard. systolic time intervals. O’Sullivan. bit error rate and positioning tolerances of the proposed approach are investigated by computer modeling and a comparison is provided with amplitude modulated data pages. with a chaotic signal. Stern. Session 5 Remote physiological assessment using laser doppler vibrometry J. The signals are of sufficient quality to support beat-to-beat assessment. 6741-23. Politécnica de Madrid (Spain) Several schemes have been proposed for secure communications with different types of chaos generators. The method is based on the interference between the data page and its copy shifted by an integral number of pixels. We have confirmed that a system using an infrared laser (invisible. This signal is later modulated. we add the phase information to the initial signal with a lineal photonic device. Univ. including respiratory effort as well as lung and tracheal sounds. While numerical simulations of the governing equations spie. fingernails. The chaotic signal is obtained from a photonic generator based on an Optically Programmable Logic Cell. The former feature results in the reduction of the four-wave mixing while the latter one reduces the Gordon-Haus timing jitter effect. Univ. respiratory. F. dispersion-managed (DM) solitons offer tremendous advantages that make them a preferred option for upgrading the embedded fiber plant and for use in new ultrahigh-speed multiplexed systems operating at 40-Gbit/s per channel. Louis (USA) We describe a novel application of laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) to the remote assessment of physiological activity. Chang. Due to their characteristics. However usual phase-to amplitude conversion methods require bulky and very sensitive interferometric setups. greater • spieeurope@spieeurope. and easy to process. Both signals era generated by synchronized generators. No preparation. J. Rohrbaugh. G. The main idea was to combine a high local groupvelocity dispersion with low path-average dispersion. Session 6 Optical encryption and encrypted holographic storage using phase-only data pages P. 6741-21. and military helmets and vehicles. Ideally. A. Sarkadi. (USA). Ujhelyi. mainly. but direct imaging from the skin-particularly over the carotid artery-provides an extremely detailed analog to the internal pressure pulse.Conference 6741: Optics and Photonics for Counter-Terrorism and Crime-Fighting 6741-20. Arenas-Pingarrón. contact or specific posture is required. In the first one. muscle and tremor activity. and composition. the retrieval system can extract the useful information even under sunshine covering areas. Specific approaches have to be considered when optical signals are involved. K. Yu. The pulse consists of a highly textured waveform that includes multiple incident and reflected pressure fronts. as it usual in other optical chaos generators. Kristjansson. pressure pulse amplitude and arterial dynamics including signs of cerebral perfusion. This presentation addresses a novel information retrieval technology with these ideal features of its coding materials: the photo-luminescent (PL) quantumdots (QD) synthesized via wet-chemistry approaches. When QDs are excited. their PL wavelength can be easily and accurately tuned via their size. The more usual configurations are based on Pecora and Carroll papers. E. Erdei. of Technology and Economics (Hungary) Using phase only input images has several advantages in optical encryption and holographic storage systems: It provides a smooth Fourier plane that allows making an efficient use of the material dynamic range. T. The resulting signal is decode in the receiver with a new chaotic signal generated by synchronizing both generators. but also advanced measures of contractility. In this paper we propose a new simple and compact phase to amplitude data page conversion method for efficient recovery of the data encoded in phase modulated data pages used in optical encryption and holographic storage. and health. J. Collectively. W. W. such as documents. de Aveiro (Portugal) New ways in optimization of existing telecommunication systems based on dispersion management technology attracted recently wide research interest from soliton-based groups. Session 6 Optical digital chaos cryptography A. when a coding material exhibiting 6 PL wavelengths with 10 intensity levels. structure. This cell is able to provide a digital signal without any additional operation. a MPE system with the depth resolution less than one micro-meter can thus achieve 2 GB resolutions. QDs have demonstrated enormous potential applications in security and defense. coding materials should be difficult to locate. E. Liu. Several aspects of respiration can be sensed.

6741-29. S. The suggested polarization-holographic system of protection is based on polarization properties of light and the use of specially synthesized polarization-sensitive materials for protective elements recording. A. Furthermore test results of the portal prototype show that not only precursor compounds on their own or mixed with interferers can be detected but that their signature can also be seen in IED such as TATP or other intermediate stages in the make up of IED. For each concrete system of protection the material with certain characteristics and its own combination of polarization state can be chosen to which diffracted beams which are concrete according to polarization state will unambiguously correspond. Session 7 Raman detection of illicit materials using portable equipment W. nonlinear interaction with other solitons. quantum cascade (QC) lasers based gas sensors have been proven in simple high-performance gas analyzers aimed at the continuous emission monitoring (CEM) market and such able to operate in harsh environments. Numerical simulations show that the ODE model accurately captures the pulse dynamics as governed by the dispersion-managed nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DMNLSE). In this paper we use a variational approach to reduce the governing equation in the case of a periodic dispersionmanaged fiber system to a coupled set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODE’s). Dean. A range of powders concealed within plastic packaging and standard FedEx envelopes were imaged with a resolution of better than 0. and it was possible to detect powdered samples concealed within packaging from which there was a strong component of surface reflection. This provides the ability to detect a sample coded with a dye mixture at a distance with hand held equipment and the ability to detect very low concentrations of some explosives after derivatisation. an essential advantage of the suggested system is the impossibility of copying such protective elements by optical methods. The imaging system uses a heliumcooled silicon bolometer for mapping radiation diffusely reflected and scattered from samples. etc.Conference 6741: Optics and Photonics for Counter-Terrorism and Crime-Fighting accurately capture the pulse dynamics of dispersion-managed systems. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . Univ. G. (United Kingdom) Over the past few years. Linfield. higher-order dispersion. E. • spieeurope@spieeurope. It is impossible to determine information that is written on the given protective element by any usually used methods of authenticity determination. Overall. Simple stratagems to overcome these problems will be discussed. serious design optimization requires intensive computation. Examples of the use of hand held equipment to detect powdered and liquid samples will be given. of Strathclyde (United Kingdom) Raman spectroscopy provides a very effective method of identifying an illicit substance in situ without separation or contact other than with a laser beam. In polarization-sensitive materials the anisotropy of optical characteristics is induced under the action of polarized light. Using various technologies of making polarization-sensitive materials. However. and a room temperature pyroelectric sensor for simultaneously acquiring a specular image. The initial portal sensitivity configuration was set up for few parts per billion (ppb) detection level thresholds. Khanna. • spie. Univ. M. of Leeds (United Kingdom) We report diffuse reflection imaging of concealed powdered samples in atmospheric air using a quantum cascade laser operating at 2. The obtained results are valid for an arbitrary pulse profile. Newer methods still largely in the development phase will increase the potential for selected applications. The use of picosecond pulsed lasers can discriminate between fluorescence and Raman scattering and this has been used to examine street samples of illicit drugs. P. the adiabatic evolution of the dispersion-managed pulse parameters under perturbations is obtained.83 THz. The functions of scalar (isotropic) and two vector (anisotropic and gyrotropic) reactions on the action of actinic polarized light were introduced to describe the photoresponse of such media. L. The improving optics and detection capability and the reliability of the new methods indicate that the potential for the use of Raman spectroscopy for security purposes will increase with time. 6741-28. E. The tests carried out on a large number of potential interferers together with the target materials reinforce original assumptions that compound fingerprinting can be carried with the technique. Kakauridze. Normand. N. Chakraborty. S. achieving extremely high degree of specificity within sub second response time. Surface enhanced Raman scattering in which the analyte requires to be adsorbed onto a roughened metal surface creates a sensitivity to compete with fluorescence and quenches fluorescence for molecules on a surface. it is possible to change their characteristics and the response to acting polarized light. The polarization hologram is able to record all characteristics of the polarization ellipse of the field that is being recorded. 6741-26. from counterfeiting a new type of protection system based on polarizationholographic methods is suggested. such as the amplifier noise. Davies. The equipment required is steadily improving and is now reliable and simple to operate. Institute of Cybernetics (Georgia) With the purpose to increase a level of protection of important documents. The values of reactions uniquely characterize polarization-sensitive material. Such redundancy of the initial data recorded on the material carrier makes it possible to record physically ultimate complete information respectively. It is currently being upgraded to sub-ppb level.5 mm. Lachab. Only while using the special identifying device developed by us it is easy to determine the authenticity of a protective element by comparing the polarization state of light beams diffracted on the protective element with the etalon from database of the identifying device. Cascade Technologies Ltd. 6741-27. Session 7 Quantum cascade laser-based screening portal for the detection of explosive precursors E. This paper will present the performance and results from a QC laser based people screening portal developed and tested over the past 12 months and aimed at the detection of precursors used in the make up of improvised explosive devices (IED). Smith. Moreover. These dynamical systems of the pulse parameters are used to estimate the effects of several perturbations on the soliton propagation. Nearly a year to date Cascade Technologies reported on progress towards adapting its technology for homeland security 44 spie. This system is simple enough and noiseprotected and gives the possibility to essentially increase a level of protection. The tests were carried out with support from the UK government. we will consider particularly the Gaussian and the superGaussian type pulses. The recording of a protective element is made by two writing beams with the use any predetermined combination of polarization state from infinite number of possible combinations. A. the early results obtained from the QC laser based portal seem to indicate that it is possible to develop low cost detection systems with enhanced features such low false positive and high throughput screening of individuals or items. Session 6 A new type protection system B. applications by showing initial results on explosive compound detection. Session 7 Diffuse reflection imaging at terahertz frequencies for security applications P. The feasibility of performing dual wavelength diffuse reflection imaging for identification of illicit drugs and explosives is discussed. The main limitations on the use of the technique are that it is insensitive in terms of the number of incident photons converted into Raman scattered photons and fluorescence produced in the sample by the incident radiation interferes. etc. industrial goods. Visually the protective elements look absolutely homogeneous. Costs are also coming down and hand held portable spectrometers are proving very effective. H. This process is generally much too time consuming and there is no guarantee of obtaining a stationary solution that corresponds to the desired pulse characteristics. Unlike holographic systems of protection existing now.

Furthermore the lens technology offers a stand-off distance that allows easy installation. Within this paper. S. (United Kingdom) The presentation describes the results of a multi-year programme of research aimed at the development of an integrated multi-sensor perimeter detection system capable of being deployed at an operational site. where appropriate. Other innovative solutions including Electrochromatic controllable glazing which may prove more appropriate to office and commercial buildings are also considered. where effective capability was either not available or prohibitively expensive. to an external observer. This has culminated in a modular integrated architecture based on commercially available components. radar and other sensor data provides the basis of a threat detection capability for real life conditions. Session 8 Fenestration obscuration techniques M. defining key requirements including: (a) Automatic or simple manual operation (b) Obscuration of movement within the building (c) Varying levels of obscuration depending on the difference in internal and external light levels. M. A graphical user interface has been developed to visualise and interact with the sensors. The system was designed to be modular and extendable in order to accommodate future and legacy surveillance sensors. (United Kingdom) There is a desire to carry out covert surveillance in buildings using pinhole lenses that offer a wide field of view for coverage but also offer a zoom capability that allows targets to be identified. (United Kingdom) The range and scope of EO/IR sensor systems within security and surveillance applications is growing. The relatively featureless spectral characteristics of these dark coloured targets have made them hard to be distinguished from the background such as tarmac. the application of different image processing architectures and techniques is reviewed in terms of situational awareness criteria and is illustrated through specific system applications. Rana. Recognising that implemented solutions must create the minimum disruption to outward visibility and involve the least procedural effort (be simple to use). I. based on grouped technologies. as far as spectral measurement methods like spectral angle mapper (SAM) and matched filter (MF) detection as concern. (United Kingdom).Conference 6741: Optics and Photonics for Counter-Terrorism and Crime-Fighting 6741-30. (d) Minimum disruption to outward visibility (e) Acceptable for use on heritage and iconic sites (f) Easy to retrofit (g) Low cost This report reviews earlier work carried out into the protection of Guardrooms by the use of lighting techniques coupled with the use of reflective and screen printed films. Cranfield Univ. Kimber. Lens technology has been developed that incorporates an internal pan and tilt function in a pinhole zoom. W. Session 8 Implementing advanced image processing technology in sensor systems for security and surveillance D. Special video analytics have been designed to provide robust detection of pedestrians in clutter while new radar detection and tracking algorithms provide wide area day/night surveillance. Example data taken from a car park will be utilised to illustrate the effectiveness of monitoring dark coloured targets using HSI/ multispectral techniques under a wide range of weather • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 45 . P. Session 8 Spectral Vision Research (SVIR) for homeland security applications P. D. these dark coloured targets can be readily detected and classified accurately. spie. are cost effective and unsophisticated while more complex automatic systems using reactive glazing can offer critical design advantages. It must be noted however. Smalley. Kent. Results will. The current sensor mix includes stereoscopic video cameras. Session 8 Covert optically-scanning enhanced zoom pinhole lens technology H. commissioned this study. At the beginning of the programme a requirements survey identified areas of protective security. the Centre for Protection of National Infrastructure. Defence Science and Technology Lab. Smith. be included in the final paper presented. the exploitation of a priori information within the integrated security and surveillance picture is considered from both a processing technology and image display perspective. Waterfall Solutions Ltd. The fusion of video. CPNI. It is seen that some measures. J. some of the key requirements are mutually exclusive and any solution chosen will always be a compromise based on client needs and circumstances. The concepts and benefits of multi-modal and distributed sensor systems are also considered together with the attendant data registration and fusion techniques. QinetiQ Ltd. • spieeurope@spieeurope. the movement of people within a well lit room. Security Services Group (United Kingdom) There are situations where it is advantageous to visually obscure through glass. Some of these techniques include novel video based biometrics to improve performance against human subjects and use multiple technologies to give better indication of a threat than any single technology. mmWave ground movement radar. Hickman. Finally. (window films or blinds). and this places a corresponding demand on the image processing functionality required to meet the end-users needs and requirements. Session 8 Integrated multi-sensor perimeter detection systems P. • spie. In this paper it is reported that by extending the spectral range into short wave infrared (SWIR) and couple with a band selection scheme. in addressing these capability gaps. The development programme was designed to prove the feasibility and utility of cost-effective systems. It may be that the building use has changed or existing measures which had provided obscuration such as ‘Bomb-blast’ curtains have been discontinued. 6741-32. It is further desirable to pan and tilt onto the target if it is at the edge of the field. 6741-33. Practical evaluation of different solutions is ongoing including examination of resulting physical properties of glazing to ensure that solutions to this problem do not conflict with other measures such as bomb-blast protection. SELEX Sensors and Airborne Systems Ltd. L. (United Kingdom) Low reflectance materials in the visible spectral band such as dark coloured vehicles and clothing are found difficult to be detected and classified accurately by using spectral detection techniques such as hyperspectral imaging (HSI). particularly in threat detection and assessment. Barrett. Yuen. P. CCTV and a commercially available perimeter detection cable The presentation will outline the development of the system and describe the lessons learnt after deploying the system in a pilot trial. 6741-34. 6741-31.

Zoran. Rosso. While dead fuel moisture dynamics can be considered only dependent on the dynamics of the meteorological variables.Since surface albedo dynamics in forest ecosystem are close related with ecosystem dynamics. H. which in turn could pose serious environmental problems for its inhabitants (e. albedo controls the microclimate conditions which affects ecosystem physical. In forest systems. P.Conference 6742: Remote Sensing for Agriculture. Univ. A large amount of forest and agricultural land has been converted into housing. equipped with complete meteorological stations. Louis Pasteur (France) Bucharest town. live fuel dynamics models must take into account also the current phenological state of the considered species. I. and biogeochemical processes such as energy balance. 6742 Remote Sensing for Agriculture. evapotranspiration. MODIS Terra and climate station observations show that surface albedo changes of a forested zone placed close to a large urban area highly respond to atmospheric pollution influence and climate variations.g. The short-time variations on moisture of live vegetation are less significant than the dead ones. and Hydrology Wednesday-Thursday 19-20 September 2007 Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol.28. photosynthesis. 6742-43. and Hydrology IX 6742-12. M. Forest land surface albedo is also highly variable temporally showing both diurnal as well as seasonal variations. Instituto de Investigación y Formación Agraria y Pesquera (Spain). Gavilan. Ecosystems. The Vegetation Index products of MODIS sensor have been used to parameterize and calibrate the model. while for cotton fields was 0.72 for cotton to 0. of Miyazaki (Japan). Poster Session Using MODIS/NDVI imagery for the validation and calibration of a live vegetation moisture content model P. These 40 areas are periodically subject to sampling campaign aiming at characterizing the phenological state and the moisture contents. Poster Session Integration of satellite-based energy balance with simulation models applied to irrigation management at an irrigation scheme of southern Spain • spieeurope@spieeurope. Fiorucci. This work presents a model to predict the moisture content of live fine fuel based on the phenological principles of leaf growth cycle.. and formalized through a mathematical programming approach. R. Univ. National Institute of Research & Development for Optoelectronics (Romania). and fully representative of the Mediterranean vegetation cover of Liguria Region (Italy). G. energy balance and heat fluxes is based on satellite data from various satellite sensors and in-situ monitoring data . Zoran. The relatively high frequency of images collected in this study (eleven Landsat 5 TM images) produced a high level of confidence in ET estimates. physiological. The satellitederived ET was used to correct the daily soil water balance model. di Ricerca Interuniv. Investigation of radiation properties. Weber. This approach assumes that the phenology state of a given vegetation group at a given time instant can be modelled as a function of the local meteorological conditions. Allen. have been selected and used as test points. Fereres. M. infrastructure and industrial estates. M. Univ. Tasumi. irrigation consumption was estimated by METRIC with high accuracy considering global results (real average water use was 699 mm while the irrigation consumption estimated by METRIC was 677 mm. Ctr. 40 different experimental stations. Based on LANDSAT TM and ETM . the great amount of fuel load potentially interested by fire represents a amplifying factor in wildfire risk assessment. Minciardi. commercial center in Romania has experiencing rapid an urban expansion during the last decades. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the albedo patterns due to the impact of atmospheric pollution and climate variations of a forest ecosystem placed to the North-East of Bucharest city. Lorite. calculated using satellite-based ET and actual irrigated water measurements. F. improving the accuracy of field-by-field ET demands and subsequent field-scale irrigation schedules. Univ. 6742-45. carried on using the whole data sets.2005 period. equivalent to an estimation error of 3%). in Monitoraggio Ambientale (Italy) Dead and live fine vegetation moisture dynamics plays a key role in wildland fire risk • spie. Ecosystems. especially during the period of high irrigation requirements. Spatio-temporal changes of surface biophysical parameters were examined in association with 46 spie. MODIS and SAR satellite images over Bucharest urban area. Moreover. urban waterlogged and thermal pollution). To this end. helped to identify specific agricultural fields experiencing problems in water management. Thus. F. Poster Session Analysis of surface biophysical parameters of urban system derived from satellite data M. forest ecosystems could significantly feedback to the projected climate change modeling scenarios through albedo changes. land cover and land use changes result is the land surfaces albedo change. Santos. as well as to estimate general AE of the scheme by irrigation and crop type. Gaetani. Our study focuses on 3 years of data (2004-2006). A. Instituto de Investigación y Formación Agraria y Pesquera (Spain). However. M. Seasonal ET variability among fields and within fields determined the irrigation management by crops. C. National Institute of Research & Development for Optoelectronics (Romania) Surface albedo is one of the most important biophysical parameter responsible for energy balance control and the surface temperature and boundary-layer structure of the atmosphere. a reduction in water use of 23% was obtained for cotton by following the improved irrigation schedules. Variation coefficient of ET from sunflower fields was 0. Multi-spectral and multi-temporal satellite imagery provide the most reliable technique of monitoring of different urban structures regarding the net radiation and heat fluxes associated with urbanization at the regional scale. the impacts of atmospheric pollution and climatic changes and variations on ecosystem processes could possibly affect surface albedo characteristics. Estimation of AE on fields ranged from 0. The resultant impervious urban surface alters the surface energy balance and surface runoff. of Córdoba (Spain) Integration of a satellite-based energy balance as METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration with high Resolution and Internalized Calibration) model with a simulation model based on cascade approach provided accurate irrigation scheduling guidelines for individual fields. linked to numerical models and quantitative biophysical information extracted from spatially distributed NDVI-data and net radiation. As the physical climate system is very sensitive to surface albedo. of Idaho (USA). E. A. and forest ecosystem studies. the biggest industrial. Romania were analyzed surface biophysical parameters for 1989 . This procedure was applied during 2004/05 irrigation season to Genil-Cabra Irrigation Scheme in Southern Spain. Due to anthropogenic and natural factors. Irrigation application efficiency (AE). • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . The paper provides a validation and calibration procedure. The results of this research have a number of applications in weather forecasting.12. Romania based on satellite remote sensing Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and climate station observations. R. climate change. each of which had a different climatic regime. soil and vegetational parameters (leaf area index). IKONOS . for each area the observations of MODIS-NDVI from 2001 to 2006 have been collected and geocoded. Poster Session Climate changes impact the surface albedo of a forest ecosystem based on MODIS satellite data M. F. In addition.90 for sugar beet.

We applied this approach to a semiarid area located at the Loess Plateau of China (35. but also enhances spatial detail information greatly. Considering the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) can provide land surface temperature data with a high accuracy of ± 1. 107. The REP. Poster Session Correlation analysis of simulated MODIS vegetation indices and the red edge and rice agricultural parameter Q. With the development of the increased accuracy of satellite retrieval techniques for the necessary input variables. Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics (Ukraine). Nagoya Univ. normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). and hyperspectal data. Features of two-layer system reflectance spectra were explained with their simulation using reflectance and transmittance of separate components of the systems. this approach offers a practical way with a high accuracy for long-term monitoring of surface evaporation on either regional or global scales. di Donna. Alternatively. This study attempts to provide environmental awareness to urban planners in future urban development. Kochubey. and non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Influence of these factors has been studied in this work. taking advantages of the 30-m tower observation. • spieeurope@spieeurope. SUNDOSOFT. I. Wu. we used ASTER product datasets to estimate surface evapotranspiration for the area on May 10. (South Korea) The monitoring of vegetation in nearby urban regions is made difficult by the low spatial and temporal resolution image captures. and the LAI and leaf chlorophyll content of rice agricultural parameter were obtained. Image fusion is one of the important techniques for spatial image resolution enhancing. The approach is tested under field measurements using our device. There are at least two reasons causing distinctions between spectra of separate leaf and crop: superposition of reflectance from several leaf layers and contribution of soil reflectance. We found that the aeral average of the satellite-retrieved evapotranspiration was in good agreement with that of the tower observation. enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and the red-edge position (REP) were studied. Analyses of the correlation between rice agricultural parameter. properly classified. Results showed that a strong non-linear correlation was found between the rice LAI of two varieties and REP. we proposed a novel approach for retrieval of evapotranspiration from satellite data. S. Fieldwork fuel type recognition. Reflectance and transmittance spectra of each separate component of the systems were also measured. Yamaguchi. were used to assess the results obtained for the considered test areas. (South Korea). Recent studies have successfully estimated NDVI using improved resolution method such as from the MODIS onboard EOS Terra satellite. it is highly valuable to remote sensing applications. As the indices have been developed on a base of reflectance spectra of separate leaves. Poster Session 6742-47.Conference 6742: Remote Sensing for Agriculture. Results obtained gave approach for chlorophyll estimation in upper and lower leaves separately. These results indicate that the MODIS NDVI is underestimated by approximately 50%. and Hydrology landuse changes to illustrate how these parameters respond to rapid urban expansion in Bucharest and surrounding region. Chlorophyll in lower leaf influenced only on the red index but not on the green one. Both indices were found to be low sensitive to contribution of soil reflectance even at low extent of projective covering. (China) In this study. Univ. 6742-46. Kazantsev. In order to utilize respective information from different remote sensing images.2’N. performed at the same time as remote sensing data acquisitions. Park. For this purpose. It is based on measuring and processing of crops reflectance spectra using the original derivative vegetation indices. degli Studi della Basilicata (Italy) In the context of fire management. Application of reflectance spectra of two-layer leaf systems to chlorophyll estimation in crops T. Y. Cheng. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 47 . To provide a continuous monitoring capability for NDVI. which can be usefully applied for both visual analysis and classification purposes.7’E). Inc. Zhejiang Gongshang Univ. Remote sensing data provide valuable information for the characterization and mapping of fuel types and vegetation properties at different temporal and spatial scales including the global. Based on the principles of energy balance. Enhancement of MODIS NDVI image using Landsat TM image is performed on various images. T. The systems included two superposed vine leaves with various chlorophyll contents on different background. La. ecological relationships between wildland fire and landscape structure. 6742-50. (Japan) The major difficulty in estimating land surface evapotranspiration is partitioning of available energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes. We compare and discuss NDVI estimates from MODIS sensors and in-situ spectroradiometer data over Ochang plain region. regional and landscape levels. Hyperspectral data of two variety of rice (common rice and hybrid rice) in whole growing stage during 2002 and 2003 was measured using the ASD FieldSpec UV/VNIR Spectroradiometer with resolution of 3 nm. Donets. but the REP and EVI were more sensitive than the NDVI to rice LAI for the hybrid rice because of different body for two variety rice. fuel maps are essential information requested at many spatial and temporal scales for managing wildland fire hazard and risk and for understanding spie. satellite ASTER and TM data were processed using neural nets for a test area of Southern Italy characterized by mixed vegetation covers and complex topography. The results demonstrate accurate spectral preservation on vegetated regions where MODIS image enhances the fusion product. This study aims to ascertain how well remote sensing data can characterize fuel type at different spatial scales in fragmented ecosystems. Coluzzi. Hiyama. Subjective visual effect and objective statistical results indicate that the performance of the improved resolution method is better than original MODIS images. Public Enterprise Plant Arsenal (Ukraine) Hardware-software complex for chlorophyll estimation under field conditions have been designed. Chungbuk National Univ. V. S. Reflectance spectra of two-layer leaf systems were measured. it is necessary to adjust the procedure of index calculation for data obtained under field measurements. Because the proposed approach is very simple. The land cover information. we propose an image fusion method based on improved resolution method. Presence of lower leaf caused an increase of reflectance in red and much less in green regions. in situ measurements of NDVI from paddy field was carried out in 2006 for comparison with remotely sensed MODIS data. • spie. Poster Session Satellite multispectral fuel type mapping by using neural nets R. Poster Session MODIS and Landsat TM data image fusion based on improved resolution method: assessing the quality of resulting NDVI images J. Poster Session Estimating land surface evapotranspiration from ASTER data using a novel approach Y. M. X. EVI and NDVI were well related with LAI for the common rice. we calculated the footprint area using a flux footprint model. can provide a spatially and temporally explicit view of societal and environmental attributes and can be an important complement to in-situ measurements. 2005.5K. 6742-49. Two derivative indices were calculated using green and red regions of reflectance spectrum. Results from our preliminary analysis showed that the use of neural nets provides detailed mapping of fuel types with accuracy levels higher than 75%. It not only preserves spectral information of the original multi-spectral image well. equilibrium evaporation.

Huang. The approach is an index method with data inputs from remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS).63cm in the region. R2=0. C. Our results indicated that average snow depth in north Xinjiang was 13. Z. Snow mapping can provide useful information for water resource management in the arid ecosystem. P<0. Nanjing Univ. China H. precipitation index and disaster index. Lu. Poster Session Land surface temperature retrieval from MODIS data for agricultural drought monitoring in China Z. J. Univ. Subsequently. Using the approach. 6742-53. In this paper. J. In this study we proposed a new approach to evaluate the performance of agricultural ecosystem in the whole China. The results illustrate that LAI measured with a LAI-2000 instrument at the VALERI Shandan 6742-52. Antwerpen (Belgium). Validation for another dataset with 24 sampling sites resulted a RMS error of • spie. established between field measured LAI and ETM+ NDVI. and slope directions. 6742-54. H. Tang. Due to its directly relating to soil moisture and heat flux characteristics. The field campaign LAI measurements in Shandan are scaled up to 30Å~30 m(c)˜ raster maps based on Landsat ETM+ imagery. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (China) Water and heat are two important factors governing dynamic changes of soil moisture available for crop growing in farmland. Though MODIS data contains 8 thermal bands for earth observation. depending on such ground conditions as vegetation cover. which is a typical inland arid ecosystem in western China. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (China) Agricultural ecosystem is a complicated system with various factors determining its functioning and performance. Reflectivity of these images was computed from their DN values for each band. but the intercept is 0. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute (China). it is possible to monitor the ecosystem performance spatially and dynamically for the entire China using MODIS remote sensing data. Univ. Generally speaking. we take the MODIS data extensively employed in agricultural drought monitoring as an example to present an applicable approach for land surface temperature retrieval. Considering key factors determining the functioning of agricultural ecosystem in a large scale.8 cm in the winter of 2005.66.55. especially how to fastly estimate the ground emissivity and atmospheric transmittance from other bands of the same scene MODIS data. Q. The results indicate that the performance of the agricultural ecosystem in general is very encouraging in the whole China. the depth reached maximum in January. T. Spatial variation of the snow depth was very obvious. Guangdong and Guangxi in spring and Chongqing in august. bands 31 and 32 are especially suitable for land surface temperature (LST) retrieval required by agricultural drought monitoring. indicating that the algorithm was able to provide an estimate of snow depth at an accuracy of 1. Bogaert. The MODIS LAI product correlates best with the ETM+ LAI transfer function obtained with NDVI data. Temporally. F. The up-scaled data are used to validate the MODIS LAI product at the Shandan site. the depth had a trend of gradually decreasing from north to south. After comparing their accuracy. we select two-factor split window algorithm for the retrieval. during July 2002 is based on the so-called “Valeri” protocol (VALERI). A linear regression model (LAI=0. Poster Session Validating the MODIS LAI product by scaling up LAI measurements at a VALERI alpine meadow site. In this paper we intend to develop an applicable approach for snow mapping in Northern Xinjiang Basin using MODIS. we analyzed correlation between the image reflectivity and the measured snow depth for the 80 sampling sites. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Qin. Then we discuss estimation of the algorithm’s essential parameters for LST retrieval.01). Che. M. hence become the basic indicators for agricultural drought monitoring. Qiu. Regression analysis is applied to construct empirical transfer functions for the determination of Leaf Area Index (LAI) raster imagery from ETM+ Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Simple Ratio (SR) data. We conducted field campaigns to measure snow depth of 80 sampling sites around 35 hydrology stations in the study region. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . Qiu. Currently this evaluation is mainly done through the models proposed on the basis of socioeconomic statistics data. Qin. we choose the following five indicators to develop a model for the evaluation: vegetation index.Conference 6742: Remote Sensing for Agriculture. Ceulemans. These factors indicate the performance and functioning of agricultural system and have been considered in the study as the key factors in evaluation of the system in a large scale. the scaling up of the LAI raster maps is performed by the aggregation of the 30x30 m(c)˜ data into 1Å~1 km(c)˜ pixels by calculating the average LAI values for the low resolution pixels. which suggests that MODIS LAI is systematically underestimated. Our study confirms that the applicability of the proposed approach for a rapid evaluation and monitoring of agricultural ecosystem performance in the entire China. 48 spie. Poster Session Snow mapping for water resource management using MODIS satellite data in Northern Xinjiang Basin. have low level of performance due to severe disasters. After retrieval. Poster Session A new approach to evaluate the performance of agricultural ecosystem using MODIS remote sensing data in China Z. soil type. Finally we applied the algorithm to the study region for snow mapping. for example.46. X. Its R2 reaches 0.63. L. we make a thorough analysis of the performance for various regions and present the detailed results in the study.1798*SR-0. Flemish Institute for Technological Research (Belgium). The results from our preliminary applications confirms the applicability of the proposed methodology in retrieving surface temperature parameters from MODIS data required for agricultural drought monitoring in China. its slope 0. land surface • spieeurope@spieeurope. J. Our study showed that the spatial and temporal variation of snow cover was very critical for water resource management in the arid inland region and MODIS satellite data provide an alternative for snow mapping through dedicate development of mapping algorithm suitable for local application. thermal remote senisng has been extensively applied to agricultural drought monitoring through soil water content estimation. Tang.3574. Gao. Li. we integrated the five indicators into a model with vegetation index and land surface temperature retrieved from MODIS data and precipitation index and disaster index from GIS database of agricultural statistics. P<0. Pei. Dong. Veroustraete. with fucos on algorithm selection. Performance of agricultural system of the entire China from March to October for every 10-days in 2006 has been evaluated in the study. H. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (China) Snow is the most important freshwater resource in Northern Xinjiang Basin. Geographical coordinates of the sampling sites were also recorded using a GPS device. elicits a high statistical significance. An algorithm had been developed on the basis of the correlation for snow mapping in the region. Evaluation of agricultural ecosystem performance has been an important academic area in recent decades.5216.97. Flemish Institute for Technological Research (Belgium) The sampling protocol adopted during a field campaign at an Alpine meadow site (Shandan site).3758*NDVI3. parameter determination. Ma. A power regression model (LAI=2. Qin. and Hydrology 6742-51. from east to west and from the surroundings to the center. Only a few regions within specific period of time. With the development of space technology.01) is established between field measured LAI and ETM+ SR. Geometric correction was done to the selected MODIS images of the study region for georeference registration to match the geographical coordinates of the sampling sites. R2=0. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute (China). Finally we conduct an experiment of applying the approach to China for LST retrieval in 2006. M. Gao. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute (China). the coldest month in the region. China M. and computation processes. R. (China). This limits the evaluation to a region as a unit without considering the spatial variation and temporal dynamics of the region. Taking the first 10-days of May as a case.

resolving power and lack of digital equipment. we validated the global snow retrieval algorithm from passive microwave brightness temperature data according to the snow depth observations of meteorological stations. though the snow cover on the north hemisphere has a week decreasing in past several decades. we modified the algorithm of global snow retrieval. the snow storage mainly distributed the South-eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Therefore.7302 in year 2002. Huang. the correlations between snow and elevation and topographical indexes also were discussed in this study. The monitoring results indicate a persistent greening trend exists. the comparisons to the MODIS and AMSR-E snow products also showed the good agreement with this study. Landset TM (30m) and ASTER (15) satellite image at daily time scale in this paper. Foliar nitrogen concentration at the anthesis stage is suggested to be significantly correlated with grain protein content. a statistical evaluation model of grain protein content was developed. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute (China) The arid and semi-arid regions in northwest China are the first or second-degree sensitivity zones for global change. which can make the snow retrieval complicated. The relationship between measured and remote sensing derived foliar nitrogen concentration had a coefficient of determination of R2=0. Institute of Atmospheric Physics (China) Evapotranspiration is an important role for water and energy exchange in land-atmosphere interactions. Poster Session Becoming a near-infrared-sensitive aerial archaeologist G. frozen ground. The snow flow chart only needs the passive microwave brightness temperature. But scale influences on the spatial expression of evapotranspiration strongly because of the grid nature of remote sensing • spieeurope@spieeurope. Poster Session Managing grain protein content by remote sensing in winter wheat W. The results mentioned above indicate that the inversion of foliar nitrogen concentration and the evaluation of grain protein content by NRI are surprisingly good. Edienne and Martin). the snow storage on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau had shown a likely increasing trend. for Information Technology (China) Advanced site-specific determination of grain protein content by remote sensing can provide opportunities to optimize the strategies for purchasing and pricing grain. National Engineering Research Ctr. Zhang. By validating estimated evapotranspiration using observed data from several meteorological stations over the Heihe River Basin. Poster Session Precipitation controlled the greening trend in northwest China from 1982-2003 M. The precipitation is the primary drivers for inter-annual vegetation changes and is also a strong predictor of regional spatial patterns of NDVI. aerial archaeologists (i. The NDVI is sensitive to precipitation and its sensitivity decreases with increasing precipitation. northwest China. which covered the all of SMMR and SSM/I periods.Conference 6742: Remote Sensing for Agriculture. L. Furthermore. China were mapping and downscaling using the based-on SVM downscaling approach and the daily evapotranspiration estimation algorithm in this research respectively. For obtaining the time sires data of snow on the Qinghai-Tibet • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 49 . However. Landset TM and ASTER remote sensed image D. Vegetation is a mediator in climate and climate change as well. We used the flow chart to retrieve the time sires snow datasets from 1978 to 2006. Armstrong. Univ. Che. the results show that the based-on SVM approach provide a promising alternative for statistic downscaling of daily evapotranspiration over the watershed scale. Based on the relationships among nitrogen reflectance index (NRI). T. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute (China). A plausible cause for the systematic underestimation related with the LAI field measurements is discussed. cold desert. a specimen which takes oblique imagery from a low flying aircraft of various anomalies that could indicate an archaeological entity) use(d) film when studying their objects in the near infrared (NIR) range (some examples are . and grain protein content. An integrated and easy-to-handle algorithm was developed to estimate daily evapotranspiration from multiple satellite sensors. Optical remote sensing imagery became a promising data source to acquire spatial information of evapotranspiration with the estimation algorithms becoming maturity over the last few decades. the spatiotemporal variations of snow were analyzed in detail. Poster Session A based-on support vector machine (SVM) downscaling approach for evapotranspiration retrieved from MODIS. R. Y. A based-on support vector machine (SVM) approach was proposed for statistic downscaling of evapotranspiration from MODIS (1000m). It had shown that the global snow depth algorithm had a visible overestimation on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Li. Precipitation also elicits a lag effect on the MNDVI with a phase of one year at a yearly scale mainly in the mountainous regions. (China) and Institute of Atmospheric Physics (China). Strandberg.the work of Bradford.7279 in year 2003. foliar nitrogen concentration. X. In the spatial. A comprehensive scale intercomparison of remote sensed evapotranspiration retrieved from satellite image with different pixel resolutions was carried out and a higher degree of consistency between evapotranspiration retrieved from the higher-resolution satellite platforms (Landset TM and ASTER) was observed compare to one from MODIS image. even the use of colour infrared emulsions remained severely restricted till today due to some ignorance or a severe spie. According to the digital elevation model (DEM) data. R. Gent (Belgium) For reasons of cost. In the temporal.e. Field experiments were performed to study the relationship between grain quality indicators and foliar nitrogen concentration. Ecosystems. Zhao. Poster Session The spatiotemporal analysis of snow depth on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau based on passive microwave remotely-sensed data T.amongst others . Daily evapotranspiration over the Heihe River Basin located in northwest. in which the trapezoidal diagrams between surface temperature and fractional vegetation cover was to calculate the surface temperature-vegetation cover index and land surface moisture index. 6742-58. and Hydrology site leads to an underestimation of the MODIS LAI product. while spectral vegetation index is significantly correlated to foliar nitrogen concentration around the anthesis stage. Nanjing Univ. which dominates the snow mass in a whole. 6742-56. Verhoeven. Wang. A long time series (22 years) of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) NDVI data with 8x8 km(c)˜ spatial resolution were used to monitor the vegetation cover in the northwest China. J. 6742-60. Ma. NRI proved to be able to evaluate foliar nitrogen concentration with a coefficient of determination of R2= 0. Song. 6742-55. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute (China).org/ers • spie. X. and to maximize the grain output by adjusting field inputs. which is heterogeneous in spatial scale. On the other hand. Zhang. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute (USA). and established a snow retrieval flow chart by using a snow classification tree. of Colorado/Boulder (USA) It is well known that snow can play an important role in the climate change and water resources in the cold land process. W. For the accuracy assessment of the new method. Precipitation has a higher effect on the mountainous regions’ vegetation cover than on the oasis regions’ vegetation cover. such as precipitation. Jin. Solecki. 6742-57. Univ. we considered other scattering signals similar to the snow cover.

G. Session 1 Evaluation of the surface of objects by use of Minnaert constants H. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy). By analyzing the temporal satellite imageries and the observed meteorological and hydrologic data of the catchment. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (Netherlands). 25 as a filter. land cover characteristics and soil moisture from passive microwave observations. etc. M. the whole process of taking NIR photographs is much less of a cumber stone. J. forest type. 6742-62.not at least . Focused on remote sensing of vegetation on the earth. Bindi. a device which joins a helium balloon with a kite and is both smaller and more versatile than comparable lighter-than-air constructions. Relying on these data sets.supports more payload for its size when compared to ordinary aerostats. Such a film-based workflow is after all very error-prone. (USA) The objective of this study is to improve runoff models through the integration of satellite products. The Agriokalamin River area in Kissonerga Village in Paphos. Owe. the latter attached to a tether below the helikite and allowing to remotely control the NIR sensitive digital SLR. Li. The operation required the preliminary collection of several data layers to characterize the eco-climatic and forest features of the region. Univ.e. The calibrated versions of BIOME-BGC were then applied to produce respiration estimates for all regional forest surfaces during the study period. Session 1 Integration of ground and satellite data to simulate forest carbon budget on regional scale F. compare the advantages (and disadvantages) to normal archaeological aerial imaging (e. Poster Session The use of satellite remote sensing and GIS for assisting flood risk assessment: a case study of Agriokalamin Catchment area in Paphos-Cyprus D. monthly estimates of forest GPP were produced by means of a simplified. Ancillary information layers (meteorology. enhanced clarity of detail and visualization of stressed vegetation) as well as outline a basic approach of NIR image processing. we may be able to assess the potential of disease outbreak more precisely and consequently decrease the expenses of mitigation • • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . which allows to remotely acquire very detailed. M. 6742-61. M. The NPP and NEE values obtained were finally validated against ground measurements of accumulated woody biomass and net carbon exchange. Nile and the Mississippi. Ahmadian. it operates in stronger winds than traditional blimps and . and comprises of precipitation. of Technology (Iran) Satellite Technology is increasingly being used in monitoring environmental parameters. 6742-03. In addition. (Japan) Minnaert constants are calculated with the intensity of the light scattered from the surface of objects. this changed completely with the advent of digital cameras. The C-Fix photosynthesis estimates were finally integrated with BIOME-BGC simulated respirations in order to assess net forest carbon fluxes. K.Conference 6742: Remote Sensing for Agriculture. van de Vegte. degli Studi di Firenze (Italy). and Hydrology lack of knowledge about the subject and . Moreover. Aerts. Holmes. Using the helikite. In this regards some ground truth data has been collected and the work has so far shown promising progress. haze penetration. The results of this validation indicated that the methodology proposed is capable of producing accurate estimates of net forest carbon exchanges at regional scale. M. Mobasheri.N. de Moel. L. J. M. Chiba Univ. The Univ. NDVI-based parametric model. this study will show how the ADAGUC data platform can be used by the hydrological community. Chiesi. NPP. J. Remotely sensed data such as Landsat-5 TM and Quickbird image data have been used to track the urbanization near the catchment area. Toosi Univ. a simplified approach was applied which relies on the ratio of actual over potential tree volume as an indicator of forest distance from climax. To perform this operation. K. visible light) photography. H. Session 1 Integrating earth observation data in hydrological runoff models R.N. These GPP estimates were used to calibrate a well known bio-geochemical model.g. which describes the transformation of input (precipitation) and output (runoff and evapotranspiration) through this cycle. the author is able to successfully establish the concern for investigating and assessing all the catchment areas due to urbanization. the light reflected from leaves is measured. Such simulation was achieved for a region of Central Italy (Tuscany) by the integrated processing of ground and satellite data. the author will also present a specifically designed and build system. degli Studi di Firenze (Italy). determining the right exposure is not as straightforward as with conventional (i. Maselli. T. It calculates per grid cell a water balance. A. the additional lift through its wings . Bidirectional 50 spie. W. Hadjimitsis. Beck. S. In our work we introduce the most suitable techniques for the environmental parameters using 7ETM+ images applicable in the south of Iran around cities of Kahnooj and Minab in Kerman and Hormozgan provinces respectively. etc. Ecosystems. what the images look like. of Montana (USA) Simulating the main terms of forest carbon budget (GPP. The poster under consideration wants to show how NIR imagery can be taken easily with a converted digital camera. VGT and MODIS NDVI data. We use a hydrological model which is based upon a ‘multi-compartment’ methodology where the hydrological cycle of a drainage basin is described as a series of storage compartments and flows. Moriondo. The remote sensing technique has been used to quantify the actual increase in urban area over the past twenty years. 6742-01. Running. Monthly FAPAR estimates with 1 km resolution were obtained by processing AVHRR. volume. Fibbi. Some of these parameters are indicative of disease outbreak such as malaria. Vrije Univ. Satellite observations are assimilated into this hydrological model over a historical simulation time window and applied to several different large river basins. Amsterdam (Netherlands). a very stable and easily maintainable platform is created for a sturdy cradle. CFix. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy). This study clearly demonstrates the impact on the performance of stream flow simulations through the exploitation of additional information about the system. Okayama. Instead of using a kite. as the emulsions need to be stored cooled and developed by specialised labs directly after exposing them. Rezai. Several change detection techniques have been used to determine the urbanization factors. respirations. Univ. large scale NIR imagery. including the river Rhine. Cyprus University of Technology (Cyprus) The main aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing satellite remote sensing and GIS tools to assist assessment of the catchment area of Agriakalamin River located in Kissonerga Village in Paphos-Cyprus. H. The results of this study will encourage decision makers or the local authorities to consider land use planning as an effective nonstructural measure for flood risk • spieeurope@spieeurope. NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr.Toosi Univ. R. Valadan Zoej. this system makes use of an Allsopp helikite. de Jeu. M. a blimp or ordinary balloon. GPS has been used to locate in-situ the boundaries of the catchment area and finally GIS has been used to provide information regarding the geological and town planning characteristics of the area under investigation. of Technology (Iran).the critical imaging process. Y.) were derived from existing sources. Finally. A remote sensing simulator is used in an experimental room with a halogen lamp as an optical source and a Wratten gelatin filter No. Moreover. in order to find its best configurations to simulate all main functions (photosynthesis. By boosting the level of accuracy in determination of environmental parameters using satellite imageries. The satellite data flow is facilitated by the Atmospheric Data Access to the Geospatial User Community (ADAGUC) web servers.) of the most widespread forest species in Tuscany.Cyprus has been chosen as the study area. C. However. As their sensors are very sensitive to infrared radiation. 6742-02. Poster Session Recognition of high risk regions of Malaria incidence using 7ETM+ data A. R. H. M. BIOME-BGC. NEE) is important for both scientific and practical reasons. allocations.

both at local and global scale. M. M. scaling the retrieval problem at canopy level can be problematic. The Fire component of RISK-EOS feature two main services: the Burn Scar Mapping (BSM) service that provides some seasonal mapping of forests and semi-natural burned areas at high spatial resolution (minimum mapping unit of 3 to 5 ha). and has 36 spectral spie. and more generally in Mediterranean Europe. A previous investigation demonstrated that MODIS reflectance data can be successfully used to retrieve both EWT and FMC at leaf level. either static or dynamic. which is defined as the weight of liquid water per unit of leaf surface. These burned areas estimated are used in dynamic global vegetation models.7 micron channel on-board the ATSR instrument series hosted by the ERS-2 and ENVISAT satellites. The service will feature global estimates of burned areas amongst other variables from 1998 to 2007. Istituto per i Sistemi Agricoli e Forestali del Mediterraneo (Italy). 6742-04. The study has been directed towards the obtainment of the following products: a) fuel types map applicable to alpine and sub-alpine ecosystems: the map is obtained through the application of supervised classification techniques and spectral analysis methodologies at subpixel level on multispectral images. di Donna. based on dynamic models able to represent the influence in the space and the time that outside variables and the vegetable physiology have on the fuel features and so on the potential fire behaviour. derived from Earth Observation sensors (ERS-2 ATSR-2. and its retrieval from remote sensing measurements might be problematic. and the Regional Fire Monitoring (RFM) service that provides near real time observation of active fires. The night time fire occurrences are derived from the 3. and in this context fire risk mapping is an invaluable tool. therefore. and Hydrology reflectance from two kinds of leaves with different degrees of roughness is measured to obtain their Minnaert constants. Session 2 ESA activities related to fire: ATSR World Fire Atlas. vegetation moisture plays a key role. Paganini. G. However. RISK-EOS O. the global parameters were chosen in such a manner to represent a larger variety of both vegetation properties and acquisition geometries. G. I. The WFA consists of 12 years of coherent and consistent data sets. in successfully estimating FMC. The fire risk estimation has been. Maffei. Calabrò. Meoli. Univ. The ATSR World Fire Atlas (WFA) project started in late 1995 and is still running today. A smooth transition from the ERS-2 ATSR2 to the ENVISAT AATSR has been performed in January 2003 and the quality of the WFA products continuity verified. Seven channels at 500 m ground resolution have been designed for land applications in the reflective domain. Mediterranean Agency for Remote Sensing (Italy).60) can still be achieved for lower vegetation cover density (1<LAI<2). Biomass burning reduces carbon fixation in terrestrial vegetation. Among them. degli Studi della Basilicata (Italy) Winter fires represent a remarkable damage for a few European countries characterized by continental climate and complex orography. Many authors have demonstrated the role of remote sensing in the assessment of vegetation equivalent water thickness (EWT). forest fire danger models use the fuel moisture content (FMC) as a measure of vegetation • spie. and NOAAAVHRR. FMC is defined as the ratio of the weight of the liquid water in a leaf over the weight of dry matter. SPOT-VEGETATION. b) fire danger map applicable to alpine and sub-alpine ecosystems: the map is obtained through the application of indices of fire risk on multispectral images with high temporal resolution. such as Landsat TM. Louis Pasteur (France) Forest fires are one of the major environmental issues in large areas of Central and Southern Italy. The distribution of the ATSR WFA products will be thoroughly analysed in this paper and a synthesis of the work performed by more than 900 registered users will be presented. Consultant (Italy) During the past few years. with the objective to establish a network of European service providers for the provision of geo-information services in support to the risk management of meteorological hazards (floods and fires). wavebands ranging from the visible through the thermal infrared wavelengths. The aim of this research is to evaluate the potential of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) in retrieving both EWT and FMC. and the SAILH model was adopted to simulate the top of the canopy reflectance. the European Space Agency has launched several projects related to forest fires from global to local scales. Results showed the effectiveness of the higher number of infrared reflective channels of the MODIS system. The ATSR WFA products are available in near real time since May 2006. It provides the longest time series ever produced on the global distribution of active fires. Arino. A. The PROSPECT radiative transfer code was used to simulate leaf reflectance and transmittance as a function of leaf properties. and space-borne and airborne remote sensing can be very effective to this end. since more sources of variability may hinder the signal due to water in the leaf tissues. Leone. 6742-06. P. particularly over land. A tool is needed to allow a timely detection of such forest conditions. • spieeurope@spieeurope. Lanorte. Higher results (R2\>0. The premier action against fires is prevention. The Minnaert constants for leaves with a smoother surface are larger than 1 (Lambertian surface) and those with a rougher surface are smaller than 1. The ATSR WFA products were validated first in 1998 with the support of IGBP and more recently by extensive comparisons with existing data sets on forest fires events. Mediterranean Agency for Remote Sensing (Italy). compared with the that of the SPOT-VEGETATION. GlobCarbon. Istituto per i Sistemi Agricoli e Forestali del Mediterraneo (Italy). Two sets of simulation parameters were used. However our current knowledge of these spatial and temporal patterns is uncertain. The parameter that mostly affects the estimation is leaf area index (LAI). European Space Agency/ESRIN (Italy). The GlobCarbon project started in early 2003 with the objective to develop a service for the production of multi-year / multisensors global level 3 Land products to be used as input to carbon assimilation models. Various multi-spectral systems have been reported to be useful. while acceptable results (R2\>0. They usually strike mature conifer woods or mixed woods placed in alpine and subalpine areas far from big water surfaces and hard accessible from fireproof vehicles. Ecosystems. One of the bio-geophysical parameters that the GlobCarbon project aims to measure is the fully calibrated estimate of the burned areas quasi-independent of the original satellite sensor. Istituto per i Sistemi Agricoli e Forestali del Mediterraneo (Italy) and Univ. for both PROSPECT and SAILH: the site specific parameters were chosen to represent the possible variations of vegetation properties in Southern Italy. Understanding the spatial and temporal variation in carbon fluxes is essential to constrain models that predict climate change. Session 2 Satellite-based fire danger estimation for winter fire occurrence A. Session 2 Retrieval of canopy moisture content for dynamic fire risk assessment using simulated MODIS bands C.78) are achieved for LAI\>2. Menenti. The possible water freezing of fire putting out means and the limited day light time make arduous the possibilities of facing the winter fires. based on middle resolution satellite 6742-05. The MODIS system is carried on board of EOS Terra and Aqua satellites. Istituto di Metodologie per l’Analisi Ambientale (Italy).Conference 6742: Remote Sensing for Agriculture. while risk of soil erosion increases in burned areas. given its dependence on two independent biophysical properties. ENVISAT AATSR and SPOT VEGETATION). a central component of the IGBP-IHDP-WCRP Global Carbon Cycle Joint Project. since forests susceptibility to fire increases with increasing plant water stress and biomass dryness. Various • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 51 . contribute to the definition of fire risk. In our research we tried to understand to which extend the structural properties of the canopy affect the retrieval of vegetation moisture parameters under the MODIS acquisition geometry. Finally the RISK-EOS project started in 2003 under the framework of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative. The study’s main objective is to support the responsible organisms in taking decisions in the preventive and operating phases of management fire during the winter season providing a dynamic fire risk representation.

VGT-NDVI data acquired for both fire-affected and fire-unaffected vegetational covers were analysed using the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) proposed by Peng et al. In this study. L. Dept. a scaling behavior of two classes of vegetation (burned and unburned) has been revealed. Session 2 Estimating fire-induced variability in vegetation covers by using SPOT-VGT time series R. The estimations of fire induced variability can be effectively approached by using satellite data. P. which allows the detectin of long-range power-law correlations in signals possibly characterized by nonstationarity.S. Thus. L.2’N.. Session 3 A novel approach for satellite retrieval of surface evapotranspiration Y. Session 2 Detection of small fire-affected areas by satellite data in Tuscany region C. L. F. The resulting errors in fluxes between native versus sharpened TIR used by the TSEB model will be discussed as well as differences in aggregated fluxes applying the TSEB model with coarse versus high resolution TIR data.Red)/(NIR+ Red)]. Results from our analysis point out that the persistence of vegetation dynamics is significantly increased by the occurrence of fires. given an accuracy of land surface temperature within ± 2 degrees. This result points out to the role played by fires in driving a more unstable vegetation patterns for burned areas. and NDWI [obtained using the NDWI= (SWIR. The reflectance-based crop coefficient method relates a reflectance-based vegetation index such as 52 • spie. Therefore. using the LANDSAT Thematic • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . Institute of Biometerology (Italy). 6742-13.Red)/(SWIR+ Red)] were analyzed to perform a dynamical characterization of burned and unburned vegetation covers. Lanorte. Agam. pre. Istituto di Metodologie per l’Analisi Ambientale (Italy) Fires are considered one of the most important causes of land degradation since they induce significant alterations in short as well as long-term vegetation dynamics. The estimated scaling exponents of both classes suggest a persistent character of the vegetation dynamics. Based on energy balance principle. but determination of the triangular function is often subjective. Bonara. (1995). M. In particular. (Japan) Reliable retrieval of land surface evapotranspiration from satellite data still remains as a challenging task to date. Session 3 Potential errors in the application of thermalbased energy balance models with coarse resolution data W.Conference 6742: Remote Sensing for Agriculture. Kustas. a great number of small fires affect areas of few hectares each. Nevertheless. Istituto di Biometeorologia (Italy) In Italy. But. as well as errors in regional-scale estimates and on validation using flux tower observations will be discussed. In this work. soil heat flux. we used the proposed approach to estimate latent heat and sensible heat fluxes. specifically on the next proposed Landsat platform. surface emissivity. the simplicity and clarity of the proposed approach make it highly valuable to remote sensing. 240 m and ~1 km resolution to assess potential model errors and inability to discriminate fluxes from individual fields with the coarser resolution data. González Dugo. The paper will provide a synthesis of the RISK-EOS products validation and utility reports collected during the 2006 summer season. Li. we proposed a novel approach to estimating surface evapotranspiration. at the same time.and post-fire Landsat-ETM images have been used to characterize the ability of some spectral indices used as binary classifiers to detect small fire affected areas. The implications of having no Earth observing TIR satellite system with resolutions similar to Landsat for modeling surface fluxes. land surface temperature. 107. Lasaponara. the crucial problem is that of automatically locating the presence of fire scar on the territory. M. MODIS). National Research Council of Italy (Italy). Indeed. which indicates an efficient fire-induced vegetation recovery processes The methodology approached in the present study could be fruitfully applied to investigate other types of vegetation stresses. uncertainty analysis revealed that the overall uncertainty in the estimates would be within ± 30W/m2. U. of Agriculture (USA) Two common approaches for estimating crop evapotranspiration (ET) using satellite imagery are the reflectance-based crop coefficient method and the energy balance method. Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (Spain). M. Instituto de Investigación y Formación Agraria y Pesquera (Spain). P. and surface air temperature. 6742-08. The produced results agreed surprisingly well with that of field observation. of Agriculture (USA) A thermal infrared (TIR)-based two-source (soil + vegetation) energy balance (TSEB) model validated with remotely sensed imagery over a wide variety of landscapes is applied to an agricultural region with significant variability in vegetation cover and soil moisture conditions. China (35. an accurate operational mapping of fire affected areas by satellite needs the employement of methods able to recognize the presence of both the large burnt areas and the small or very small ones. which features most of the observational and experimental • spieeurope@spieeurope. a large percentage of the total forested area burned every year is affected by few fires of large size but. in particular to discriminate between pixels corresponding to burnt and non-burnt areas in the Tuscany Region.S. Nagoya Univ. Neale. water use and crop/vegetation stress for distinct land cover types. N. U. and Hydrology data (AQUA/TERRA MODIS and MSG SEVIRI). The triangular approach takes advantages of the spatial texture relationship between surface temperature and vegetation index. over large territories. and this makes it hard to use for long-term change and global-scale studies. The DFA is a well-known methodology. Kustas. a demonstration project for the yearly mapping of burned areas in Italy. semiarid tableland in the mid-south of the Loess Plateau. the possibility to derive by satellite data a map of burnt areas at regional or national scale which includes also small burnt areas is of great importance for the choice of suitable environmental management policies. In general. Mateos.g. Session 3 A hybrid approach for estimating spatial evapotranspiration from satellite imagery C. 6742-10. Utah State Univ. A methodology for sharpening TIR data from coarser resolutions as a means of obtaining higher resolution thermal imagery will also be described and compared to the native resolution data. SPOT VEGETATION temporal series (1998 to 2005) of NDVI [obtained using the NDVI= (NIR. the burned sites show much larger exponents than those calculated for the unburned sites. Furthermore. When the task of locating burnt areas must be carried out periodically on large areas of varying characteristics as the Tuscany Region (Italy). R. 6742-07. To verify the approach. U. 6742-11. reducing as much as possible the number of false alarms. The retrieval approach that based on the contemporary theory of evaporation involves the complicated parameterization. The RISK-EOS BSM service builds on the achievements of ITALSCAR. The TSEB model uses sub-field TIR pixel data (60 m) from Landsat ETM aggregated to 120 m. Their efficiency was evaluated with regard to commission and omission errors as a function of the threshold value. of pixels that are erroneously flagged as burnt area. of areas of very few hectares affected by small fires. The necessary inputs are net radiation. Liu. up to now very little attention has been paid to the recognition and analysis. Ecosystems. W.7’E). equilibrium evaporation. Telesca. Conese. Carla. A. Anderson. Using the field data at a height of 2-m. P. we used available field data obtained on a flat. The motivation for this study stems from the fact that there are no definitive plans for supporting any future satellite-based high resolution (~100 m) TIR sensor. Dept. A flux and radiation observation system (FROS) was used to accurately measure radiation components and turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer. To this aim. in the near future only km-scale TIR data will be available from satellite sensors (e. and non-equilibrium thermodynamics. (USA). that is.

A time-series of remotely sensed inputs is then used to build the crop coefficient curve in each field being monitored. this ratio depends primarily on the Fresnel reflection coefficients for the two polarizations while the impact of surface roughness factors out of the cross section ratio. LVCI.Conference 6742: Remote Sensing for Agriculture. Sensitivity analyses indicated the conversion coefficient was most important in the canopy derived parameterization. Mainly it is used solving the direct problem and obtaining a model of the studied medium. Using the high frequency. backscatter b(λ). Velocity was obtained by measuring the two-way travel time of the reflected wave and comparing wave reflected amplitudes on the surface of the samples.. 6742-15. Ground meteorological data must be provided by a weather station located in the modeled area for the estimation of reference ET. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 53 . Politecnica de Cataluña (Spain) Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a high resolution remote sensing in-situ surveying method applied to civil engineering. Interesting results were obtained correlating the conductivity with the attenuation. 6742-19. this ratio approaches one. surface temperatures are used in the estimation of sensible heat fluxes and depending on the complexity of the model. In a third model parameterization. Remotely sensed inputs are also used for the estimation of net radiation and soil heat flux. spie. the ratio of the cross sections are also independent of the surface roughness. together with the mineral composition and the conductivity. A canopy scale model parameterization incorporated diffuse canopy absorption. and attenuation α(λ) coefficients. In these soil samples. Bostater. Leaf and canopy properties shape reflectance signatures through wavelength dependent absorption. and Hydrology the soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) to ET basal crop coefficients such as those described by Wright (1982) and the FAO 56 manual (Allen et al. archaeology and other disciplines. It is shown that the corresponding polarization dependent rough surface cross sections are stationary over a wide range of the variational parameters. Composition was obtained with a DRX analysis and conductivity was determined with a Wenner dispositive. L. a(λ). R. scattering. The ratio of the cross sections are to a degree dependent on the surface • spie. and canopy depth h (m). LAI and bottom reflectance did not rank high on the normalized sensitivity scale results obtained from model simulations of canopy reflectance. Leaf moisture and pigment influences on above canopy reflectance Ra (λ) were incorporated through the diffuse leaf absorption and backscatter coefficients using estimates of chemical specific absorption a*(λ)(m2g-1) and backscatter b*(λ)(m2g-1). the vertically and horizontally polarized cross sections are critically dependent on polarization for large angles of incidence. of Nebraska/Lincoln (USA) The determination of soil moisture content is often based on the measurements of the ratio of the vertically and horizontally polarized cross sections for large angles of incidence. González-Drigo. Thus for highly conducting moisture saturated soils. R. The energy balance approach results in the actual ET being estimated directly. A variational technique is used to decompose the surface height spectral density function into surface height spectral density functions for the larger and smaller scale surfaces. canopy depth (h).org/esd • spieeurope@spieeurope. In order to obtain actual ET. leaf absorption and backscatter and canopy depth were most important. Attenuation coefficients were determined from the analysis of the amplitude of the wave travelling in different thickness samples. Using a two scale full wave approach. The above results are placed within the context for ecosystem monitoring needs. the cross section are expressed as a weighted sum of a physical optics cross section for the larger scale surface and a cross section for the smaller scale surface that is modulated by the slopes of the larger scale surface. attenuation and frequency of the recorded wave. Session 4 Analysis of the attenuation in soils and water content in remote sensing in-situ surveying V. a water balance must be maintained in the root zone of the crop in order to make the appropriate adjustments due to soil moisture deficits and wet soil surface from irrigation and/or rain. In the leaf derived parameterization. porosity and water content were measured and controlled. the study of the inverse problem could provide other valuable information: the electromagnetic parameters which characterize the medium. 6742-17. even for perfectly conducting rough surfaces. Di Capua. velocities and wave attenuation were analysed in the different cases in order to characterize those different media and to relate its water content and its porosity with these measured parameters. proportional to the mean square height. leaf moisture and pigments. Jr. An analytical radiative transfer model was parameterized for use with plant canopies using a hierarchical approach using three models with increasing numbers of variables. The standard hybrid two scale physical optics-perturbation approach depends critically upon the decomposition of the composite surface into smaller and larger scale surfaces and the smaller scale surface is restricted to small Releigh roughness parameters. Ecosystems. solar beam to diffuse conversion c(λ). and attenuation α(λ) coefficients. (USA). G. the water content and the porosity. C. small height/slope perturbation model of the earth’s surface. and attenuation processes. twosource model. This paper describes a hybrid approach that uses both methods in combination to monitor actual ET over a growing season for irrigated and non-irrigated crops. with latent heat flux (ET) obtained as a residual from the energy balance equation. The model has been coded in an ArcGIS environment. A leaf volume correction index (LVCI) was developed and demonstrated to translate the leaf scale data to the canopy level. Dynamac Corp. The experimental results were also compared with a theoretical CRIM model of soil. using visual basic for the calculations. Pérez-Gracia. 1998). Session 4 Soil moisture content of composite rough surfaces based on a variational technique to distinguish between the larger and smaller scale surface spectral density functions E. Pujades. leaf area index (LAI). The canopy reflectance is influenced by projected foliage cover (PFC). the velocity and the water content. backscatter b(λ). SEBAL model). There is ample experimental evidence that neither the physical optics nor the small perturbation models are adequate. surface geology. mainly. beam to diffuse conversion c(λ). D. Session 4 Parameterization and sensitivity analyses of an analytical irradiance radiative transfer model for plant canopies: implications for ecosystem monitoring needs C. Frequencies. conversion. Florida Institute of Technology (USA) An objective of remote sensing is determination of biochemical and biophysical characteristics of plant canopies utilizing high spectral resolution sensors. These parameters are obtained from the changes of the velocity. R. Several lab experiences were carried out in order to obtain these parameters from different soil samples. the LVCI was decomposed into LAI. physical optics model of the earth’s surface. However using the standard perturbation model. Using the low frequency. Testing of model results against measured energy balance fluxes using eddy covariance energy balance systems will be presented. A leaf scale model parameterization incorporated leaf absorption a (λ). where the cross sections could be significantly different. Bahar. leaf thickness (Lh). The physical properties related to those wave parameters are. Univ. Applying the small perturbation approach to highly conducting rough surfaces. the ratio of the horizontally to vertically polarized cross sections approaches zero for grazing angles of incidence. Instantaneous values of ET must be extrapolated to the entire day and over time in between satellite overpass inputs. leaf thickness adjusted of zenith angle distribution. In the energy balance approach. zenith leaf angle distribution (LAD). different methods are used to either handle the aerodynamic temperature term or deal with sparse canopies (empirical approaches. Otherwise. Hall.

South Africa. Segmentation (multi-resolution/hierarchical algorithm) of a lidarderived canopy height model was performed in order to derive areas with homogeneous structural properties. accurate and cost-effective way. laser pulse returns are used to derive canopy structural and physical variables. The crop yields for state and county levels were assessed for four years (2003-06). however were within 20% of the USDA estimates. even-aged Eucalyptus plantations in Kwazulu-Natal. Laser scanner technology provides an efficient tool for the generation of physical models. The implementation of the approaches into an operative routine using E. für Bodenkultur Wien (Austria). The work was based on hyperspectral data acquired by the optical airborne instrument CASI in the framework of ESA AgriSAR 2006 campaign in the agricultural area Demmin. van Aardt. acquired within the campaign on wheat. 6742-21. which produces insufficient grain for its population. 6742-23. this method may not be practical for operational applications and at large scales. Ariespace s. and how structure affects indicator • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . was important in the first instance. 0. and Hydrology 6742-20. The second question pertains to the spectral variability found in structurally homogenous even-aged. (Italy). Roberts. there is still a gap in using field-scale models for predicting yields at regional scales. This study focused on the major corn and soybean production states of Iowa and Illinois in the U. but also. Inc. R. Session 4 Vegetation canopy structural and physical variability based on radiometric and laser analysis J. corn and sugar beet crops. W. satellite ‘Sentinel’ developed by ESA in the framework of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security). County level estimates were not as well correlated. indices. Crop yield simulation models have shown great success in predicting crop yields at field and small scales. The combined radiative transfer model PROSAILH. Session 5 Potential use of MODIS imagery for operational crop yield assessment P. Corn Belt. including PROSPECT (at leaf level) and SAILH (at canopy level) was inverted by using three different algorithms: a traditional iterative optimization technique. and also to Japan. Univ.g. A. The remote sensing method is a bottom-up approach and the USDA’s estimate for county level is a topdown approach and may attribute to the differences in yield estimates. G. Earth Observation (E. Y. The quality of the canopy parameter estimation was evaluated using ground measurements. This addresses the question of complimentarity between spectral and structural data sets in such forest environments. However. which mimic the integrated response found in waveform lidar sensors. Honda. with their still-growing populations. Structural characterisation of segments were performed by comparing first and second return distributions. Stern. even-aged eucalyptus plantations using lidar and multi-spectral high resolution data J. Ecosystems. leaf chlorophyll content and soil water levels. The state yield estimates were closely correlated with the USDA’s assessment. structural and geometric information of the vegetation canopy. In this study. Session 5 Evaluation of different physical based methods for retrieving crop characteristics by using high resolution airborne data K. Session 5 Crop yield monitoring based on a photosynthetic sterility model using NDVI and daily meteorological data D. The degree with which indicators derived from multi-spectral data. such as leaf area index. Timely and accurate assessment of crop yields is important for USDA’s operational program. The study objectives • spieeurope@spieeurope. in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. 33 kHz pulse rate) and ASTER and Ikonos multispectral data were used in this study. U. however. was exploited by comparing different physical algorithms for parameter estimation. Grain production monitoring would support orderly crisis 6742-22. height. so often used for the interpreation of radiation characteristics.r. Matsue National College of Technology (Japan) This research is intended to develop a model to monitor rice yields using the photosynthetic yield index. could be used to describe the structural nature of and differences among various segment classes. Doraiswamy. Classification accuracy for corn and soybean crop were found to be within 80-85 % of the Landsat-based classification. Science Systems and Applications. which integrates solar radiation and air temperature effects on photosynthesis and grain-filling from heading to ripening. Dept.S. Kaneko.S. Kajiwara. Results will be presented at the conference. Session 4 Investigating structural-spectral interactions in managed. (USA). Small-footprint light detection and ranging (lidar. Integrating MODIS derived parameters with crop yield simulation models were successful for small-scale. in a rapid. e.O. Richter. data for agricultural land monitoring is discussed. does not only provide reflection properties associated with the distribution of the energy received by the plants. (Japan) A comprehensive vegetation monitoring and/or management involve detailed understanding of the distribution of energy among plant components of this vegetation. a simple and fast look-up-table (LUT) approach and a global search routine similar to genetic algorithms. C. the main energy source here is solar radiation.Conference 6742: Remote Sensing for Agriculture. B. of Agriculture (USA) Monitoring crop condition and yields at regional scales remains a challenge. density and roughness of trees) and their horizontal extension (e. K. Ground-based sampling for assessment of crop yields at regional and national scales require enormous 54 spie. F.S. D’Urso. airborne multispectral radiation data and. The performance of airborne imagery for the determination of within-field variability of canopy parameters. Dim.2 mrad footprint. A. crown width). 6742-24. The study aimed at evaluating promising methods for the estimation of canopy parameters to provide future algorithms for the upcoming E. Chiba Univ.g. U. Imagery from the MODIS sensor onboard the Terra satellite offers an excellent opportunity for daily coverage at 250 m resolution.. Univ.) technologies provide a valuable data base for the monitoring of crop and soil characteristics on a large scale. Advanced processing laser techniques give information about the vertical structure of canopies ( • spie. monoculture forest stands. homogeneous. Combining radiometric and laser scanner data. Germany.O. a) develop a decision tree classification algorithm to separate the crops during the crop season and b) evaluate a crop yield algorithm based on NDVI and surface temperature data from MODIS Terra. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (South Africa) The main goal of this research was to investigate the structuralspectral interactions that exist in managed. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of the vegetation 2-dimensional canopy structure on the distribution of solar radiation among plants of a forest area. resources. ALTM 3033 two-return laser system. And. Dept. degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy) In the context of sustainable agricultural production. Akhmedov. Eucalypts plantations used in this study range between four and ten years old. Specific implications relate to the use and interpretation of widely accepted forest state indicators. of Agriculture (USA). The reflectanceprocessed multi-spectral data were used to (i) characterise the structural differences among different sets of homogeneous segments and (ii) determine the contribution of structural variability to spectral responses. Vuolo. Monitoring crop production using remotely sensed and daily meteorological data can provide an important early warning of poor crop production to Asian countries. The results obtained show that laser retrieved canopy height and other structural data can be used for the selection of the most appropriate configuration of radiation measurements in future airborne missions and optimization of canopy characteristics.l. Lidar and multi-spectral data were collected during the spring season of 2006.

and hightemperature injury by incorporating: solar radiation.. under contrasting soil moisture conditions and for establishing relationship between vegetation indices and LAI. We follow five plots covering over 1. W. More specifically. Das. Geophys.. The method is based on routine observation data. which are facing climate fluctuation that can be expected to continue through this century of global warming. DLR NDVI map time series. T. imswww/pub/imswelcome/ [3] Dech. which gives a percentage of rice yields compared to normal annual production. F. German. R. Climatol. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 55 . 6742-25. Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI) etc. D. Chorti. Hristopulos. ii) a systematic increase over the Apennines up to 6%. Union Eos. In the vegetative growth stage the leaves are primarily scattering elements. Session 5 Spectral radiance characteristics and vegetation indices of crops in relation to growth stages and leaf area index H.. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission produces a wealth of data. 6742-26. The author improved a photosynthesis-and-sterility based crop production CPI index to crop yield index highlights climate change processes going on in the Mediterranean: temperature mitigation facilitates “robust” vegetation as is found in uplands and mountains (conifer stands. Several scientists studied the relation between LAI and different vegetation indices like Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI).. The results show the presence of different vegetation change patterns such as: i) a degradation in several flat areas with variations up to -1%. 1997. 3-8 Aug. water stress monitoring. Experimental results revealed that there exists a good relationship between reflectance in red and near infrared bands and crop growth • spie. 1505-1508. German Aerospace Center (DLR). Meisner. which match with temperature trends in the winter months in the last ten years [5]. maize etc.. Session 5 Spatial vegetation variation patterns in southern Italy as detected by AVHRR and MODIS observations G. 1984. LAI is a very useful estimate for various purposes. Technical Univ. estimation of leaf area index and crop acreage estimation. 2000.gsfc. India Meteorological Dept. Amer. F. while. 81. NASA. Proc.Conference 6742: Remote Sensing for Agriculture. Int. M. and the IKONOS satellite image in 2001.. M. especially in flat areas. and Nanni. 1993.html [2] Earth Observing System Data Gateway. T. Maugeri. p. These results may help to explore the possibility of using satellite data for identification of state and stage of crops. S. Quarta. Popp. MODIS NDVI are radiometrically. G. 583-585. and the effect of temperature on photosynthesis by grain plant leaves.000 tree individuals.dlr. and we apply a novel method of anisotropy analysis to search for possible anisotropy in the size distribution. Optical reflectance of crops is determined by the interaction of solar radiation with crop canopy. and Hydrology management to maintain food security in Asia. sunflower.. Mediterranean maquis).. Temperature and Precipitation Variability in Italy in the last two centuries from homogenised instrumental time series. It has also been found that RVI is a better predictor of LAI during the early stage of growth while NDVI is a better predictor during the latter part of groth as compared to other vegetation indices. The amount and characteristics of reflectance from leaf surfaces are affected by structure and orientation of plant leaves. Gesell. v. Crop acreage estimation for sorghum has also been carried out for same districts of Maharashtra during the recent past. which estimates rice yields. M. crop condition monitoring and crop yield modeling. REFERENCES [1] Earth Observation on the Web. URL: http://taurus.W.caf. We use a combination of aerial photographs and satellite images in four snapshots covering 37 years to investigate the temporal behavior in addition to the spatial distribution at a single time. Monti. Conte.. in general. Operational generation of AVHRRbased level-3 products at the German Remote Sensing Data Centre: status and perspectives. making use of a 2-D correlation analysis. South Africa. atmospherically and geometrically corrected but are only available since 2002. Aim of this study is to emphasize changes occurred in “biomass production” in the last decade by analyzing vegetation behaviour during the growing seasons. which removes winter months from the analysis. These findings. T. The interaction processes between solar radiation and crop canopy have been extensively studied from late sixties and it has been shown that canopy reflectance is highly related to crop variables such as Leaf Area Index (LAI) as a fraction of ground • spieeurope@spieeurope. URL: http://delenn. in place of the crop situation index CSI. plant foliation in the autumn-winter period is strongly affected by sudden drops in temperature and by human activities. Weighted Difference Vegetation Index (WDVI). The model calculates photosynthesis rates including biomass effects. obtained from remotely-sensed data A. Keeping these in view. G.000 ha and over 13. 6742-27. F. T. 1997. The method oversees the quantity of grain in production at an early stage to raise the alarm in Asian countries. viz. Pune using hand-held multiband Ground Truth Radiometer (GTR) for studying reflectance characteristics of different crops like groundnut. normalized difference vegetation index NDVI. of data pertaining to the size of trees (in terms of canopy surface area) obtained by means of remote sensing methods. enabling automated monitoring of crop production at arbitrary regions without special observations.. P. which start in 1995. Marra.nasa. The low reflectance (and transmittance) in the visible region is due to absorption by leaf pigments. The aerial photographs were taken in 1964. present significant artificial anomalies as no atmospheric and anisotropic reflection corrections are applied to the data [3]. This approach. low-temperature sterility. 4. improves the quality of the results as during winter vegetation exhibits a stationary behaviour and NDVI data are less significant because of a larger presence of clouds and snow.G. India Meteorological Department. of Crete (Greece) We propose using geostatistical methods for the spatial analysis spie. IGARSS ’97. The correlation between vegetation change pattern and terrain elevation derived from SRTM topographic data [4] was also investigated. On the contrary. N. Istituto di Scienze dell’Atmosfera e del Clima (Italy) Spatial variations of vegetation cover in Southern Italy were analyzed for the years 1995-2005. Moustakas. Ecosystems. and (v) atmospheric transmittance. LAI could also be estimated with reasonable accuracy for irrigated and water-stressed crops using relationship between LAI and different vegetation indices. (India) ABSTRACT The spectral reflectance of crop and other vegetation mainly depends upon (i) leaf optical properties (ii) canopy geometry (iii) back ground soil (iv) solar illumination and zenith angle. deciduous stands and. Our plots are located in the Southern Kalahari savanna near the city of Kimberley. Session 5 Geostatistical analysis of tree-size distributions in the Southern Kalahari. Vol. The analysis was carried out using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) time series from NOAA AVHRR images retrieved from DLR/EOWEB archives [1] and corrected using an “ad-hoc” method which exploits more accurate MODIS NDVI maps available from NASA archives [2]. a number of experiments have been conducted by Agricultural Meteorology Division.. effective air temperature. A. we present a variogram analysis to detect correlations in the tree size spatial distribution. D. The higher reflectance as well as transmittance in near infrared plateau is explained by multiple reflections in the internal mesophyll structure. Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI). Thomas. Geostatistical methods are suitable because the locations of the trees are at the nodes of an unstructured grid. USA. [5] Brunetti. [4] Farr. 26: 345-381 (2006). Tungalagsaikhan. Spectral reflectance characteristics have been found suitable for studying crop growth status. J. Parmiggiani.

O. 56 spie. Session 6 Integrating temporal and spectral information from low-resolution MODIS and high-resolution optical satellite images: two Hungarian case studies D. Images are geometrically corrected and atmospherically adjusted. Moreover. Ground ecophysiological measurements were conducted for three growing periods (20052007) and are used for indices evaluation as well as input parameters for an ecosystem productivity model. Our preliminary results show that low-resolution data can be efficiently used for this purpose. Recently available hyperspectral data provide valuable opportunities for mapping and monitoring of crop types. G. K. 24x24 mm2 pitch) to measure solarinduced radiance from leaves of Ficus benjamina L. Agati. Nagy. Measurements were performed on both the 687 and 760 nm atmospheric oxygen absorption bands. We used an ARC SpectraPro 2300i spectrometer (300 mm of focal length) coupled to a PIMAX (Princeton Instrument) intensified. Kristof. (Hungary) The aim of this study is to investigate the possibilities of integrating both temporal and spectral information provided by MODIS Land Surface Reflectance (LSR) products together with high resolution satellite images.022 nm/channel. each leaf radiance detection was preceded and followed by measurements over a white Spectral (Labsphere) reflectance reference positioned next to the leaf. Toosi Univ. 6742-29. south of Tehran for cover type mapping have been investigated. classification. of Ioannina (Greece). Moreover. To make the SPOT images intercomparable and comparable with MODIS and flux tower measurements. during a photoinhibition stress treatment induced by high-light (2500 mE m-2 s-1) irradiation. Kyparissis. Session 5 Effects of spectral resolution and signal/noise ratio in the retrieval of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance by passive remote sensing in the oxygen absorption bands L. Markos. Z. taken at different dates during the vegetation period. A computer controlled stage permitted the rapid exchange of sample and reference in front of the collecting fiber optic bundle. V. 6742-31. This work consists of two case studies. we use very high resolution IKONOS images along with daily MODIS time series to monitor agricultural practice over a case study area in Hungary. Stagakis. MODIS LSR products provide an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance. A. of Technology (Iran) Discrimination of crop types has been considered as one of important challenges in agricultural applications of remote sensing. the instrument had a spectral coverage of 11. Cecchi. practical evaluation of the utility of these data is of prime importance. In the first case study. five high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite images. Some spectrally similar crops in multi spectral data can be discriminated by the use of hyperspectral data. In addition. In an attempt for a more precise productivity product a new light-use efficiency model based on satellite and meteorological data is designed and presented. S. at the 687 nm O2 band. linear unmixing and trend analysis. Results of this research have shown the significant capabilities of the hyperspectral data for crop type and agricultural land use mapping. Univ. A proper fiber optic bundle. carotenoids) may well be followed by such indices issued from hyperspetral data. National Observatory of Athens (Greece) Low resolution images from MODIS and SPOT multispectral satellites are used for extracting indices correlated with major parameters of productivity.Conference 6742: Remote Sensing for Agriculture. Ground ecophysiological measurements from two growing periods (2006-2007) are used for evaluation purposes. the low spatial resolution of MODIS results in a number of issues to be dealt with (such as gridding artifacts and non-rectangular point spread function. In the other case study. The reflectance spectra obtained are used for extracting indices related to numerous plant physiological parameters. showing that MODIS algorithm underestimates productivity and does not closely follow ecosystem dynamics.) and one shrubland dominated by the semi-deciduous Phlomis fruticosa. positioned at the input slit of the spectrometer. Toci. for two deciduous forests (Fagus sylvatica. Quercus sp. G. gateable CCD (Thomson 7895. the corrected data have been analyzed by application of the MTMF algorithm.5 nm \@ 500 nm. and Hydrology 6742-28. such as the function of the photosynthetic apparatus. R. As expected the Chl fluorescence contribution was largely reduced under photoinhibition and its value normalized to total leaf radiance changed from 32% to 16% after 1 hour of treatment. we have compared a five-month series of daily MODIS reflectance data to the in situ measurements taken by the radiometers of a flux tower mounted on a grassland study site in the eastern part of Hungary. N. Fast responsive plant processes. M. Fahimnejad. E. These data included 242 Spectral bands between 400 and 2500 nm (level 1B1) with spatial resolution of 30 meters. In this research. with a nominal spectral resolution of 0. Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara (Italy) Retrieval of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence signals using passive detection of radiance coming from vegetation is rising large interest because of its potential application in satellite mapping of plant photosynthetic activity. qualities of results show high dependence on the size of agricultural fields and complexity of the patterns of crop cultivation in the area. lack of a reliable data of spectral properties of different crop types is a serious problem. Alimohammadi. S. Palombi. Soofbaf. G. To take into account variations in the depth of the O2 bands. Session 5 Ecosystem productivity and dynamics issued from multispectral and hyperspectral satellite imagery A. The applied methods include image segmentation. Valadan • spie. An increasing number of methods can be found in the literature to deal with these hindrances and are used and tested during our work. After application of the standard atmospheric and geometric correction • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . lack of precipitation) and the detailed pigment content of leaves (chlorophyll a. were used to analyze fine spatial patterns of the vegetation. D. offering great advantage over multispectral images for ecosystem remote sensing. Nevertheless. Sykioti. D. However. 512x512 pixels. The results of the ground-based productivity model are compared to the 8day MODIS GPP product. collected the radiance from the leaf at a 5 cm distance. Chl fluorescence was retrieved from leaf radiance. chlorophyll b. At its maximum • spieeurope@spieeurope. Our results show that despite some difficulties and limitations. J. and offer daily revisit capabilities. among others). this simple one-step fitting can yield accurate and consistent radiometric correction in many cases. Ecosystems. capabilities of the hyperspectral data of Hyperion sensor acquired from an agricultural area in Ahmadabad. Szent István Univ. Session 5 Crop type classification by Hyperion data and MTMF algorithm H. attached to the plant. 6742-30. Neidert. K. hyperspectral images from CHRIS/PROBA are used for a more detailed study of the semi-decidual Phlomis fruticosa ecosystem. Pinter. Levizou. Raimondi.N. their radiometric correction was carried out using linear radiometric rectification techniques with the corresponding spectral bands of the sameday MODIS reflectance products. Therefore. the photoprotective response to stress factors (low or high temperature. Lognoli. To check the capability of the method.

1996). maximizing the recorded instream dry area.. Institute of Geology & Mineral Exploration (Greece). Our results indicate that irrigation area can be spie. Wang. Univ. Since farming in the region is a typical irrigation-supported system of winter wheat. Dal Cin et al. LIDAR habitat assessment at mesoscale level avoids the problems of time efficiency and upscaling (Maddock. Fish habitat was then estimated and quantified according to the preferences of main target species as brown trout (Salmo trutta). and Hydrology 6742-32. while modeling uses the much smaller site level (Borsanyi et al. Yan. Session 6 Use of airborne hyperspectral imagery to investigate the influence of soil nitrogen supplies and variable fertilization to winter wheat growth X. Furthermore. Politécnica de Madrid (Spain) This study presents the application of LIDAR data to the evaluation and quantification of fluvial habitat in river systems. Administrative border vector map at county level is used to overlay on the NDVI images for computation of cropping • spieeurope@spieeurope. Fish habitat studies depend on the quality and continuity of the input topographic data. C. such as . The general process was to calculate a weighted sum of the Hyperion bands that covered each Landsat band. Xue.. NIR-ness. the most important agricultural region in China. LIDAR data combined with hydraulic modeling allowed the analysis of fluvial habitat in long fluvial segments which would be unfeasible with traditional survey. 2002) and fluvial geomorphology (Evan-Canfield et al. DVI and RDVI. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (China) Drought is a critical factor threatening farming harvest in North China Plain. Velocity and depth outputs were combined with gradient data to produce a map reflecting the availability of 6742-38.. Differences in response due to soil nitrogen variance were most evident at spectrum indices. M. The weights used in the sum were derived. A. Liu. J. Tang. Nikolakopoulos. Data were analyzed for each flight and each band separately. of Athens (Greece) Numerous satellite sensor systems have been launched during the last twenty years and satellite data are increasingly being used in regional or global vegetation monitoring. G. 6742-36. gradient..Conference 6742: Remote Sensing for Agriculture. Gao. MesoHABSIM (Parasiewicz. In order to facilitate upscaling processes from modeling to management units. Politécnica de Madrid (Spain) and Hydrobiology Research Group. and help maximize the grain output by adjusting field inputs. 2001)). As a result the atmospheric conditions were exactly the same and that make the data ideal for comparison. Green/Red. we present our systematic investigation of mapping the irrigation area for drought monitoring in the plain using MODIS remote sensing data. for Information Technology (China). DEM meshes obtained from LIDAR and conventional surveys were used as the input for hydraulic simulation for a range of flows. such us flood modeling (Cobby et al.and the macroscale level were developed (Habitat Mapping (Maddock & Bird.. water balance (Wigneron et al. 2007) . X. Management units were arranged at Beijing Precision Farming Experimental Station. spectral behaviors of winter wheat cropping system in MODIS data have been examined for construction of algorithm to identification of the system in the MODIS images. Irrigation mapping consists of an undividable aspect of agricultural drought monitoring. velocity and • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 57 . In this study. Several field experiments. G. The performance of the EO-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer with the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and the Landsat 7 ETM+ sensor was compared using a method that aggregated portions of the Hyperion 10 nm bands to simulate the broader multispectral bands of ALI and ETM+. Session 7 Irrigation mapping for agricultural drought monitoring in north China plain using MODIS remote sensing data H. LIDAR techniques offer a powerful tool applicable to a wide range of hydrological applications. followed by summer maize. Song. coupling remote sensing techniques with hydrological modeling and last findings on ecohydraulics. Politécnica de Madrid (Spain). 2005. In addition. In this study we tried to compare multispectral (Landsat ETM+ and EO-1 Advanced Land Imager) data with hyperspectral (Hyperion) data for the vegetation cover mapping of Milos Island. Borsányi et al. High spatial resolution ASTER data have been used to validate the mapping accuracy of irrigation area from MODIS data. intermediary methods between the micro. each mesohabitat unit type for each modeled flow. 6742-34. Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences (China) and National Engineering Research Ctr. Univ. Conventional fish habitat studies are limited by the feasibility of field survey in time and budget. W. This limitation results in differences between the level of river management and the level of models. including the crop sampling. Spain) was acquired in the low flow season. 2004). Ecosystems. Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences (China) Advanced technology in airborne detection of crop growth by remote sending can help optimize the strategies of fertilization. Session 6 Fish habitat characterization and quantification using lidar and conventional topographic information in river survey M. analysis results also indicated that the variable fertilization can reduce the growth difference of winter wheat caused by spatial distribution difference of soil nitrogen. Vaiopoulos. 2005). R. J. A topographic survey was carried out in a fluvial reach of the same segment recording position and substrate. National Engineering Research Ctr. D. Roberts et al. Skianis. Marchamalo Sacristán. M.. Beijing Normal Univ. All the data were collected the same day within one-minute time. In this study. A. The analysis results indicated that the reflectance of winter wheat is significantly influenced at certain wavelength by the soil nitrogen and the variable-rate fertilization. More recently the launch of hyperspectral sensor like Hyperion make the compatibility problem even more difficult as the very narrow hyperspectral bands need to be simulated to the broader multispectral bands before proceed to any further comparison. (2004) proposed a method based on the characterization and mapping of main river hydromorphological units defined according to the surface pattern (wave height). The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was used for the comparison of the three data sets and the results are presented in this study. Qin. Univ.. river management mostly operates at catchment or river sector level. Session 6 EO-1 Hyperion and ALI bands simulation to Landat 7 ETM+ bands and comparison K. variablerate fertilization amount. 2001. LIDAR data of regulated River Cinca valley (Ebro Basin. G. for Information Technology (China). García de Jalón. The observation of global vegetation from multiple satellites requires much effort to ensure continuity and compatibility due to differences in sensor characteristics and product generation • spie. soil sampling and variable-rate fertilization were carried out in the field. the spectrum indices difference between elongation stage and grain filling stage are calculated and the correlation analysis was also carried out. Three flights were made during the wheat growing season. 1999) and is a recommended approach for large river basin management. by comparing the spectral response of the hyperspectral bands with the respective multispectral band. Bejarano. Qiu. On the other hand. 1998. INFLEX. Martínez Marín. NDVI for green vegetation has been used to integrate with irrigation rate for algorithm development. Some spectrum indices were derived from PHI images and statistical correlation analysis were carried out between the spectrum indices and soil nitrogen. Z. D. Push-broom Hyperspectral Image sensor (PHI) was used to investigate the influence of soil nitrogen supplied and variable-rate fertilization to the growth of winter wheat. (China). The objective was to determine to what extent the reflectance obtained in the 112 visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavebands (from 410nm to 832nm) might be related to differences of variance of soil nitrogen and variable-rate fertilization. Schmugge et al. Li. The soil nitrogen effect was detectable in all the three flights. L. Huang. Univ. the use of LIDAR data requires a detailed bathymetry and substrate characterization of the submerged areas.

It is described an original realtime monitoring system investigates properties of biological objects in millimeter and optical range both in active and passive mode of scanning. and Hydrology properly mapped using the MODIS data. Mobasheri. including Nimbus SMMR. This figure is smaller than that from statistical yearbook. terrain heterogeneity is the predominate causing for the errors introduced in LAI scaling transferring. R.Conference 6742: Remote Sensing for Agriculture. Holmes. ecological and agricultural purposes. which was back up with the fact that the corrected MODIS LAI product well consistent with the high spatial resolution LAI map in the study regions. Specifications and capabilities of different sensors. time series. Session 3: 29 year climatology of satellite derived global land surface moisture M. of features and phenomena on earth on an almost real-time basis. a newly proposed LAI up scaling algorithm in this study. I. Session 7 Real-time monitoring of growth and biophysical properties of crops in millimeter and optical ranges Y. was successfully employed for the up scaling of 30 m spatial resolution LAI to 900 m with fairly satisfied resolution. They have the potential not only in identifying crop classes but also of estimating crop yield. 6742-40. conventional method are often complicated. and AQUA • spieeurope@spieeurope. the pure pixel LAI scale transferring is not affected by scaling. It has been also used for remote sensing different biological object and geoscience task as well. Toosi Univ. width of strip d and height of strip h). Crop yield is necessary. time consuming and they can not be run in large scale. contained components and parameters of planting). of Technology (Iran) Because of the population increment and the need for food security in national and regional scale. based on pixel decomposing of the NDVI accounting for terrain heterogeneity in two key procedures. 6742-63. humid inland watershed located in the centre part of China as experimental study sites. including primary wavelength. Session 7 Spatial scale transferring study on leaf area index retrieval by using remotely sensed data W. and its scale is highly positive correlated with the terrain heterogeneities. de Jeu. Hu. Vodotovka. S. The data span the period from November 1978 through 2007. Multichannel correlation receiver operates correlation comparison of test signals and signals obtained during scanning process. semiarid rangeland of the Heihe River Basin situated in remote region of northwestern China and an temperate. conventional methods and their disadvantages are discussed. The mapping results indicate that the spatial variation of irrigation area is very obvious in the region. Nanjing Univ. K. Therefore it is necessary to use cheaper/faster methods for crop yield estimation. components and model of biological object self radiation. The data consist of surface soil moisture. Such predictions warn the decision makers about potential reduction in crop yields and allow timely import and export decision. The various sensors have different technical specifications. costly. reflected or/and self radiation scanning and hardware-software processing scanned data from agricultural field of crops. an experimental study for up scaling the 30m spatial resolution LAI to 900m was conducted to quantitatively analyzes the introduced errors in the process of LAI up scaling with the final goal of establishing a new and much effective up scaling scheme based on NDVI pixel decomposing. Therefore policy of agricultural_economic and yield price are influence by the accuracy and speed crop yield estimation. There are two methods for yield estimation. It was found that the error smaller than 5% caused in LAI up scaling can be attributed to the non-linearity of algorithms utilized. NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. Global retrieval maps. and frequency of coverage. Subsystem of hardware-software scanned data processing consists of multichannel correlation receiver. derived from both historical observations and currently active satellite microwave sensors. Real-time monitoring system consists of subsystems: multiangular scanning. Scanning model consists of model of spatial scanning of field. Savenko. T. R. A model for agricultural field is rectangular with sides a and b with regular structure of crop’s strips (period T1. (USA) A 29-year global climatology of satellite derived land surface moisture is being developed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. It is expected that the data will be made available for download by the general science community early in 2008. scaling issues induced by transferring for one resolution data to another have drawn more and more attentions. Regional Ctr. National Technical Univ. and how they affect soil moisture retrievals are presented. particularly in countries that depend on agriculture as their main source of economy.N. 6742-41. Taking Zhangye Oasis in the arid. Shafian. 6742-42. Ecosystems. Session 7 Assessment of crop yield estimation methods by using satellite imagery and ground observation S. M. The mapping accuracy can meet the requirements of drought monitoring to administrate the available water resources for efficient utilization. of Ukraine (Ukraine) The paper presents the results on investigation of real-time monitoring of growth and biophysical properties of crops in millimeter and optical ranges. DSMP SSM/I. which increases the need for field level yield statistics. Then crop yield estimation methods based on remote sensing data. The maximum error caused by terrain heterogeneity can be reached to about 75 %. and comparisons between different sensors and frequencies are also presented. Conventional methods and remote sensing methods. V.2 million hectares in 2006. In addition to the monitoring there have been investigated treatment technologies in millimeter and optical ranges are provided as correction of own properties of object as for medical. however. Agricultural water demands for various areas have been estimated on the basis of the irrigation mapping for anti-drought campaigns. Zhang. radiometric resolution. the southern Shandong Province and the eastern Henan province. receiver to PC junction and program of analyzing and indication of scanning results. using the LAI map derived from the Landsat ETM+ image and NASA published MODIS LAI product for the study regions. The surface moisture retrievals are made with the Land Parameter Retrieval Model. Test signals are obtained previously for certain conditions of crops (kind of crop. In this paper first. Owe. On the basis of above mentioned analyses. which was developed jointly by researchers from the above institutions. This algorithm was used to correct NASA published MODIS LAI product and excellent results were obtained. V. model of reflecting of millimeter and laser radiation from binary heterogeneity as soil-crop. More intensive irrigation can be observed on the eastern Hebei Province. Remote sensing data has the potential and the capacity to provide spatial information at global scale. TRMM TMI. model of multiangular scattering from crop and especially from their 58 spie. S. Total irrigation area of the region is about 1. its age. Zhong. for Temperate East Asia (China). their advantages and disadvantages are • • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . (China) In order to effectively integrate various land-surface processes and environmental variables retrieved by different spatial resolution remotely sensed images. Therefore crop yield estimation is very important in national and regional scale.

Therefore we adopted a visual classification approach using optical data fused with ENVISAT ASAR data with HH polarisation and wide incidence angle (I6). Session 7: Optimal land use/cover classification using remote sensing imagery for hydrological modeling in a Himalayan watershed S. The satellite data used for this study are IRS P6 LISS-III (multispectral) and IRS IC PAN (panchromatic). This paper presents a two-step approach to attain an optimal land use/cover map based on remote sensing imagery for a Himalayan watershed in northern India.Conference 6742: Remote Sensing for Agriculture. Sterk. So. it was also necessary to consider the hydrological responses for different crop cover during the monsoon season. The results obtained from the decision tree were compared with a maximum likelihood classification. The obtained land use/cover map was not sufficient for the delineation of HRUs. Saran. surface runoff and erosion. the class ‘agricultural land’ needed to be sub-divided into terraced (paddy) fields and non-terraced fields. and it was shown that the decision tree classifier resulted in a 10% more accurate classification. The division into HRU’s requires good-quality data on land use/cover and its spatial pattern. . Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (India). Land use/cover is an important watershed surface characteristic that affects evapotranspiration. soils and land use/cover. This extracted knowledge was further used for improving the classification accuracy. almost any physically-based hydrological model uses some form of land use data or parameters based on these data. A. Moreover. Many of these models divide the watershed into Hydrological Response Units (HRU). A detailed analysis of the effects of the thematic accuracy of land use/cover is necessary before any attempt on using the land use/cover map for hydrological modelling. The first step in the approach was a digital classification using a decision tree classifier to extract knowledge from the spatial data in the form of classification rules. Bharti. These detailed land use/cover classes need to be further combined with topography and soil type to derive HRU’s for the physically-based hydrological • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 59 . the second step in the land use/cover classification was done to delineate more classes within the class ‘agricultural land’ derived from step 1. G. and Hydrology 6742-64. This second step with level II classification system resulted into better classification accuracy within the ‘agricultural land’ class. The basic purpose of this two-step approaches was to eliminate as much as possible potential error from the land use/cover • spie. (Netherlands). Ecosystems. Thus. spie. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (India) Spatially distributed models of watershed hydrological processes require information on the spatial patterns of terrain. infiltration. which are spatial units with expected similar hydrological behaviour. especially for the class ‘agricultural land’. • spieeurope@spieeurope. For that purpose. Kumar. for accurate hydrological modelling. Wageningen Univ.

Schoonmaker. P. (USA) Narrow band polarization measurements were taken from a bridge in San Diego Harbor using the Advanced Coherent Technologies Multimission Adaptable Narrowband Imaging Spectrometer (MANTIS) multichannel imaging system. 6743-04. Simoneau. in the Aegean Sea. J. Catalán Pérez-Urquiola. 45. situated exactly under the descending Jason-1 pass 018. S. But for resolutions under the sea surface correlation length. PAR Government Systems Corp. I. J. Spatial variability from 1-meter to several kilometers is taken into account. communications systems for the transmission of data. S. c) the CRLB for the Geoid’s estimators and the CRLB for the estimators of the semi-annual and annual waves. Greece has been established to carry out calibration of satellite altimeters and also to determine and continuously monitor the absolute sea • spieeurope@spieeurope. MANTIS was capable of simultaneously collecting four channels of imagery through a narrowband green (532 nm) filter together with linear polarizers oriented at 0. Advanced Coherent Technologies LLC (USA).Conference 6743: Remote Sensing of the Ocean. J. ONERA (France) In order to fulfill the requirement in background signatures models for the assessment of optronic systems performances. The infrastructure of the permanent facility on Gavdos includes tide gauges. in order to update the link to the global Terrestrial Reference Frame. Univ. and Large Water Regions 2007 6743-01. Session 1 Cramer-RAO lower bounds for sinusoidal models from Topex/Poseidon data in the Indian Ocean M. M. C. Labrador Costero. It is achieved by combining a statistical approach with the geometrical surface generation. Gilbert. and models are presented. The project is now continuing under the Ocean Surface Topography Mission program with funding from NASA and the Greek government. Medina. 6743-02. and 135 degrees. of Maryland/Baltimore County (USA) A permanent satellite facility on the island of Gavdos. Crete. This gives us access to a second site and use of the altimeter measurements made to the north of Crete. Session 1 Remote polarization measurements of the airsea interface G. 6743-03. rings and fronts happen everywhere. (2) to ensure the absolute height of the surface of the sea. b) the spatial structure of the variance of the WGN in the area and its meaning. and (3) to monitor and observe any errors whatsoever in the satellite altimeters. the continuation of its operation for the collection. Determining CRLB parameters it is possible to establish the minimal error associated to any model built to work in the study area what improves the intrinsic bias of the generated time series. We are also planning to repeat the co-location at the TUC facility site with the French Transportable Laser Ranging System that established an initial link of the entire GAVDOS network of sites with the ITRF2000 frame. Arias Ballesteros. They include hiding and shadowing functions and multiple reflections are neglected. E. It will thus allow the collection of additional information on the circulation and currents of the area between the Cape Maleas and Western Crete (e. The CRLB depends on the variance of the White Gaussian Noise that it is computed by Modern Parametric Autoregressive Adaptative Spectral Analysis. Sea Ice. Cretan cyclone). Pavlis. Petrosyuk. so the role of the inverted barometer and tidal corrections are also analyzed. Theoretical validity of this new approach has been verified. Fauqueux. C. Thus optical properties expressions are extended to consider any surface length. as is the extension of applications to other satellite missions. L. Univ. Current plans include the establishment of an identical setup at a site on the main island of Crete. Session 1 Multiresolution optical properties of rough sea surface in infrared K. at Kastelli. For the considered spectral bandwidth. The altimetry studies use to be quite difficult in this area because the energetic of the processes that take place in the areas where the currents break against the continents and to other currents. de Cádiz (Spain) The Indian Ocean is a quite complex basin where strong currents. • spie. a DORIS satellite beacon. an electronic transponder. J. of Crete (Greece). 6743 Remote Sensing of the Ocean. 90. meteorological and oceanographic instruments. This configuration enabled the collection of the first three Stokes Vector elements. Sea Ice. Y. as well as sub-metric variability (capillarity). D. as this is implemented by the altimeter’s measurements on a world level. Alonso del Rosario. Because of these the authors have derived the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the estimations of the cosine and sine amplitudes of multi-tone sinusoidal model for TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry data sets covering the Indian Ocean. Gómez-Enri. measurements. etc. and in superimposing the small-scale variability (smaller than the surface patch) to the large-scale one. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . Labarre. both from the scientific point of view and as a model satellite research centre. Determination of the aggregation of optical surface properties requires the knowledge of surface slope statistical properties: slope mean vector-value and slope covariance matrix. J. Caillault. The data is being gathered used to explore methods of calculating the sea surface Mueller Matrix. Our model has also been implemented for the generation of synthetic sea surface radiance images. and Large Water Regions 2007 Monday-Tuesday 17-18 September 2007 Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. de Nantes (France). showing its ability to produce good quality ocean scenes in various contextual conditions. ONERA (France). The noise that appears in the altimetry data depends strongly on the errors from the atmospheric and geophysical corrections. C. The objectives of the permanent facility have been (1) to carry out accurate measurements of the distances between the station and the satellite altimeters. Session 1 Absolute calibration results for the radar satellite altimeters from the Eastern Mediterranean GAVDOS project S. Technical Univ. The results is summarized as: a) the spatial structure of the order of the parametric model considering the application or not of the above corrections and its relationship to the surface dynamical system of currents in Indian Ocean. I. an analytical model of infrared optical properties of windroughened Gaussian sea surface is presented. Given the importance of the Gavdos installations. processes have non-zero mean value and literature expressions are incomplete. VillaresDurán. 60 spie. J. Bourlier. Podobna. permanent GPS satellite receivers. The project is now producing results on the basis of the new GDRs and extending our efforts to include the ENVISAT and GFO missions. It consists in dividing the surface in two roughness scales. P. These parameters are obtained by means of a new two-scale model. analysis and distribution of data is necessary. aggregation relations between geometrical optics and global optical properties are already known for centered Gaussian sea surface.g. Methods. P. Mertikas. Univ.

and Canarias regions. Madeira. dos Açores (Portugal). Becker. Gross. Information on the spectral behavior of the bottom substratum. B. five years (2001-2005) of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and five years (2002-2006) of Ocean Colour (OC) satellite observations permitted to establish and compare the mean surface temporal variability among the Azores. Univ. Gilerson. J. Imagery varied from completely exposed targets (very low tide) to greater than 3 meters depth for all targets. S. was adopted for the project. and. followed by subtraction from measured reflectance. Ahmed. we compared numerical simulations using an extensive synthetic database suitable for case II waters. Istituto di Scienze Marine (Italy) A remote sensing based methodology for monitoring coastal water quality was applied on Sacca di Goro (Po River Delta). City College/CUNY (USA) Fluorescence Line Height (FLH) algorithms are effective for fluorescence retrieval in the open ocean where elastic reflectance in the fluorescence zone does not deviate much from the baseline. Univ. chlorophyll concentrations. Regional Directorate of Fisheries of Madeira (Portugal). • spieeurope@spieeurope. Amorim. Bostater. Carvalho. Souza. This provided the best film density conversion to a digital product while retaining the original film density characteristics. in collaboration with the Province of Ferrara. Simon Fraser Univ. Madeira and Canarias A. Spectral and photogrammetric evaluations were undertaken for substrate and bathymetry determinations (spectral) and target spatial accuracy. S. Roberts. as well as satellite FLH data from several areas that typically show low correlation between [Chl] and FLH. M. The Semi-Analytical Model for Bathymetry. In coastal waters. P. S. 6743-06. Sea Ice. Our synthetic datasets were created using the HYDROLIGHT radiative transfer code with IOP’s connected to parameterized microphysical models in accordance with procedures used to generate the IOCCG dataset. Session 1 High resolution multispectral photogrammetric imagery: enhancement. spie. Salviato. Session 2 Subsurface unmixing with application to underwater classification M. and that application of multi-spectral algorithms can be more efficient for the retrieval of fluorescence contributions in coastal areas. This lagoon is one of the most important aquaculture systems in Italy but in the last decade the anthropogenic eutrophication processes and anoxic crises were intensified. L. C. stereoscopic depth evaluations and capillary and gravity wave line target distortions. This resulted in multiple 8 bit spectral image bands that were unaltered (not radiometrically enhanced) “optical count” conversions of film density. MERIS and other FLH algorithms. Figueiredo. By inverting this model. dos Açores (Portugal). A. Regional Directorate of Fisheries of Madeira (Portugal) Within the framework of ORPAM (03/MAC/4. Session 3 Sea surface temperature (AVHRR) and ocean colour (MODIS) seasonal and interannual variability in the Macaronesian islands of Azores. I. W. D. Braga. R. Unmixing. 6743-08. J. For lower mineral concentrations. eelgrass and sandstone benthic • spie.. (Canada) A variety of aerial mapping cameras were adapted and developed into simulated multiband digital photogrammetric mapping systems. J.2/A2) project. CSIRO-Land and Water of Canberra (Australia). The differences between land and aquatic unmixing in particular the role of the water column in distorting the spectral signature of the bottom and how different methods in the literature address this inverse problem are discussed.Conference 6743: Remote Sensing of the Ocean. absorption and attenuation spectra by us in the Chesapeake Bay. dos Açores (Portugal). Results indicate that multispectral photogrammetric systems offer improved intertidal feature mapping capability. F. For this case study a physics-based approach was adopted for mapping the water quality parameters by optical behavior. dissolved organic matter. I. P. a wider range of parameters more typical of coastal waters. permitted retrieval of the fluorescence contribution to the latter. Italy S. This approach is based on radiative transfer theory in the water body. Univ. B. This information was used to parameterize the SAMBUCA model and to validate the water quality products obtained by inverting two Hyperion images acquired on 14 and 30 August during two tidal cycles. T. All films were negative processed to published standards and digitally converted at either 16 (color) or 10 (B&W) microns. Ioannou. Kodak color infrared and B&W (visible and near infrared) infrared. conditions where specific absorption spectral variation is not very high. We find relatively small fluorescence contributions to surface reflectance for mineral concentrations \> 5 mg/l because of strong attenuation in the excitation zone and enhanced elastic reflectance making fluorescence detection unrealistic. Jerez. Radiometric data conversion was undertaken using linear density conversion and centered 8 bit histogram exposure. dissolved organic matter and non-algal particle concentrations and to determine the bottom substratum composition and depth. Mendonça. Examples using simulated and real hyperspectral imagery are presented. Hlaing. for comparisons with the data set simulations. Bashmachnikov. Unmixing in optically shallow waters is set as a nonlinear inversion problem where the properties of the water column and the mixing fractions of a set of endmembers are retrieved together in hyperspectral remote sensing. Session 2 Impact of scattering and absorption of photosynthetic pigments on fluorescence retrieval algorithms for coastal waters S. FLH algorithms are significantly complicated by the overlap of the fluorescence and elastic reflectance peaks. To test accuracy of MODIS. we find that some combinations of NIR observation bands permit reasonably good FLH retrievals in 6743-09. A series of underwater geometric line targets were imaged across a 3. and Large Water Regions 2007 6743-05. Barbaro. a series of in situ measurements were carried out monthly to perform a spectral characterization of Sacca di Goro. Vélez-Reyes. the apparent and inherent optical properties and the active optical component concentrations (chlorophyll. and Concentration Assessment (SAMBUCA) developed by the Environmental Remote Sensing Group. it was possible to assess. Moshary. Session 2 A physics-based approach to deriving optical water quality parameter concentrations from hyperspectral satellite data: a case study of Sacca di Goro. interpretation and evaluations A. including chlorophyll specific absorptions with significant variations in spectral shapes and magnitude. M. Excellent precision in the digital conversions was obtained with scanning errors of less than one micron. F. C. but with some added improvements. pixel by pixel. Jr. and suspended matter) along the water column was collected. From June to October 2005. Aerial films (24cm X 24cm format) tested were: Agfa color negative and extended red (visible and near infrared) panchromatic. Two multiband cameras (IIS 4 band and Itek 9 band) and 3 pairs of mapping and reconnaissance cameras were evaluated for digital spectral performance and photogrammetric mapping accuracy in an intertidal environment. with results of extensive field measurements of reflectance. Martins. These included higher (1 nm) spectral resolution. HYDROLIGHT simulations of elastic reflectance using measured attenuation/ extinction • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 61 . A. Zhou. R. 6743-11. M. A. de Puerto Rico Mayagüez (USA) This paper will discuss the problem of unmixing of hyperspectral imagery in subsurface aquatic remote sensing.5 meter tidal range for shell sand. Regional Directorate of Fisheries of Madeira (Portugal).

Finally. with the largest OC values observed during wintertime. such as the absorption coefficients of pigment. The system allows retrieval of required information and also has a provision to modify or upgrade database from time to time. All the outputs are incorporated in a user friendly Coastal Zone Information System (CZIS) interface using V. Secondly. and the beam attenuation coefficient. dissolved and particulate organic carbon. This most likely reflects the contribution of e. In this paper. 1987-2000 and 2000-2006. Session 3 Comparing airborne high resolution hyperspectral imagery with aerial photgrammetric imagery for mapping submerged features in coastal shallow waters C. principally in terms of OC. During the following weeks. influence of African coastal upwelling and river discharges. Dynamac Corp. 2003. In general. On May 5. Canarias surface variability is less evident. and/or winter mixing in the region. K. Bathymetry maps are prepared using Naval Hydrographic Charts. Florida. Session 3 Integrated coastal zone management plan and coastal zone information system for Udupi Coast. the two reference wavelengths of 510nm and 555nm of total absorption coefficients (λ0) (which exclude the absorption of pure water) and particulate backscattering coefficient (λ0) are discussed in detail. with the Azores region representing the lowest SST values. 6743-13. D. M. A. and Large Water Regions 2007 Satellite derived SST data (in °C) were obtained from a time series of AVHRR data (from HAZO HRPT station in the Azores) and near-surface OC data (chlorophyll a in mg m-3) were obtained from a time series of MODIS data NASA/GSFC). Interannual OC variability is also observed and is mostly similar among the 3 regions. 6743-14..Conference 6743: Remote Sensing of the Ocean. geomorphology. R. The largest SST differences among the 3 regions are observed during wintertime. It also showed shifting of river mouth over a period of time. Methods are presented to demonstrate how sensor and model calibration is central to producing high quality data and images for coastal mapping and detection applications. Sea Ice. Vinay. S. (India) Coastal areas are under great pressure due to increase in human population and industrialization/commercialization and hence these areas are vulnerable to environmental degradation. Bostater. west coast of India G. Coastal Zone Management aims to achieve sustainable development.6. our results suggest a strong latitudinal effect in the studied regions. currents) and thus arrive at Coastal Vulnerability Indices (CVI). (USA). in Udupi District. National Institute of Technology Karnataka (India). 6743-15. West Coast of India is considered as the study area. Mahaganesh. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . S. Natesan. Results show the value of each of the above airborne remote sensing data types for use in helping to detect man-made targets and natural bottom features in harbors. T. Using CVI values. Ground truth data has been collected through field validation using GPS. Jr. In Madeira. Yan. Interannual SST variability is observed among the regions. including the in situ dataset of China Yellow Sea and East China Sea in the spring of 2003. B. wind. bottom type. Ocean Colour seasonal variability patterns seem to vary inversely with SST. waterways and coastal marine inlets. coastal slope. In the present study. Overlay analysis and Map Composition has been done using ArcGIS. variability is high but not as evident as the other two regions. Bostater. Firstly. CRZ maps are prepared to monitor developmental activities violating CRZ notification. The Study adopts RS and GIS tools extensively for analysis. respectively). a coastal stretch of approximately 90km extending from Mulki to Kundapur.and hyperspectral sensors are available to acquire remotely sensed information about the coastal environment but few studies compare and contrast their utility for specific applications. 6743-12. U. critical erosion areas are also identified. Results demonstrate the capabilities of the 2 methods for SAV mapping when compared to detailed ground truth transects of SAV density and species composition. He. Florida Institute of Technology (USA) Comparisons are presented which demonstrate the utility of utilizing airborne hyperspectral images. The study foresights to come up with a Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) by considering various parameters such as shoreline change • spie. 1. Digital Image Processing has been carried out using ERDAS Imagine 9. three optical dataset were use to validate this algorithm.B. C. SST seasonal variability patterns among the 3 regions with SST values ranging approximately between 15 and 27 °C during winter and summer months. waves.0. aerial photographs at scales of 1:24000 and 1:9600 were collected for the Sebastian Inlet area of the Indian River Lagoon. Mao. particularly.2 m resolution hyperspectral imagery was collected for the same region along with extensive ground based data on depth. R. and density and species composition of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) including drift algae. respectively. Pan. inundation areas during floods/tsunami using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and changes in Land Use/Land Cover pattern required for ICZMP. etc. only spring blooms dominate. 62 spie. Anna Univ. Changes in Shoreline have been assessed considering three sets of data: 1967-1987. In the Azores. Session 4 The quasi-analytical algorithm of ocean inherent optical properties using two reference wavelengths D.05 and 0. B. Aerial photographs were scanned (RGB) into a digital format and overlaid after registration with the digital hyperspectral data. The results show that the two reference wavelengths quasi-analytical algorithm is quite promising both for Case I water and Case II water. Jr. and further to retrieve the concentration of water components. but similar. The work also involves creation of maps/information database on vulnerable areas of coastal degradation. spring blooms dominate. A variety of airborne cameras and multi. high spatial resolution photogrammetric images and advanced radiative transfer model synthetic images.0 software. Dwarakish. In Canarias. detritus and • spieeurope@spieeurope. among the Azores and Madeira regions. reduce vulnerability and maintain ecological balance. resource reduction and user conflicts. along Karnataka Coast. while smaller autumn blooms are also observed. Results show strong. State Oceanic Administration (China) The water total absorption coefficient a( λ ) and total backscattering coefficient bb(λ) are the key of inherent optical properties in ocean color remote sensing. J.03 mg m-3. with the largest variation occurring in the Azores followed by Canarias (0. The hyperspectral data covered the 400 1000 nm wavelength region with approximately 3nm wide bands. OC algorithms failure to precisely estimate chlorophyll a in Case 2 waters. Session 3 Comparison of airborne hyperspectral and photo images with synthetic images C. Shetty. we present a comparison between imagery obtained from traditional aerial photography and a modern digital hyperspectral sensor with respect to mapping SAV distributions and identification of individual taxa. a two reference wavelengths quasi-analytical algorithm is developed to retrieve the total absorption coefficient a(λ) and total backscattering coefficient bb(λ). coastal land development. Pai. Hall. X. In this paper.. The results of shoreline change detection showed that the coastal stretch is in dynamic equilibrium which undergoes cyclic changes of erosion and accretion. Florida Institute of Technology (USA) Identification and mapping of submerged features in shallow coastal environments is of interest for natural resource management. the synthesis dataset and the global in situ dataset from IOCCG. which can be further used to retrieve the other inherent optical properties. sea level rise and ocean parameters (tides.g. with the largest variation occurring in Canarias. and coastal security. the algorithm procedure of a(λ) and bb( λ ) is described briefly.

environmental challenges and human impact have perturbed the ecological balance. the phytoplankton species. 6743-20. The results show that it is the parameters of the models that dominate the performances of the models instead of the form of the equations. Finally. The results showed that the aerosol scattering had negligible effect on the blue wavelength (443nm) except in the sun glint. providing powerful safeguard all-round. AISA sensor is put on the aviation platform covering the East Sea in China on July 29. which are root mean square error (RMSE). Wang. The accuracy of the power model is assessed by three kinds of spectral error indices. Furthermore. To retrieve quantitative information from MAMS data. which considered the effect of the aerosol scattering on the TOA linear polarization radiance. the current implementation of the MODIS polarization correction algorithm ignores the polarization component produced by aerosol scattering. This lake is one of the largest freshwater bodies of the world where. M.04 cm.4%(at blue light bands) for the Aqua MODIS. Retrieval of atmospheric water content from remote sensing data is very important for atmospheric correction. T. the spectral-average-relative error. the effect on the near infrared wavelength (865nm) was remarkable. but also at the near infrared wavelength. The performances of the models are obviously different. 6743-19. The authors utilized 2 near-IR “water vapor” channels in addition to existing “windows” channels. pigments composition and particle size structure. and Large Water Regions 2007 6743-16. Two phytoplankton absorption models of Sathyendranath are validated and other three forms of phytoplankton absorption model are also developed to check whether the models are sensitive to chlorophyll a concentration (Chl) and to the forms of the equations. made by Shanghai Institute of Technology and Physics CAS. Hao. such as MODIS. but had large effect on the near infrared wavelength (865nm). and band 56 and band 59 are in water absorbed region and band 51 is in atmospheric window. State Oceanic Administration (China). compensation. has been carried out on the Kenyan part of the Lake Victoria. A power function is used to study the phytoplankton absorption model with wavelength-dependent coefficients determined by the least squares method. The maximum atmospheric water content retrieved from AISA image is 1. Cheng. has been assessed. Poster Session Retrieval of atmospheric water content based on AISA+ data Q. we developed the improved ocean color polarization correction algorithm for MODIS.43 cm and the minimum water content is 0. D. In this paper we will simply introduce a flight experiment using MAMS in Chinese East Sea at first. accurately atmospheric correction is a necessary step. D. Z. During the in situ campaign a complete data set for model refinement and products validation has been collected. Cavalli. a method for remotely sensed data interpretation.5%. Session 4 The spectral absorption coefficient model of phytoplankton in the coastal ocean Z. This data comprise surface radiometric quantity and samples for laboratory analyses. it will be possible to derive the water vapor amount from AISA+ data in Eastern Sea in China and analyze the retrieving result. R.40 cm. of Information Science & Technology (China) The effect of the polarization response is remarkably for some of the ocean color remote sensors. State Oceanic Administration (China) So far. the other case had the aerosol thickness of 0. Pan. The method has been applied on an image acquired on January 2004 by ENVISAT/MERIS sensor just a week after an in situ campaign took place. J. this improved algorithm was validated. Pan. Pignatti. demonstrating the potentiality of remote observation in supporting a the management of the water resources. the spectral average logtransformed relative error and with the average values of 0. So we will focus on applying some atmospheric correction algorithms to the MAMS airborne 6743-18. J. Palombo. one was the pure Rayleigh atmosphere which absent • spie. Wang. a process known as atmospheric spie. devoted to produce chlorophyll a. Mao. is an important portion. Poster Session Optical model for the water characterization of the highly turbid water of the Winam Gulf (Victoria Lake) F. Istituto di Metodologie per l’Analisi Ambientale (Italy) The study.07 m-1. By using the POLDER polarizing remote sensing data. 6743-17. -12. Mao. Istituto sull’Inquinamento Atmosferico (Italy).org • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 63 . Sea Ice. so the methods are feasible for retrieval of atmospheric water contents from AISA+ data. This paper introduces and derives the algorithm about retrieving water content of atmosphere from AISA+ (Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Application) data based on Modtran code. Nanjing Univ. the parameter values of the models. we compared the TOA linear polarization radiances form POLDER remote sensed data and the simulated data using PCOART with the pure Rayleigh atmosphere. based on radiative transfer theory in water • spieeurope@spieeurope. and average atmospheric water content is 0. we used the coupled ocean-atmospheric vector radiance transfer model-PCOART to simulate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) linear polarization radiance at two case. Session 4 The effect of aerosol scattering on the ocean color polarization correction X. however. The comparison between the obtained maps and the data provided by the laboratory analysis showed a good correspondence. Chen. He. particulate scattering and atmospheric water content factors. A. D. Pollution and sediments loads from the tributaries rivers and antrophic sources caused a worrying increase of the turbidity level of the lake water.2. 2005. S. So the three bands were used to in following expressions. Chen. and the results also showed that aerosol scattering had negligible effect on the blue wavelength (443nm). Finally. and the variation of the polarization correction varies from 0. even the same form of the model with different parameters. Mao. On the plane. In order to assess the effect of the aerosol scattering. The accuracy of the models is influenced by many factors such as the equation forms. The ocean color polarization correction algorithm of MODIS had been operational. Pan. China Marine Surveillance Force has her own modern aerial equipments for marine law-execute with the advantage of functioning agilely and operation of larger surveillance coverage. However. T. the marine airborne multi-spectrum scanner (MAMS). coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and total suspended solids (TSS) maps. or removal. Santini. AISA+ is Hyperspectral Imaging sensor including 61 bands from visible to NIR. Secchi transparency index has declined from 5 meters in the 1930s to less than one meter in the 1990s. It is also indicated that the absorption values estimated by the models fall within the ranges of the measured data and the models are difficult to be validated without information of the phytoplankton species. proposed within the framework of the cooperation with Kenyan Authorities. has been refined. With the aim of providing an inexpensive way to gather information linked to the water clarity and quality. Poster Session Preliminary results of atmospheric correction of a marine airborne multi-spectrum scanner (MAMS): case study in Chinese East Sea D. Mao. over the last few years.Conference 6743: Remote Sensing of the Ocean. D. the relationships between the transmittance and atmospheric water content of AISA+ data was computed and analyzed. At this purpose a bio-optical model. T. and the results showed that the accuracy of the polarization correction was improved not only at the blue wavelength.5% and -4. respectively. State Oceanic Administration (China) Many applications require the elimination of atmospheric effects caused by molecular. State Oceanic Administration (China) The spectral absorption models of phytoplankton are established based on the in-situ measurements and the accuracy of the models is assessed with the comparisons among the models. The results are consistent with the real conditions. harmonious and sustainable development of coastal economy. correction.7%(at near infrared bands) to 5.

This inversion algorithm is based on Spectral Angle Mapping (SAM). and Large Water Regions 2007 ocean color remote sensing data. M. Further. Istituto di Biometeorologia (Italy). radiometer do not show the phenomena of saturation under high • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . The result demonstrates that the atmospheric correction is effective to remove heterogeneous atmospheric effects and retrieve surface reflectance. Maselli. etc. so it can be appropriate candidate to retrieve high wind. Zou. Chen. also the switching volcanic • spie. which is used to minimize the angle between simulated and measured remote sensing reflectances. J. we used the multimission gridded Mean Sea Level Anomalies (MSLA) to determine oceanographic events like Southern Oscillation Cycle in the Pacific Ocean and the heat content in the Caribbean Sea and Western North Atlantic. Using in situ data and meteorological data as a criterion. Then case study of Zhoushan sea area in East Sea will be discussed and comparison of different correction methods will be done. per la Meteorologia e la Modellistica Ambientale (Italy) Global standard ocean colour algorithms may be inefficient to estimate the concentration of seawater constituents in specific cases. (China). and its relationship with oceanographic features C. At moderate wind speeds. wind gradient influence. M. The lake’s level dynamics are related to the Polochic Rivers runoff and therefore to the precipitation/evaporation over the rivers catchment area. Medina. The Lake Izabal water level fluctuations are driven by the annual cycle of rainy and dry seasons. B. 6743-21. We changed also parameters of different conditions of wind disturbance on ocean surface because of wind-water interaction. Guatemala. The most impressive result found was an abrupt lake level rise in July 2006 which is correlated to an abnormal precipitation in June 2006. Zhu. 6743-23. Sea Ice. The concentrations of chlorophyll-a. because of deficiencies of the geophysical model function for high winds. this strong precipitation increase was forced by “La Niña” Southern Oscillation events during early 2006. Empirical Line Method. The precipitation/evapotranspiration historical records over the lake’s catchment area and the lake’s surface were also analyzed. Alonso del Rosario. J. The radiation transfer in the atmosphere-ocean spherical system is the mathematical problem of radiation transfer theory. Gómez-Enri. effects of rain caused attenuation. which make them very valuable for climate studies and other use. M. where high values of seawater constituent concentrations can be found only near the mouths of the main rivers. To avoid this problem. Gavrilovich. temperature. Chen. Q. requires use of adequate mathematical models of radiation transfer. Centroamerica. Univ. coupled with in situ water level measurements in order to determine its water level fluctuations. The estimated parameters concentrations showed a lower error with respect to that obtained by a standard error minimization criterion. Local overestimation or underestimation of chlorophylla. our research group works on the local calibration empirical or semi-analytical algorithms through comparison to in situ measured data. We are derived the polar and asimuth distributions of Stokes vector components for a hemisphere directions corresponding to ascending and descending streams of radiation. 6743-24. The monthly maps of chlorophyll-a concentrations obtained by applying the proposed algorithm to numerous satellite images confirm the oligotrophic nature of the Tuscan Sea. The used colculation method of the field components is adapted to realization of numerical experiments for purposes of remote optical monitoring of natural and antropogeneus perturbations of environment. Santini. Poster Session Wind field retrieval under high wind conditions by combined scatterometer and radiometer data J. C. MERIS. Massi. Lin. The calculations polarization characteristics of solar light are compared with experimental measurement data executed by author in areas of central part of Indian ocean. and the optical properties of water medium. Y. combined scatterometer and radiometer data is used to retrieve wind field under high wind condition. Ding. Dark object subtraction. Z. The hydrologic cycle is driven by climatic parameters like precipitation. For problem solution it is used one of modifications of Gfunction method developed by author. unizotropic reflection of terrestrial cover. guarantee global. and the saturation of the backscattering under high wind.Conference 6743: Remote Sensing of the Ocean. Poster Session Estimation of seawater optical parameters in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea F. Lab. J. As a passive microwave sensor. In this report is given the performance of radiating transfer model developed by us. and will suggest one promising method for MAMS in Chinese coastal water. wind disturbance on a surfase of ocean. etc) for the retrieval of water constituents concentrations. Villares-Durán. • spieeurope@spieeurope. 6743-22. Hence. Lake Izabal is the largest lake in Guatemala (Centroamerica). using radar altimetry. 64 spie. suspended sediments and yellow substance are in fact quite common. But at higher speeds. Pieri. J. Theoretically. Theoretic analyse about the phenomena is given. Istituto di Biometeorologia (Italy). Poster Session Interannual water level variations in Lake Izabal. Poster Session Polarization of scattered solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean spherical system in conditions of wind-water surface interaction A. State Oceanic Administration (China). rivers water discharge and lakes water level variations are impelled by climatic conditions also. its main tributary is the Polochic River. degli Studi di Firenze (Italy). which contributes to approximately the 70% of the lake’s water. Univ. The known mathematical models of large-scale process in a atmosphere and ocean be unable to reproduce adequately a real multiparametric picture of radiative field. Catalán Pérez-Urquiola. the scatterometer wind speed is reliable. were found for a number of samples near the coast of Tuscany (Italy). de Cádiz (Spain) It is well known that ocean-atmosphere circulation and dynamics affect the weather conditions over the continents and the ocean itself. In this paper. comparison is made between the performance of scatterometer and radiometer retrieved wind. winds and humidity. Zhejiang Univ. An unconventional algorithm was then developed and applied to satellite data (MODIS. suspended sediments and absorption of yellow substance. result show that it is better to use radiometer data as a replacement of scatterometer in wind speed retrieve. In this study we used ENVISAT RA-2 Geophysical Data Records orbits over the lake. M. National Satellite Ocean Application Service (China) With the availability of scatterometer data. Arias Ballesteros. long-term monitoring of the winds on the oceans. evaporation. Instytut Fizyki (Belarus) Interpretation of optical observations in the Earth atmosphereocean spherical system resulting from the ground or the orbital space with purpose optical remote diagnostics of medium and prediction of aerosol climatic consequences derived from natural and industrial perturbations. surface wind vectors can be estimated from the backscatter measured over oceans. P. The complicated structure aerosol extinction and gas absorption is taken into account. including MODTRAN. scatterometer retrieved wind always appear to underestimate the speeds especially in tropical cyclones. which solution is the vectorial magnitude (Stokes vector) with four components for intensity and state of radiation polarisation.

Poster Session Ocean color atmospheric correction over the coastal region with multi-viewing satellite data Y. G. Vasilescu. and Large Water Regions 2007 6743-25. Babichenko. and also the compound product with MODIS. In this paper. spie. Strechie. G. Pavelescu. 460 nm) was used in order to map DOM (Dissolved Organic Matter) and chlorophyll variations in a marine area. 6743-26. Onboard ship campaign was performed during spring time to evidence the algae • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 65 . Mitomi. Belegante. of Japan (Japan) The atmospheric correction for the ocean color remote sensing is the most important technique to retrieve the water leaving radiances. which are less than about 10% of the satellite radiances. National Institute for Marine Geology and GeoEcology (Romania). Especially. The organic compounds and phytoplankton were characterized in correlation with the band of the water Raman scattering and by their specific fluorescence. S. To improve the atmospheric correction accuracy in these areas. For seawater pollution analysis physico-chemical parameters and chlorophyll concentration were taking into account. the atmospheric correction algorithm with multi-viewing observation data was examined. National Institute of Research & Development for Optoelectronics (Romania).Conference 6743: Remote Sensing of the Ocean. and its major uncertainties are occurred by the estimation error of atmospheric aerosols that is highly variable in both space and • spie. the correction over the coastal region becomes more difficult because of the absorbing aerosol or turbid water background. we present the application result to POLDER2 multi-viewing observation data. Poster Session Water pollution analysis from Lidar investigations on Romanian Black Sea coast J. Sea Ice. A. Lisin. based on an excimer (308 nm) and a dye laser (367. C. Highly polluted areas were noted and mapped along the ship trajectory. The LIDAR data were combined with Acoustic Doppler Profiler System (ADP) measurements of the water velocity. M. A fluorescence LIDAR. • spieeurope@spieeurope. Remote Sensing Technology Ctr. AS Laser Diagnostics Instruments (Estonia) The aim of the paper is to analyze the fluorescence characteristics of the polluted water on the Romanian Black Sea coast.

These missions were chosen to enter the assessment phase as a result of the Call for Core Mission ideas released by ESA in 2005. (GSE) program. Such studies. describing the scientific objectives and outlining the main aspects of the candidate implementation concept currently under evaluation. Session 1 Sentinel-1 ESA’s new European SAR mission E. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . which is expected to improve Numerical Weather Prediction analyses and forecasts in the tropics and extra tropics. • PREMIER . atmospheric chemistry. Land Monitoring and Emergency Services. and measures for an increased lifetime.(Advanced Space Carbon and Climate Observation of Planet Earth) . EUMETSAT (Germany) EUMETSAT and ESA have initiated joint preparatory activities for the definition of the Post EUMETSAT Polar System (PostEPS) needed for the 2019 timeframe as a replacement for the current EUMETSAT Polar System. J. N. Veith. Cryosat. Sentinel-1 is an imaging radar mission at C-band aimed at providing continuity of data for user services. P. C. • A-SCOPE . G. Launch is planned for mid 2009 for a 3 year mission. R. B. and Next-generation Satellites Monday-Thursday 17-20 September 2007 Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. At present there are six candidate missions being assessed at pre-phase A level. Based on the first outputs of the EUMETSAT Post-EPS User Consultation process initiated in 2005. Davidson. Dutch Space B. P. climate monitoring. an alternative lineof-sight. Berger. The third cycle of Earth Explorers Core Missions was started in 2005 to select the seventh Earth Explorer mission due to launch in 2014/2015. The generation of both the user and mission requirements have been supported substantially by the Post-EPS Mission Experts Team and the Application Expert Groups. M. ADM Aeolus. Schluessel.Conference 6744A: Sensors. cryosphere and the Earth’s interior. Session 1 The third cycle of Earth explorers core missions P. developed and operated in close cooperation with the science community and focus on the key components of the Earth System: the atmosphere.(Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory) . Snoeij. W. For mature Earth observation applications other than meteorology a new European programme framework for operational satellites is emerging. The Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme is a joint initiative of the European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA). Systems. Perez-Albiñana. J. Levrini. European Space Research and Technology Ctr. this process has resulted in six missions currently under development: GOCE. Phillips. Pre-feasibility studies at instrument and system levels will commence in 2007 with support of industry and representatives of the user and science communities. Morancais. Davidson. European Space Agency (Netherlands) The Living Planet Programme of the European Space Agency encompasses a science-driven strategy for monitoring the Earth from space. There is likely to be a significant gap between the nominal end of life of Aeolus in late 2012. Lin. measurements of forest biomass and extent. their interaction with each other and the impacts that human activities have on natural Earth processes. Wilson. L. Fabre. P. The Earth Explorer missions are defined. and the availability of wind profiles from post-EPS instruments in 2019 or later. (United Kingdom) ADM-Aeolus is a dedicated satellite to provide global observations of vertical wind profiles to demonstrate the capability to eliminate a major deficiency of the Global (Climate) Observing System. EADS Astrium (France). • spie. this on-going user-driven approach has given the Earth science community an efficient tool in their endeavour to better understand and monitor our planet. Attema. oceanography and hydrology. (Netherlands). The presentation will sketch a programme to fill this gap. mission requirements for potential Post-EPS missions have been drafted. 6744A-02. and Next-generation Satellites 6744A-01. Accadia. P. • CoReH2O . SMOS.(TRopospheric composition and Air Quality) . hydrosphere. Special emphasis is placed on services identified in ESA’s GMES service elements 66 spie. • TRAQ . So far. As part of the GMES space component. Current trends in the evolution of these applications were considered in order to derive the necessary satellite products that will be required in the Post-EPS era. Bézy. ice and water cycle characteristics. Additional inputs come from on-going GMES projects funded by ESA. particularly in the domains of clouds and precipitation. generates new requirements. Ingmann. Floury. This paper describes the Sentinel-1 mission. for operational meteorology. an imaging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mission at C-band. ESA is undertaking the development of a European Radar Observatory (Sentinel-1). Rebhan.(FLuorescence EXplorer) . J. Aeolus is under development for the European Space Agency with Astrium Satellites as prime contractor.(PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation) Understanding the processes that link trace gases. Endemann. (Netherlands) In Europe the development of space technology is being coordinated by the European Space Agency under tight control of its Member States and their normal democratic procedures. McGoldrick. 6744A-04. Session 1 ADM-Aeolus follow-on missions M. like more vertical samples. F.Air quality monitoring and long-range transport of air pollutants.Observation of global photosynthesis through the measurement of fluorescence. trace gases and ocean/ land surface products. Aeolus is considered a precursor for an operational wind profiler system. chemistry and climate in the atmosphere. By involving the science community from the beginning and introducing a peer-reviewed selection process. Bensi. The emphasis of these missions is on providing data to advance our understanding of these individual components. 6744A Sensors.V. Systems. which resulted in 24 proposals out of which the following six candidates were selected: • BIOMASS . J. The increasing complexity of models with regard to parameterisation and data assimilation. Rommen. H. along with the trend towards coupled • spieeurope@spieeurope. It is based on copies of the present Aeolus satellite with minor modifications. P. A. It provides an overview of the mission requirements. Swarm and EarthCARE. C.Detailed observations of key snow. Expertise from a variety of communities was drawn upon in order to generate user needs expressed in terms of geophysical variables. EU (FP5 and FP6) and ESA/EU member states. Dubock. The programmatics required to fill the data gap will be discussed. European Space Agency (Netherlands). radiation. based on the explicit requirements of services provided to the end-user. D. • FLEX . Silvestrin. Session 1 Definition of mission requirements for the follow-on EUMETSAT polar system P.Improving the understanding of the global carbon cycle and regional carbon dioxide fluxes. how they were derived and some insight into the preliminary technical concept for the satellite. Three priorities (fast-track services) for the mission have been identified by user consultation working groups of the European Union: Marine Core Services. J. Wimmer. biosphere. M. EADS Astrium Ltd. P. M. a European polar orbiting satellite system for the continuation of SAR operational applications. planned for completion by end of 2008. J. Langen. Their support is gratefully acknowledged. S. Cost drivers and needs for critical R&D will also be identified. aim at defining and trading off possible mission and system concepts and will establish preliminary functional requirements for full or partial implementation of Post-EPS Mission Requirements. ocean and land models. This paper presents an overview of the six candidate missions.

Rodriguez. establishes the critical technologies and introduces the study progress towards the implementation of the MTG development programme. (Germany) In addition to five years of routine operations of SCIAMACHY on-board of ESA´s ENVISAT mission. H. Dombrowski. Eckardt. Dobber. SO2 and aerosols and adds a NIR channel and a SWIR module. With these activities Germany will be able to provide future Earth Observation missions with suitable technologies as an answer to the increasing complexity of user requirements. K. It namely focuses onto the Imaging and IR Sounding Missions. with MetImage Germany started the development of an imaging radiometer for the European post-EPS satellite system of EUMETSAT. the launches of the TerraSAR-X and RapidEye missions and the beginning of both their operational phases are the major milestones for the German Space Programme in 2007.Lightning Imagery Mission . • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 67 . this allows up to 5 daytime observations over mid-latitude regions (Europe. E. airborne and terrestrial imaging systems A. C. TROPOMI is a non-scanning instrument with an OMI-like telescope but optimized to have smaller ground pixels (10 x 10 km2) and sufficient signal-to-noise for dark scenes (albedo 2 %). North-America. This kind of development strategy allows the hardware in the loop design. fast readable sensors and new focal plane concepts open the door to new remote sensing instruments.2385 nm) measures CO and CH4 and forms a separate module because of its thermal requirements. next generation Earth Observation instruments have started.und Raumfahrt e. China). In this paper the objectives and the strategy of the German Earth Observation Programme will be explained and the main elements. Single modules and the entire system have to be calibrated and verified. Session 2 The German Earth observation programme: building on the success of TerraSAR-X and RapidEye P. optical payload consolidation D. namely High Resolution Wide Swath SAR. intelligent synchronisation control. E. will ensure the continuation of the imagery missions. Stark. Systemic approaches are essential for such designs of complex sensor systems for dedi-cated tasks. a phase A study on MTG has been launched at the beginning of February 2007 for the space segment system feasibility and programmatic aspects to be accomplished during 2007-2008 time frame. EUMETSAT (Germany) ESA and EUMETSAT have initiated joint preparatory activities for the formulation and definition of the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) geostationary system to ensure the continuity and improvement of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) system. in particular. Deutsches Zentrum für Luft. Both missions are implemented under public-private-partnership between government and industry. After pre-phase A mission studies (2003-2006). the significant change of manufacturing accuracy in cobination with the engineering research defines the next generation of spaceborne sensor systems focusing on Earth observation and remote sensing. Medium/Short Range global and regional Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). (Netherlands). highlights the platform and resulting instrument concepts. Session 1 Meteosat third generation. R. i. P. Session 2 New optical sensor systems for high-resolution satellite. Saari. With the TanDEM-X and the Hyperspectral EnMAP mission this efficient way of sharing competences and responsibilities on one hand and benefits on the other hand will be further followed. This class of instrument are feasible for high resolution sensor systems regarding geometry and radiometry and their data products like 3D virtual reality. H. In addition. Systems. Schaadt.Full Disk High Spectral Resolution Imagery Mission (successor to the mission of other MSG-SEVIRI channels) . Stuhlmann. TROPOMI covers the OMI wavelengths of 270-490 nm to measure O3. and Next-generation Satellites • spie. Suitable procedures and procedures must be defied on component. module and system level for the assembly test and verification process. The combination of large TDI lines.Conference 6744A: Sensors. • spieeurope@spieeurope. phase A. Jongma. Technology changes on the Developments of detectors.V. missions and technology developments as well as the plans for the future will be introduced. M. Climate and Air Composition Monitoring and to the definition of the relevant observation techniques.V. (Germany) The department of Optical Information Systems (OS) on the institute of Robotics and Mechatronics of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more then 25 years experiences with high resolution imaging technology. where preliminary instrument concepts were investigated allowing in the same time to consolidate the technical requirements for the overall system study. The first phases were devoted to the definition and consolidation of end user requirements and priorities in the field of Nowcasting and Very Short Term Weather Forecasting (NWC). This paper addresses an overview of the outcome of the MTG space segment progress (spacecraft concept. Levelt. optical components and mechanisms for LEO and GEO and high power Mixed Garnet laser transmitter. W. Aben. TROPOMI is part of the ESA Candidate Core Explorer Mission proposal TRAQ and also of the CAMEO satellite proposed for the US NRC decadal study. The space segment phase A study will cover all elements to the level of details allowing to conclude on the feasibility of the system and to produce cost estimates with a good level of confidence. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (Netherlands) TROPOMI is a nadir-viewing grating-based imaging spectrograph in the line of OMI and SCIAMACHY. The NIR-channel (710-775 nm) is used for improved cloud detection and aerosol height distribution. Q. R. IR detectors and coolers.V.High Resolution Fast Imagery Mission (successor to MSG SEVIRI HRV mission) . U. TNO (Netherlands). 6744A-06. Deutsches Zentrum für Luft.UV-VIS-NIR Sounding Mission. VTT Optical Instruments (Finland). an innovative and economic scheme for space mission implementation. R. European Space Agency (Netherlands). F. C. Laan. The SWIR module (2305 . Hoogeveen. Kleipool. Börner. M. F. R. Boslooper. HCHO. Veefkind. 6744A-08. In TRAQ’s mid-inclination orbit. The paper gives an overview about the current activities at German Aerospace Center on the field of innovative sensor systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing. TROPOMI has the same wide swath as OMI (2600 km). Lehmann.e. The system theory of the instrument inside an simulated environment starts the optimisation process of the optical. This important contribution of the German Earth Observation Community with further five attractive missions to the global system is seen as the adequate equivalent to the political approach for the European and German leadership at the environmental agenda.IR Sounding Mission . mechanical and electrical designs. SRON Nationaal Instituut voor Ruimteonderzoek (Netherlands). NO2.und Raumfahrt e. Dutch Space B. In parallel technology developments for spie. Session 2 TROPOMI: solar backscatter satellite instrument for air quality and climate J. P. A TROPOMI-like instrument is part of the ESA/EU Sentinel 4&5 pre-phase A studies. Visser. I. The MTG will become the new system to be the backbone of the European operational meteorological services from 2015. 6744A-07. R. T. de Vries. M. payload preliminary design studies) accomplished in the frame of the phase A. H. The following missions have been analysed and preliminary concepts studied: . A. These two missions will contribute significantly to the European GMES-Initiative and to the Global Earth Observation System (GEOSS) enhancing the knowledge about state and dynamics of the Earth’s system. A.

and GPM (Global Precipitation Mission) core satellite. The absolute radiometric calibration is applying with the cross-calibration method using calibrated satellite images (e. while allowing full continuity of the acquired data and relevant processing. The MHS instrument replaces the former AMSU-B in the operational microwave sounder suite. 6744A-10.Conference 6744A: Sensors.e. TRMM. Session 3 Greenhouse gases observing satellite (GOSAT) sensor and satellite system T. the MHS instrument constitutes a sensible improvement in terms of radiometric sensitivity and calibration accuracy. The performance relevant to the SIOV and operational phase of the MHS instruments on both NOAA-18 and Metop-A are presented. And the damage was quantitatively evaluated by using DEM generated from ASTER stereo pairs obtained before and after it. ADEOS2 and ASTER. As the results of ICP. the data should have been acquired before the hazard occurrence and should be quickly acquired after it . It is a joint project with ESA and JAXA is going to provide CPR (Cloud Profiling Radar). the data before and just after the landslide are both available. The mission objective of the GOSAT is to observe the global distribution of 68 spie. Sun calibration is important because of the wide range of viewing angles in the mid-inclination orbit and because of spectral features introduced via sun diffusers. and is periodically monitored throughout the mission life. TNASO-CAI is a 5 channel pushbroom scanner to observe aerosols and clouds.e. Kawamoto. nicknamed “Daichi”) was successfully launched on January 24. ice and snow areas. two of which are currently operational on the NOAA-18 and Metop-A satellites. For the second condition. We are also developing DSM and ortho-rectified image generation software as a part of validation.76 to 15 µm region with 0. On • spie. are going on in Japanese Earth Observation programs.5m IFOV. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan) Three programs. the Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) and the Advance Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type-2 (AVNIR-2). At that time. the sensor characterizations have been evaluated. GCOM-W and GCOM-C (ADEOS-2 follow on). which is an objective of the ALOS mission.g. Five MHS models have been built by Astrium Ltd under EUMETSAT contract. ASTER. we analyzed data acquired during the initial mission check (IMC) and the initial calibration phase (ICP). geometric calibration is important in generating a highly accurate DSM with stereo pair images of PRISM. Another project is EarthCare. GPM is a joint project with NASA 6744A-14. In this paper. Watanabe. the updated results of calibration and validation as well as stabilities of sensor characterization will be given in this paper. but AMSR-E on Aqua is operating. Next generation satellites will be launched in 2008-20012 timeframe. Hamazaki. EUMETSAT (Germany) The Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) is the high-frequency microwave radiometer of the ATOVS (Advanced TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder) instrument suite of the IJPS (Initial Joint Polar System). and the radiometric accuracies of both PRISM and AVNIR-2 were almost sufficient except for band-4 of AVNIR-2. MODIS aboard Terra and Aqua satellites. and nighttime observation. The spacecraft is operating well as well as all the 3 sensors are operating well.. and PALSAR (Phased Array L band Synthetic Aperture Radar). ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) was launched successfully from Tanegashima Space Center by HIA launcher. 2006. 6744A-11. Systems. and the offset components (i. To fulfill the first condition. Those products are defined as a high level product in JAXA. the geometric accuracies were not sufficient due to the satellite attitude have not been precisely determined yet. With respect to its predecessor AMSU-B. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan) Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is developing Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). 6744A-12. PRISM (Panchromatic Remote Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping). CMOS-type detectors are a step forward in this respect and provide a means to integrate front-end electronics inside the detector chip. for example the sun calibration and detector selection status. 2006. The in-orbit performance has been extensively assessed during the SIOV (Satellite In-Orbit Verification). GOSAT will carry 2 instruments. M. GCOM-W will carry AMSR2 (AMSR follow on). PRISM is a 3 line panchromatic push broom scanner with 2. which was spent about 9 months after the • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . The present paper provides a summary description of the MHS instrument and describes in some detail its in-orbit performance and functionality. PALSAR is a full polarimetric active phased array SAR. 2005. it is necessary to have world coverage of data. AVNIR-2 is a 4 channel multi spectral scanner with 10m IFOV. Session 3 Overview of Japanese Earth observation programs H. CMOS-type detectors can also be made more resistant to proton-induced radiation damage. This paper introduces the results of calibration and validation and image quality evaluation after the launch for two ALOS optical sensor. sensor alignments) of PRISM could not been evaluated after the launch. i. ALOS carries three instruments. flexible and timely data acquisition is necessary. S. deserts. i. ASTER seems to fulfill the both conditions. Session 3 Application of ASTER data to hazard evaluation with an example of damage evaluation of the landslide in Pakistan H. Session 2 The microwave humidity sounder (MHS): in-orbit performance assessment R. ADEOS2 was failed. Jan. AVNIR-2 (Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer). Shimada. Takaku. and Next-generation Satellites The paper gives a description of the TROPOMI instrument and focuses on several important aspects of the design. Shimoda. In case of the giant landslide occurred in Pakistan on October 8. TANSOFTS is a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and covers 0. of Japan (Japan) The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS.2 cm-1 resolution. and will carry two instruments. Discussions on future Earth Observation programs have been started including discussions on ALOS F/O. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan). J. the first part of the commissioning phase aimed at activating the payload and verifying its operation. GCOM-C will carry SGLI (GLI follow on). Bonsignori. They are GOSAT (Greenhouse Gas Observation Satellite). 6744A-13. PRISM consists of three independent panchromatic radiometers and is used to derive a digital surface model (DSM) with high spatial resolution. Remote Sensing Technology Ctr. Session 3 Accuracy assessments of standard products of ALOS optical instruments and their high level products T. However. JAXA will develop DPR (Dual frequency Precipitation Radar) which is a follow on of PR on TRMM. PALSAR has many observation modes including full polarimetric mode and scan SAR mode. National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan) There have been a lot of discussion on application of remote sensing data to hazard evaluation. Thus. For the effective evaluation of the hazard. a green house gas sensor (TANSO-FTS : Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation) and a cloud/aerosol imager (TANSO-CAI).e.e. Relative radiometric calibration is carried out using acquired images over homogeneous targets such as ocean. TRMM and ASTER are operating well. and SPOT-5).. i. along with a comparison with similar instruments. The preliminary results of the initial calibration and validation and image quality evaluations of PRISM and AVNIR-2 have been presented. Tadono. Aspects related to the TROPOMI SWIR module are discussed in a separate paper in this conference. the joint EUMETSAT-NOAA programme for operational satellite meteorology. Detector selection is important because the small ground pixels of TROPOMI result in high internal data rates for which use of CCD’s will yield larger • spieeurope@spieeurope.

The TANSO-CAI is used to compensate errors which are caused by the cloud and aerosol. which is required by the simulation of observed spectra for TANSO optics. is remained in instrument line shape (ILS). National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (Japan). Yokota. The ILS of the other channels is validated by using solar spectra.6 and 2. and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).org/ers • spie. Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) is carried on the GOSAT satellite.0um bands are used to observe CO2 density. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan) Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is aimed at observing the greenhouse gases. The 5. The 1. M. National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan) GOSAT Project is a joint project of MOE (Ministry of the Environment).2cm-1 spectrum resolution. The GOSAT is the joint endeavor with JAXA. The TANSO-FTS is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer and covers wide range of spectrum including 0. Shiomi. the National Institute for Environment Studies (NIES). which will be used to detect clouds and aerosols. namely. and the KuPR will detect heavy rain. of Tokyo (Japan) Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is a Japanese satellite that aims to observe CO2 concentration from space and contribute to advance the research on the estimation of CO2 surface flux using source/sink inversion technique. Hiraki. When the laser wavelength is estimated precisely. The accurate measurement of precipitation will be achieved by the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) installed on the GPM core satellite. forests. Session 4 Development of GOSAT ground data system at NIES and the data processing strategy H. R. The FTS data that is recognized to have”low cloud coverage” by CAI will be processed to generate column concentration of carbon dioxide CO2 and methane CH4 ( FTS Level 2 data ). As for TIR targets. and 15µm (TIR). After launching. Ishihara. Also installed on the satellite is an imaging sensor. JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) and NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). Nakamura. The frequent precipitation measurement every three hours at any place on the globe will be achieved by eight constellation satellites with microwave radiometers (MWRs). Data distribution through ESA. Particularly concerned are resolving power of CO2 vertical profile and ability to estimating CO2 concentration in the boundary layer by combining FTS-TIR and FTS-SWIR data. The GPM core satellite is also developed by the US and Japan. The level 1A and 1B data of FTS ( interferogram and spectra. CO2 and CH4 altitude distribution data is also available with this band. Center for Climate System Research (CCSR) has contracted with JAXA to develop algorithms for retrieving CO2 and CH4 concentrations from the FTS-TIR data. GOSAT data will be available worldwide mainly through NIES. The vicarious calibration for radiance is studied by preparing the appropriate targets on the earth by using current satellite dataset. Other issue spie.6µm and 2. The data products can be searched and will be open to the public through GOSAT DHF after the data validation process. The 0. Level 4 data will be global distribution of carbon source/sink model and re-calculated forward model estimated by inverse model. The former two bands will be used to estimate columnar concentration of CO2. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 69 . while the constellation satellites are developed by various countries. Data acquired by TANSO-FTS (Fourier Transform Spectrometer) and TANSO-CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager) on GOSAT will be collected at Tsukuba Space Center \@ JAXA.Conference 6744A: Sensors. Major data flow will be also described.0µm (SWIR). The interferogram data (L1A) is converted into calibrated spectra data (L1B) at ground processing system. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan). Sensitivity to the thermodynamic phase (ice/water) of cloud particles is also discussed. Matsunaga. water vapor. deserts. CH4. Kojima. Session 3 Retrieval performance of GOSAT thermal infrared FTS sensor for measuring gas concentrations and cloud properties R. such as CO2 and CH4. Level 3 data will be “global map column concentration” of green house gases averaged in time and space. Watanabe.6 GHz) precipitation radar (KuPR) and Ka-band (35. Y. Session 3 Calibration plan of GOSAT sensors K. The 1. This is a joint mission of the Ministry of the Environment (MOE). As for SWIR targets. Systems. sensor and satellite design and its performance. respectively ) and the level 1A of CAI ( uncorrected data ) will be generated at JAXA and will be transferred to GOSAT Data Handling facility (DHF) at NIES for further processing. T. K. M.6um band is also used to observe CH4 density. and Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) for cloud detection and the correction of cirrus and aerosol interference within the FTS field of view. This presentation shows the overview of processing system of calibration for GOSAT sensors. the ILS of 1. An important goal for the GPM mission is the frequent measurement of global precipitation using a GPM core satellite and a constellation of multiple satellites. sea surface temperature is well known by other sensor observations or reliable dataset. K. GOSAT has Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO-FTS) and Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI). From CAI L1B • spieeurope@spieeurope. The Univ. Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI). Imasu. Ministry of Environment (MOE) and National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). atmospheric temperature and pressure. This paper shows the overview of GOSAT project.55µm diode laser. The processing algorithm is developed through analyzing the laboratory experimental data Main procedure of calibration processing is phase correction of interferogram pairs between observation and calibration data. TANSO is composed of 2 instruments. N. and Next-generation Satellites CO2 and CH4 and their changes from space. such as MODIS. NASA or World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG) is also under coordination. T.6um band is validated by using onboard 1. which observes the equivalent wavelengths of the GOSAT observation band. Session 4 Development of the DPR algorithms and products for GPM S. and the latter to retrieve the vertical profile of CO2 concentration in the upper atmosphere above about 700hPa.76-14um in 0. The number of total observation channel reaches up to 18. In an effective dynamic range in both KaPR and KuPR. The GOSAT will be launched by the H-IIA launch vehicle in August 2008. Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) for measuring greenhouse gases absorption spectra. 1. Niwa. Spectral accuracy is related with stability of sampling laser wavelength.000. DPR consists of two radars. Iguchi.5-14um band is used to observe CO2. KaPR will detect snow and light rain. H. which are Ku-band (13. 6744A-15. the calibrated wavelengths are in good agreement with the atmospheric absorption lines. (Japan) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) started as an international mission and follow-on mission of the TRMM project to obtain more accurate and frequent observations of precipitation than TRMM. The accuracy of CO2 columnar density is expected between 1-4ppm. Shimizu. T. JAXA/EORC is responsible 6744A-16. 6744A-17. We present the total performance of the sensor for retrieving atmospheric parameters such as gas concentrations and cloud optical and microphysical properties on the basis of simulation studies. The Critical Design Review of the DHF will be completed in early July of 2007 to prepare the scheduled launch of GOSAT in August 2008.76um band is used to observe O2 density and determine the exact path length. Nagoya Univ. drop size distribution (DSD) information and more accurate rainfall estimates will be provided by a dual-frequency algorithm. 6744A-18. and snowfield will be selected. Saitoh. cloud coverage and aerosol information ( CAI Level 2 data) will be estimated. The processed data after the onboard calibrations will be evaluated by vicarious method using accumulated observation data. The main sensor of GOSAT is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) which covers wide spectral range of CO2 absorption bands. Radiometric and geometric correction will be applied to CAI L1A data to generate CAI L1B data. from space. The calibration sites can be used for the radiance comparison with the other satellite observation data. H. Oki.5 GHz) radar (KaPR). Hanado.

. Kimura. Imaoka. and Next-generation Satellites for the GPM/DPR algorithm development for engineering values (Level 1) and physical products (e. Aerosol indirect effects are the major uncertainty of climate change studies through the significant effects on the changes of cloud optical and microphysical properties. is aimed to reveal aerosol and cloud interaction and relationships with radiation budget. Kumagai. 2. -35 dBZ. Amano.Image of the Ocean surface and the Polar region at 1km resolution. Ono. Historically. Atmospheric LIDAR (ATLID). Shimoda. The Univ. (Japan). Y. K. Nakajima. of Tokyo (Japan). Observed brightness temperatures and retrieved geophysical parameters are being widely used for monitoring environmental changes and for applying to the operational applications such as numerical weather forecasting. A. which is one of this mission. Kasahara. Ltd. Session 4 A study on the possibility of land vegetation observation with SGLI/GCOM-C Y. We report the SGLI preliminary design and special feature.Ocean surface Temperature with 1km resolution.Three direction polarization observation at visible light. . Y. It is expected that land products with land aerosol information by polarization observation are improved remarkably. JAXA (former NASDA) has the plan of the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) for monitoring of global environmental change. The development phase of CPR is now in extended Phase-A. (Japan). Okamura.g. CPR is a W-band (94. Cloud and Ice sphere to help determine the Earth’s climate change. T.4 degrees with a the worst case. Especially. M.Land surface Temperature with 500m resolutions. IRS is employing a combinational cross-track scan mirror (1400km swath) and mirror collecting optics with cooled PV detector. We are studying these possibilities by ground data using a radio control helicopter ( FUGINS ). The EarthCARE CPR will be the first Doppler radar in space to observe updraft in cloud layer globally. Nakajima. the GCOMW1 satellite (the first generation of GCOM-W series) was intensively evaluated through the Space Activities Commission of Japan and the JAXA internal review processes and approved for moving on to the Phase-C/D.250m resolutions over land and area along the shore . Finally EarthCARE with CPR is planned to be launched in 2012 after integration with satellite bus and three sensors. Chiba Univ. Systems. The current SGLI is BBM development phase which is underway to confirm the feasibility of the • spie. (Japan) and SORST-JST (Japan). Future earth observation using satellite data should monitor global climate change. The mission will take over the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II or Midori-II). the global monitoring of cloud and aerosol distributions and their microphysical properties are needed.e. K. Y. H. To secure the quality of estimates. As the integrated observation system of EarthCARE. For example. SGLI is a suite of two radiometers that operate in the Visible to NIR called VNR and the SWIR to TIR called IRS. During the Japanese fiscal year 2006. installation of the scatterometer is not the case at least for the GCOM-W1 satellite. A large precise antenna reflector. the cloud parameters have been retrieved from visible-to-infrared multi- 70 spie. Nagasaki Univ. This is a very difficult issue and needs careful consideration and strategy. (Japan) The Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has the plan of the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) for monitoring global environmental change. We expect a long-term continuity by leading the GCOM-W/AMSR2 to the AMSR-E observation. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan). Session 4 Japanese cloud profiling radar for EarthCARE T. . It is also important for us to produce and deliver 3-hourly global precipitation map in real time in order to make useful for various research and application areas (i. H. human activities has given the big impacts to earth environment. SGLI is the optical radiometer observed to the frequent Global. M. A. synergy observation with other three instruments of EarthCARE. 6744A-21. Kachi. K. Tange.Conference 6744A: Sensors. Although the simultaneous observation by a microwave scatterometer and AMSR2 is still desired. The VNR is employing a wide swath (1150km) push-bloom scan with line CCD detector and lens optics. SGLI (Second generation Global Imager) is a mission instrument to be installed on the GCOM-C (one satellite of GCOM Mission: Climate) satellite. and should contribute to social benefits. Ishida. JAXA and NICT are going to proceed to Phase-B from the end of 2007. Iida.5 m diameter. Session 4 Five years of AMSR-E monitoring and successive GCOM-W1/AMSR2 instrument K. 6744A-19. precipitation estimation) (Level 2 and 3) and the quality control of the products as the sensor provider. Tanaka. long life and high power EIK and low noise amplifier. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR2) is sole mission instrument onboard the GCOM-W1 satellite. Session 4 Cloud observations from future Japanese satellite missions T. H. . SGLI observation features are follows.. Characteristic specifications of SGLI are follows. NEC TOSHIBA Space Systems. Land. which are going to be developed by ESA. Y. AMSR2 is a successor of the AMSR for the EOS (AMSR-E) provided to the NASA Aqua satellite and AMSR onboard Midori-II with some improvements based on the experiences of AMSR and AMSR-E. H.250m resolutions temperature over land and area along the shore These characteristics are useful in many fields of social benefits. Honda. Shibata. GCOM will consist of two series of medium size satellites: GCOM-W (Water) and GCOM-C (Climate). SGLI (Second Generation GLI) onboard GCOM-C (Climate) satellite. the prediction of the floods). Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan) The fourth IPCC ( the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ) report predicted that earth average temperature after 100 years rose to 6. Shimoda. T. 6744A-23. Shiratama. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . (Japan). Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan). (Japan) Observations of cloud optical and microphysical properties from future Japanese satellite mission will be discussed and summarized in this paper.05 GHz) Doppler Radar to observe three dimensional cloud structure and up/downdraft in clouds. M.e. National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (Japan) Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) for EarthCARE satellite is going to be developed under cooperation of Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) in Japan.Image of the Land surface cover at 250m resolutions. 6744A-22. the mission must place emphasis on validation of satellite data and retrieval algorithms.Three direction polarization observation (red and NIR) . Ltd.3 GHz channels to help mitigating radio-frequency interference issue. Tokai Univ. Tokai Univ. Ocean. This influence ( the global change ) will become a serious thing for human society. Nakagawa. is an optical sensor from Near-UV to TIR. multiangular observation and 250m high frequency observation bring new knowledge in monitoring of land vegetation. Moriyama. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan) Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been proposing the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM). i. . Session 4 Design challenge on forthcoming SGLI boarded on GCOM-C H. • spieeurope@spieeurope. The AMSR-E instrument is still providing continuous data records more than 5-years. They include an improvement of warm-load calibration target and an addition of 7. make it possible to observe most radiatively significant clouds with its high sensitivity. NEC TOSHIBA Space Systems. Current target of launch date is beginning of 2012. . Masaru. Multi Spectral Imager (MSI) and Broad Band Radiometer (BBR).

Rairden. J. (USA) OSTM (Ocean Surface Topography Mission) will provide continuity of ocean topography measurements that began with TOPEX/Poseidon and is currently being carried out by Jason1. broadband radiometer. Carmen-2) will also be onboard.S. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). V. will carry an instrument suite similar to the past missions such as an Altimeter. and suggest some synergy studies focusing cloud observations. 6744A-26. This is a region where key tropospheric pollutant and greenhouse gases such as ozone. (POD) System but with significant enhancements to improve performance and reliability to progress the sensor suite towards an operational capability. Chahine. Session 5 A high-spectral resolution solid state infrared spectrometer for atmospheric air quality measurement A. J.15.the expansion of human knowledge of the Earth and of phenomena in the atmosphere and space”. (USA) The success of the NASA EOS MODIS and AIRS programs have demonstrated the value to the scientific and meteorological community of space based imaging and sounding. good information on tropospheric vertical distributions. ARIES will improve sensitivity to atmospheric water vapor. Ctr. B. and Environmental Protection Agency) by continually advancing Earth system science from space. and passive radiative cooling. R. • spieeurope@spieeurope. The approach is particularly well suited to long-term stable operation in space borne applications. sensitivity. NASA Headquarters (USA) NASA’s strategic goal in Earth science is motivated by the fundamental question: “How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?” NASA’s mission in Earth science. The Poseidon-3 Altimeter and one of the POD systems . The ARIES has size and mass less than half that of AIRS or MODIS primarily due to the advancements in focal plane assemblies and wide field optical systems developed under the NASA IIP and in US industry. Perbos. Jet Propulsion Lab. formaldehyde and water vapor. Jet Propulsion Lab. and Next-generation Satellites spectral imagers such as AVHRR/NOAA.4 µm spectral region with spatial resolution of 1. Federal agencies (such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Global Positioning System Payload (GPSP) and the Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA) are provided by NASA/JPL. methane. Systems. Mergenthaler. Therefore NASA’s role is unique and highly complements those of other • spie.. GOSAT. Jason-2. Roche. and sea level rise on a multi-decadal scale. S. These missions have multi-spectral imagers. E. The OSTM satellite. to study radiation in the satellite environment (LPT. including boundary layer data. The relatively short wavelengths allow for the use of welldeveloped detector technology. It is now possible to combine high spectral resolution observations (like AIRS) with moderate spatial resolution (like MODIS) in a single instrument. and enhancing the operational capabilities of other agencies and collaborating with them to advance national Earth science goals. Neeck. A. ESD will develop and demonstrate new sensors and interacting constellations of satellites to address critical science questions and enable advances in the U. Vaze. A. Pagano. is planed and designed to monitor geophysical parameters from land/ocean to atmosphere for more decadal period. the follow-on mission of ADEOS series. the nature of the underlying processes and how these are coupled within the Earth system. and multi-spectral imagers on one platform. lider. and a Precision Orbit Determination spie. and radiation budget of cloud and aerosol. moving ocean altimetry towards an operational climate measurement P. temperature and trace gases in the boundary layer and facilitate studies of surface and atmospheric interaction for global climate studies. carbon dioxide. R. LPT. J. as mandated by the Space Act. Three additional new instruments (T2L2. Technology advancements over the last two decades enable significant enhancements in the performance of these systems. S. L. National d’Études Spatiales (France). O’Callaghan. Jet Propulsion Lab. Carmen-2). Brown. U. T. These and currently operating missions’ technical and programmatic details and status will be presented. operational capabilities.Conference 6744A: Sensors. L.Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) will be provided by • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 71 . These data are used to detect the variation of cloud properties with the climate changes. National Science Foundation. Dorsey.. The ARIES provides over 3000 spectral channels in the 3.. In the GOSAT mission. Kumer. conduct aeronautical and space activities so as to contribute materially to . (USA) Spectrometers. F.. G. EarthCARE. We are pursuing the use of this technology for space borne tropospheric air quality monitoring. OSTM continues the long tradition of international collaboration in ocean altimetry between the United States (NASA) and Europe (CNES) with the addition of the respective operational weather and climate agencies. configurations. targeting high spectral resolution atmospheric solar reflective and thermal emission spectroscopy in the wavelength range 2 to 5 microns. and judicious combination of spectra in this range. A. carbon monoxide. Kitiyakara. The Advanced Microwave Radiometer (AMR) and the two remaining POD systems. Continuous global observations of variability and change are required to reveal natural variability and the forces involved. Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Ctr. T. Abid. The combined capability will allow more cloud free observations per unit area. 6744A-27. The EarthCARE is the unique mission that equipped cloud radar. temperature and surface emissivity. 6744A-25. F. in which a grating is coupled with a two dimensional detector array to provide high resolution spectra without the need for spectral scan mechanisms can be designed in compact. P. ARIES will also improve regional weather forecast and improve quality of products for assimilation including boundary layer water vapor. have strong spectral features. climate change processes. the expected science and operational benefits and the technology available today that demonstrates the viability and low risk of the approach 6744A-24. The characteristics and the mission background are different. In addition to the basic scientific interest. (USA). M.6 . rugged. and to make high accuracy comparison of distant clocks by laser link (T2L2) . these instruments should allow for future enhancements in data quality and accuracy for future ocean altimetry missions. and also used to understand the cloud droplet growing process by comparison the retrieved results with cloud model outputs.S. The GCOM. is to “. The multifaceted 3D observations of clouds from the EarthCARE equipments will contribute to reveal the cloud growing process. This paper will discuss the primary requirements for ARIES. aerosol effects on the clouds. This paper will provide a status of the current mission development and highlight the enhancements in the sensor suite leading toward the future utilization as an operational measurement. Measurements made by the three missions will allow scientists to better understand ocean circulation. can be obtained. GLI/ADEOS-II and MODIS/Terra&Aqua satellites for nearly thirty years. With sufficient resolving power.0 km while still scanning ± 55°. creating new remote sensing capabilities. Geological Survey. the role of each missions showing some previous results obtained passed and ongoing missions. Session 5 NASA’s Earth science flight programs S. NASA’s Earth Science Division (ESD) provides these observations through its orbital and suborbital Flight Programs. Session 5 Advanced remote-sensing imaging emission spectrometer (ARIES): an instrument concept for a next-generation imager/sounder T. M. the cloud masking flags will be provided by the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) to mitigate the uncertainty of CO2 retrieval by the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). The authors will discussed.S. low mass. and improve the overall cloud-clearing approach applied on AIRS. In the decade 2007-2016. and GCOM are three future Japanese satellite missions that are applicable to the cloud observations. in this paper. Radiometer. Session 5 OSTM (Ocean Surface Topography Mission).

6744A-31. Hou. Saint-Pe. A first way to improve dynamic range will be described. N. In the common photodiode pixel. A. F. 6744A-28. Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l’Aéronautique et de l’Espace (France) Nowadays. radiometric and spatial characteristics of the instrument. The design uses a cryogenically cooled grating and associated optical train. A. Systems. Thanks to the already developed toolbox. Y. P. In collaboration with the foundry. We have demonstrated a voltage swing improvement more than 30%. A second way to improve dynamic range is to reduce readout noise. multilinear and 2D devices answering space applications O. Based on a CMOS process optimised for imaging applications. Indeed. Although their performances have been significantly enhanced with the use of CIS (CMOS Image Sensor) processes in term of dark current. We will briefly discuss the implications for a space borne nadirlooking application. Astrium SAS and Supaéro are jointly developing high performance CMOS image detectors for space applications. Magnan. multilinear and 2D image sensors are featuring excellent electro-optical performances. Huger. pixel with 3 MOS transistors. deep sub-micron APS imagers seem to have a number of advantages over CCD’s that will probably cause them to replace CCD’s in those applications where radiation tolerance 72 spie. a review of improvements about voltage swing. soil moisture storage. limited budget for adding shielding metal will be available for most applications and lower power operations is always seen as a positive characteristic in space applications. Astrium SAS and Supaéro have now the capability to develop with low risk CMOS detectors for dedicated space applications. dynamic range is related of conversion gain through reset noise which is dependant of photodiode capacitance. GPM is a joint initiative with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and other international partners and is the backbone of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Precipitation Constellation. • Climate Prediction through better understanding of surface water fluxes. M. cloud/precipitation microphysics and latent heat release. Martin-Gonthier. Azarbarzin. Estribeau. New readout architecture have been developed to perform a correlated double sampling readout. Engel. the authors present data related to their operation. Most of the dynamic range limitation of CMOS image sensors comes from the pixel. in 3 TMOS pixel structure. Nevertheless most space applications still use CCD detectors because they tend to give better performance and have more heritage. L. noise comes from reset phase (SQR[kT/CPH] for hard reset or close to SQR[kT/(2*CPH)] for soft reset with CPH : photodiode capacitance).org/ers • spie. Furthermore it was shown that the 1/f noise associated with deep sub-micron imagers is reduced as compared to previous generations APS imagers due to the improved quality of the gate oxides Considering that end of life performance will have to be • spieeurope@spieeurope. 6744A-32. P. Session 6 COBRA monolithic CMOS image sensors family: linear. coupled with a cooled 1024 x 1024 pixel HgCdTe array.6 micron. Details on this readout architecture will be given and strong readout noise reduction will be demonstrated by measurements performed on our test vehicle. EADS Astrium (France) Since more than 10 years now. Dynamic Range (DR). performances and space qualification. focused on the measurement of carbon monoxide spectra near 4. It will unify and improve global precipitation measurements from a constellation of dedicated and operational active/passive microwave sensors. The continuous efforts spent have now enabled to achieve the development of a family of CMOS detectors able to address several space applications including LEO/GEO Earth observation and Solar System exploration. Kakar. defined as (maximum usable output linear swing)/(noise in dark) remains an important parameter for a lot of applications. TNO (Netherlands) It is generally known that active pixel sensors (APS) have a number of advantages over CCD detectors if it comes to cost for mass production.25 micron feature size) Measurements performed on test structures at the University of Delft have shown that the imagers are very radiation tolerant even if made in a standard process without the use of special design rules. K. • Hydrometeorological Prediction through better temporal sampling and spatial coverage of high-resolution precipitation measurements and innovative hydro-meteorological modeling. Leijtens. After a short introduction explaining the various architectures of COBRA CMOS image sensors. (USA) The overarching Earth science mission objective of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is to develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural and human-induced changes. SUPAERO/CIMI laboratory have studied different ways to improve it and test structures have been developed to perform analysis and characterisation. and Next-generation Satellites We describe the development of a laboratory prototype of such a spectrometer. 6744A-30. consisting in improving the voltage swing at the pixel output. Session 6 Active pixel sensors: the sensor of choice for future space applications? J. • Water/Energy Cycle Variability through improved knowledge of the global water/energy cycle and fresh water availability. GPM is completing the Preliminary Design phase and is advancing towards launch in 2013 and 2014. CMOS image sensors are widely considered for space • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . power consumption and ease of integration. A. This will enable improved prediction of climate. weather. Neeck. NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. Test vehicles and process modifications made to improve voltage swing will be depicted. The talk also emphasizes the development of test benches and associated procedures to improve accuracy and efficiency for extensive detectors characterisation. C. quantum efficiency and conversion gain.Conference 6744A: Sensors.2 to 5 of initial conversion gain at a given pixel pitch (13µm). A good control of the conversion gain will be demonstrated with variation in the range of 0. In conclusion of the talk. Boucher. During programs in collaboration with EADS Astrium. Session 6 Dynamic range optimisation of CMOS image sensors dedicated to space applications P. Corbiere. NASA Headquarters (USA). • Weather Prediction through improved numerical weather prediction (NWP) skills from more accurate and frequent measurements of instantaneous rain rates with better error characterizations and improved assimilation methods.(< 0. We will present both laboratory absorption spectra and zenithlooking air emission spectra of CO to demonstrate the spectral. To this respect a change may be at hand with the advent of deep sub-micron processed APS imagers. these linear. The specific scientific objectives of GPM are advancing: • Precipitation Measurement through combined use of active and passive remote-sensing techniques. and natural hazards for present and future generations. process modifications are made to optimise implant settings and enhance threshold voltage and body effect of MOS transistors in the pixel. conversion gain and noise level is made to understand impact on dynamic range. Session 5 Global precipitation measurement preliminary design S. R. Decrease and increase of conversion gain for a given pixel pitch (13µm) have been performed with different design techniques. A third way to improve dynamic range is to control conversion gain value for different pixel.

Rao en X. • Complex simulations can be built up with a few mouse clicks. Moyano. sensitivity. With that purpose in mind. The MSC performance was analyzed and enhanced on KGS(KOMPSAT Ground Station) during LEOP and Cal.4µm to long-wave infrared (LWIR) channels up to 12µm. EarthCARE is scheduled to be launched. (South Korea) Multi-Spectral Camera(MSC) is a payload on the KOMPSAT-2 satellite to perform the earth remote sensing. Session 6 Infrared sensors for Earth observation missions A. M. Autors: J. Poster Session An approach for retrieval of atmospheric trace gases CO2.Conference 6744A: Sensors. (Earth. Donovan. analyse and visualize data extracted from generated products. It is important to study and understand the factors that could hinder the proper development of the mission and the realization of its scientific goals and to do so well before launch. 6744A-69.22um to 2. and Next-generation Satellites and low power operation are important. This will be achieved by simultaneously probing the atmosphere vertically with the active instruments in synergy with the passive instruments. Ashcroft. In order to make this tool more useful within the scientific and engineering communities. Systems. Eisinger. J. The detectors are designed for instruments with a spectral resolution of approximately 15nm in the SWIR band to 1µm in the LWIR band. Z. R. The miniature suit of instruments is being designed to make measurements with reduced spectral resolution (1. EarthCARE will enable cloud and aerosol properties retrievals consistent with a Top-of-Atmospheric (TOA) flux accuracy of 10 Wm-2.. Fan. V. ECSIM relies strongly upon a previous prototype developed by ESA / KNMI where a combination of forward and retrieval models (full End-to-End capabilities) have been included. Franco. These arrays are inherently robust. P. • spieeurope@spieeurope. L. G. of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China) spie. the sequence of MSC cal. • A database is maintained with all the information generated by the system.(Calibration and Validation) Phase. S. W. Clouds. The compression method on KOMPSAT-2 MSC was selected and used to match MSC input image data with output data. Poster Session Spatial synchronization in space-borne/airborne hybrid bi-static SAR P. Canadian Space Agency (Canada) Satellite retrievals are broadly recognized as critically important tool for mapping spatio-temporal distribution of trace gases./val. The arrays will be fabricated using the “loophole” process in MCT grown by liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE).5um-1. the carbon dioxide and methane provide the largest contribution to the climate radiative forcing and together with carbon monoxide also to the global carbon budget. 6744A-93. K.4um band.Theuwissen. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 73 . • Users can customize almost every model’s parameter values with XML files. This is made possible by the combination of a set of existing technologies that together enable a high degree of flexibility in the pixel geometry. • Models are connected in a logical sequence with well-defined interfaces. Han. S. the prototype simulator has been embedded into a completely reorganised architecture intended to improve a number of aspects: • Complex algorithms have been enclosed into logical entities: models. Canada Ctr.2nm) over wide NIR range 1. The solution employs a photodiode array under the control of a readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The ROIC allows flexible geometries and in-pixel redundancy to maximise operability and reliability. (United Kingdom) SELEX-S&AS is developing a family of infrared sensors for earth observation missions. Among all trace gases. The basic set of instruments for MEOS is currently under development with funding support from the Canadian Space Agency. Voors. Trishchenko. The influence on image data due to compression algorithm and relation between compression method and performance enhancement algorithm are analyzed and shown. 6744A-71. A. Oxygen A-band path length will be used for normalization of trace gas retrievals. offer high quantum efficiencies. The combination of high and coarse resolution spectral data is beneficial for better characterization of surface spectral albedo and aerosol effects. DEIMOS Space S. (Spain). MPB Communications Inc. T. • It is possible to add third-party algorithms or tools to convert. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (USA).45um and with high spectral resolution (0. European Space Agency (Netherlands) In 2013 an important ESA Core Explorer Mission. by combining the photocurrent from a number of photodiodes into a single pixel. With these. In this paper. New Micro Earth Observation Satellite (MEOS) mission is proposed to obtain information about these gases along with some other mission’s objectives related to studying cloud and aerosol interactions. and photocurrent integration capacity. a simulator for EarthCARE (ECSIM) has been developed. P. allowing • spie.L. Lajas. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (Netherlands)./ Val. Chungnam National Univ. • Users can run lengthy simulations in “batch” iterating through different parameter values.Leijtens.2um-2. Paper will describe the approach for cloud/clearsky identification and column retrievals of above trace gases using combination of coarse and high-resolution spectral data. The spectral bands cover short-wave infrared (SWIR) channels from around 1. which improves stability of results and makes them less sensitive to uncertainties of surface elevation and total pressure. The use of loophole arrays also offers access to SELEX’s avalanche photodiode (APD) technology. Our MCT technology has enabled a sensor array design that can satisfy the requirements of all of the SWIR and mediumwave infrared (MWIR) bands with near-identical arrays. Wehr. • Model outputs are well documented and stored in easy to access NetCDF files. Defective or inoperable diodes (or “sub-pixels”) can be deselected with tolerable impact on the overall pixel performance. 1. J. Pirondini. Aerosol and Radiation Explorer) will comprise two active (a cloud-profiling radar (CPR) and an high spectral resolution atmospheric lidar (ATLID)) and two passive (a Multi-spectral imager (MSI) and a Broad-Band Radiometer (BBR)) instruments.Wang • ECSIM can intercept and classify information and error messages from the simulations. EarthCARE. Poster Session ECSIM: the simulator framework for EarthCARE R. Zhou. Khlopenkov. Ramos. Kruzelecky. Jamroz. SELEX Sensors and Airborne Systems Ltd. It is also planned to supplement the spectrometer measurements with high spatial resolution imager for detailed characterization of cloud and surface albedo distribution within spectrometer field of view. for Remote Sensing (Canada). R. D. P.03nm) for three selected regions: oxygen A-band. Acarreta. 6744A-73. Korea Aerospace Research Institute (South Korea). Ra. Kroupnik. Yong. D. (Canada). Univ. The instrument images the earth using a push-broom motion with a swath width of 15 km and a ground sample distance (GSD) of 1 m over the entire field of view (FOV) at altitude 685 Km. Poster Session Analysis of the relation between compression method and for performance enhancement of multi-spectral camera (MSC) image data S. are described. highly uniform gain at the pixel level where photon flux is very low. R. V. Wang. Y. The instrument is designed to have an on-orbit operation duty cycle of 20% over the mission lifetime of 3 years with the functions of programmable gain/ offset and on-board image data compression/storage.7um band and 2. CH4 and CO from the future Canadian micro earth observation satellite (MEOS) A. 6744A-72.

V. A.120 mm. Especially in the case of 96 row TDI detectors. whose mathematical model for antenna steering is modified. and Next-generation Satellites In determining the locations of illuminators and receivers. design. Performances (calculated): Threshold of sensitivity . and the horizontal CCD register is 4-phase. and present test results of the detector performance. NASA Langley Research Ctr. in case of detector failure during integration. A. 4. in EUSAR 2006. the key of which is to slow down the satellite antenna’s footprint in azimuth so that the receiver can follow the illuminator within a prolonged time period. and have been optimized for high charge handling capacity. the QE is greater than 45% at 700nm. a hybrid SAR system using a spaceborne transmitter and a receiver mounted on an aircraft. the scheme. Nevertheless. Second. The residual MTF contribution of the curved focal plane is presented. M. Hofmann. R. The pixels have 100 percent fill factor. has two insufficiencies. Frequency range . resulting in each of the 3 operating channels having 10240 columns of 13 micron pixels. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 .50 grams. we review the design. NASA Langley Research Ctr. W. Rühlich. The device features up to 128 TDI rows selectable in blocks of 2. geophysics. The latest results from laboratory testing and characterization of enabling subsystems and the overall instrument system will be reported. the impact on system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). strong 9. which degrades the practicability of the algorithm. The principle of operation of the FOS is organically combined with a digital signal processing. will be described. M. Cohen. K. 64 and 128 for optimal signal to noise performance under a wide range of light levels. O. S. Boyer. Session 7 Next Ofeq focal plane array E.10 Hz. each featuring 3 individual CCD imaging arrays colocated on the same chip. The best accelerometers in the world have sensitivity worth on 4-5 orders. Mass .org/ers • spie. Particularly interesting is the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region from 0.10e-13 g. with an emphasis placed on testing performed to evaluate system-level radiometric. it has wide choices in bi-static SAR. This paper describes the new detector design and its modes of operation. The ATMT design results in an off-axis detector position and due to the wide field of view (FOV) of the • spieeurope@spieeurope. J.10e-9 . This 6744A-75. H. Fairchild Imaging (USA) In this paper. Yacoby. (Israel) For the next generation of Ofeq satellites. while the concept and technology also have applicability toward measurement of other trace species and other applications. Swales Aerospace (USA). decreasing the influence of internal and external destabilising factors (as for FOS). Preliminary measurements indicate that the charge handling capacity exceeds 700 ke-. neutralising the influence of extraordinary situations available during using of FOS. C. Y. and can be used as a base for creating of measurement units of physical values as 3D superhigh sensitive precise accelerometers of linear accelerations. the development of the hybrid system is still at an early stage for its great difficulty. distortion effects must be taken into account. Bitterlich. J.9 to 2.Conference 6744A: Sensors. 16. Nothaft. It allows decreasing hardware of the accelerometer due to using a usual air-borne or spaceborne computer. Session 7 Versatile 1024x256 SWIR-HgCdTe hyperspectral imaging sensor for applications with low photon fluxes and high framerates M. 32. and the MTF at Nyquist is better than 48% at 700nm. Lutz. hence. and characteristics of a multichannel time-delay-integration (TDI) CCD image sensor recently developed at Fairchild Imaging which is well suited for low light level multispectral imaging requiring a wide field of view. geology. Dynamic range 10e7 . Poster Session High precision spaceborne accelerometer for measuring extra low liner accelerations P. The loss of SNR is compensated by the airborne receiver’s much shorter distance compared to mono-static spaceborne SAR. Demyanenko. Two schemes have been proposed and validated in this paper to solve the two imperfections respectively. The detector has 8 output ports providing 27 MHz data rate per output. Cook. These several tasks are following: inertial navigation of the Earth and Space. Systems. whose key is to illuminate wide beam by reducing satellite antenna’s size.20 mm 6744A-34. The vertical shift registers operate using 3-phase clocks. However. It has been proposed the 3D accelerometer of extra low acceleration that is based on PFOS. Gebhardt et al. In order to reduce analog noise. Erni. Kiev Polytechnic Univ. The second scheme is a new scheme. J.0 . Session 7 Development of a multichannel 10240-pixel TDI CCD P. The first scheme is a modification of Gebhardt’s scheme. H. We describe the trade-off between quantum efficiency and MTF. Ziegler. special care was taken in the design of the detector butting angles. modeling. AIM has developed a dedicated hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensor called GENSIS (generic short-wave infrared sensor). Wendler. The mechanical design also takes into account requirements for Line Of Sight (LOS) stability. 6744A-74. (Ukraine) Solutions of several fundamental and applied tasks require creating high sensitive precise accelerometers with sensitivity in order of 10e-13 g. spatial. Y. combines large illuminated area of the spaceborne SAR with high resolution and flexibility of the airborne SAR. Elbit Systems Electro-Optics ELOP Ltd. Vu.10e9. These sensors have super high threshold sensitivity and wide dynamic range.5 µm. The anastigmat three-mirror telescope (ATMT) design does not allow any refractive elements in the focal plane butting concept. (USA). I. M. 6744A-35. seismology etc. according to the author’s viewpoint. hence a new mechanical butting solution was applied and qualified. a new focal plane array has been designed. This technique simplifies the detector replacement process. C. correcting the influence of natural. Finck. Poster Session Overview of laboratory testing results for an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer A. Accelerometers (gravimeters and gradientmeters) with required sensitivity are not available now. linear trajectory of the satellite. First. M. The detector consists of two closely overlapped 5248-pixel long TDI imagers. A subclass raised in recent years. gravimetry nearby the Earth and into Space. E. AIM Infrarot-Module GmbH (Germany) Many current remote sensing programs rely on hyperspectral imaging systems. W. Burcher. such as oscillation of environment temperature.6 micron infrared ozone band at high spectral resolution. 8. flat earth geometry and parallel trajectories between the platforms are assumed in their paper to decrease the complexity. Savenko. Puschell. Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (USA) An airborne imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) system was developed within NASA’s Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) to mitigate risk associated with implementation of such a device in future space-based atmospheric remote sensing missions. In order to reduce these effects. Flood. the imaging algorithm will be very complex owing to the continuously changing in pointing directions of antennas. The fast growing market for spectrally and spatially resolved (3D) data require high bandwidth data storage and processing capabilities at system level and optimized sensor units in the focal plane. instability of pendulum cycle frequency of sensitive element of the accelerometer etc. B. Size: length . a curved focal plane is needed. This system is focused on observing tropospheric ozone through measuring a narrow spectral interval within the 74 spie. and this will be described. Wollrab. 6744A-33. diameter . C. Haiml. Larar. (USA). A scheme has been proposed by U. Mai. Mims. both in the scan direction and along the detector line direction. R. One of the challenges is the space-time synchronization of the antenna footprints due to the high difference between the platforms’ velocities. technological drawbacks of FOS on measured results. the detector output will connected directly to the focal plane electronics board using a qualified connector. and spectral measurement fidelity. J. There is developed a new class of fiber-optical sensors (FOS) with light pulse modulation.

Robo. Bernard. noise. Thomson-CSF (France). 6744A-36. Brèire de l’Isle. SGLI will provide high accuracy measurements of the atmosphere (aerosol. the IR detection is made by a 2 x 2 pixels array operating at ~93K. The maximum rate for the read out of a full frame of 1024 x 256 pixel is 245 Hz. D.. we develop other semiconductor compounds for SWIR and UV applications.4 to 15. each pixel is made of 5x5 square sub-pixels of 28 µm and the readout circuit enables sub-pixel deselection. Nedelcu.2. specifically for spectral imaging instruments. Cayla. B. In the past researchers claimed many advantages of QWIPs. Ctr. V. Systems. Blumstein. M. We present here the status of our first FPA realization in UV with GaN alloy. both in snap-shot mode. J. P. We will give an overview of Gensis functionality and present the latest electro-optical performance data. the THALES Group has been manufacturing sensitive arrays using QWIP technology based on GaAs and related III-V compounds. P. (USA) Quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) technology has shown remarkable success by realizing large-format focal plane arrays in both broad-bands and in multi-bands. thus efficiently permitting multi-band detection. Gilard. In order to optimize the overall performance.8 to 15 µ • spie. N. J. we present the performances of both our first 384x288. Performance evolution (responsivity. spie. Then first electro-optical results are presented with perspectives for this space detector development. Depending on the spectral signature of interest. In this presentation. A. 6744A-37. The composition of the MCT material and the photovoltaic technology are adapted to maximize response for the requested bandwidths: cut-off wavelengths of the 2 detection circuits are 12.2 mm2.5 µm is based on a 24 x 32 µm pitch grid with an optically active area of 24.. Each detection circuit is made of 20x2 square pixels of 140 µm.). L. after introduction of the main technical requirements. Each detector stack absorbs photons within the specified wavelength band while allowing the transmission of photons in other spectral bands. and at 1. hybridized on a single CMOS readout circuit. has selected SOFRADIR for its heritage in space projects and MCT detectors to develop this detector. Bois. Dua. Flexibility in many design parameters of these detectors allows for tuning and tailoring the spectral shape according to application requirements. O.) before and after radiations are given. Bandara. D.0 µm. As part of SGLI. the biomass and the Earth temperature (sea and land). This multi-band detector involves both intersubband and interband transitions in III-V semiconductor layer structures. 6744A-38.and long-wavelength infrared bands (~3-50 µm). Operation mode can be set to stare while scan (SWS) and integrate then read (ITR). Sofradir is indeed a major supplier for European space industry based on the use of a qualified Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) technology for detectors from 0. This detector is packaged into a sealed housing for integration into a Dewar at 55K. Coppens. Jet Propulsion Lab. This paper presents an analysis of the radiation tolerance of the infrared detectors for each band. The spectral response of these detectors based on the III-V material system are tailorable within the mid.. In this • spieeurope@spieeurope. Huet. Thales Research & Technology (France). and Next-generation Satellites 1024 x 256 sensor module with a cut-off wavelength of 2. The core of the instrument is composed of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. O. snow. Noveltis SA (France). Another widely claimed advantage for QWIPs was the so-called band-gap engineering and versatility of the III-V processing allowing the custom design of quantum structures to fulfil the requirements of specific applications such as very long wavelength (VLWIR) or multispectral detection. Session 7 Development of a long wave infrared detector for the SGLI instrument A. the GENSIS module is integrated in a cooler dewar assembly. N. The adjustable gain results in photon-noise or kTC-noise limited operation over the whole dynamic range. Session 7 Monolithically-integrated near-infrared InGaAs and mid-infrared QWIP detector array S. H. The integration time can be varied from 1 µs up to 6. Thales Research & Technology (France) Since 2002. Tribolet. we will discuss the recent results.4e+6 photoelectrons (full well capacity). Recently. For space applications at FPA temperatures in the range form 100 K to 220 K. we have extended this wavelength limit by monolithically integrating a near-infrared (visible . each spectral line can be set to low or high gain or can be deselected completely. For each • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 75 . Session 7 Focal plane arrays from UV up to VLWIR E. relative spectral response. M. Reeb. Costard. X. The line deselection function allows either for frame rates of several tens of kHz for small regions of interest or to reduce the video data rate already on-chip. Marcadet.8 µm and 12. using a CTIA input stage for low photon fluxes from 100 photons per integration time (S/N = 1) up to 2.6 x 8. The IASI instrument is currently operating on the Metop-A satellite (launched in October 2006). The detection chain of the spectrometer includes 3 bands to cover the 3. F. cloud . This detector includes two detection circuits for detection at 10. K..4-15.5µm with InGaAs photodiodes.. Session 7 Radiation tolerance analysis of IASI infrared detectors in the 3. 6744A-39. M. Gunapala. J. Uniformity was one of these and has been the key parameter for the production to start. Sofradir (France) The Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has the plan of the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) for monitoring of global environmental change. Facoetti. Terrier. First in orbit impacts of the radiations are also reviewed. a Long Wave IR Detector (LWIRD) sensitive up to about 13 µm is necessary. 25 µm pitch. with a specially developed compact pulse-tube flexure-bearing cryo-cooler with a long lifetime and a low vibration level. including the main trade-offs performed regarding performance optimization.Conference 6744A: Sensors. A special care has been taken to keep the detectors at cold temperature during tests. the cryosphere (glaciers. SGLI (Second Generation Global Imager) on board GCOM-C (Climate). Vuillermet. Truffer. S.5 and 13. SISCLE (France) IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) is an infrared atmospheric sounder. The read-out circuit (ROIC) is optimized for HSI applications. Dariel. In this presentation. D. sea ice . at THALES Research and Technology Laboratory. Geoffray. is an optical sensor from NearUV to thermal IR.5 µm spectral range. P. National d’Études Spatiales (France).. H. prime contractor for the Second Generation Global Imager (SGLI). This mature and reproducible technology has been used for 15 years to produce thousands of LWIR detectors with cut-off wavelengths between 9 and 12 µm. F. the design of this space detector is described. radiation tests have been performed to address sensitivity to gamma-rays and protons radiations.5 µm spectral range F. focal plane array design issues and optimization of detector device structures for each application.5 µm at 55K (in order to get a low dark current level).. Liu. which is one satellite of this mission. MWIR (35µm) / LWIR (8-9 µm) dual-band FPAs. Chorier. On ground.1 µm) p-i-n photodiode with a mid-infrared (3-5µm) (QWIP).5 ms for 10 MHz pixel clock. As the QWIP technology cannot cover the full electromagnetic spectrum.). NEC Toshiba Space. and the current status of QWIPs for MWIR (< 5µm) and VLWIR (\>15µm) arrays.

We have developed a low temperature processes for B and Sb delta-doping of silicon which can be used to form a thin (< 3 nm) back-surface contact for fully processed back-illuminated. TNO (Netherlands) The microbolometer spectrometer breadboard MIBS is a prism spectrometer that uses an uncooled microbolometer detector array and has been designed for the ESA EarthCARE mission. it is feld that this instrument (which is small enough to give grown up performance to a micro satellite) has a lot of application potential for applications like weather forecasting and forest fire detection. J.Conference 6744A: Sensors. G. Nowadays. 6744A-42. Tanii. Buquet. MOE is involved in the instrument development. This approach enables full depletion of thick. M. p-channel CCDs. and uniformity. E. J. A. Non-equilibrium growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) is used to achieve very high dopant incorporation in a thin. We will present results on focal plane array of 320x256 pixels with a pitch of 30µm for which Schottky photodiodes are multiplexed with a readout circuit protected by black matrix at room temperature. Holland. Although application for EarthCARE has become uncertain due to geodistribution issues. the Ministry of Environment (MOE). J. Optimization of this process has enabled the growth of a thin highly conductive back surface electrode on p-channel CCDs and PIN arrays. Nikzad. present and future J. Ltd. Leijtens. Sofradir has acquired a large know-how and became a major supplier for European space industry. Session 8 MIBS: past. Session 7 Latest development for space applications at Sofradir P. In particular this paper presents latest developments for space applications with new results in visible. surface-confined layer. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. or p-channel CCDs. Court. but the ultimate performances of AlGaN photodiodes couldn’t be achieved due to: parasitic illumination of multiplexers. Such camera present an intrinsic spectral selectivity and an extremely low dark current at room temperature. and CMOS arrays. Truffer. S. It is scheduled to be launched in 2008. Lévesque. Session 7 Large format delta-doped silicon imagers with high QE in the UV/optical/NIR for remote observations S. J. Duboz. Consultant (France) The fast development of nitrides has given the opportunity to investigate AlGaN as a material for ultraviolet detection. de Goeij. The presentation will elaborate on performance predicted. preventing large development of this technology. Jones. The basic array design for each application might require CMOS or CCDs unique features. For example. M. MTG. long wavelength and space qualification of infrared detectors. Systems. 6744A-41. We will present our latest results on delta-doping of large-format high purity arrays. J. including QE. results achieved and future applications. P. Trollier. Sofradir technologies offer possibilities to develop a large panel of high reliable detectors like long linear arrays or two dimensional arrays covering bandwidth from visible to 15 µm based on qualified Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) 6744A-43. F. Sentinel 3. The noise figure is mainly due to readout noise of the multiplexer and we will investigate the ultimate capabilities of Schottky diodes or Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) technologies to detect extremely low signal. MCP intensifiers. Tribolet. L. future NASA missions will require large format high performance imaging arrays in a mosaic or monolithic focal plane to achieve wide field of view. As existing 76 spie. Moreau. 6744A-76. Sofradir (France) Sofradir started to work in the field of space applications and especially in the earth observation domain in the beginning of the 1990th. The two pulse tube coolers thermomechanical units are yet qualified against environmental constraints. Then we will show the capability to outdoor measurements of plasma monitoring. highresolution imaging (and spectroscopy). we will consider deep UV measurements on single pixels MSM at 32nm in a front side illumination configuration. It can compete with technologies based on photocathodes. E. and tests have been performed that show good correlation between predicted and achieved results. imaging. (USA) There is an increasing need for large format imaging and detector arrays. B. Robo. Finally. A. Doyon. E.). high purity PIN arrays. Hoenk. n-channel CCDs and CMOS arrays. and NIES is responsible for the satellite data retrieval. (USA). J. 6744A-94. which is required for compatibility with fully processed and functional Al-metallized devices. In order to demonstrate its feasibility a breadboard has been build. It is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. E. Bepi Colombo. Sofradir is involved in several projects for future space missions (SPIRALE. M. ABB Inc. Tanchon. Session 8 Tests and qualification activities for the GOSAT interferometer flight model L. The temperature is kept below 450 °C throughout the entire process. J. Soucy. AlGaN based cameras allow UV imaging without filters or with simplified ones. dark current.. Aigouy. or use of cooled readout circuit. Few results on camera have been shown in the last years.. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 .org/ers • spie. T. measurements • spieeurope@spieeurope. D. Ravex. Session 7 Latest pulse tube coolers developments of air liquide for space J. we will define technology process allowing backside illumination and deep UV imaging. van der Meche. (Canada). Thales Research & Technology (France). M. J. responsivity of p layers in p-I-n structures. A. P. Reverchon. Theses focal plane present a peak reponsivity around 280nm and 310nm with a rejection of visible light of four decades only limited by internal photoemission in contact.. AL/DTA is now in position to propose two Pulse Tube cooler systems in the 40-80K temperature range for coming Earth Observation missions such as Metesoat Third Generation. Jet Propulsion Lab. This paper proposes an overview of Sofradir technology capabilities and experience for design of custom space detectors. The Cooler Drive Electronics is also an important aspect specifically regarding the active control of the cooler thermomechanical unit during the launch phase. Air Liquide (France) Thanks to important development efforts completed and partial ESA funding. Crespi. Session 7 AlGaN-based focal plane arrays for selective UV imaging at 310nm and 280nm and route toward deep UV imaging J. high purity silicon detectors while achieving high quantum efficiency in UV/Optical/ NIR and low dark current. Duquette. and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). (Japan) The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is designed to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from orbit. We have developed complete end-to-end post fabrication processes at JPL that have allowed us to produce high performance back illuminated imaging arrays of widely varying designs including n-channel CCDs. JAXA is responsible for the satellite and instrument development. Thanks to the work done with the support of the French Ministry of Defense and the European Space Agency. This paper details the presentation of the two Pulse Tube Coolers together with the Cooler Drive Electronics aspects technology. the active reduction of the vibrations induced by the compressor and of course the electrical interfaces with the compressor. and Next-generation Satellites 6744A-40. As a matter of fact. T. Blacksberg. back thinned CCD or hybrid CMOS focal plane arrays for low flux measurements. Furthermore.. SGLI. One of crucial keys to achieve highest performance possible in silicon imaging arrays is back illumination. etc. NEC TOSHIBA Space Systems.

I. High speed electronics allow simultaneous readout of all four detectors over spacewire links. A Fourier transform spectrometer with high optical throughput and spectral resolution has been developed for the GOSAT mission. Tange. The offset error was corrected in the US processing system on April 2007 for all data acquired since April 1999. the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator. yet high performance system. Chang. Images are acquired over four spectral bands in the visible and near infrared using a pushbroom configuration and four linear CCD detectors. The sensor specifications and configurations will be shown and critical technical challenges will be discussed. the Saharan desert sites have been used to test this calibration model. and environmental and optical testing of the engineering model instrument. the satellite observation has advantages of global and frequent observations. using radiation tolerant glasses. volcano eruption. Markham.Conference 6744A: Sensors. Y. Lee. Middleton. with simulated models. Session 8 A generic interferometer design for the next generation weather sounders on GEO satellites F. is studied. lightweight. (South Korea). but this is believed to be due to contamination on the panel rather then instrument degradation. In order to detect the CO2 variation of boundary layers. This paper presents an overview of the tests and qualification campaigns of the TANSO interferometer flight model at ABB Bomem as well as the key interferometer performances. (USA) Launched in April 1999. Grandmont. (Canada) A new generation of sensors with hyperspectral capability is being considered for future geosynchronous earth orbiting (GEO) platforms. Session 8 A small imaging spectrometer for a microsatellite STSAT-3 J. A generic design developed specifically to address the weather sounding applications will be presented along with the trade space and rational behind design choices. The main purpose of the sensor is to monitor large scale natural disasters such as landslides. 6744A-44. • spie. H. has indicated slow changes in the ETM+. T. and the opto-mechanical structure is designed to maintain alignment and image quality under typical launch loads. the data continues to fill gaps in the ETM+ archive. Using the Saharan data. H. The so-called “throughput” or “Felgett” advantage that made Fourier Transform Spectrometry well known in the 70’s is now exploited through what is now known as the “multi-channel” advantage. The scientific interest for more spectral channels suggest that multi-bandpass filter approaches are replaced by those providing true spectral capabilities. Session 9 Radiometric calibration status of Landsat-7 and Landsat-5 J. Kang. Imai. Regular observation of desert targets in the Saharan and Arabian deserts confirms the lack of change in the ETM+ reflective band response.. K. Yui. Science Systems and Applications. G. The thermal band was found to have a calibration offset error of 0. B. a set of judicious instrument parameters are derived to better exploit the technique to the profit of scientific return while preventing secondary aspects to drive instrument costs substantially. but the radiometry has been unaffected. A. Starting from commonly accepted high level science requirements. Korea Aerospace Research Institute (South Korea) SATSAT-3. NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. Though the satellite is running on multiple back-up systems. the calibration of the TM reflective bands has used an on-board calibration system with multiple lamps. L. (USA). is the third experimental microsatellite of STSAT series designated in the Long-Term Plan for Korea’s Space Development by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea. J. Problems were found with the lamp based model of up to 20% in some bands for some years. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan) We have been studying the feasibility and possibility of earth observation sensors from geostationary earth orbit. The calibration procedure for the TM reflective bands was updated in 2003 based on the best estimate at the time. The thermal band continues to be stable and well-calibrated since an offset error was corrected in • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 77 . which is the second largest contribution molecule. Historically. (United Kingdom) We present a 10 metre resolution camera designed for use in low-earth sun-synchronous orbit.) onto which this concepts builds up will be highlighted. which is a ~120kg micro-satellite. A refractive optical design. 6744A-45. Launched in 1984. We discuss the design and construction of the camera. The heritage from other past space instruments developed by ABB Analytical (formerly Bomem Inc. The STSAT-3 satellite is initiated at the May of 2007 and will be launched into a lower earth orbit (~ 600km) at 2010. Inc. data can only be acquired where a ground station is within range. Rutherford Appleton Lab. A. Buijs. 6744A-47. with spatial resolution of 20m at nadir at optical wavelength (500nm). Y. spie. a small and light (~5kg) imaging spectrometer. Experimental results on key instrument life driving parameter that raise the technology readiness level of the concept will also be discussed. etc. Since then. This paper presents a brief introduction of STSAT-3 program and then introduces its secondary payload i. ABB Inc. Session 8 A multispectral 10-metre resolution camera for earth observation K. The payload will be used for environmental monitoring such as yellow dust cloud blown from China to South Korea. Kimura. S. 6744A-46. though in a reduced capacity. a new model was developed and implemented in the US processing system in April 2007. Session 8 Preliminary study on Earth observation sensor from geostationary Earth orbit Y. The simultaneous observation of methane (CH4). L. The best of the three on-board calibrators for the reflective bands. Landsat-5 TM also continues to acquire global data. The objective of the mission is in response to COP3 (Kyoto Protocol): Observation of Green House Gases (GHGs) including CO2 with 1% relative accuracy in sub-continental spatial resolution and to identify the GHGs source and sink from the data obtained by GOSAT in conjunction with the data from the ground instruments. Rhee.e. using only one of the three lamps.68K at 300K based on vicarious calibration data between 1999 and 2006. results in a compact. F. M. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (South Korea). The Scan Line Corrector failure and the recent switch to Bumper Mode operations have affected the geometric integrity of the data. • spieeurope@spieeurope. flood. Giroux. the technique to measure the column density and the retrieval algorithm to remove cloud and aerosol contamination are investigated. Soucy. the ability to acquire simultaneous spectra on every pixels of a standard array detector. Landsat-7 ETM+ continues to acquire global data. though without the benefit of an on-board recorder. Systems. Image data from ground-based tests are presented. Korea Advanced Institute of Science And Technology (South Korea). H. 6744A-60. Kongju National Univ. Barsi. Interferometer based sounders offer the possibility to combine large format 2D imaging and high spectral resolution into a single measurement and thus tremendously increase the amount of information available to improve weather predictions models. and Next-generation Satellites ground monitoring stations are limited and still unevenly distributed. S.

Guenther. and ALISEO. and 1km (29 bands). Science Systems and Applications. of Maryland/Baltimore (USA). In this paper we describe a TEB RVS measurement approach developed using observations made during MODIS EV sector rotation (SR). In particular. A. Its TEB RVS was not well characterized during instrument pre-launch • spieeurope@spieeurope. a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (USA). include a solar diffuser (SD). In this paper recent laboratory measurements performed with ALISEO are described and discussed in the framework of the aforementioned MioSat mission. For Aqua MODIS. and three (nadir) spatial resolutions: 250m (2 bands). evaluating the calibration differences among detectors within the same spectral band. a MachZehnder MEMS punctual interferometer.4 micrometers. including exploiting 6744A-49. The BB is operated continuously for TEB calibration. (USA). Xiong. Finally. Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara (Italy) In recent years the Italian Space Agency partially supported the study of an aerospace imaging interferometer for Earth Observation (EO). we discuss various applications of MODIS lunar observations. MIOSat is expected to provide the scientific community with the technological demonstration of this new remote sensing technology. Session 9 On-orbit monitoring of MODIS thermal emissive bands response versus scan angle X. NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. Results discussed in this paper include TEB and RSB detectors noise characterization. calibration inter-comparisons among sensors on different platforms and operated in different time frames have been enabled in the VIS/NIR/SWIR spectral regions. Standard reflectance tiles together with diffusers doped with Holmium and Rare Earths have been used for validating the wavelength calibration of the instrument and proving the reliability of the reflectance retrieving procedure. Pippi. In order to calibrate the opticalpath-difference (OPD) axis of the raw interferograms. Xiong. Barnes. The MODIS on-board calibrators. 500m (5 bands). D. The Moon is an extremely stable surface reflectance reference and. The 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB) are calibrated on a scanby-scan basis using a quadratic algorithm that includes corrections to the sensor’s response versus scan angle (RVS). We will show that this approach can accurately determine TEB RVS differences between the two mirror sides and track TEB RVS changes on-orbit. Many of its operational activities (OA) have been designed and developed to support the sensor’s on-orbit calibration and characterization. F. a fringe pattern that is fixed with respect to the instrument’s field of view. MODIS observations are made via 36 spectral bands ranging from the visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR). Currently there are two MODIS instruments on-orbit. ALISEO is now being considered as the principal payload for a novel technological optical mission based on micro-satellite (MIOSat). L. Science Systems and Applications. Univ. short-term stability and corrections to long-term response • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . Systems.7 to 14. a high-resolution panchromatic camera. Session 9 An overview of Aqua MODIS after five years of on-orbit operation and calibration W. (USA) Launched in May 2002. including 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with wavelengths from 0. Other applications designed for the thermal emissive bands (TEB) and special sensor characterization purposes are also illustrated. 6744A-50.41 to 2. 78 spie. ALISEO operates in the common-path Sagnac configuration. The sensor acquires target images modulated by a pattern of autocorrelation functions of the energy coming from each scene pixel. Barducci.2 micrometers and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB) from 3. Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara (Italy). among which there are an extensible telescope. In addition the spatial characterization results derived from lunar observations are in good agreement with those derived from the instrument’s onboard calibrator. The primary objective of the MODIS lunar observations is to monitor on-orbit response changes for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and to track long-term radiometric calibration • spie. which allows any image pixels to be observed under different phase delays. noticeably improved over those of its heritage sensors. Because of this the Terra spacecraft executed a pair of pitch maneuvers which enabled a full on-orbit characterization of the MODIS TEB RVS. P. L. The Terra MODIS was launched in December 1999. Session 9 Applications and results of MODIS lunar observations X. Results from multi-year Terra and Aqua MODIS lunar observations demonstrate clearly that the two sensors have been calibrated consistently to within 1% for most RSB compared to the 2% radiometric calibration requirement. The SD/SDSM system is used for RSB calibration on a regular basis varying from weekly to tri-weekly.Conference 6744A: Sensors. such as monitoring the RSB radiometric stability and calibration consistency between the two sensors. a spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). consequently. we discuss an algorithm for raw data pre-processing aimed at retrieving the at-sensor radiance spectrum. Session 9 The aerospace imaging interferometer ALISEO: further improvements of calibration methods and assessment of interferometer response A. together with the lunar radiometric model developed recently by the US Geological Survey (USGS). Univ. respectively. Barnes. and a space view (SV) port. and it does not employ any moving part to generate phase delay between the two allowed ray paths. 6744A-52. the applications of lunar observations for Earth remote sensing missions have been greatly enhanced and expanded. (USA). and Next-generation Satellites 6744A-48. (USA). the EV data collection is delayed (via flight software commands) such that the EV data is taken when the sensor is viewing the internal scan cavity. B. Xiong. Inc. In this paper. X. a set of measurements have been carried out by illuminating a double planar diffuser system with several coloured He-Ne lasers. W. named ALISEO (Aerospace Leap-frog Imaging Stationary Interferometer for Earth Observation). The complete interferogram of each target location is retrieved introducing relative source-observer motion. Univ. launched in May 2002. and tracking the on-orbit changes of band-to-band registration (BBR). NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. J. of Maryland/Baltimore (USA) Both Terra and Aqua MODIS have been making periodic lunar observations since their launch in December 1999 and May 2002. This paper presents an overview of Aqua MODIS five-year on-orbit operation and calibration with emphasis on the performance of its on-board calibrators and the their impact on the L1 data products and calibration quality. Castagnoli. This new mission is constituted by a micro-satellite equipped with advanced payloads. Barnes. Marcoionni. The instrument spectral (RSB) and spatial (TEB and RSB) characterizations are provided by the SRCA bi-monthly or quarterly. a blackbody (BB). Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy). During this operation. The applications and results of MODIS lunar observations presented in this paper provide useful references for other sensors that also make use of lunar surface observations. of Maryland/Baltimore (USA) MODIS is a cross-track scanning radiometer that uses a twosided scan mirror to make Earth view (EV) observations over an angular range of +/-55 degrees relative to instrument nadir. the TEB RVS was successfully measured pre-launch and. I. The instrument. belongs to the class of the “stationary interferometers” due to their simple (light) optical layout and the on-fly reconfiguration ability represent a promising architecture for future EO sensors. making continuous observations that have provided the science community and users worldwide with many high quality data products that have significantly contributed to studies of the Earth’s climate and environmental changes. W. Sun. Inc. L. W. Guzzi. the Aqua MODIS has been successfully operated on-orbit for nearly five years. Results from both Terra and Aqua MODIS and their potential applications will be presented and compared. post-launch pitch maneuvers were not required. Wu. This is a regularly-scheduled operation originally designed for the MODIS lunar observations.

) • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 79 . but differ with the type of Earth scene and with the amount of atmospheric trace gas absorption. Before launched. Voss. the model includes a trace gas transmittance spectrum that can be modified as a function of airmass. A longstanding radiometric ocean color uncertainty goal is to determine satellite-derived normalized water-leaving radiance (LWN) with a combined standard uncertainty of 5%. D. Session 10 Summary of calibration and validation for KOMPSAT-2 D. De-noise. After launch. In addition. Flora. (USA) We present a simple.).org/esd • spieeurope@spieeurope. the sequence of MS band. the model uses a 2850K Planck function. A. we present approaches that characterize an instrument’s response to 6744A-58. Yarbrough. Feinholz. San Diego State Univ. R. In addition. spie. and we need more Cal/Val activities to enhance the KOMPSAT-2 image quality for Users. Non-uniformity correction table. In this talk. Brown. and then can guarantees the KOMPSAT-2 radiometric image qualities for Users. NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. a radiometric buoy stationed in the waters off Lanai. Johnson. Using the model. 6744A-56. Scattered light can originate from the spectral components of a “point” source and from spatial elements of an extended source. where there is a substantial absorption feature from atmospheric oxygen. (USA). Pointing accuracy. the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY). Finally. After launched. effects of vignetting. We use the model to investigate three types of spectral response features. Terra and Aqua) instruments. Hawaii. Lee. the effects are small. a critical component in the uncertainty budget is the uncertainty in the vicarious calibration. at some level these differences will cause a residual striping in the band’s measurements that cannot be removed. Linearity. this transmittance spectrum is combined with the three Earth-exiting radiance spectra to provide top-of-theatmosphere radiance spectra both with and without trace gas absorption features. and Next-generation Satellites the issues of dark signal subtraction. The second study shows the effect of in-band spectral differences in an instrument band with multiple detectors. Examples are given to demonstrate the efficacy of the approach and implications for remote sensing instruments are discussed.S. scattered light and describe an algorithm that has been developed to correct an instrument’s response to this scattered light. B. Univ. In the model. Moss Landing Marine Labs. Korea Aerospace Research Institute (USA) The Radiometric Cal/Val for the KOMPSAT-2 (KOrea MultiPurpose SATellite-2) has six parameters. and lunar radiances for the bands. G. Metadata. Session 10 Radiometric calibration and validation for KOMPSAT-2 D. the measurement errors of the instrument are reduced by more than one order of magnitude. Barnes. Futuretech Corp. Barnes. a spectrum with an airmass of 2. The first study involves the out-of-band response from one of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) bands. we will discuss approaches being undertaken to reduce the uncertainties in MOBY in situ waterleaving radiance • spie. J. Electric gain/offset and Absolute radiometric Cal/Val. On-orbit corrections for portions these detector-to-detector spectral differences are possible.4 is used. we could find out the new and different phenomenon and our mistakes from analyzing the KOMPSAT-2 image data. (USA). we could do to finalize the KOMPSAT-2 image data processing system for Users (e. respectively. optical radiation within an instrument is difficult to properly characterize and is often one of the dominant residual sources of measurement error. K. MTF compensation. Y. The final study examines measurements by a proposed multispectral grating-based spectrometer of the wavelength region near 760 nm. For prelaunch calibration purposes.g. of Miami (USA). Firstly. Users Manual. Currently. Misalignment between body and sensor etc. Sec-ondly. Meister. TDI level. National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA). we demonstrate a technique to correct for the effect of that response on measurements of Earth-exiting radiances. including the U. the model uses nominal solar irradiance and lunar albedo spectra to provide saturation. S. a desert. it is possible to use the model to help mitigate the effects of actual spectral response features in instrument bands after those features are revealed during prelaunch characterization. and then KOMPSAT-2 was calibrated with the vali-dated and uploaded initial value of it (e. to approximate the spectral shape from a laboratory integrating sphere source. Session 10 Modeling spectral effects in Earth-observing satellite instruments R. Korea Aerospace Research Institute (South Korea) KARI has been doing Calibration and Validation activities for the KOMPSAT-2 (KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-2) after launch at July 28th 2006. spectral instrument response compensation. has been the primary ocean observatory for vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors. Lykke. J. The model uses spectral radiances at 1 nm resolution from the near ultraviolet to the shortwave infrared at wavelengths from 300 nm to 2500 nm. The MOBY vicarious calibration of these sensors supports the international effort to develop a global. spreadsheet-based model to examine the effects of the spectral response functions of individual instrument bands on their measurements of top-of-theatmosphere radiances. (USA). Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometers (MODIS. For Earth-exiting radiances. 6744A-53. R. and Fourier backtransform algorithm. etc. Science Applications International Corp. M. (USA) Improperly imaged. Clark. Video processor gain/offset. D. Dynamic range. A. 6744A-57. The spectral and spatial scattered light components are commonly referred to as stray light and are described by an instrument’s spectral line spread function (LSF) and point spread function (PSF). L. NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. code and procedure for the Radiometric Cal/Val have been defined and developed. Session 10 The marine optical buoy (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration S. For on-orbit calibration purposes. M. diffuser.g. Mueller. National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA).g. Line of Sight. J. C. Finally. R. K. W. Non-Uniformity Correction table.). etc. (USA). De-noising. The con-tent of KOMPSAT-2 Cal/Val defined before launch has been changed after launch. convolving them with the spectral responses of the bands to calculate band-average spectral radiances. the model uses nominal radiance spectra over a blue ocean. Based on the bandwidth and wavelength spacing of the instrument’s bands. In this example. we tried to define the status of KOMPSAT-2 (e.Conference 6744A: Sensors. Zong. Peters. equipments. we investigate the use of the absorption feature to provide a wavelength calibration for the instrument. J. Bousquet. These spectra are provided with the effects of atmospheric trace gas absorption removed. By characterizing an instrument and applying corrections for the scattered light. every KOMPSAT-2 Cal/Val parameter was validated. Cal/Val site. or scattered. Systems. R. multi-year time series of consistently calibrated ocean color data products. S. The Cal/Val for KOMPSAT-2 has already been done for only requirements of KOMPSAT-2. normalized to a maximum value of unity. W. Lee. We will present the MOBY uncertainty budget for water-leaving radiance and discuss additional considerations related to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors. This model provides a tool for use in the design of new satellite instruments. Marine Optical Consulting (USA) For the past decade. and a grassland. Session 10 Scattered light characterization and correction algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing imaging systems K. KARI Cal/Val team has done the Radiomet-ric Cal/Val for the KOMPSAT-2. Brown. Butler. However.

The challenge lies mainly in fulfilling the requirements within the extreme environmental and physical constraints of the HALE UAV. degli Studi di Lecce (Italy). Marzo. Saggin. The overall size is limited to and envelope of 140 mmx140 mm x120 mm and the mass to less than 1 kg. in a customised case. the focus of this work is on the thermo-mechanical design and testing. SRON Nationaal Instituut voor Ruimteonderzoek (Netherlands). Most of the components have undergone thermovacuum tests in the low temperature range because none of them was expected to be used in the -100 °C range. M. Bellucci. The scientific goals and its optical design are presented in the previous papers. M.25 µm wavelength domain with a resolving power of 1000 at 2 µm and 80 at 25 µm. B. In this work the optical design will be reviewed and the results of the tests performed on some optical components will be presented. concept and expected performance G. R. Saggin. Bellucci. J. Univ. Bellucci. Tol. optical properties. The MEDUSA camera is designed to operate at a ground resolution of 30 cm at 18 km altitude in the visible spectrum (400-650 nm). M. in a temperature interval of more than 200 ° C. flexible flight patterns. P. degli Studi di Lecce (Italy). Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy).org/esd • spieeurope@spieeurope. de Vries. 6744A-63. A. without permanent damage. The Martian Infrared MApper Fourier Spectrometer is designed to provide remote measurements of mineralogy and atmosphere of the scene surrounding a Martian rover and guide it to key targets for detailed in situ measurements by other rover experiments. introducing many innovative solution with respect to the past experiences and making use of intensive modelling and testing to prove the survival to the harsh environment. Hoogeveen. a miniaturized spectrometer Fourier infrared spectrometer for Mars ground exploration: part I. Comolli. Compared to traditional airborne and spaceborne systems. System modelling and simulation is used to make careful trade-offs between requirements and subsystem performances. Politecnico di Milano (Italy). 6744A-62. Aben. Among the main scientific objectives of the MIMA instrument are to assist the rover in rock/soils selection for further in-situ investigation and to identify rocks and soils on the Martian surface which provide evidence of past/present biological activity. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . T. Dutch Space B. E. B. E. A direct downlink allows near-real time data delivery to the user. production and test of the camera has started at VITO with the support of 9 industrial partners. The radiometric performances are SNR \> 50 in the near infrared and a NEDe = 0. MIMA will be mounted on the rover mast and so it must be compact and light-weight. The instrument design is very compact. and Next-generation Satellites 6744A-59. Univ. The design has faced challenging constraints mainly linked to the requirement of keeping the performances good enough to fulfil the scientific objectives of the mission. composition. B. M. the MEDUSA camera system is ultra light weight (about 2 kg) and is operated in a low pressure and low temperature environment. The expected performances of this instrument should be comparable with those of much heavier ones built in the past. • spie. requiring high resolution images with regional coverage. The instrument is also designed to measure the water vapour abundance and vertical distribution and its diurnal and seasonal variation. Politecnico di Milano (Italy) The Mars Infrared MApper (MIMA) is a FT-IR miniaturised spectrometer which is being developed for ESA ExoMars Pasteur mission. dust opacity. Boslooper. Alberti. F. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy). Van Achteren. S. Politecnico di Milano (Italy). A. Flemish Institute for Technological Research (Belgium) The ESA-PRODEX funded MEDUSA project aims to develop a light weight high resolution multi-spectral earth observation instrument. Alberti. with a total mass of 1 kg and an average power consumption of 5 watt. with a resolution variable between 10 and 5 cm-1. Since the spectral range is too wide to be covered by a single detector. degli Studi di Lecce (Italy). J. high update rates and long mission lengths (weeks to months). F. The instrument is a double pendulum interferometer providing spectra covering the 2 . S. Session 11 MEDUSA: an ultra-lightweight multi-spectral camera for a HALE UAV T. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (Netherlands) 80 spie. it has been decided to use two different detectors. :The MEDUSA instrument is designed to fill the gap between traditional airborne and spaceborne instruments regarding resolution and coverage. MIMA will be mounted on the rover mast and so it must be compact and light-weight. H. at the same time. degli Studi di Lecce (Italy) The Mars Infrared MApper (MIMA) is a FT-IR miniaturised spectrometer which is being developed for ESA ExoMars Pasteur mission. Dobber. even harsher conditions as well as the severe dynamic loads expected at landing on Mars. The central part of the payload is a focal plane assembly consisting of two frame sensors (PAN and RGB). while. it was imperative to keep the overall size and weigh within the allocated resources. Visser. The wide swath is realized with a custom designed highly sensitive CMOS sensor of 10000x1200 pixels. The temperatures during operation are ranging from 120°C to +30°C with the presence of a low density but thermally effective atmosphere. Tarabini. L. An instrument compliant with these constraints has been conceived. It targets applications such as crisis management and cartography. (Netherlands). TNO (Netherlands). On 27th November 2006 the phase C/D for the design. G. Jongma. J. G. W. Among the most challenging problems the mounting of the brittle KBr optics and the matching of its thermal expansion coefficient with that of the supporting aluminium structure. A GPS receiver and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) provide accurate position and attitude information. Levelt. I. while maintaining the advantages. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy). Session 11 MIMA. In addition the instrument must be able to operate in the very harsh environment of the Martian surface and to withstand. Systems. A. operated at stratospheric altitudes (15 to 18km). The MEDUSA camera is expected to transmit its first images in the summer of 2008. Altieri.002 in the thermal region. E. and a swath of 3000m. D. G. The design faces challenging constraints both from the environment and the allocated resources. Fonti. mounted side by side. Politi. thermomechanical design B. P. 6744A-61. which will be embarked on a solar-powered high altitude long endurance (HALE) UAV. Biondi. crucial for the scientific interpretation of the recorded spectra. Session 12 MIMA. Delauré. Such innovative solution has obviously pros and cons and the optical design has been driven by the need to reduce the inconveniences. Saggin. The chosen solution is a single channel double pendulum interferometer. Fonti. Zasova. The scientific goals and its thermo-mechanical design are presented in two companion papers. S. L. Fonti. Cerulli. Session 11 MIMA a miniaturised Fourier spectrometer for Mars ground exploration: part II optical design S.Conference 6744A: Sensors. R. Gloudemans.V. Politecnico di Milano (Italy). a miniaturised infrared spectrometer for Mars ground exploration: part III. Marzo. Severe dynamic loads are expected during launch and mostly at landing on Mars. 6744A-64. P. Univ. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy) The Mars Infrared MApper (MIMA) is a FT-IR miniaturised spectrometer which is being developed for ESA ExoMars Pasteur mission. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy). G. Session 12 Breadboarding activities of the TROPOMI-SWIR module R. diurnal and seasonal variation. The on-board data processing consists mainly of basic image corrections and data compression (JPEG2000). covering the spectral range between 2 and 25 micron. Univ.

TELIS will fly on the MIPAS-B2 gondola. H2O and its 3 isotopomers. Specim Spectral Imaging Ltd. Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russia). Rutherford Appleton Lab. and details of the photolithographic production of the immersed grating. SRON Nationaal Instituut voor Ruimteonderzoek (Netherlands). Limb sounding results in very accurate vertical profiles. The breadboard will undergo a test program consisting of calibration and verification of the spectral. M. The signatures and backgrounds are acquired with ISSI in a spectrometer operating mode. and ~1000 x larger than a standard grating spectrometer. NO2. Session 12 Performance of the imaging spectral signature instrument (ISSI) breadboard U. O3. It consists of an imaging telescope. quasioptical antenna. G.V. the checkout preparation. The instrument images the earth using a push-broom motion with a swath width of 15 km and a ground sample distance (GSD) of 1 m over the entire field of view (FOV) at altitude 685 Km. the in-house developed silicon-based immersed grating that allows a hugely reduced instrument volume. O2 and HOCl. (Germany) TELIS (Terahertz and submm Limb Sounder) is a three-channel balloon-borne heterodyne spectrometer for atmospheric research. The two instruments together will yield the most complete set of stratospheric constituents. Yong.8 THz channel is developed by DLR and will mainly target the OH radical. An aircraft compatible breadboard of the ISSI has been designed. (South Korea) Multi-Spectral Camera(MSC) is a payload on the KOMPSAT-2 satellite to perform the earth remote sensing. W. In the presentation the science and technology of TELIS will be discussed with emphasis on the channel developed by SRON. O3 and N2O. Yagoubov. N2O. Session 12 Balloon-borne heterodyne stratospheric limb sounder TELIS ready for flight R. All species are measured with sensitivity down to the Earth’s surface. de Lange. A. Given comparable optical étendue at R~6500. In this paper. TROPOMI is a nadir-viewing grating-based imaging spectrometer using the Dutch OMI and SCIAMACHY heritage. The selection of the filter vector to be programmed on the LCD is dependent on what kind of a learning set is available of the signature backgrounds. TRAQ (TRopospheric composition and Air Quality) has been accepted for a further pre-phase A study for the next Earth Explorer core Mission. Bell. A breadboard model (BBM) has been designed and constructed which is as much as possible functionally flight representative. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 81 . NO. MSC was check and validated through prepared procedure.Conference 6744A: Sensors. yielding a very rich spectrum. and Next-generation Satellites The TROPOMI instrument concept is part of the TRAQ mission proposal to ESA in response to the Call for Ideas in 2005. Session 12 The initial checkout of multi-spectral camera (MSC) system S. A very similar instrument has been proposed for the CAMEO platform to the US National Research Council decadal study. The 1. COM DEV International Ltd. H. Scott. medium-inclination drifting orbit and a 2600 km wide observational swath. COM DEV International Ltd. The observational techniques of TELIS can be compared to the presently flying MLS instrument on board NASA’s EOS-Aura satellite. Koshelets. P. It includes an UV-VIS-NIR module that consists of three UVVIS channels continuously covering the 270-490 nm range to determine O3. spatial and radiometric performance and target identification capability. BrO. Session 12 Spatial heterodyne spectrometer for FLEX A. a superconducting phase-locked Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO) acting as Local Oscillator (LO) and SIS harmonic mixer (HM) for FFO phase locking. HCl. Choi. The results of the checkout including analysis will be shown. VTT (Finland).org/ers • spie. unique diurnal time sampling with up to 5 daytime observations over mid-latitude regions (Europe. O3. The Imaging Spectral Signature Instrument (ISSI) concept performs optical on-board processing of the hyperspectral data cube to identify pixels with a pre-defined and programmable spectral signature. Deutsches Zentrum für Luftund Raumfahrt e. A. 6744A-65. Kantojärvi. (Finland). as well as results of the detector characterization program on a representative off-the-shelf FPA. SO2. The instrument is designed to have an on-orbit operation duty cycle of 20% over the mission lifetime of 3 years with the functions of programmable gain/ offset and on-board image data compression/storage. P. Ra. HCl. HOCl. Chungnam National Univ. Several more general aspects related to the TROPOMI instrument are discussed in a separate paper in this conference. ClO. HO2. Viherkanto. This component is programmed with a spatial transmission behaviour. B. Systems. novel low-noise cryogenic high-frequency • spieeurope@spieeurope. In the presentation the results of a performance analysis of the TROPOMI-SWIR channel will be discussed. (Canada) A spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) has significant advantages for high spectral resolution imaging over narrow Fraunhoffer bands compared to traditional solutions. B. S. CH3Cl and HCN. H2O. and will also measure HO2. novel back-end spectrometer. the on-board SWIR calibration LED. a field-widened SHS will have a throughput-resolution product ~170 x larger than an air-spaced etalon spectrometer. The 500 GHz channel is developed by RAL and will produce vertical profiles of BrO. but TELIS is packed with new generation cryogenic heterodyne technologies: novel low-noise cryogenic heterodyne mixer detectors and their local oscillators. J. Critical technologies to be demonstrated with the BBM are the SWIR HgCdTe-based 2D focal plane array. The latest results from the pre-flight test and calibration campaign will be presented. Hoogeveen. D. spie. This paper focuses on the development of the SWIR module. The first flight is foreseen in November 2007. N. NorthAmerica. V. ISSI operates at wavelengths between 500nm and 900nm. NO. Finally the 550 . During IAC. KOMPSAT-2 was launched on July 28 2006 and stared early operation including initial activation checkout. Many atmospheric trace gases have their rotational transitions in the sub millimeter and THz range. thus addressing issues of anthropogenic emissions and their impact on air quality and climate. M. The three TELIS receivers will operate simultaneously. which images an object line on the entrance slit of a first imaging spectrograph. Saari. TROPOMI also includes a SWIR module covering 2305-2385 nm that mainly focuses on determination of CO and CH4 total columns. The spectral filter vector can be selected for 800 spatial pixels with a spectral resolution of 4 nm and almost 8 bit modulation capability. Harnisch. European Space Agency (Netherlands) With hyperspectral pushbroom imaging spectrometers it is possible identify ground pixels by their spectral signature. China) is realized by using a non-sun-synchronous. It contains a Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR). The monolithic glass Michelson design and lack of moving parts allows maximum stability of spectral calibration over the FLEX mission life. aerosols and a NIR-channel covering 710-775 nm for cloud detection and information on the aerosol height distribution using the oxygen A band. Ellison. 6744A-68. 6744A-66. K. which combines on a 4x4 mm2 chip the low-noise SIS mixer and its 6744A-67. HNO3. A. HCHO. and in particular. which disperses each pixel of the object line into its spectral content on a liquid crystal spatial light modulator. which is constant along the spatial pixels and equal to the spectral filter vector of the searched specific signature along the spectral pixels. (United Kingdom). Korea Aerospace Research Institute (South Korea). NO2. de Lange. E. TELIS is a cooperation between the European institutes DLR (PI-institute) RAL and SRON. In the TRAQ mission. configuration and sequence so on are described. H. Birk. A second inverted spectrograph reimages the transmitted flux into a line of pixels on a CCD detector. A. (Canada). Herrala.650 GHz channel is developed by SRON and IREE and will measure profiles of ClO. (Canada) and York Univ.

The required cooling temperature determines the type of working medium to be • spieeurope@spieeurope.V. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . 82 spie. Sorption cooling employs a closed cycle Joule-Thomson expansion process to achieve the cooling effect. at a higher temperature and pressure they give off the medium and thus produce a flow to the expander in the cold stage. without exporting vibrations or producing electromagnetic interference. these cells adsorb the working medium. Sorption cells perform the compression phase in this cycle. Burger. Several missions employ passive radiators to cool down their delicate sensor systems for many years. In that sense. Passive coolers tend to get increasingly bulky if the cooling temperatures are below 80 K. (Netherlands). depending on the cooling temperature. and Next-generation Satellites 6744A-95. At a low temperature and pressure. export neither mechanical vibrations nor electromagnetic interference and are potentially very dependable due to their simplicity. The application field of this type of sorption cooling in space missions is currently being expanded by examining the performance of alternative working media. while preserving as much as possible of its advantages. The selected sorption process is of the physical type. which is completely reversible and does not suffer from degradation. Next the working principle of sorption cooling is summarized. without consuming power. Dutch Space B. J. The 4K DARWIN cryocooler architecture has been optimized recently and one of the results is a drastic reduction of the radiator area needed by the sorption • spie. Sorption coolers include few moving parts. Systems. Session 8: Sorption cooling: a valid extension to passive coolers in space missions J. suitable for different cooling temperatures in the range up to 150 K.Conference 6744A: Sensors. Sorption coolers are used in conjunction with passive cooling for heat rejection at different levels. multi-stage concepts are required and the radiator area increases rapidly as the cooling temperature drops. Marcel ter Brake. Due to the Stefan-Boltzmann law. This paper starts with a brief discussion on applications of passive coolers in different types of orbits and gives an overview of the projected mass of active and passive coolers. Doornink. The DARWIN mission is chosen as an example application of sorption and passive cooling. sorption cooling has been found to be an appropriate technology. Therefore a technology is sought that enhances the performance of passive cooling at lower temperatures. of Twente (Netherlands) Passive cooling has shown to be a very dependable cryogenic cooling method for space missions.

Wilson. F. D. Gnewuch. A novel method for overcoming DC drift in RF subcarrier phase detection scheme for fibre optic sensors. • spie. B. including the background. Podoleanu.S. Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials. ground systems. Oceanography is now becoming operational in the same sense that meteorology has been for the past few decades. Land Surface Imaging. The method is characterized by low distortions in the modulation process. H. Atmospheric Composition) at the 21st CEOS Pleanry in Buenos Aires. Geological Survey (USA).5 µm. supporting inter-agency agreements etc. and to ensure continuity of service for both operational and research users. 10-7 dB. K. facilitating participation of smaller contributors. The CEOS Constellations is aimed at: moving space agency coordination efforts from the generic to the specific.000 profiling floats. The primary objective of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Land Surface Imaging (LSI) Constellation is to define standards (or guidelines) that describe optimal future LSI Constellation capabilities. Also. Poster Session Characterization and modeling of an improved method of phase detection scheme for displacement optic sensors N. and they will address at least three fundamental areas of the systems comprising a Land Surface Imaging Constellation: the space segments. Implementation Strategies and Applications 6744B-94. A. 1. 387-391. C. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan) The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Constellations is a new mechanism to co-ordinate space-based Earth observation missions to respond to the challenges of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Improved method of phase detection scheme for displacement optic sensors. F. Results from 2007 LSI Constellation studies designed to establish initial international agreements. and implementation. Jackson. 8. the ground segments. Precipitation. A. D. W. will address near-term. N. U. Session 13 The CEOS constellation for land surface imaging G. Gnewuch. • spieeurope@spieeurope. N. Culshaw. These teams are addressing the consolidation of user requirements. Implementation Strategies and Applications Thursday 20 September 2007 Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. Ward. For the small range distances above mentioned we obtained the values for the signal-to-noise ratios in the range 6.10-7 dB 6. 6744B-77. The system can be exploited in the measurement of small distances. as well as seasonal. 6744B Global Earth Observing System of Systems. U. Since agreement on the draft Constellations process paper and initiation of four prototype constellations (Ocean Surface Topography. good signal-to-noise ratio and low cost. data principles. This paper will present an overview of the CEOS Constellations. p. improving considerably the extent to which the combined outputs of the various space agency programs are relevant to key applications. Vidal-Madjar. T. with completion anticipated later in 2007. Thursby. mid-term and long-term outcomes to respond to the GEOSS 10 Year Implementation Plan 2 year. Univ. No. [2] H. is nearing full global coverage by 3. D. P. Session 13 CEOS constellations: space agency response to GEOSS B. Dong. vibrations and seismic detection. N. For two values of the injection currents of the laser diode Hitachi HLP 1400 used in the experimental work and based on the theoretical model of the ideal receiver we obtained for the measurements of small distances values in the range 0. develop preliminary standards for a mid-resolution land surface imaging constellation.6&#61620. characteristics. and contribute data to a global forest assessment will be highlighted. National d’Études Spatiales (France). November 2006. Proc. B.Conference 6744B: Global Earth Observing System of Systems. and it is giving us new insight into the interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere that influences extreme weather events such as • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 83 . Inada. interested CEOS members have established constellation study teams. Vol. National d’Études Spatiales (France). interannual and decadal variability. Politehnica Bucuresti (Romania). As an essential in-situ complement. European Space Agency (Netherlands). Parisot. Jackson. OFS-16. paper WeP-15. Geological Survey (USA) A constellation of satellites that routinely and frequently image the Earth’s land surface in consistently calibrated wavelengths from the visible through the microwave and in spatial detail that ranges from sub-meter to hundreds of meters would offer enormous potential benefits to society. data and products. Ishida. key standards to be adopted by satellite systems instruments. SPIE. European Space Agency (USA). The TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason missions have provided highly accurate measurements of sea surface topography. strategy and planning. Ryan. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan). through the adoption of a series of standards and guidelines which satisfy key GEOSS requirements. Podoleanu. A. The goal of the constellation is to sustain the fundamental climate data record for global sea level.9 &#61620. The studies 6744B-79. Ctr. Bailey. but also on mankind’s very ability to sustain life as we know it on this planet long into the future. Particular emphasis is given to the near-term outcomes to present at the GEO Ministerial Conference in November 2007. Symbios Communications (Australia). 6 year and 10 year targets. 2006.7 µm 4. and thereby contributing to realization of the space-based observations required by the GEOSS 10 Year Implementation Plan. Gh. Ctr. Puscas. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA). S. Gallo. S. such as climate and other GEOSS Societal Benefit Areas (SBA). References [1] G. G. in this paper a modelling of the optical noise for the above mentioned optical sensor is presented and analysed. and practices. Standards defined for a LSI Constellation will be based on a thorough understanding of user requirements. combined capabilities and gaps. EUMETSAT (Germany) Precision measurements from satellite radar altimeters have revolutionized our understanding of ocean circulation and the critical role the oceans play in climate. spie.S. Session 13 The CEOS constellation for ocean surface topography S. and relevant policies and plans.S. 360 (2003). A. Geological Survey (USA). A well-designed and effectively operated land surface imaging satellite constellation could have great positive impact not only on the quality of life for citizens of all nations. H. Briggs. the Argo Program. Other altimeter missions have provided additional observations extending coverage to higher latitudes and finer spatial scales. U. Puscas. Univ. Jeanjean. Studies conducted by the LSI Constellation Study Team also will address current and shorter-term problems and issues facing the land remote sensing community today. of Kent (United Kingdom) Based on the method presented in references [1] and [2] to overcome the DC drift in RF subcarrier phase detection schemes used in fibre optic sensors we characterized an improved method (open loop) for the measurement of small displacements and vibrations. We used an optical heterodyne system for detection. Berger. such as seeking ways to work more cooperatively in the operation of existing land surface imaging systems and helping to accomplish tangible benefits to society through application of land surface image data acquired by existing systems.

Y. with this notion. Due to multi sensor approach. In order to gain support and willingness to participate by countries around the world in such an endeavor. NIVR. Durbha. which can answer all such questions effectively. Climate. Needless to say. reliable Earth Observation data. products. NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population. and easily accessible. air quality and climate forcing associated with changes in the environment. (USA) The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is a distributed system of systems built on current international cooperation efforts among existing Earth observing and processing systems. • Study advanced architecture with new space assets and varying orbits with expectations that new technology could also be brought forward to best meet user requirements • Data system interoperability to insure that data are useful. and anticipated outcomes for the study will be presented. NOAA and Eumetsat are participating in the Constellation study.resulting in improved engagement of all CEOS Members and real implementation results. budget. Oki. Thus. These data will support five of the nine GEO SBAs: Health. R. Modularization is inevitable in distributed environments to facilitate flexible and efficient reuse of existing ontologies. Constellation Concept study will identify missing capabilities that will result when the present orbiting research satellites missions end and those not taken by the next generation operational missions. 2007-2009. recognized that the CEOS Implementation Plan for SpaceBased Observations for GEOSS should: • identify the supply of space-based observations required to satisfy the requirements expressed by the 10-year implementation plan for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality. This analysis is exercised in a coastal zone domain. Neeck. NASA Headquarters (USA). information. European Space Agency (Netherlands) The Atmospheric Composition (AC) Constellation is one of four pilot projects initiated by CEOS to bring about technical/ scientific cooperation among space agencies that meet the goals of GEO and comply with the CEOS member agencies national programs. some sound observations. the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country. The Constellation concept has been endorsed in the GEO Work Plan. 6744B-82. the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. And. airborne and space. Mississippi State Univ. This requires a multiple sensors. scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. we propose a framework for modular ontologies based knowledge management approach for GEOSS and present methods to enable efficient reasoning in such systems. Therefore. NASA and NOAA in the U. there is no single sensor. ESA and EUMETSAT in Europe. N. And that success itself is key. NASA Headquarters (USA). At the present time ESA.S. and • propose an innovative process whereby the many disparate types of Earth observing programs funded by CEOS Member agencies might contribute to the supply of the required observations. The CEOS Task Force charged with drafting the CEOS Implementation Plan for Space-Based Observations for GEOSS focused its early efforts on the creation of a ‘new planning process’ which would satisfy the various criteria demanded by member space agencies. Hazards. S. Hilsenrath. This requires continuous. J. Therefore. (USA) The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates. Session 13 CEOS precipitation constellation S. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . Missing observations include very accurate and high spatial resolution measurements needed to be to track trends in atmospheric composition and understand their relationship to climate change. King. and SOA in China . there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation. The goal is to formulate an end-to-end process that enables the collection and distribution of accurate. properly targeted. approach. It is envisaged that the data and information in a GEOSS context will be unprecedented and the current data archiving and delivery methods need to be transformed into one that allows realization of seamless interoperability. assessment and predictive capabilities for changes in the ozone layer. it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information. and which would hopefully encourage a new phase of specificity and focus in the multi-lateral cooperation efforts undertaken by space agencies under the CEOS umbrella . data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. The following are the top level objectives for the AC Constellation Concept Study: • Develop a virtual constellation of existing and upcoming missions using synergies among the instruments and identify missing capabilities. Implementation Strategies and Applications This Constellation Team is fostering discussions amongst agencies active in satellite altimetry . 6744B-80. more • spie. if we are to capitalize on the substantial investments in satellite altimetry by sustaining our demonstrated capability to collect climate data records and ensure continuity of service to all users.CNES in France. it is necessary to devise mechanisms whereby the data and the intellectual capital is protected through procedures that implement the policies specific to a country. Session 14 Semantics-enabled knowledge management for global Earth observation system of systems R. Mississippi State Univ (USA). By and large. H. Langen. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan) The outcomes of the 19th Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Plenary held in London in November 2005. but in • spieeurope@spieeurope. hydrology and more. One of the critical components in the development of such systems is the ability to obtain seamless access of data across geopolitical boundaries. However. JAXA and NASA were selected as the lead agencies for the study of the development of a CEOS Precipitation Constellation with the support of other CEOS space agency and user community participants. endangered species and the ecology. and services to both suppliers and consumers worldwide. Therefore. it is becoming an impractical problem by any single 6744B-81. The goals. Ling. L. NASA. S. CSA. 6744B-83. multi hazard disasters. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants.Conference 6744B: Global Earth Observing System of Systems. Habib. ISRO in India. The AC Constellation goal is to collect and deliver data to develop and improve monitoring.with the objective of developing an overall altimetry system that would promote the use of common approaches. public health. Constellations is the title given to this new process. EO data integration is dependant on the resolution of conflicts arising from a variety of areas. Session 14 Multi-sensor approach to address sustainable development S. the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. P. technology readiness and computational power. and Ecosystems. Session 13 The CEOS atmospheric composition constellation: an example of an integrated Earth observing system for GEOSS E. The participation of those agencies and their commitment to this concept will be critical to its success. and 4 pilot studies have been initiated in order to pioneer and test the concept. and detailed observations from many sources in situ. knowledge. Energy. is everyone’s business on this planet. and have major assets in orbit including 17 instruments on seven platforms. The CEOS 84 spie. Earth Observations (EO) are obtained from a multitude of sources and requires coordination among different agencies and user groups to come to a shared understanding on a set of concepts involved in a domain.

the UN General Assembly included among the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) a task to reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water. Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italy). S. F. The Dual-Use Mission Planning functionality optimizes system utilization.Conference 6744B: Global Earth Observing System of Systems. M. Caltagirone. COSMO-SkyMed Mission responds to actual needs of Earth Observation Market. The launch of the first COSMO-SkyMed satellite is foreseen for the first semester of 2007. S. Session 14 TIGER: supporting the development of water information systems and services in Africa. The space segment is composed of four Low Earth Orbit satellites. and find patterns in the data. Implementation Strategies and Applications organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. radiometry. Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italy). 3/ provided a feedback on data gaps that may then be acquired from other sources. There are. Global Positioning System (GPS)) and provides robust continuous monitoring over specific areas of known earthquake hazard. This paper makes an attempt to provide a survey of the current state of the requirements and use of remote sensing for sustainable development in Africa. fast revisit/response time. Decision makers in many nations have begun to make use of remote sensing data for resource management. R. spie. 2/ enabling model interactions with sensor webs. the scientific community has learned a great deal about the Earth as an integrated system. Our rationale for using MSWS is that there are insufficient spatial and temporal coverage using single measurements. Battazza. the European Space Agency (ESA). The overall scope is to assist African countries to overcome problems faced in the collection. etc. Policelli. products and services for a variety of applications. 6744B-87.g. Valentini. the Heads of States and delegations called on all countries to develop Integrated Water and Resources Management (IWRM) and water efficiency strategies. and policies and management decisions in many African countries are currently based on sparse and unreliable information. 6744B-86. networking and improved access to EO data). Canadian Space Agency . In 2000. Fagioli. Science Systems and Applications. by bringing different approaches within a common framework. Much of this research has been enabled by the development of remote sensing technologies and their operation from space. launched the TIGER initiative. aiming to facilitate the development of Water Information Systems and Services in Africa. Canadian Space Agency (Canada). The system is characterized by an intrinsic Inter-operability with other EO missions and Expandability towards other possible partners with different sensors typologies in order to provide Earth Observation integrated services to large User Communities and Partner Countries. G. all weather. technology availability. Iris. NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. George Mason Univ. NASA Goddard Space Flight • spie. Ghaye. being characterized by full global coverage. (USA). L. S. interferometric/polarimetric capabilities and quicker-and-easier ordering and delivery of data. The initial prototype of MSWS was developed for monitoring the earthquake hazard. environmental • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 85 . (USA). Ministro Della Difesa (Italy) COSMO-SkyMed (COnstellation of small Satellites for Mediterranean basin Observation). public awareness. and communication limitations. G. space agencies (e. Session 14 Multi-sensor web system for natural hazard applications D. S. F. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). Habib. within the context of the Committee of Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). This paper gives some serious thoughts in what options are there in undertaking this tremendous challenge. however. Achieving this objective in developing areas of the world represents a significant challenge. cluster. UN Africa-Water group (UN-Economic Commission for Africa). development partners (e. such as ORFEO (Optical and Radar Federation for Earth Observation) and SIASGE (ItalianArgentinean Satellite System for Emergency Management).g. 6744B-84. sharing System Resources. higher resolution. day/night acquisition capability. A specialized set of data mining algorithms is employed within the MSWS framework to quickly analyze the data for anomalies which may carry early warning information. Leonardi. products (Standards and Higher-Level) and services. The TIGER initiative has evolved thanks to the contributions of partners such as UNESCO (and its International Hydrological Program). African Development Bank) and other international and African organizations (e. each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing their Earth observing needs but it has left a big void in the developing world who have very limited resources to invest in the space measurements. Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italy). Session 14 Use of remote sensing for decision support in Africa F. Lipponen. METEOSAT. Coletta. Alcatel Alenia Space (Italy). This activity has shown that there are not many climate data ready decision support tools already functioning in Africa. Cervone. and therefore a common platform is needed.g. In 2002. 4/ provide advanced data mining algorithms to classify. responding to the urgent need for action in Africa. end-users with known requirements who could benefit from remote sensing data. Impagniatiello. P. F. United Nations Educational. (USA) Mutisensor Sensor Web System (MSWS) consists of a portable and widely applicable technology to advance the knowledge and practical use of remote sensing for Natural hazard applications and to maximize the use and sharing of NASA satellite observations. In this context. fulfilling at the same time the needs of different user classes. We argue that MSWS system is able to perform as early warning system.. The main characteristics of the MWSS prototype are: 1/ use of multiple and already validated physical measurements to be fused into one framework with the latest theoretical models. higher accuracy (geo-location. NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. discussed and possible implementation strategies are provided in this paper to move out of this predicament. POES. So far. RamsarAfrica. International cooperation programs are illustrated. Ouzounov. Policelli. Scientific and Commercial and Defence/Intelligence applications. GOES. Brown. A. African water management with EO F. African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW)). A. equipped with a multi-mode high-resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) operating at X-band and fitted with innovative data transmission equipment to allow high-speed transmission of data to ground stations. and sustainable development planning. The remaining 3 satellites will be gradually deployed by the end of 2009.g. Palazzo. European Space Agency (Italy). Capuzi. Alcatel Alenia Space (Italy). Scientific and Cultural Organization (France) Water information systems in Africa are severely degraded. policy making. Session 14 COSMO-SkyMed program: an advanced dualuse asset for Earth observation G. A.). Angino. (USA) Over the past 30 years. A strong emphasis is placed on international cooperation and collaboration to see a collective benefit for this effort. Inc. such as Risk Management. F. analysis and use of water related geo-information by exploiting the advantages of Earth Observation (EO) technology. (USA). African Departments of Water). is a Dual-Use (Civilian and Defence) end-to-end Earth Observation System aimed to provide data.g. The problem is multidimensional in terms of budget. and DEMETER) and ground observations (e. African and international institutions in the context of water resource management ( • spieeurope@spieeurope. Some of these issues are introduced. the TIGER model is a long-term approach following a three stages 6744B-85. MSWS system is a sensor web of existing satellite sensors (MODIS. Alcatel Alenia Space (Italy). During the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD). S. The TIGER initiative is implemented through several crosscutting action lines (training. superior image quality.CSA).

b) the Stokes vector of external source and the scattering matrix of underlying surface are unknown. 6744B-88. J. we can increase the value of the signal from the studied object as compared with the noise background. Som de Cerff. Eremina.Conference 6744B: Global Earth Observing System of Systems. L. there is a need for standardization on Grid service level so existing and new web services can easily be coupled to the Grid. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (Netherlands). This regulation poses a problem particularly for developing and newly industrializing countries. especially seasonal snow. The scattering matrix of underlying surface creating the background is unknown. which can provide credible information in time to local water resource management and ecology construct. 6744B-91. This noise may be the background created both by a foreign source and the background from the underlying surface. such as snow area. on the other hand. in order to reduce the costs of the acquisition is presented in this paper. Session 15 Dissemination and exploitation of grids in Earth science W. So the significance of monitoring snow depth in Xinjiang is important. L. to eliminate blunders and to enhance the integrity of the acquired terrain information in order to achieve applicability in aviation. and compared true snow measuring spectrum with image spectrum. the second the complex applications and the third family is the complex workflow applications. analyzing the snow distributing character. It is one of the most active element on the earth. data is scattered around various institutes in various formats. Key services for ES are workflow management and data and metadata management. Technische Univ. Petitdidier. 4. This will ease communication. updating and analyzing requirement progress will be a continuous effort Three families have been identified. glacier reflect prominently in the drought area climate change. T. U. In radio and optically active detection and ranging of objects a signal from an artificial object. G. build inversion snow depth • spieeurope@spieeurope. Drought area is sensitive to the global climate change. and snow. 6744B-90. Data policies on input and output data i. and it is an important factor. Darmstadt (Germany) Due to upcoming data driven technologies in the modern aviation the demand for digital terrain data is growing conspicuously. (China) Snow is the important freshwater resource. 2. on which the object being studied is located. (China). The scattering matrix of underlying surface creating the background is known. In this case complexity is referring to the complexity of requirements placed on Grid technology by the application. i. but principally by the accuracy of the direct sensor orientation. not of the application itself. Due to the various available high resolution satellites the accuracy is not limited by the spatial resolution of the imagery. The first family is called the simple applications. Eilmus. Ctr. These voids have to be filled with data of adequate quality. deserts and iced and snow-covered areas. Implementation Strategies and Applications approach: Research. The need to access licensed software. climate and ecological model. In short specific ES Grid requirements are: Reliability (QoS). which is not only the most active environment affecting factor. picked out the most sensitive band to snow depth. Heidelmeyer. at the noise background should be recognized. is the important input parameter to global energy balance. computing and results will greatly improve ES research and Grid infrastructure usage. 3. The resulting accuracy of terrain data generated on the basis of satellite imagery without using ground control points 86 spie. Session 15 Analysis of terrain data based on satellite imagery for aviation purposes B. European Space Agency (Italy). To capture evolving ES requirements for Grid services over 20 application scenarios were collected and grouped into families of applications. Hluchy. More ES applications scenarios will be added. The background from the external source is known. Fang. Institute of Atmospheric Optics (Russia) 5. The paper also proposes methods to increase the accuracy. Also the data resulting from completed and future radar missions like SRTM and TanDEM-X can not solve this problem completely. Session 15 The increase of the efficiency of research tools of active radio and optical sensing V. Lonjaret. Studies performed at the Institute of Flight Systems and Automatic Control at the Technische Universitaet Darmstadt show that a promising method to support this task is the use of high resolution optical satellite imagery with a stereoscopic coverage. The versions of the efficiency increase of research tools of active radio and optical sensing are considered at the following conditions: 1. 6744B-89. Portals improving the accessibility to data. but also is the most sensitive region climate change responding factor. Oshlakov. National de la Recherche Scientifique (France). • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . Nanjing Univ. In these countries terrain information meeting the required quality standards is often not available and acquisition methods like airborne photogrammetry and LIDAR are too expensive and therefore not suitable. maintenance and tracing of requirements. integrating the snow depth drawing method and true surveying data in the field. Institute of Informatics (Slovak Republic) The DEGREE project is a consortium of ES and computer science partners aiming at promoting the uptake of Grid in ES ES needs to deal with enormous amounts of data and large computational needsFor ES e-science can be an essential improvement in research. Xinjiang Univ. c) the Stokes vector of external source are known and the scattering matrix of underlying surface is unknown and vice versa. M. harmonization) is essential in ES. snow change in annual and season at length. complicated security requirements. Huan. following a scheme with three different levels of complexity. Using the source polarization of a sensing signal of optical radar and polarization elements of the receiver. because terrain data derived from radar sensors may have considerable data voids particularly in mountainous terrain. This contribution will provide an update on the status of the initiative and its achievements. In order to make e-science take the next step in ES. especially when Grid services can be coupled to existing ES services. its character. But is e-science mature and does it cover all ES requirements? DEGREE aims at answering these questions by capturing ES requirements and analyzing Grid solutions. G. The external source and underlying surface present the background source: a) the Stokes vector of external source and the scattering matrix of underlying surface are known. At last. operation and business. in various databases and has metadata attached to it in various forms. According to the regulations of the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) each contracting state will be obligated to provide electronic terrain data of its territory. S. M.e. This study analyzed the correlativity of each band with snow depth. real-time and instantaneous access. which can affect the global climate. which can improve snow-monitoring • spie. on the one hand. snow distributing and snow depth. Workflow orchestration is vital to cover requirements from the third family of applications. data management (accessibility. Session 15 The drawing of snow information in north Xinjiang based on MODIS data and its application P. Klingauf. Pre-operational and Operation stage.e.

spie. P. 1997. E.5 µm) with a 30-meter spatial resolution. An enormous amount of money is spent on seismic surveys to identify the probable locations where oil or gas could be found. “The Physical Principles of Simulating the Structure and Photophysical Properties of Complex Heteroaromatic Compounds by Means of the LCAO MO SCF Methods”. term Tf. (cm-1) transitions of the spectrum reabsorption. The now scheme none optical transition from a working sates through active fluctuations {n}. National Univ. P. has been selected in collaboration with Oil & Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL). from a working condition through active fluctuations {n} terms . it is now. Obukhov. Of the constant of inter-combination conversion are given by modified formula: where is the energy gap between the interacting and states. with allowance for reabsorption due to the and transitions. [2]. the spectral parameters of each molecule whose lasing properties are tested. Butt. LMKR (Pakistan) Improving Management of Energy Resources In our rapidly expanding • spie. Common biological processes can produce Methane (CH4). S. Qadirpur (Ghotki). and . arrows it is shown channels of optical excitation. S Heterocyclic Compounds”.org/esd • spieeurope@spieeurope.Conference 6744B: Global Earth Observing System of Systems. One of the richest industries in the world regarding Energy is the Oil and Gas sector. Hyper spectral Satellite images are being used to detect hydrocarbons from space.1131. A.4 to 2. . Moscow Mining Institute (Russia) To solve such a problem. Locations of existing well points were identified through GPS surveys. Three images were acquired and then mosaicked to study the area. The ultimate duration of the leading edge of the pumping pulse that permits lasing in the active medium is given. g. Session 15 Detection of hydrocarbons using hyperspectral satellite imagery M. Spectral signatures were obtained from the imagery for Methane and Ethane which was then matched with known signatures from the digital library of NASA and field collected spectra obtained from surveys. &#1043. e. {l}. Every object/phenomenon has a unique spectral signature.. and . 5121. In the latter case. the reability of estimates may be lowered. Implementation Strategies and Applications 6744B-92.and triplet-excited states in geteroaromatic molecules A. an width of levels active fluctuations due to an oscillatory relaxation. O. Obukhov. 847 . In this case. 2003. R. Obukhov A. Assumptions should be made if the spectral parameters are unknown.It is capable of resolving 220 spectral bands (from 0. The circuit none optical . Hyperspectral image was obtained from Hyperion which is on board Earth Observing-1 (EO-1). . Obukhov A. The study area. Vol. Hyperspectral image was corrected for atmospheric and geometric factors. E. S. 1102 . 3. increased on the appropriate integrals of Franc . The instrument can image a 7. one has to reveal general relationships between the structure of excited electronic states and transitions of different spin and orbital nature and photophysical properties of organic molecules. 2003. and . arrows it is shown channels of laser pump-pulse excitation. . {l} queasy continuum inactive in none optical transition of oscillatory levels of terms Tm (Tn). one has to determine.855. to measure. Energy Resources are depleting quickly. of Science and Technology (Pakistan). Session 15 Pump-laser-induced multi-structure photoprocesses of the near-lying singlet. Similar RS/GIS techniques can be used on unexplored sites. Vol. by the formula: The threshold condition of lasing is imposed not on the intensity of the exciting light but on the rate of its growth in time. Many oil and gas reservoirs naturally leak tiny amounts of hydrocarbons at the Earths surface. These are mostly light gases such as Methane and Ethane. matrix element operators on in-harmonize. 6744B-93. Figure 1. 7 (5). Laser Physics. but Ethane (CH) is only made in underground oil and gas reservoirs. P. E. E. quasi continuum inactive in none optical transition of oscillatory levels of term Tm. Mehdi. Remote Sensing is getting to newer heights. matrix elements spin-orbital interaction. Proceedings of SPIE.Condon. The introductions made it possible to take into account pumping and lasing fields in elementary volume. [3].org • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 87 . If ever there was a need to manage the Energy Resources.5 km by 100 km land area per image.156. Laser Physics. and . Vol. With the advent of modern sensing and digital processing instruments. 147 . Reference: [1].n. “Excited Singlet and Triplet States and of the New Photoionization Electron-Vibrational Mechanism in the Laser-Active Molecules”. “Effect of Electronically Excited Singlet and Triplet States on the Photophysical Properties in the Series of N.

the monthly averaged CO2 column amounts estimated by satellite-based measurements should have a precision of within 1% or better to provide an advantage over existing ground-based measurement networks. these have even indicated the detection of an apparently higher ozone content anomaly due to a volcanic cloud of Nyamuragira volcano during its eruption in October 1998 [2]. AERONET made significant gains establishing sites close to or even beyond the polar circle: in Alaska. 1. of Surrey (United Kingdom). Transport of atmospheric pollutants to polar areas changes direct radiation forcing. Institute of Geophysics (Poland). de Sherbrooke (Canada). H. G. V. their spatial resolution is comparable to AIRS. carbon monoxide. Univ. ozone. (United Kingdom) The Ozone Mapping Detector (OMAD) on board FASat-Bravo micro-satellite observed backscattered UV radiation to retrieve atmospheric ozone with low-spatial-resolution (150 x 150 km).nasa. Slutsker. Session 1 Accomplishments of the atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) and the need for higher spatial resolution in the future T. NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr.5 for the wide range of observation conditions. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. Holben. The GOSAT is scheduled to be launched in 2008 to monitor column amounts of CO2 and CH4. The enhancements higher spatial resolution will offer are improved yield in cloudy regions. and the improved sensitivity to sources and sinks of atmospheric gases. Results indicate Ozone contents lower than 150 Dobson Units (DU) in the Antarctic region with absolute errors less than 10 % in the vertical column content and high cross-correlations when compared with TOMS-EP. Sinyuk. Sakerin. Giles. of Maryland/Baltimore (USA).6 µm and 2 µm) and 0. Bril. water vapor. R. Underwood. Data are publicly available on the Internet (http://aeronet. F. Univ. The value of this low-cost earth observation approach is discussed on the potential of such missions to provide additional atmospheric observations of large-scale phenomena. Mackin. Univ. (USA) Polar regions are important for climate change studies. Monte Carlo simulation was used to validate this parameterization for a vertically non-homogeneous atmosphere including an aerosol layer and cirrus clouds. (USA) The AIRS instrument was launched in May 2002 onboard the EOS Aqua Spacecraft into a polar sun-synchronous orbit and provides daily global observations of vertical profiles of temperature. C. AIRS has improved the 5 day forecast by 6 hours in the NCEP operational system and researchers have identified further improvement pending upgrades to computer systems at NCEP. that is subject to arctic haze and summer biomass burning. Fernandez-Saldivar. Bojkov. Cloud formation and polar precipitation are affected by changes in remote aerosol concentrations and local emissions from the open ocean. I. O’Neill. (USA). T. While IASI and CrIS are the future planned operational systems. in Siberia. Pagano. Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (Russia). Session 1 Aerosol robotic network (AERONET) activity within the framework of the International Polar Year A. This relatively coarse resolution with continuous global coverage allowed the observation of the seasonal ozone layer depletion over Antarctica in the austral spring in 1998. T. An instrument concept called the Advanced Remote-sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES) will address these needs by providing 1km spatial resolution hyperspectral infrared while also improving the spectral resolution of the observations. National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan) The results of model study for CO2 retrievals from numerically synthesized GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) observation data are presented. V. M. TOMS uses two 1-nm channels (centred around 331-nm and 360-nm).0 µm spectral band. of Maryland/Baltimore (USA). aerosol volume size distribution (retrieved from sun and sky radiances) in the total column. Jet Propulsion Lab. Session 1 Carbon dioxide retrieval from reflected sunlight spectra in the presence of cirrus cloud: model studies A. we can see limitations in the AIRS due to its coarse spatial resolution that we will examine in this paper by comparing to MODIS and other observations. whilst OMAD uses two 10-nm channels (centred around 334-nm and 380nm). Chahine. (USA). B. AIRS data have been used to validate the distribution and transport of water vapor and greenhouse gases in climate models and has identified significant errors currently in the handling of these quantities. columnar water vapor content. in Northern Europe. A nadir-looking Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS) of Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR. Univ. of Maryland/Baltimore (USA). M. Sobolewski. in Canada. Additional products include cloud and aerosol properties and surface temperature and emissivity. and single scattering albedo are the standard data products. Previous analysis of this instrument have shown agreement in the radiances observed by OMAD and NASA’s Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS-EP). 1. This study focuses on CO2 retrievals in the presence of cirrus clouds. Radionov. In the paper we present Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) activity in the Arctic and Antarctic regions and over the oceans. T. Inc. Sorokin. Institute of Oceanology (Poland). S. Science Systems and Applications. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . Measurements in those locations will provide a solid data set needed for climate and radiation studies. S. To assess CO2 sources and sinks. S. 6745-03. (USA).org/esd • spieeurope@spieeurope. Inc. The wide range of parameters available from AIRS have made it invaluable as a tool for weather forecasting and climate modeling. methane and carbon dioxide. M. In particular.Conference 6745: Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere Monday-Wednesday 17-19 September 2007 Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. A. I. Session 1 Ozone depletion in the Austral spring from UV micro-satellite instrument J. Eck. The cloud correction was performed using an original approach that is based on the application of the equivalence theorem with parameterization of photon path-length probability density function (PPDF). 6745 Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere XII 6745-01. A new improved version of the simplified algorithm used in OMAD data has been empirically developed and applied to the austral region to determine the total Ozone content. The PPDF parameters were estimated using nadir radiance in the oxygen A-band and in the H2O-saturated area of the 2. An important feature of this problem is to apply radiance data measured in several spectral channels. It will serve as a climate benchmark by providing global daily observations of the hyperspectral infrared spectrum using highly stable observational techniques demonstrated on AIRS 6745-02. F. 6745-05. I. in Spitsbergen. N. A. Oshchepkov. N. Science Systems and Applications. S. T. The new data processing allowed the observation of the development of the ozone depletion in 1998 from September to early December when ozone depletion normally occurs. Univ. Wagener.58 µm spectral band was utilized for CO2 total column amount retrievals. M. improvements in the study of surface-air • spie. B. Finland and Greenland. Yokota. Aerosol optical depth. Institute of Atmospheric Optics (Russia). R. Despite the accomplishments of AIRS. We hope to expand this activity to the Northern part of Russia. Zielinski. H.76 µm oxygen A-band regions will be mounted on GOSAT. The OMAD results showed good agreement overall when compared with those obtained from TOMS-EP despite their intrinsic instrumental differences. Panchenko. T. real and imaginary parts of the refractive index.gsfc. Brookhaven National in the near real-time 88 spie. D. Institute of Atmospheric Optics (Russia). improved boundary layer sensitivity. Smirnov. P. Application of the proposed approach was shown to provide the required accuracy in the presence of cirrus clouds with optical thickness up to 0.

Conference 6745: Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere
mode. Recently hand-held sunphotometers Microtops calibrated at the Goddard Space Flight Center were successfully deployed onboard various research vessels to study aerosol optical properties over the Northern and Southern Oceans and in Antarctica. space instruments have provided a record of global stratospheric and upper tropospheric aerosols that extends over 20 years. Since the demise of SAGE II and SAGE III however, there are presently no space instruments devoted to continuing this aerosol data set. The paper will show that aerosol extinction profile, together with a moment of the size distribution, can be accurately retrieved from limb scatter measurements. The methodology will be described, and retrieval examples will be presented using data from two limb scatter instruments, namely SAGE III and OSIRIS. The retrieved extinction profiles will be compared with SAGE II and SAGE III occultation aerosol products for a series of wavelengths. It will be shown that the retrieval accuracy is good (less than 5%), with precision on the order of 25%. Once operational, the retrieval method will be applied to the data collected by the still-operating limb scatter instruments (namely OSIRIS and SCIAMACHY) in order to extend the aerosol data record into the present time. In the future, the OMPS Limb Profiler instrument, which is presently manifested on NPP (launch date = September 2009) will be used for aerosol research. The OMPS instrument, which is composed of 3 subsystems (namely a total ozone mapper, a UV ozone profiler and a limb scatter ozone profiler) will be described and its capability to retrieve aerosol vertical distribution and microphysical characteristics will be reviewed. Stratospheric and upper tropospheric aerosols play an important role in the Earth radiative budget and their continual monitoring with present and future limb scatter instruments would provide some of the required information needed by the scientific community.

6745-06, Session 1
Aerosol characterization in Morocco with AERONET and intercomparison with satellite data: TOMS, MODIS and MISR
B. Aziza, B. Zouhair, Cadi Ayyad Univ. (Morocco) The work presented in this paper focuses on aerosol characterization in the area of Morocco and the Canary Islands. Ground based measurements are essential. In our case they are materialized by the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and are provided by the AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) network. To fully scan all the area, satellite measurements are certainly the most efficient way. We used TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) aerosol index (AI) provided by both Earth Probe and OMI platforms. We also used the aerosol optical depths provided by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and MISR (multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer) instruments, onboard Terra platform. We have established linear relationships between ground measurements and satellite data. An inter-comparison of satellite data in this region was achieved.

6745-07, Session 1
Remote sensing for site selection of the European extremely large telescope (E-ELT)
H. Kurlandczyk, M. S. Sarazin, European Southern Observatory (Germany) Remotely sensed data can be of great interest for the site selection of astronomical observatories. In particular, candidate sites of the future European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) of 30-60 m diameter from ESO need to be assessed and analytically compared in their observing characteristics. Parameters such as cloud cover and precipitable water vapor which are important for optical and infrared astronomical observations have been assessed with the Meris instrument on the Envisat satellite with a resolution of 1km pixel. A validation of the data was made by comparing Meris data and in situ measurement available from ESO observatories in Chile, La Silla and Paranal, combined with lower resolution values from the GOES weather satellite. A detailed analysis over the available period of 2002 to 2007 of four short listed sites both in the northern and in the southern hemisphere for the E-ELT is presented.

6745-10, Session 1
Optimal estimation applied to the retrieval of aerosol load using MSG/SEVIRI observations
S. Wagner, Y. Govaerts, A. Lattanzio, P. Watts, EUMETSAT (Germany) Using the principle of reciprocity, observations acquired by the SEVIRI radiometer on-board the Meteosat Second Generation satellites provide multi-angular and multi-spectral measurements that can be used for retrieving information on both the atmospheric aerosol load, and the Earth surface. The purpose of the presented new Land Daily Aerosol algorithm developed at EUMETSAT is to derive simultaneously the mean daily tropospheric aerosol load and the land surface properties from the SEVIRI observations. The aerosol load is calculated through the optical depth parameter, for various classes of aerosols over land surfaces, and is inferred from the inversion of a forward radiative transfer model against daily-accumulated observations in the 0.6, 0.8 and 1.6 SEVIRI bands. These daily time series provide the angular sampling used to discriminate the radiative effects that result from the surface anisotropy, from those caused by the aerosol scattering. The algorithm, based on the Optimal Estimation theory, retrieves simultaneously the surface bidirectional reflectance, and the aerosol optical thickness for various classes of aerosols. Results of comparisons with AERONET data are presented to validate the modelling approach and the algorithm that resolves the inversion problem. The retrieval error is analysed, together with the effects on the retrieval quality of updating in time the prior information.

6745-08, Session 1
Use of satellite data for astronomical site characterization
A. M. Varela, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain) The main goal of this work is the analysis of new approaches in order to select the best astronomical sites for hosting the future new generation of extremely large telescopes. The objective is to calibrate data provided by in situ techniques through remote sensing data retrieved from satellite-platforms, in particular, those related with the atmospheric extinction and with the troposphere winds. In addition, from these satellite data is possible to go back at the cloud coverage, water vapour, ozone or the climatic trend. The main problem to use these values is their interpretation and their quantitative calibration. Data analysis need to be complemented with those provided by in situ instruments (telescopes, airborne particles counters, ground meteorological stations, etc.).

6745-11, Session 1
Dust aerosol optical depth retrieval over desert surface, using the SEVIRI window channels
B. De Paepe, Vrije Univ. Brussel (Belgium); S. Dewitte, Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (Belgium) Dust aerosols have a significant impact on the earth radiation budget. The aerosol direct radiative forcing is correlated with enhanced optical thickness. Therefore it is useful to retrieve the optical thickness of dust aerosols over desert for assessing the aerosol effect. Dust aerosols have an impact in the thermal infrared wavelengths, what allows to detect aerosols over desert surfaces. To retrieve the aerosol properties over land we have to take into account the surface contribution. The surface radiation depends on the skin temperature, which is characterized by a strong diurnal variation. Therefore it is better

6745-09, Session 1
Stratospheric and upper tropospheric aerosol retrieval from limb scatter signals
D. F. Rault, NASA Langley Research Ctr. (USA); R. P. Loughman, Hampton Univ. (USA) Solar occultation observations made by the SAGE family of • • • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747


Conference 6745: Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere
to use the surface emissivity, which we assume constant over a time span of 24 hours. The surface emissivity is based on clear sky observations that are corrected for atmospheric extinction and emission. The clear sky image is a composite of pixels that are characterized by the lowest brightness temperature difference between the SEVIRI channels at 8.7 and 10.8 µm. Due to the low desert surface emissivity at 8.7 µm we can assume that the selected pixel values are obtained for a clear sky day. We use a forward model to simulate the thermal infrared radiation transfer in the dust layer. The apparent surface emissivity in the presence of aerosols is calculated as a function of the geometric angles, the surface emissivity, and the aerosol optical depth (AOD). This is stored in lookup tables (LUT) that are inverted to retrieve the AOD from the apparent surface emissivity. The retrieval algorithm consists of firstly: processing of the clear sky image and computation of the surface emissivity, secondly: processing of the instantaneous image and computation of the apparent surface emissivity, and thirdly: selection of the corresponding LUT and retrieval of the AOD that matches to the observed apparent surface emissivity.

6745-13, Session 2
Cloud top height estimation using simulated METEOSAT-8 radiance
R. Borde, EUMETSAT (Germany); P. Dubuisson, Univ. du Littoral Côte d’Opale (France) Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) are one of the most important products generally derived from all geostationary satellites, and especially from Meteosat at EUMETSAT, because they constitute a very important part of the observation data fed to Numerical Weather Prediction. The height assignment (HA) is still the most challenging task in the AMV extraction scheme. The advent of Meteosat Second Generation provides many new opportunities for improve HA of AMVs. Indeed, existence of a CO2 absorption channel at 13.4 µm on SEVIRI instrument enables to use simultaneously the IR/CO2 ratioing methodology in addition to the so-called ‘WV-IRW intercept method’ for semi-transparent cases. Due to the existence of several Water Vapour and Infrared channels on SEVIRI, each method is implemented in slightly different configuration, and several pressures are then calculated for each AMV. First expectation was to use the agreement of these pressures as a quality check for the final AMV height. Unfortunately, the various methods (STC and CO2 slicing) have clearly their own sensitivity and domain of application, which makes a quality check very challenging. It appeared then necessary to define these domains of application more precisely, for a better use of these methods operationally. This paper presents such results using simulated SEVIRI radiances calculated by the FASDOM radiative transfer code. FASDOM accounts for gaseous absorption as well as cloud scattering and absorption. FASDOM can precisely consider various types of clouds, having various microphysical properties, and then provide the possibility to compare the outputs of the methods knowing precisely the input of the model, especially the pressure of the simulated cloud.

6745-12, Session 2
Experimental studies of infrared scattering and polarization properties of crystalline clouds to improve atmospheric models for remote sensing of Earth’s atmosphere from space
T. W. Humpherys, Utah State Univ. (USA); V. N. Ivanov, G. Yaskevich, Scientific and Production Association Typhoon (Russia); J. DeVore, A. T. Stair, Jr., Visidyne, Inc. (USA); J. Watson, The Aerospace Corp. (USA); I. Schiller, Visidyne, Inc. (USA); D. V. Chvanov, V. Privalsky, Utah State Univ. (USA) Environmental satellite sensors retrieve cloud properties by analyzing the intensity, spectral dependence, and polarization of scattered sunlight. Modes of data acquisition and sensor data retrieval algorithms should take into consideration fundamental properties of water and ice cloud particles. If such properties are not taken into account, sizable errors may occur in certain cases when interpreting Earth remote sensing data from space. We report results of recent efforts in obtaining metrologically supported experimental data for validation, correction and verification of theoretical models describing scattering and polarization of IR radiation in clouds containing particles in the crystalline phase. The mirror-like crystalline structure of high altitude cloud particles can produce intense “glint” features viewed from satellite sensors that may interfere with remote sensing of the Earth. By selecting polarization of radiance being observed, we can mitigate such cloud clutter, since cloud-scattered sunlight is generally polarized. Distortion of transmission through the atmosphere due to scattering, when looking through clouds, also entails modeling to correct for propagation losses. Both phenomena require that models be validated and/or refined. On-going experimental investigations are being carried out in full-size cloud chambers of the State Organization SPA “Typhoon” under conditions comparable with actual atmospheric conditions. A unique instrument and experimental setup has been created at the Institute of Experimental Meteorology (IEM) of SPA “Typhoon”. It includes the means to form clouds with prescribed characteristics, a system controlling thermodynamic and microstructural parameters of the particles formed, and an instrumentation complex, SPIN, designed for the measurement of polarization characteristics of radiation scattered by cloud particles. Preliminary data have been obtained on optical properties of populations of cloud particles consisting of crystal-columns, with modal size about 10 micrometers. Dependences have been preliminarily examined on the relative amplitude and the degree of polarization of light (with the wave length of 2.5&#61617;0.05 and 3.5&#61617;0.05 micrometers) scattered by the particles at scattering angles from 50 to 1750 , (the angle between the basic axial lines of the incident beam and the receiving optics). The data obtained can be used to develop systems and to define experiments for remote sounding and environmental monitoring of the Earth from space.

6745-14, Session 2
An assessment of the on-orbit performance of the CALIPSO wide field camera
M. C. Pitts, L. W. Thomason, Y. Hu, D. M. Winker, NASA Langley Research Ctr. (USA) The Wide Field Camera (WFC) is one of three instruments in the CALIPSO science payload, with the other two being the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the Infrared Imaging Radiometer (IIR). The WFC is a narrowband, push-broom imager that provides continuous highspatial-resolution imagery during the daylight segments of the orbit over a swath centered on the CALIOP footprint. The IFOV of each WFC pixel is approximately 125 m x 125 m when projected on the Earth’s surface from an orbit altitude of 705 km. The spectral band of the WFC, with a center wavelength of 645 nm and a FWHM bandwidth of 50 nm, is designed to match the Aqua MODIS instrument’s channel 1. The primary WFC Level 1 products are radiance and reflectance registered to an Earth-based grid centered on the CALIOP ground track. “First light” WFC images were acquired on May 18, 2006 and routine data acquisition began in early June 2006. An initial science assessment of the WFC on-orbit performance was conducted based on analysis of the first six months of flight data. Comparisons of the WFC measurements with the wellcalibrated Aqua MODIS channel 1 data were performed to evaluate the on-orbit radiometric performance of the WFC. Overall agreement is excellent, especially over bright targets where the WFC measurements typically agree to within a few percent of MODIS. The cloud detection threshold of the WFC has also been investigated through analysis of coincident WFC and CALIOP cloud observations. This paper provides a summary of our overall assessment of the on-orbit performance of the WFC and its cloud detection capabilities.

6745-15, Session 2
Sensitivity of passive measurements in VIS, SWIR and TIR to cirrus microphysical vertical profile: application to cloud remote sensing from MODIS
B. Marchant, G. Brogniez, J. Riedi, L. C. Labonnote, Univ. des Sciences et Technologies de Lille (France); P. Dubuisson,

90 • • • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747

Conference 6745: Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere
Univ. du Littoral Côte d’Opale (France) For inferring cirrus optical and microphysical properties from satellite imagery, a common assumption is that the radiative properties of a cirrus cloud may be represented by those associated with a specific ice crystal habit, a single particle size distribution and Ice Water Content (IWC). Various algorithm have been developed to retrieve cirrus optical and microphysical properties in the past 20 years. They can be categorized into the techniques based on either thermal infrared or solar reflection measurements. However, in-situ measurements have shown that shapes, sizes and IWC of ice crystals may vary substantially with height within the clouds. Given the different sensitivity of thermal infrared and solar wavelength to cloud microphysic, it is unlikely that a single cloud layer with homogeneous cloud properties can be used to reproduce both type of measurements. Thus, it is necessary to assess the effect of vertical inhomogeneity within cirrus on the radiative transfer calculations and on the retrieval techniques. The purpose of this study is to investigate a microphysical cirrus model composed of different layers in terms of ice crystal habit, size and IWC. The vertical structure will be given by simple analytic formula derived from various prescribed physical constraints. The primary goal of this study is to determine a simple cloud model that can be used to retrieve consistent information from both solar and thermal measurements. For this purpose, we examine the sensitivity of cirrus reflectances and brightness temperature to its vertical description for a suite of MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) bands spanning visible, near infrared and thermal infrared wavelengths. Results of this study are presented and potential application to remote sensing of cirrus clouds with MODIS are discussed. and clear pixels. Processing the satellite image with pixel size 6x6 km is accomplished. Clear pixels processing The method of perceptron neural network that allows to obtain the ground albedo, total (aerosol plus molecular) optical thickness, single scattering albedo and phase function parameter from input values of multiangle radiance and solar incident angle. Atmospheric parameters are determined as average for atmospheric column. The calculation of solar radiance with using the MODTRAN-3, code with taking into account multiple scattering is accomplished for neural network learning. A-priory atmospheric characteristics are input as temperature and absorbing gases profiles. All mentioned parameters were randomly varied on the base of statistical models of possible measured parameters variation. Since an input information flow is a random one (because of measurement errors, perturbation ignored and so forth) a risk estimation task appears, that is a task of confidence intervals estimation for output parameters. Apart from it in the project it is implied to carry out analysis of the neural network structure to look after optimal interactions between perceptrons. Optical thickness, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, and surface albedo are retrieved and images are presented on maps Cloudy pixels processing The inverse problem solution in case of cloudy pixels is proposed to obtain on the base of analytical method elaborated by authors. The analytical methodology is based on the inverting the asymptotic formulas of the transfer theory. Only assumption about big optical thickness and weak true absorption of cloud is taken a priori. There is no such restriction as conservative scattering, spectral independence of the optical thickness, infinite optical thickness. The model of horizontally infinite layer is considered. The slight horizontal heterogeneity is approximately taken into account. Processing is accomplished for every available wavelength (in spectral ranges 443- 910nm) and pixel separately. Optical thickness, single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter are retrieved and images are presented on maps. Optical parameters of cloud may serve for estimating water contents, aerosol pollution and for constructing an adequate optical model of natural clouds.

6745-16, Session 2
Optical characteristics of cirrus clouds at a midlatitude EARLINET station
E. Giannakaki, D. S. Balis, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece); V. Amiridis, National Observatory of Athens (Greece); S. Kazadzis, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece) Measurements performed with a backscatter and Raman lidar at Thessaloniki, Greece were used to characterize cirrus clouds and aerosol layers by determining their geometrical and optical properties. This is achieved through the application of different post-processing algorithms. We retrieved the cirrus cloud’s optical properties by using three independent mathematical methods. In the first method, an iterative procedure was used based on the criterion that forward and backward integration coincide to the desired degree of accuracy. In the second method, the optical depth of the cirrus cloud can be determined by comparing the backscattering signals just bellow and above the cloud if the lidar signals are correctly represent the scattering medium. The third method (Raman) is based on the measurement of the elastic-backscatter signal at 355nm and of the nitrogen inelastic-backscatter coefficients, independently of each other, and thus, of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio. The results are considerably influenced by multiple scattering effects, that not taken into account and this leads to a significant underestimation of calculated cirrus optical depths and lidar ratios. To estimate and correct this effect we have applied a radiative transfer model that calculates the multiple scattering contributions for each cirrus case analyzed. We have compared the resulting optical depths and lidar ratios and found a good agreement between these methods. The comparison has been performed both to the effective and real values of optical depth and lidar ratio.

6745-18, Session 2
Breaking the relations between the scales of scattering theory for main cloud components
I. N. Melnikova, St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russia) Results of the optical thickness retrieval from radiation observations in cloudy atmosphere revealed significant wavelength dependence. The values of the single scattering albedo obtained from these observations show a strong absorption into clouds within the short wavelength region and outside of atmospheric gaseous absorption bands). The single scattering albedo is from 0.95 for polluted cloud up to 0.9995 for clean clouds, which are much smaller than it is expected from Mie theory for the elementary volume of the cloud medium. Similar results were obtained also from the processing satellite POLDER radiative measurements. The optical thickness and scattering coefficient, obtained from numerous airborne and satellite radiative observations, indicate a distinct spectral dependence, namely, optical thickness are twice less at the wavelengths longer than 0.8mkm than at 0.4mkm. These facts contradict results of Mie simulations of light scattering within cloud media. The essential distinctions might be explained if turn to initial axiomatic relations between scales, which are the base for derivations of the scattering theory. Relations between basic scales are not valid within cloud media, thus the direct application of scattering theory results to cloud optics modeling appeared incorrect. The empirical relations for correction of Mie values of the scattering and absorption coefficients are proposed.

6745-17, Session 2
Retrieval of cloud optical parameters from data of reflected radiance multiangle observation
I. N. Melnikova, St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russia) and Russian Hydrometeorological Univ. (Russia); A. V. Vasilyev, St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russia); N. V. Konovalov, M.V. Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russia) Satellite image consists from separate picture elements - pixels. During the primary processing of the satellite information they are divided to cloudy (the cloud amounts is one from the pixel characteristics) and cloud free or clear pixels. For solving the problem different methods are applied to processing cloudy

6745-20, Session 3
Applications based on ROSA onboard OCEANSAT_2 space mission
F. Vespe, V. De Cosmo, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italy); A. Zin, Alenia Alcatel Space (Italy) • • • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747


S. though the model seems to be not able to capture the spatial sharp variations of water vapour mixing ratio profiles retrieved by lidar. It was designed and developed by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and Alenia Alcatel Space (AAS). The objectives of the activities we plan to perform is twofold. By using diffuse solar irradiance for calibration. In particular a simulation has been performed to understand what are the effects of multipath on the antenna. A. EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) is the first aerosol lidar network. G. to the multipath disturbances suffered by ROSA. (Japan) A solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiometer is generally calibrated against standard equipment using global solar irradiance. On an ather hand we plan to discuss the possible benefits that such space mission will bring in the field of Atmospheric Remote Sensing 6745-23. the small variation in a calibration constant of the solar UV-B radiometer was obtained. So we plan to investigate the sensitiveness of the atmosphere profiles. C. G. V. Ravetta. An ideal weather condition for calibration is cloudless day. On one hand a detailed analysis has been performed to arrange the antenna pointing toward the anti-velocity direction. H.. Federico II of Naples (Italy). Mitev. V. Alados-Arboledas. T. A model simulation is performed using MM5V3 model from PSU/NCAR (Grell et al. F. a shading band (MB-11. Trickl. Potsdam (Germany). Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. and the standard equipment was a same type of the UV-B radiometer. Münkel. Univ. A. Sasaki. EKO) with a shading band was also conducted as a control experiment. ten days or so. Rossella. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy) During August-October 2005. the spectral response is a dominant factor for determination of the calibration constant of the UV-B radiometer. This phenomenon is caused by the difference in the spectral. Putaud. degli Studi dell’Aquila (Italy). 6745-24. Univ. Pujadas. A comparison was performed with parallel monitoring by a SODAR. Tokai Univ. cosine. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy). A. Moreover. P. Jahn. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Univ. Univ. The Vaisala ceilometers LD40 and CL31 were used which are eye-safe commercial lidar systems. Rizi. IOP 5 episode (11-12 October 2005) has been selected and investigated with a special attention to the variability of water vapour mixing ratio vertical distribution to better understand the associated circulation in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Naples (Tyrrhenian Sea). Univ. C. L. M. however a quite few days. Stepanov Institute of Physics (Belarus). D. Ctr. Univ. Federico II of Naples (Italy). F. Joint Research Ctr. Bösenberg. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . Xuan. Leibniz-Institut für Troposphärenforschung e. Session 3 Long-term monitoring of layering of lower atmosphere in urban environment by ceilometer K. Session 3 Validation of a high resolution circulation model by lidar measurements of water vapour mixing ratio profiles in the area of Naples F. of Thessaloniki (Greece). C. de Investigaciones Energéticas. To remove direct solar irradiance. Gianluca. M. Böckmann. Different examples of meteorological conditions will be discussed to demonstrate the possibilities of atmospheric layering retrieval. Observatoire Cantonal de Neuchâtel (Switzerland). A. Maria Grazia. B. From the acoustic and optical remote sensing data the following features are analysed. 14°11’E. Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Aristotle Univ. Institute of Electronics (Bulgaria). 92 spie. Stoyanov. 1993) for this study. Special software for these ceilometers provide routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. A. S. Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (Netherlands). J. Session 3 A proposed solar UV-B radiometer calibration method: trial using diffuse solar irradiance S. The improvement of the aerosol observation system will contribute to almost all areas of societal benefits listed in the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) Implementation Plan. several lidar measurements have been performed at many Italian lidar stations during the Launch (International Lindenberg campaign for Assessment of hUmidity aNd Cloud profiling systems and its impact on High-resolution modelling) campaign according with IOP (Intensive Operational Period) schedule. D. N. diffuse UV-B irradiance reaching the earth’s surface is less sensitive to cloud than the direct one. The comparison between the solar UV-B radiometer and the pyranometer shows that variation in a calibration constant of the solar UV-B radiometer is larger than that of the pyranometer. The SODAR measurements provide the height of a turbulent layer characterized by high acoustic backscatter intensities due to thermal fluctuations and a high variance of the vertical velocity component. Univ.I.Conference 6745: Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere The Radio Occultation Sounder of the Atmosphere (ROSA) is a spaceboard GPS receiver tailored for sensing the atmosphere by applying the limb sounding technique. Emeis. degli Studi di Lecce (Italy). Schäfer. Univ. W. Water vapour mixing ratio observations have been detected in Naples site (40°50’N. Wiegner. Both solar UV-B radiometers with shading band were set horizontally. P. Nicolae. with the main 6745-22. • spieeurope@spieeurope. We tried to use diffuse solar irradiance for calibration of solar UV-B radiometers. Univ. Ansmann. Politecnica de Cataluña (Spain). Nicola. (Germany). The agreement between the model and the Lidar data is good in the range 1000-4000 m. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). degli Studi dell’Aquila (Italy). Univ. V. Spinelli. Amodeo. This observational gap can be closed by using advanced laser remote sensing. Institute of Geophysics (Poland).org/ers • spie. B. EKO) was used. Balis. Papayannis. Takeshita. Perrone. Pierre et Marie Curie (France). V. Freudenthaler. The experiment using pyranometer (MS-801. 6745-21. Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie (Germany). A. Pappalardo. 118 m asl) by a water vapour Raman lidar which is also able to measure the backscatter profile at 355 and 532 nm and the extinction profile at 355 nm. de Granada (Spain). are available in a year in central part of Japan. V. S. C. A calibration constant of the solar UV-B radiometer is highly depending on the weather conditions and the seasons when calibration is conducted. According our previous research. J. Session 3 A European research infrastructure for aerosol study on a continental scale: EARLINET-ASOS A. Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. D. degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy). The MM5 is a no-hydrostatic model at the primitive equations with a sigma terrain following vertical coordinate. Comeron.V. namely pressure. Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (Spain). (Italy). Evaluated solar UV-B radiometer was a MS-210W (EKO). In 2005 A Memorandum of Understanding was signed between ASI and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) just to put ROSA onboard their next OCEANSAT_2 space mission devoted to Earth’s remote sensing. azimuth response and temperature characteristic of the radiometer between tested equipment and standard. established in 2000. M. Norwegian Institute for Air Research (Norway). National Technical Univ. National Institute of Research & Development for Optoelectronics (Romania). Water vapour mixing ratio vertical profiles retrieved by lidar have been compared with the MM5 water vapour mixing ratio vertical profiles. and cosine and azimuth response is a minor. Apituley. of Athens (Greece). 1994 and Dudhia. The model has multiple-nesting capabilities to enhance the resolution over the area of interest: the finer grid size used over the Gulf of Naples is 3km. M. Chaikovsky. R. M. München (Germany). Pietruczuk. Münsterer. D. temperature and humidity. Vaisala GmbH (Germany) Automatic monitoring of lower atmosphere layering was performed by continuous remote sensing measurements with ceilometer and SODAR in Augsburg. München (Germany) The present knowledge of the aerosol distribution is not sufficient to estimate the aerosol influence on global and regional environmental conditions and climate.

14O E). EARLINET is a coordinated network of European stations (25 at present) using advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. and then the Optimal Interpolation method to fill the remaining gaps. the radiance to flux conversion is the main objective for the BBR retrieval algorithms. in multi-layer cloud configurations. Seidel. Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (Belgium) The first Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument was launched during the 2002 summer together with the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on board of the Meteosat-8 satellite.e. as well as for evaluation of validation data sources. Such goal is achieved with the L20 GERB processing which generates these fluxes at several spatial resolutions from the directional filtered radiance measurements of the instrument.. Barker. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (Netherlands). Bingham. photochemical smog and volcano eruptions). 6745-27. vertical resolution and noise level. and spatial and temporal sampling biases. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 93 . St. and to build a comprehensive climatology of the aerosol distribution Acknowledgments The financial support by the European Commission under grant RICA-025991 EARLINETASOS is gratefully acknowledged. and Lindenberg (52O N. assimilation of aerosol data into operational models. radiosonde network. Session 3 Statistical approach to validation of satellite atmospheric retrievals N. ATLID (ATmospheric LIDar) and CPR (Cloud Profiler Radar) onboard the same • spieeurope@spieeurope. every radiance is classified in a unique scene bin of observations characterized by a similar anisotropic behaviour. The model can be used for assessment and interpretation of the validation results when the above mentioned sources of discrepancies are significant. Thus. Berger. we utilize (to some degree) data from the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) onboard Terra.Conference 6745: Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere goal to provide a comprehensive. In this process. Leptoukh. i. (USA) To increase spatial coverage and produce complete aerosol fields for comparison with models. 6745-28. Bertrand. forest fires. Bouvet. As these ADMs are stratified according to specific scene properties.5O S. This conversion has been so far carried out by using specific angular distribution models (ADMs). MSI (Multi-Spectral Imager). Since active sensors are present on the same satellite platform. D.nasa. and the radiative transfer simulations have been carried out with the EarthCARE Simulator. E. The BBR footprint will be geolocated in space and time with the passive sensor. the instrument responsible to provide measurements of broadband radiances over the along-track satellite path. 167O E). one of them being a radiance-to-flux conversion. to foster aerosol-related process studies. EARLINET-ASOS (Advanced Sustainable Observation System) is a five year EC Project started in 2006. and statistically significant database for the aerosol distribution on a continental scale. and aerosol data from some other sensors. This processing consists of successive components. Pougatchev. we focus on merging daily mean Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT). 6745-25. a Monte-Carlo code capable to reproduce the observations of the different mission instruments taking into account the specific characteristics of each sensor. GRUAN (GCOS Reference UpperAir Network). E. de València (Spain).g. aerosol measurements by different sensors can be “fused” or merged together. and the active sensors. Utah State Univ.g. But MSI can only extract vertically integrated retrievals. validation of satellite sensors. Giovanni (http://giovanni. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA). In this paper. scene identification (ID) by means of the MSI retrievals will not distinguish the 3-D structure of the real scenes. The main objectives are: to make EARLINET a world-leading instrument for the observation of the 4-D aerosol distribution on continental scale. e. To demonstrate its practicability we present the case study that involves the radiosonde data from three stations: ARM Tropical Western Pacific (0. Such conversion is carried out in the solar region by using the shortwave angular dependency models (ADMs) developed from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment. H. Domenech. as measured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging spie. Meteorological Service of Canada (Canada) The ESA EarthCARE mission includes the BBR (BroadBand Radiometer). Dewitte. model development and validation. Each of these scene bins is defined by a range of values distinguishable by the MSI. M. Germain. The network activity is based on simultaneous scheduled measurements. and a standardised data exchange format. Session 3 The GERB Edition 1 products SEVIRI scene identification A. Clerbaux. The presented model makes the comparison accurate by estimating the differences. The following factors are accounted by the model: (i) The satellite and validating systems sample volumes of the atmosphere at times and locations that are not exactly co-located. These scenes will thus be wrongly identified. S. Various statistical aspects of data fusion are addressed. C. NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. Further observations are performed to monitor special events (Saharan dust outbreaks. Ipe. This work shows a preliminary simulation approach to demonstrate the advantages of this methodology by applying it to multi-layer clouds. Session 3 Multi-sensor aerosol data fusion: can it be done online? G. The web-based environment for this data fusion is the NASA Goddard Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) that provides this data fusion option in addition to other popular online multi-sensor intercomparison capabilities. D. validation against historical records. The main fusion algorithm uses the maximum likelihood technique to merge the pixel values where available. The clouds have been built with a stochastic cloud generator model. European Space Agency (Netherlands). Also. The role of the BBR was defined to provide the boundary condition for top of atmosphere flux densities. K. L. S. This broadband radiometer aims to deliver near real-time estimates of the top of the atmosphere solar and thermal radiative fluxes at high temporal resolution thanks to the geostationary orbit. Therefore.. For each station we considered temperature profile validation scenario and estimated associated errors. e. N. based on the EARLINET allows convenient data manipulation and analysis without downloading large volumes of differently formatted data from different sensors. and facilitate better tracking of aerosol events. the GERB ground segment will 6745-26. Lopez-Baeza. (USA). G.validating data sets. (i) The true atmospheric states may be correlated or not. g. F. a rigorous quality assurance program addressing both instruments and evaluation algorithms. Donovan. quantitative. Session 3 Improvement of broadband radiance to flux conversion by using the synergy between active and passive remote sensing instruments C. P.gsfc. e. it would be possible to use their observations to contribute to the BBR scene ID. H. The model allows accurate validation of actual performance of the remote sensing system while in orbit by comparing its measurements to some relevant .org/ers • spie. Gonzalez. Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites. 98O W). (iii) The validated and validating systems have different characteristics. including sensitivity of the fused data properties to spatial gaps in the original daily images. Deutscher Wetterdienst (Germany) A mathematical model for statistical estimate of the bias and noise in satellite retrievals of atmospheric profiles and a case study are presented. All the above factors cause apparent difference between the data to be compared. ARM Southern Great Planes (37O N.

Sr. cloud. E. D.1%.. C. cloud contamination is one of the main obstacles in rice growth monitoring and yield estimation using MODIS data. H. which is a kind of visible-infrared sensor. These effects would be even larger when the radiometer scans from space to Earth or from a warm clear scene to a cold cloud top if the slow mode effect is not eliminated. Operational satellite-based cloud products (e. Cerdeña. Its effect on the instrument response is dependent upon the value of the viewing zenith angle. Turner. 6745-29. • spie. from a set of more than 9000 images. liquid water and ice particles. L. CALIPSO. The results are validated using data taken while scanning over the Earth in both directions (left to right and right to left) for at least one month of data at a time. index methods analysis are the simple and effective methods to detect cloud. This paper will present the preliminary results of merging aerosol and cloud data from the CALIPSO active lidar. Gibson. Science Applications International Corp. The global procedure was performed for both day and night overpasses and. and the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe 146-301 aircraft. (USA). Revercomb. Once the clouds are classified. and is the first coordinated validation campaign for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). This slow mode is eliminated by use of a numerical filter whose parameters are characterized by the time response and magnitude. After geometric correction. the cloud-free images are obtained through interpolating using time series MODIS data and ratio value using same date data of different year.and micro-physical parameters. respectively) and Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS). For example. A. P. However. carrying the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed (Interferometer and Microwave. We will compare results from various methods designed to retrieve cirrus optical properties from the infrared atmospheric emission signature. Zhou. It is shown that the goal of reducing the effects of the slow mode can be achieved for measurements at viewing zenith angles less than 70o. Wu. which is scheduled for April 2007. we will suggest possible improvements based on limitations which could be • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . including optical depth. and to validate the accuracy of global aerosol. (China) MODIS data have great potential in rice growth monitoring and yield estimation due to the low cost and high time resolution. whose architecture follows a Multilayer Perceptron model. MODIS. These results were compared with ISCCP data for the same period. and bulk ice crystal effective radius. Hampton Univ. capable of providing a full suite of cloud physics instrumentation for insitu measurements of aerosols. Science Applications International Corp. and radiation using the combined NASA A-Train data from Aqua CERES and MODIS. • spieeurope@spieeurope. Y. Science Applications International Corp. González. and their architectures were optimized through genetic lgorithms. and cloud-free image is quite rare during rice growth period due to cloudy weather.4%. H. using artificial neural networks (ANNs). index methods and cloud detection index in this paper. K. (USA) The study of cirrus clouds using high spectral resolution infrared measurements provides the spectral detail to independently determine a number of cirrus cloud optical properties. (USA). Smith. especially the infrared channels subdivided. (USA) The goal of this paper is to provide the first integrated data set of global vertical profiles of aerosols. 6745-54. Therefore. These parameters of the slow mode had been computed using ground calibration data. The relationships between the retrieved cloud properties and some climate and atmospheric parameters were also studied. Poster Session Joint airborne IASI validation experiment (JAIVEx) cirrus cloud property intercomparison D. NASA Langley Research Ctr. or A-Train. both parameters can be found and applied in the numerical filter. NAST-I and NAST-M. cannot detect land surface through cloud. P. Díaz. Szewczyk. (USA) The CERES scanning radiometer is designed to measure accurately the solar radiation reflected by the Earth and thermal radiation emitted by the Earth. it has realized cloud detection in MODIS images by multi-spectral synthesis method. B. five day back trajectories have been computed 94 spie. a retrieval method is used to estimate cloud macro. Zhejiang Gongshang Univ.. Session 3 Integrated cloud-aerosol-radiation product using CERES. In this paper. Univ. were trained with simulated theoretical radiances using backpropagation with momentum method. Chen. and radiation data sets especially in polar regions and for multi-layered cloud conditions. maps of relative frequency were calculated. CALIPSO and CloudSat data S. clouds.Conference 6745: Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere have to rely on a scene identification of SEVIRI data which allows us to select the proper ADM. It is also demonstrated that reducing the effect of the slow mode has significant impact on science data products in the range of 2-3Wm-2 for the longwave flux. A. of Wisconsin/Madison (USA). E. J. It is worth mentioning that the work reported in this paper is a part of revision of CERES data products for Edition 3. A pair of aircraft will be flying to support this mission: the NASA WB-57. Measurements taken while looking at space and at the internal calibration system provide the required information. This retrieval method is based on the inversion of a numerical radiative transfer model. A. (USA). Session 3 The slow mode of the CERES scanning radiometers Z. Cheng. Comparisons between GERB and CERES scene identifications both applied to SEVIRI data will follow. These new data will provide unprecedented ability to test and improve global cloud and aerosol models. All of these instruments are flying in formation as part of the Aqua Train. W. and CloudSat.g. By minimizing the difference between the known signal and instrument response. R. and it is shown to be about 0. de La Laguna (Spain) In this work a threshold technique for cloud detection and classification is applied to 12 years NOAA-AVHRR imagery in order to obtain a cloud climatology in the Canary Islands region (North Atlantic Ocean). integrated column aerosol and cloud data from the MODIS CERES analyses. Q. optical thickness and top temperature. Poster Session Study on methods of cloud identification and data recovery for MODIS data X. Sun-Mack. Wielicki. The ANNs. DeSlover. 6745-52. Pérez. D. Univ. S. This warrants recalculating the value of the parameters with a goal of reducing the slow mode effect to 0. and surface and top-of-atmosphere broadband radiation fluxes from CERES. such as. The result shows that infrared difference algorithm. based on libRadtran. The instruments have a response time of 8 to 9 ms. Finally. effective particle size. number density. Based on spectral characteristics of cloud and MODIS channels. Unfortunately. MODIS. NASA Langley Research Ctr. we will briefly justify and describe the implementation of a specific GERB scene identification for the official Edition 1 release of the L20 products. a scan analysis using in-flight data indicates that the slow mode effect has not been entirely eliminated. MODIS and GOES) will also be included for comparison. Holz. 6745-30. In addition there is a spurious slow mode of response at a low level to radiance input caused by heating up of the plate a detector is mounted on. cloud data from CloudSat. The time response is an order of magnitude longer than the time between sampling and the magnitude is in the order of 3% of the signal. taking it into account that MODIS data includes thirty-six bands. H. There are two CERES instruments aboard the Terra spacecraft and two aboard the Aqua spacecraft. Poster Session Cloud climatology in the Canary Islands region using NOAA-AVHRR data A. Emphasis will be placed on the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx). infrared difference algorithm. to investigate aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing.

Poster Session A semianalytic Monte Carlo code for modelling lidar measurements E. were considered. Yeom. Monte Carlo calculations of contributions to the total energy received in a LIDAR system have been carried out taking into account the main components of the atmospheric environment and the laser radiation interaction processes of single/multiple scattering. seasons. Poster Session Studying clouds and the Earth’s radiation balance using CERES and MISR data products N. Lesage. Giovanelli. at about 2 km height. we propose an automatic approach for detecting clouds. The proposed algorithm is automatic.Conference 6745: Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere using analyses from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data and were classified in four types depending on the origin of the air parcel. NASA Langley Research Ctr. The network training is performed with radiance spectra simulated with MODTRAN4. which involves atmospheric compensation and surface temperature and emissivity separation (TES). It can be used to measure densities of certain constituents of the middle and upper atmosphere. climate change. This SSI estimation for cloudy condition showed a good agreement with ground-based measurements (RMSE = 66. G. Achard. T. Poster Session Automatic detection of clouds and shadows on SPOT/HRVIR images: application to the images of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) project C. Le Hégarat-Mascle.Clouds can be viewed as connex objects (at least for detection). To enhance the efficiency of the Monte Carlo simulation. J. African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis. In this study. André. This paper presents a new method dedicated to airborne hyperspectral sensor that operates in the 3-12 µm spectral range. ONERA (France) Infrared hyperspectral imagery gives new opportunities for night observations for military.Each cloud generates a shadow with similar shape and area. Independent sources and receiving optical systems with assigned field of view are assumed. Y. Artificial devices (such as local forced collision and splitting) are moreover foreseen by the code. The global algorithm includes then three main steps: first. our method makes use of three principal cloud/shadow features that allow the reduction of the false alarm rate: . I. and a hysteresis threshold operation of a MIR/Green linear combination image. Kim. Petritoli. and using ASTER emissivities. or security purposes. database) that corresponds to various acquisition conditions. The second and the third feature allow the mutual validation of cloud and shadow detections. Science Systems and • spieeurope@spieeurope. Poster Session Retrieval of spectral emissivity and surface temperature from airborne infrared hyperspectral sensor. Bortoli. mutual validation is performed from cloud and shadow respective shapes. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy). spatial location estimation from first cloud detection. Ravegnani. is also studied. 6745-57. (USA) and NASA Langley Research • spie. Paris-Sud (France) In this study. (South Korea) Surface Solar Insolation (SSI) is important parameter to interpret ocean-atmospheric interaction. The validation of the estimated SSI using NN-based cloud factor was performed with pyranometer measurement data obtained from 22 meteorological stations over Korea peninsula. and growing region technique. F. and for geological studies as rocks have specific infrared absorption bands. . . Pukyong National Univ. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy) and Bulgarian Academy of Science (Bulgaria). Ferebee. Moreover. and the TIGR atmospheric data bank. the relative position of a cloud and its shadow in the image can be known but one parameter (the cloud altitude) The first feature allows the use of hysteresis threshold techniques or growing region. cloud shadows and mist present on optical remote sensing images such as SPOT/HRVIR ones. Furthermore. In this work the developed Monte Carlo model is described and a number of simulations are presented and discussed varying the geometric treatment of the atmosphere. Shu. (USA). its physical characteristics. Y. Finally. 6745-55. an optimized utilization of spectral information requires to retrieve spectral emissivity. L. A semianalytic Monte Carlo code for modelling LIDAR measurements has been developed by the Energy Transfer & Minor Gases in the Atmosphere (ETMGA) group of ISAC-CNR. A Monte Carlo simulation model can provide an excellent answer to these important requirements. Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (France). (USA) spie. the accuracy of SSI estimation for cloudy condition is substantially lower than for clear sky. Poutier. to calculate temperatures. multilayer feed-forward (MLF) neural network (NN) was employed with Levenberg-Marquardt back-propagation (LM-BP) and early stopping method to avoid the • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 95 . surface heat flux. analytical estimates and expected value calculations are performed. Han. Relatively to the classical threshold techniques. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy) and Geophysics Ctr. of Evora (Portugal). This accuracy indicates that the use of NN-based cloud factor leads an improvement for SSI estimation in comparison with use of previous system of cloud factor (RMSE = 78. The development of techniques for modelling LIDAR measurements is needed to evaluate the effects of various environmental variables and scenarios as well as of different measurements geometries and instrumental characteristics. absorption and ground reflection. which can improve accuracy of SSI estimation for cloudy condition. and earth radiation budget. This detection and masking is necessary for land studies from remote sensing data. 6745-59. 6745-58. Poster Session Cloud factor estimation for insolation using satellite data K. such as land cover classification and vegetation monitoring. Second shadows are estimated using MIR image. S. like galactic cosmic rays flux or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. absolute calibration or spectral calibration. Kostadinov. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy) LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging) is an optical active remote sensing technology with many applications in atmospheric physics. Generally. D. S. which can enable the user to drastically reduce the variance of the calculation.03 W/m2). The number of hidden nodes was determined by using trial and error method since too complicated network was apt to be over-fitting. A. Univ. while a too simple network structure will have difficult training the network. A. only clouds are detected based on the intercalibration of the MIR/ Green frequency images. K. Palazzi. other variables. 6745-56. It is parameterized by only three parameters that are rather robust since their value was kept identical for the processing of all the 39 SPOT/HRVIR images considered (AMMA. Ritchey. Inc. M. This study aims to generate a neural network-based cloud factor retrieval system. to measure wind speed and to provide information about vertical distribution of the aerosol particles. The impact of various instrumental characteristics such as signal to noise ratio. and landscapes. A successful retrieval of SSI highly depends on how to describe the cloud attenuation since most of clouds have larger spatial and temporal variability and complicated physical character. It couples neural networks in order to characterize parameters required for atmospheric compensation and a spectral smoothness approach for TES. A sensibility study is carried out in order to specify which atmospheric parameters are needed and how accurate they must be.Knowing the acquisition geometry and the sun position.0 W/m2). Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy). the representation of the laser source and the telescope and a number of other meaningful parameters. using neural network and spectral smoothness approaches V. In this radiative transfer model.

(China) Many applications require the elimination of atmospheric effects caused by molecular. aerosol. archives. which tends to mask the pixel seen by the sensor. S. with the only limitation of the need of low levels of water vapour like those that are obtainable in high altitude stations during winter. These sets of instruments provide long-term. the rigorous formula of the top of the atmosphere signal is derived in a plane-parallel atmosphere bounded by a homogeneous non-Lambertian surface. AISA sensor is put on the aviation platform covering the East Sea in China on July 29. including CERES and MISR. and through the atmosphere. Pignatti. The CERES experiment is one of the highest priority scientific satellite instruments developed for NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS). mainly when pixels in the scene are spectrally heterogeneous. Bianchini. particulate scattering and atmospheric water content factors.nasa. They are based on the separation of direct and diffuse components of the radiation fields. leads to obtain accurate pixel reflectance if compared with ground measurements acquired within testing areas. a process known as atmospheric correction. CERES instruments are also currently flying on the EOS Terra and Aqua satellites. The first CERES instrument was launched in November 1997 on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. clouds. Additional information is available from our web site. has been successfully deployed in several campaigns. This was obtained by the inversion of the radiative transfer equation for at-sensor signal. misalignment-compensated design. at different angles and four wavelengths. The methods used for the derivation of the exact formula are classical. Cavalli. Such application. Northrop Grumman Space Technology (USA) The classical Chandrasekhar’s formula relating the surface reflectance to the top of the atmosphere radiance rigorously applies to a Lambertian This paper introduces and derives the algorithm about retrieving water content of atmosphere from AISA (Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Application) data based on Modtran code. 6745-62. The MISR instrument was built for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena. The spectrally-resolved characterization of the atmospheric emission has a fundamental role in the study of the Earth radiation balance. Del Bianco. based on 6S calculation. Istituto sull’Inquinamento Atmosferico (Italy). REFIR-PAD operates in the spectral range extending from 100 to 1400 cm-1 with a resolution of 0. from the relatively unexplored far-infrared region below 400 cm-1. Palchetti. Then the 6S algorithm extension is compared with the exact formula and approximations and their validity are pointed out. it will be possible to derive the total column water vapor amount from AISA data in Eastern Sea in China and 6745-61. Data products from MISR contain TOA radiance. on the introduction of the Green’s function of the problem. Baglioni. using roomtemperature detectors and optics and a compact. The authors utilized 2 near-IR “water vapor” channels in addition to existing “windows” channels. Poster Session Evaluation of adjacency effect for MIVIS airborne images C. At this purpose an algorithm. and distributes data relating to the Earth’s radiation budget. to the atmospheric transparency window. was defined to derive the direct and diffuse component of radiation required to determine the contribution to the pixel reflectance related to the surrounding pixels. The operating spectral range of the REFIR-PAD spectroradiometer encompasses great part of the atmospheric emission spectrum. S. Poster Session Extension of Chandrasekhar’s formula to a homogeneous non-Lambertian surface and comparison with the 6S formulation A. M. Sei. It was launched into polar orbit on board the Terra satellite from Vandenberg Air Force Base on December 18. A. and on integrations of boundary values of the radiation fields with the Green’s function. Poster Session Retrieval of atmospheric water content based on AISA data Q. In order to detect targets with peculiar spectral characteristics. in the discipline areas of Earth’s radiation budget. on MIVIS scenes. The preliminary analysis of results have highlighted that the adjacency effect is not negligible. Istituto di Metodologie per l’Analisi Ambientale (Italy). especially if acquired by an airborne hyperspectral sensor like MIVIS. and only a measurement performed in a wide spectral range enables us to separate the contributions to the radiative balance due to the different altitudes. Istituto sull’Inquinamento Atmosferico (Italy) This work is aimed to atmospherically correct remote sensing data in the solar spectral domain (Visible and Near Infrared) allowing the better assessment of the surface spectral material characteristics. near Florence • spie. aerosols and tropospheric chemistry.Conference 6745: Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere The Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center processes. and band 56 and band 59 are in water absorbed region and band 51 is in atmospheric window. the atmospheric correction has to take into account the diffuse radiation that constitutes a significant component to the at sensor radiance. This work shows how adjacency effect has a significant role in the correction of remote sensing data. dominated by water vapour rotational band. Florence. and tropospheric chemistry. overlapping radiation budget parameters including broadband shortwave (SW). and cloud properties from regional and global scale environments. where a number of atmospheric instruments are already operating and can provide intercomparison data. So the three bands were used to in following expressions. 6745-60. 6745-63. Santini. surface. The REFIR-PAD (Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed Prototype for Application and Development) Fourier transform spectroradiometer can perform a characterization of the broadband radiative signature of clouds and aerosols. MISR measurements are designed to improve our understanding of the Earth’s environment and climate with data collected using nine cameras. services and tools for over 40 projects. developed at CNR-IFAC. The instrument. Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara (Italy) 96 spie. an extension of this formula was proposed in the 1980s and has been recently implemented in the second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum (6S) algorithm. AISA is Hyperspectral Imaging sensor including 61 bands from visible to NIR. California. or • spieeurope@spieeurope.5 cm-1. The capabilities of this kind of measurement have been assessed in a series of test campaign performed in Tuscany during the winter of 2006/2007 during which atmospheric emission spectra have been acquired in various transparency conditions and the evidence of transparency in the far-infrared region below 600 cm-1 has been demonstrated. clouds. compensation. Zhejiang Gongshang Univ. To analyze this extension. F. Retrieval of atmospheric water content from remote sensing data is very important for atmospheric correction. http://eosweb. For a homogeneous nonLambertian surface in a plane-parallel atmosphere. longwave (LW) and net radiative fluxes for clear sky and cloudy conditions. aerosols. L. 2005.larc. The analysis of the results shows the accuracy of the process in retrieving the reflectance of different surface materials. and cloud properties. Cheng. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . The effect of this component (namely adjacency effect). The Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadio-meter (MISR) instruments are key instruments in obtaining and producing several data products that provide global observations of radiation at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA). The developed algorithm allowed the assessment of this environmental contribution besides the pixel reflectance. R. The Atmospheric Science Data Center provides data access. both in the ground based zenith-looking geometry and in the nadir-looking balloon borne configuration. Poster Session Far-infrared spectrally resolved broadband emission of the atmosphere from Monte Morello and Monte Gomito. derives principally from the atmospheric scattering due to the “aerosol loading” in the scene. constituents and physical phases. Bassani.

6 micron. M. M. and hence aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent have been already retrieved by using polarization data taken from POLDER based on the relationship between red (0. In this paper an algorithm retrieving the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) over land using SEVIRI data is presented. while down welling IR sky radiance measurements have been collected by means of an MR100 BOMEM Fourier Transform Spectrometer covering the spectral ranges 500 cm1 . It is known that polarization of ground reflectance is smaller than that of atmospheric scattering. POLDER measures the spectral upwelling radiances (as Stokes components I. Pavese. the new generation of European geostationary meteorological satellites. and average atmospheric water content is 0. The application of Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) methodology to the zenith scattered light data collected with the SPATRAM instrument allows for the detection of stratospheric trace gases involved in the ozone cycle such as NO2. The results of the algorithm. Masiello. OClO. The Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra Red Imager (SEVIRI) is the radiometer aboard MSG collecting. The AOT at 0. of Tokyo (Japan) Fine mode aerosols influence the microphysical and optical properties of clouds.6 micron. Both different orographic characteristics and different airmasses circulation on the measurements sites influence Aerosol Optical Depth values and variation. Using the readings of five automatic sun-photometers of the Aerosols Robotic Network (AERONET) located in the Mediterranean area (Avignon. is precisely obtained on a global scale. The results obtained for Ozone and nitrogen dioxide are presented and discussed 6745-68. Slusser. Angstrom parameters and Aerosol Size Distributions have been retrieved. The measurements rates were 15 minutes for solar irradiance and 12 minutes for IR radiance. such as number and size of cloud particles.86 µm) wavelengths in the previous work. G.6 micron was obtained. Poster Session Aerosol optical properties variation on different mountain sites in Italy G. S. From direct solar irradiance measurement Aerosol Optical Depth. C. The Univ. Serio. Q. this work uses satellite data for monitoring the fine mode particles.5 cm-1 of resolution. An AOT map of the Po Valley (Italy). Modena. the so-called “Passive mode”.1. Corradini. Grieco. It is installed at the Observatory of the CGE since April 2004 and actually it is utilized to carry-out measurements of the zenith scattered radiation. degli Studi della Basilicata (Italy) Direct solar irradiance and IR atmospheric radiance have been measured during different measurements campaigns. 6745-65. satellite data consists of both atmospheric scattering and ground surface reflection. degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia (Italy) Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). Pugnaghi. each 15 minutes. using the Air Mass Factor (AMF) matrix as the kernel of the inversion algorithm. A. SPATRAM is a multipurpose UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer (250 . aerosol distribution. as verified even by the use of HYSPLYT back-trajectories analysis. Bortoli. F. 6745-67. In general. M. In order to cover global scale. The maximum atmospheric water content retrieved from AISA image is 1.Conference 6745: Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere analyze the retrieving result. which may relate the weather change and also climate change on a global scale. Santangelo. 6745-64. images of the underneath part of the globe in 12 spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 3 km.3000 cm-1. depending on the detector mounted on it and 0. Poster Session Stratospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide total column and vertical profiles in southern Portugal during 2004-2006 D. G.04 cm. is shown in the paper.5 nm) AVANTES USB2000 radiometer. S. L. conducted in mountain sites in Italy. In addition the application. BrO and the ozone itself. (USA) In an effort to understand the factors governing the production of photo-chemical tropospheric ozone in large cities. To perform the mentioned minimization it is necessary to know the right satellite and sun geometry.950 nm). especially fine mode particles. to the output of the DOAS program.67 µm) and near infrared (0. allowed for the determination of the nitrogen dioxide vertical profiles. The dataset of Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances (POLDER) mounted on ADEOS-1. which are provided by GLI sensor on ADEOS-2. Restieri. Giovanelli.40 cm. Leone. working in the spectral range 400 nm 900 nm. An algorithm based on the near UV and violet data. is a significantly enhanced follow-on system of the previous generation of Meteosat.460] nm spectral region is investigated. Calvello. (Japan). For the continuous NO2 monitoring the [407 . This work intends to extract the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere as spectral aerosol optical thickness on a global scale. Guerrieri. and -2 (Advance Earth Observing Satellite) are adopted. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy) The SPATRAM (Spectrometer for Atmospheric TRAcers Monitoring) instrument has been developed by the collaboration between CGE-UE. • spie. in addition to the uncertainty of the surface reflection behavior. The application of the DOAS algorithms to the spectral data recorded during the whole working period allowed for the retrieval of stratospheric Nitrogen • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 97 .55 micron is estimated minimizing the difference between measured and computed radiances in the visible channel centred at 0.the vertical content of some atmospheric tracers such as Ozone (O3) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2).org/esd • spieeurope@spieeurope. Furthermore the results of aerosol transported model AGCM are useful for the aerosol type selection for our aerosol retrieval. This fact. in order to retrieve by application of DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) methodology . obtained from an MSG image taken during a typical polluted day. Istituto di Metodologie per l’Analisi Ambientale (Italy). This advantage can be used to retrieve the aerosol information over land area. C. compared with the quoted sun-photometric measurements show a standard error of 0. S. Esposito. Univ. G. and Ozone total column. Rome and Lecce) an empirical linear relationship between the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance at 1. R. Poster Session Fine mode aerosols on a global scale I. Laegeren.43 cm and the minimum water content is 0. All the instruments were located on a mobile laboratory. Mukai. of sophisticated inversion schemes. R. de Évora (Portugal). the latter is larger than the former over the land. is available to solve this problem.6 micron and the surface reflectance at 0. Poster Session An aerosol optical thickness retrieval algorithm for MSG data over land: applications in the Mediterranean area L. Colorado State Univ. 6745-66. and U) at the top of the atmosphere. spie. the total ozone abundance and the land surface reflectance at 0. so the methods are feasible for retrieval of atmospheric water contents from AISA data. Kinki Univ. At least two Radiosonde launches per day furnished ancillary data as temperature and water vapour profiles. Univ. Kreidenweis. Direct solar irradiance measurements have been obtained by a high resolution (1. Poster Session The influence of aerosols on tropospheric ozone production J.5000 cm-1 or 100 cm-1 . Sano. As results. the relationships between the transmittance and atmospheric water content of AISA was computed and analyzed. Univ. R. retrieved effective radii and water vapour content has been looked for. while IR data allow the water vapour and temperature profile retrieval. located far from anthropogenic sources. ISAC-CNR and ENEA. Silva. Corr. For the Ozone retrieval the spectral interval 320-360nm is chosen. Mukai. Finally. The results are consistent with the real conditions. Infrared radiances inversion allows the water vapour content retrieval and a correlation between measured AODs. S. is a reason why the extraction of aerosols over land is very difficult compared to that over ocean. this is done using a Look-Up Table (LUT) obtained with the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer code considering a wide series of possible scenarios. specifically projected to host them.

I.The value of AOT also was larger in the coastal areas with industry than those without industry. it is difficult to relate SPM data directly to the column AOT. D. of Evora (Portugal). between the western suburbs of the capital and the urban centres of Ostia and Torvaianica. Mukai. Ravegnani.” Atmos. Sano. A. National Research and Development Institute for Environmental Protection (Romania). The analysis of many cases showed that the minimum AOT value over sea appeared at noon during a day and its reason could be found in weather data. air pollutants are potentially related the emission and transportation of aerosols. Belegante. the amount of profile information that can be retrieved from ground based MAX-DOAS measurements during September-November 2006 is investigated for NO2 and O3. Kinki accurate simulation of the radiative transfer in the atmosphere for AMF calculations concerning target trace gases. Slant column density MAX-DOAS measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) have been carried out in the Presidential Estate at Castel Porziano (41. In this study. Japan.the application of sophisticated inversion schemes to derive the vertical profiles of the trace gases under interest using the Air Mass Factor (AMF) matrix as the kernel of the inversion algorithm. The retrieval of information on the vertical distribution of trace gases from the measured slant column densities requires: . I. Palazzi. of Information Science and Technology (China). (2006). Politehnica Univ. G. The aerosol properties of urban atmospheric particles have been analyzed for radiometry data obtained using a multi-spectral photometer located at a NASA/ AERONET station at Kinki University Campus. TX and Mexico City. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy). the main advantage of this kind of measurements is given by the opportunity to retrieve the vertical profile of a trace gas with a good time resolution through the combination of observations at different lines of sight. Mukai. Higashi-Osaka. X. Furthermore. The calculated Ångstrom wavelength exponent showed that the radius of aerosol particles was small in the coastal areas and large in the central area of the East China Sea. in order to obtain the precise relationship between the surface-level SPM and satellite-derived AOT. Rome E. D. [1] S. In contrast to ground based observations of zenith-scattered sun • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . In other words. Z. This model participated in the recent past to a comparison exercise of radiative transfer models of various international research groups obtaining good results for the simulation of the multiaxis viewing geometries. Moreover. Therefore.2007 .org/esd • spieeurope@spieeurope. Our results suggest the presence of a strong correlation between the AOT (Aerosol Optical Thickness) and SPM. The PROMSAR (PROcessing of Multi-Scattered Atmospheric Radiation) model has been used to simulate the radiation transfer in the atmosphere and to calculate AMFs.1016/j. Ionel. S. Poster Session Evaluation of air quality from space S.2006. The suspended particulate matter (SPM) has been simultaneously measured at the same AERONET site since 2004. Giovanelli. 6745-72. AOT was closely related to the development of pollution source zone and wind transportation.atmosres. D. 6745-69. F. Res.020] 6745-71. Bortoli. Zisu. MILAGRO (Houston. combining radiometric aerosol information with surface-level particulate mass data appears to be a promising approach for gaining a better understanding of air quality and the atmospheric environment. Poster Session Air pollution monitoring using the open path technique • spie. Timisoara (Romania). and B. Moreover. 12. N. 6745-70. of Tokyo (Japan) It is well known that the increasing emissions of anthropogenic aerosols associated with continuing economic growth in Asia has caused serious air pollution. Poster Session Measurement and analysis of aerosol optical thickness over the East China Sea X. with MAX-DOAS ground based measurements one can observe scattered sun light from a variety of viewing directions simultaneously. M. N. Hao. AMF is used first to convert slant column densities into vertical column densities and then it is applied to the inversion algorithm. Pan. Poster Session Multiple axis DOAS measurements for the retrieval of NO2 and O3 vertical profiles in the Presidential Estate of Caste Porziano. Combining the slant column measurements performed from sunset to sunrise at different elevation angles we obtained the time evolution of the trace gas profile during the day.Conference 6745: Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere measurements of aerosol optical properties in the UV are presented. and more detailed SPM measurements is investigated in this work. Whereas traditional zenith DOAS instruments are mostly sensitive to trace gases located in the stratosphere.. D. He. Petritoli. [doi:10. Nanjing Univ. Sun.2006 to February 11. Z. the higher sensitivity of MAX-DOAS to tropospheric trace gases is due to the enhanced optical paths through the lower atmosphere. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy) and Geophysics Ctr.5 nm optical resolution \@ 430 nm) connected by means of an optical fibre to a small telescope with both azimuthal and zenithal movements. Nicolae. and AOT was correlated to water vapor. State Oceanic Administration (China). Nanjing Univ. Holben. National Institute of Research & Development for Optoelectronics (Romania) The open-path technique is a widely use method for air pollution monitoring. Deng. I. Mukai. “Aerosol properties and air pollutants over an urban area. Long-term simultaneous monitoring of aerosols and SPM has revealed the characteristics and seasonal variations of the atmospheric particles over the urban city of HigashiOsaka. since 2002. State Oceanic Administration (China).and the type and source of the aerosol particle over the East China Sea . the latest results measured by a new instrument of PM1 set up in January 2007 will provide us with the meaningful information because the smaller particles have the stronger influence on the human health. single scattering albedo and wavelength averaged asymmetry parameter studied at using a UV 7 channel rotating shadowband radiometer. The Univ. I. Nanjing Univ. an aerosol transport-radiation model should be derived to estimate the factors that affect this relationship. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy) In this work we present a methodology for the retrieval of the vertical distribution of atmospheric gas pollutants from ground based multiple axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS). resp) We report aerosol optical depths. The instrument features a UV/Visible spectrometer (operating in the range 250-800 nm with a 0. K. However. . We also make as first atempt at correlating the UV aerosol optical properties with its chemical composition . of Information Science and Technology (China).4012 E) during the period September-November 2006. of Information Science and Technology (China) Shipboard hand-held sun photometers measurements which were collected over the East China Sea from December 15.02. The nonlinear iterative inversion method based on the weighted Chahine algorithm was used to perform the retrieval of NO2 and O3 vertical profiles. (Japan). Castel Porziano Estate is a natural reserve which covers 62 km2 lying some 20 km from the centre of Rome. Factors such as the vertical distribution of aerosol mass concentration reflecting the boundary layer dynamics. which highlights the possibility that the SPM concentration can be estimated from the AOT.were used to discuss the temporal and spacial distributions of AOT. M. It can provide the basic data for marine regional climate and remote sensing. National Institute of Research & Development for Optoelectronics (Romania). and vice versa [1]. Sano. Masieri. because SPM data approximately represent the mass concentration of atmospheric particles at the surface. Satoh. Kostadinov. being capable of detecting trace gases down to 98 spie. These measurements were part of large campaigns TEXAQS. The results of this study suggest that AOT was normally large in the coastal areas and became small gradually with the distance away from the coastal areas.7445 N.

ceilometer measurements are also compared with measurements taken with a Lidar during an intensive campaign that took place at the CGE observatory in Évora. Poster Session Satellite estimated cloud radiative forcing in the presence of aerosol events over the south of Portugal D.) such as forest fires and desert dust transports originating from the Sahara desert. Univ. two kinds of comparative measurements by DOAS and in situ detectors (using the point monitoring technique). They can be caused as sharp atmospheric processes of spontaneous catastrophic character. optical thickness. Bortoli. through the modification of cloud microphysical properties. namely the type. The TEOM measures the in situ mass concentration of aerosols (particle mass per unit air volume) near the ground. Statistical analysis of the PM10 concentration for both sites show clear seasonal cycle with maxima in the winter. Univ. Bortoli. and the degree of communication of the revealed structures is felling. aerosol’s properties needed to estimate the magnitude and sign of direct aerosol radiative forcing. For aerosol scale height we used 1km in winter and 2 km in the summer to calculate the optical depth of the boundary layer. F. D. Univ. in high polluted areas from Bucharest and the surroundings. Stepanov Institute of Physics (Belarus) Now the short-term forecast of the meteorological situation is actual. The aerosol backscatter coefficient integrated in the lowest layers of the atmosphere is also correlated with data obtained from a TEOM (Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance) installed in the same place (CGE observatory). Stefan.l. their transformation at change of the meteorological situation [3]. L. It opens opportunities to use a method of optical anomalies detection [4] which occurrence is caused powerful local infringements of the atmosphere thermodynamic stability. When the cloud properties are achieved. Univ. The alterations that clouds undertake due to aerosols may have strong implications on their interaction with solar and terrestrial radiation. Polkanov. with temporal sampling of 10min. has allowed to reveal new opportunities of the complex form signal analysis reflecting processes of self-organizing in a terrestrial atmosphere. Univ. are presented and analyzed. M. not connected with of the daily meteorological situation. quantum spectroscopy. Talianu. L. Univ. which in the absence of clouds gives a good approximation of the aerosol boundary layer profile The enhanced single lens optics applied in the CL31 ceilometer ensures excellent performance also at low altitudes. S. Such approach can be named the structural analysis of statistically generalized signal. Costa. reporting resolution of 5 m and programmable measurement cycle (from 2 to 120 s). 7°54' W. This study is intended to mark out main environmental conditions (e. • spie. urban and rural from Romania have been used to estimate the aerosol direct radiative forcing. The aim of this work is to estimate the cloud radiative forcing in the presence of desert dust and forest fire aerosol events. Aerosol particles affect the Earth-Atmosphere energy budget directly through their interaction with solar radiation and indirectly.I. during the first half of June 2006. J.2 for the urban site and 0. several strengths and weaknesses of the open path technique will be evidentiated. D. Silva. are derived from the inversion of satellite radiation measurements in the visible and near infrared spectral regions. Using OPAC (Optical Properties of Aerosols and Cloud) model we determined the single scattering albedo. Using this technique. Poster Session Lidar measurements for the short-term forecast of meteorological stability J.06 for the rural site for all wavelengths. Alados-Arboledas. de Évora (Portugal). a radar-location. In this paper. V. Univ. with aerodynamic diameter lower than 10µm (PM-10). which is sufficient in some situations. National Institute of Research & Development for Optoelectronics (Romania). de Évora (Portugal) and Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (Italy).s. transfer model. therefore play a significant role on the Earth’s radiation budget. during summer. It has a measurement range from 0 to 7. Consideration of various methods of processing of the received information. It is offered to predict reduction of the meteorological situation stability. T. C. de Évora (Portugal) and Consultant (Portugal). In result it was possible to reveal steady enough and regular turbulent structures in conditions concerning a steady atmosphere of a ground layer. in connection with the tendency of growth of its sharp not predicted changes. Silva. in the area of Portugal. effective radius and top temperature. These measurements are important in the way that they can complement radiative transfer calculations to derive aerosol and cloud properties from satellite data. T. by averaging on a long optical path (hundreds of meters). Univ. J. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 99 . de Évora (Portugal) and Consultant (Portugal). which often occur in the south of Portugal. topography) responsible for important differences that appear between experimental data acquired with the two techniques. J. and technogenic collapse by accidents outside of a zone of measurements when vital need to become spie. de Évora (Portugal) and Consultant (Portugal) The study of cloud properties is central to understand climate. V. Costa. Poster Session Influence of urban aerosol pollution to radiative forcing A. Only point monitoring is a standardized technique and therefore by comparing the two • spieeurope@spieeurope. they are then used in combination with a radiative 6745-77. 6745-73. The analysis of the possible alterations undertaken by the clouds through their interaction with aerosols is done for selected episodes of strong desert dust transports and forest fire episodes that occurred in the Continental Portugal area and nearby Atlantic Ocean. de Granada (Spain) A VAISALA Ceilometer CL31 is operating continuously in the Observatory of the Évora Geophysics Centre (CGE) since May 2006. L. Efficiency of such approach was checked by the example of processing results of laser sounding an atmosphere [1] and numerical modelling [2]. S. B. the DOAS system can measure simultaneously several types of atmospheric molecular compounds having UV absorption spectra. de Évora (Portugal). Nemuc. din Bucuresti (Romania) Daily PM10 concentrations of samples collected at two sites. As a consequence of urban atmospheric pollution the radiative forcing for urban site appears strongly modified in comparison with rural site 6745-74. operating at 910 nm. M. A. as more inertial process. Wagner. providing the aerosol vertical distribution in the boundary layer. 6745-75. used in meteorology. 300m a. Costa. de Évora (Portugal) and Consultant (Portugal). especially in spring and summer. being for that reason the cloud radiative forcing an important issue for atmospheric and climate study purposes. to estimate the radiation fluxes and the cloud radiative forcing. The ceilometer measurements are used here to study special aerosol events that reach Évora (38°34' N.m. Univ.Conference 6745: Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere ppb concentrations. The kind of these structures became complicated with reduction of thermodynamic stability of an atmosphere. Clouds scatter and absorb solar radiation and emit and absorb thermal radiation. Santos. The CL31 ceilometer provides measurements of the cloud base height up to three simultaneous layers and of the profile of the backscatter coefficients. The surface albedo was assumed 0. M. The cloud properties. A. Poster Session Analysis of measurements taken by a ceilometer installed in southern Portugal M. on anticipatory change of the revealed structure character optical uniformities a ground layer concerning a steady atmosphere. atmospheric fluctuations.g. Portugal is situated on the pathway of the desert dust plumes advected from Sahara desert and. Pereira.5 km. forest fire smokes are extensively produced mainly in the central mountainous regions of Portugal and transported across the mainland. The cloud and aerosol local vertical distributions are obtained from measurements taken in Évora using a Vaisala CL31 LIDAR ceilometer. the aerosol optical depth and aerosol up-scatter fraction.

2005 the REFIR-PAD (Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed . D. It should be noted that despite the operating spectral range extending to the far-infrared region. as data bank TIGR (Thermodynamic Initial Guess Retrieval) that is used for this study. 08. U. pp. vol. Meteorologia i • spie.32. Cortesi. Besides the characterization of temperature and water vapour. p. http://cat. and aerosol abundances) until the calculated ground irradiance matches the in-field measurements and the estimated ground spectral reflectance map is free from the related spectral signatures.90. 6745-32. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . including the well characterized atmospheric window region. from a stratospheric balloon launched in tropical region. V. Marcoionni. Session 4 Influence of atmospheric profiles variations on airborne infrared limb observations C. the MODTRAN 4 code is executed several times with different atmospheric parameters (H2O. project22145. C. Sei. aerosols. focusing on the far infrared portion of the atmospheric emitted radiance. CO. Generally. CO2. Lavigne. pressure. 6-11. balloon. 1991.88. and aerosol B. rocket or satellite experiments.5 µm spectral range with 768 bands and a resolution of 2. The comparison with ECMWF for validation is also shown. Carli. thanks to the use of room temperature pyroelectric detectors and an optical scheme that compensates for the instrument selfemission. The retrieval of the vertical profiles of water vapour and temperature during the flight is presented. 39-48. Barducci. Iu. The nadir emitted radiance has been measured down to 100 cm-1. 01. The performance of an electro-optical sensor is affected by the atmospheric attenuation of the sourcetarget radiation . A possibility for the analysis of the periodic structure of a complex signal. cloud droplets or ice crystals is one of the major problems studied in the field of remote sensing and atmospheric propagation. This radiance variability is related to the water content and temperature modifications. Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara (Italy) On June 30th. The sensitivity of radiance and transmission to the climatic conditions is tested. The literature: [1] Method of detection of the optical atmospheric inhomogeneities structure.. and up to 1400 cm-1. But to study the characteristics of an optical sensor. The default atmospheric profiles available in that code have been firstly refined through at-ground level measurements of some parameters. Chervet. Session 4 An atmospheric correction iterative method for very high resolution aerospace imaging spectrometers A.4 . April 1989.2. in which it is possible to perform comparison and intercalibration with operative instruments. publ. To obtain spectral surface reflectance maps from the at-sensor radiance images. This is really true if accurate radiometric calibrations of the sensor are performed and atmospheric effects on the acquired data are carefully accounted for. P. The sensor has been operating in the 0. The vertical resolution of the retrieval is 2 km in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. Patent USSR &#8470. thus covering a spectral interval that.4 . 6745-31. 6745-33. Iu. To analyze this extension. an iterative estimation algorithm has been developed using the MODTRAN 4 radiative transfer code. humidity. Session 4 Characterization of tropical atmosphere through wide-band emission spectra acquired by a balloon-borne uncooled FTS spectroradiometer G.07. This work shows the results of the analysis of the spectra.09. Pippi. For a nonhomogeneous Lambertian surface in a plane parallel atmosphere. which relates the surface albedo to the top of the atmosphere radiance. Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara (Italy) Nowadays increasing the radiometric accuracy and spectral resolution of the new aerospace optical imagers for Earth observation could allow a better characterization of the environment.. Bianchini. Priborostroenie (ISSN 0021-3454). Then the 6S algorithm extension is compared to the exact formula and approximations and their validity are ?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=5237241 [4] Method of definition of the optical heterogeneity position in atmosphere.Prototype for Application and Development) Fourier transform spectroradiometer performed the first wideband spectral characterization of the top-of-atmosphere emitted radiation in the far-infrared with an uncooled instrument. The measurements were performed at an altitude of 34 km. TIGR water vapor and temperature profiles have been compared to satellite measurements provided by MLS instrument in order to apreciate their relevance. A Matching between a change in the structure of atmospheric optical inhomogeneities and a set of meteorological parameters.inist. O3. The goal of this study is to evaluate and quantify atmospheric component variations that influence radiance and transmittance for airborne limb viewing observations.. Malherbe. In particular. [2] Polkanov. Kudinov. this presentation derives the rigorous formula of the top of the atmosphere signal in a plane parallel atmosphere bounded by a non-homogeneous Lambertian surface.. G01W1/00 from 05.5 cm-1.shtml solar irradiance. on the introduction of the Green’s function of the problem and on integrations of boundary values of the radiation fields with the Green’s function..5. L. O3. radiance variations are analyzed according to the variations of temperature and of the different atmospheric molecules. an improved atmospheric correction procedure have to be implemented.harvard.. Northrop Grumman Space Technology (USA) The classical Chandrasekhar’s formula. rigorously applies to a homogeneous Lambertian surface. The derivation of the exact formula is based on the separation of the radiation fields into direct and diffuse components. until now. near Teresina (Brazil). Based on the availability of data acquired at so high spectral resolution to allow the detection of different spectral features of many atmospheric constituents. In practice. and lower at higher altitudes. CO2. and 6745-34. A. http://www. publ. REFIR-PAD does not require any cooled components. Moskva (ISSN 0130-2906). was nearly unexplored. To test and validate the method the at-sensor radiance images acquired on 15th December 2005 during a coastal zone remote sensing campaign by the new airborne sensor HYPER / SIMGA have been utilized. Patent USSR &#8470.86.inno. ONERA (France) Interaction of light with atmospheric particles such as molecules. Guzzi. http:// adsabs. Such data can be gathered in a climatological library. one is not only interested in the synthetic radiance for a single profile but rather in the sensitivity of radiances to changes in the profile. G01W1/00 from 01. 32.Conference 6745: Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere an opportunity to predict a trajectory of movement of such process on the basis of similar predictors. CO. from the analysis of the emitted radiance useful information can be gathered about cloud and aerosol contribution to radiation budget. like temperature.88. 100 spie.06.6P [3] Polkanov. The acquired spectra have a spectral resolution of 0. 1597816. mean atmospheric profiles are used to compute radiative transfer. Then an iterative procedure has been started tuning H2O.4 nm. I. First results are presented and discussed taking into account the feasibility of avoiding in-field measurements. Palchetti. P. 1448907.06. Temperature. an extension of this formula was proposed in the eighties and has been implemented recently in the 6S algorithm. pressure and density profiles have been generally obtained by use of ground lidar and radar. and by the atmospheric radiation that is part of the background/foreground radiation observed by the • spieeurope@spieeurope. Session 4 Extension of Chandrasekhar’s formula to a nonhomogeneous Lambertian surface and comparison with the 6S formulation A.

the well known circular basis and the vectorial discrete ordinates method (VDOM). In the millimeter and submillimeter wave region the absorption effect is reduced for ice particle clouds and the scattering effect becomes important only for the larger particles composing the cloud. Michau. The effect of the clouds depends on particle phase.Conference 6745: Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere 6745-35. Gai. Session 5 Anisotropic refractive index fluctuations spectrum in the stratosphere sensed from balloon-borne observations of stellar scintillation C. S. Cecchi-Pestellini. The main difficulty of analytical solution of RTE. The first has been computed in our previous papers using the vectorial small angle modification of spherical harmonics method (VMSH) based on the consideration of the smoothness of the spatial spectrum of the Stokes vector (SV) distribution within the slab. Budak. ocean) illuminated by a plain unidirectional source of light with an arbitrary angle of irradiance and polarization degree. 6745-37. High sensitivity of the scattering effects to the properties of particles imposes very high requirements on the new method developed for solution of the transfer equation. P. B. Because of this. we considered a 3D volume for aggregation of particles with an arbitrary scattering function. This problem was solved by means of the matrix generalized Legendre polynomials (GLP) of the desired SV and scattering matrix expansions. B. however. This classical problem is shown to be amenable to closed form error analysis when 1D adjacency correction schemes are used. Bianchini. G-functions forms the class of functions belonging in the finite functional G-space. J. The effect of anisotropy leads to significant scintillation rates when a source is observed with a horizontal line of sight. (Russia) In these paper we continue to develop our new method of solution of the vectorial radiative transfer equation (VRTE) boundary problem in the case of a strongly anisotropic scattering slab (clouds. to validate the model of scintillation developed herein and to obtain refined values of its parameters. which implies that the infinite system of spherical functions is replaced by a finite orthogonal basis of G-functions satisfying the complexity conditions. Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari (Italy). B. We find that in most cases an atmospheric continuum model is sufficient to describe the radiative transfer in cloud. We have compared our calculations with the standard VDOM. Session 4 Retrieval of minor constituents in a cloudy atmosphere with remote sensing millimeter wave measurements S. B. 6745-39. This allows deductions for the behavior of the error as a function of wavelength and optical thickness. a model that takes into account the scattering contribution is needed. Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara (Italy) We know very little about the atmospheric chemistry in presence of clouds. Carli. C. The efficiency of the proposed method lies in our way of calculation of the diffuse light field within the slab. Del Bianco. Session 4 Exact analytical solution of 3D radiative transfer equation in problem of remote sensing A. Northrop Grumman Space Technology (USA) An analysis of one dimensional adjacency effects is presented. till now the solution of such problems were based on the numerical methods. M. This effect is particularly noticeable when the sight line plunges into the spie. F. as a rule. Robert. This together with quite simple matrix exponent expression for the VMSH determines the calculation efficiency of proposed method. is taking into account the infinitely large number of spherical functions. Session 4 Analysis of adjacency effects for two Lambertian half-spaces A. 6745-36. Dalaudier. a good approximation is provided by their number equal or larger than 400. the solution should involve the whole information contained in real phase • spieeurope@spieeurope. namely. in a few cases. much attention is being given to the development of methods based on the use of analytical solution of RTE. As object of investigation. by contrast. The new method developed by author and presented in this work is in free of the indicated drawbacks. L. the method of spherical harmonics leads to significant lasses of the information at small scattering angles. as is known. For atmospheric aerosol. on radius and on numerical density of the particles composing the cloud. Astronomical observations consisting in stellar scintillation made from balloon-borne spectrometer AMON-RA allow us to remotely probe statistical characteristics in the stratosphere. Gavrilovich. We present an analytical model of scintillation based on a 3-D model of anisotropic and isotropic refractive index fluctuations spectrum that predicts scintillation rates inside the Rytov regime. the Monte-Carlo simulation. Stepanov Institute of Physics (Belarus) The urgent problems of photometry in remote sensing of atmosphere call a necessity of fundamental investigations directed to improvement of analytical methods solution of radiative transfer equation (RTE) for real scattering phase function. National de la Recherche Scientifique (France) Scintillation effects caused by the fluctuations of the refractive index of air are not negligible in the stratosphere. On account of the smoothness of the regular non-small angle part it needs not too much expansion GLP terms to be calculated. V. Typical lengthscales of the adjacency effects are deduced and the range and magnitude of the error are also given in closed form. 6745-38. V. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy).org/ers • spie. Dinelli. The cloud effects on the radiative transfer are to increase the atmospheric optical depth and to introduce the scattering source function contributes. Ctr. This model uses a multi-layer decomposition of the turbulence profile. Renard. M. C. We retrieve metric values of the inner scale that are compatible with space-based measurements. at present. The exact solutions of RTE for intensity of scattered light by clouds are present in form of a finite series in the G-function space. The method of small-angle approximation. We assume the complete VRTE solution to be the superposition of two parts: the most anisotropic small-angle part and smooth non-small angle regular part. We find a major contribution of the anisotropic spectrum relatively to the isotropic contribution. Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara (Italy). It is very difficult to mathematically describe the interaction of light with such a system when it is necessary to take into account the multiple scattering in 3D medium. Recent experiments highlight the composite nature of optical turbulence in the stratosphere. Santurri. that will be specified. the single scattering approximation and the scalar methods for the total intensity. However. for example. The known analytical approximations are very idealized and. The numerical data obtained by approximate methods hampers to the analysis of the real geometrical and physical factors determining properties of scattered radiation.I. because optical path through the cloud itself prevents remote sensing observations. A theoretical retrieval analysis is made to assess conditions in which retrieval is • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 101 . Robert. Conan. Korkin. this is required in the most important problems of optical diagnostics of clouds in real atmosphere. In particular the error made when surface reflectance is retrieved using an infinite target assumption is given in closed form. Session 4 Analytical determination of the atmospherescattered radiation polarization degree for the sake of polarized remote sensing V. J. We have realized a new of solution of 3D radiative transfer equation. The VMSH as the source function allows us to formulate the VRTE boundary problem for non-small angle part only. do not provide the obtaining of physical right results. G. Data reduction from these observations brings out values of the inner scale of the anisotropic spectrum. Moscow Power Engineering Institute Technical Univ. For example. ignores the very informative region of large scattering angles. which is considered to be incurable. The problem of light scattering function by an aggregation of particles is one of the most complex problems of atmosphere optics. Because of multiparametricity and complexity of interaction of light with particles. ONERA (France). Sei. The millimeter and sub-millimeter wave region can be used to study the atmospheric chemistry in the presence of clouds.

(USA). J. the correlated-k algorithm in SAMM-2 accounts for NLTE atmospheric conditions.6 and 2.e. Session 5 Contributions of the OH airglow to space object irradiance J. Spectral Sciences. and analysis tools for the study of upper atmospheric and ionospheric response to solar-geomagnetic disturbances. The delta n= 1 emissions extend into the thermal infrared to 4. NASA Langley Research Ctr. valid under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) at high altitudes (50 km). 102 spie. respectively.6 and 2. Russell III. Enhancements in nighttime 4.3 um limb emission measurements by (1) removing the background contribution from CO2 infrared emission. M. G. W. especially on a global scale. We investigate the possible cause of this interannual variation by relating it to the interannual variation of the SABER-derived atmospheric temperature/pressure profiles and by comparing to correlative data and model output. (USA). 4.3 um limb emission measurements to quantify the E-region response to solar-geomagnetic storms.0 micrometer: global behavior and interannual variability J. transmission and structure output to the SAMM-2 QBL algorithm. (USA). We have initiated a study to use nighttime SABER 4.3 um volume emission rates (VER). R. Duff.000 cm-1) wavelength region is provided for arbitrary lineof-sight (LOS) in the 0-300 km altitude regime. Since correlated-k algorithms provide a monochromatic treatment of radiation transport phenomena. k algorithm will be included as an addition radiation transport option in a future release of SAMM-2. the near-infrared (NIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral region. and there is currently no storm-time correction to IRI parameters in the Eregion. for the period 2002-2006. SAMM2 was utilized to compute spectra and line of sight radiances. (USA).82 SAMM-2 QBL method. known as Meinel emissions. (USA). Emissions with n= 3.Conference 6745: Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere atmosphere. and (2) by performing a standard Abel inversion on the residual radiance. as well as local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) at lower altitudes ( 50 km). H. with the objective of developing an empirical E-region storm-time correction to the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. followed by emission at • spieeurope@spieeurope. Taylor. multiple scattering. The NO+(v) VER is derived from SABER 4. Using this as a foundation. 6745-42. MODTRAN uses band model parameters to approximate molecular response within a spectral interval while the SAMM-2 correlated-k algorithm processes molecular lines at runtime by reading line center information from the HITRAN 200 database and computing statistical cumulative probability distributions within a spectral interval under the presumption of a Voigt line shape profile. However. we considered four band passes. since NO+ is the terminal E-region ion.3 um. The strong emissions. We will discuss the atmospheric background capabilities of this algorithm and illustrate its effectiveness by comparing radiance. In this work. J. R. Hampton Univ. P. Mertens. (USA) Observations of thermospheric infrared emission from the TIMED/SABER instrument have fostered development of new data products. In addition. (USA) This talk describes the development of a new radiation transport algorithm included in the latest version of the all-altitude AFRL background radiance code. NO+(v) VER enhancements during solar-geomagnetic storms are indicative of the response of the electron density to solar-geomagnetic forcing. L. Duff. (USA) We investigated the contributions of the hydroxyl (OH) airglow to the illumination of resident space objects. SAMM-2.7 microns. Unlike the MODTRAN correlated-k model. Azeem. The radicals are formed in vibrational states up to n=9 by the reaction of hydrogen atoms with ozone. M. Since the E-region is largely inaccessible to observation. Bernstein. 6745-43. From 1. Winick. and a broad band pass around 2. Profiles of irradiance versus orientation were calculated. Spectral Sciences. The dominant contributors to the airglow are vibrationally excited hydroxyl radicals. Air Force Research Lab.. Picard. a novel 1 cm-1 resolution correlatedk algorithm has been developed which provides an orders-ofmagnitude increase in computational efficiency when compared to the version 1. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ. An important benefit of our approach is that the empirical storm model is largely independent of NO+ or electron density profile shapes. The behavior of the peak altitude of the derived volume emission rate and the intensity at the peak is remarkably consistent from year to year. Utah State Univ. 6745-41. The IRI model is a widely used empirical model for the specification of ionospheric parameters and is recommended for international use by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI). M. Air Force Research Lab. R. Comprehensive coverage of the 0. Molecular emissions. (USA). The OH airglow will illuminate a facet even if it is pointing somewhat upward.3 um emission during storm periods are due to vibrational excitation of NO+ (i. SABER measurements provide a suitable dataset from which to develop an empirical E-region storm model. the airglow is the largest contributor to the sky brightness in the visible (vis). J. Session 5 A new model for calculating infrared background radiance at all altitudes including atmospheric clutter and clouds J. by charge neutrality.4 to 40 µm (250 to 25. (USA). H. P.5 microns there are very strong emissions from the delta n= 2 sequences. and independent of chemistry. are sequences with delta n= 1-6.001 cm-1) quasi line-by-line (QBL) radiation transport algorithm and the capability to simulate stochastic structure. the specification of the ionospheric response to solar-geomagnetic disturbances in IRI remains largely incomplete. The observation-based proxy used to develop the storm model is SABER-derived NO+(v) 4. leading to strong scintillation as well as coupled chromatic refraction effects. this model is useful for treating any atmospheric phenomena requiring a Beer’s Law (spectrally monochromatic) treatment of the atmospheric transmission and/or radiance (such as multiple scattering or atmospheric structure).0 micrometer and OH-B near 1.6 micrometer. During nighttime. the irradiance in the 2. OH(n). NO+(v)). However. two SABER band passes centered at 1. J. This new correlated- 6745-44. Brown. kinetics. Mlynczak. This makes clear the presence of gravity waves in the stratosphere. are calculated. OH-A near 2.0 microns. in a moonless sky. Session 5 Empirical storm-time correction to the international reference ionosphere model Eregion electron and ion density parameterizations using observations from TIMED/SABER C. caused by auroral electron dosing and subsequent ion-neutral chemical reactions. 5 and 6 occur in the visible and NIR between . etc.5 µm. W.0 to 2. We used line of sight (LOS) radiances to compute the irradiance on a space object that was taken as a flat plate with a Lambertian surface reflectance. The focus of this paper is on analyzing SABER 4. Inc.7 micron band pass comes almost entirely from the atmosphere in the low altitude and the earth emission. J. All magnetically disturbed periods contained in the SABER database from 2002-2006 will be used to develop the storm model parameterization. D. Brown. Wintersteiner.0 microns. Air Force Research Lab. or spectroscopic parameters. which includes MSISE-90/ NRLMSISE-00 and the NRL climatology • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 .3 um limb emission measurements to develop an E-region stormtime correction to IRI. aerosols.4 and 1. Atmospheric climatology is provided by the SHARC/SAMM Atmospheric Generator (SAG2). S. Tidal influence is clearly present at low and mid-latitudes. Panfili. models. ARCON Corp. SAMM-2 combines the high-altitude (50 km and above) capabilities of SHARC with the low-altitude (50 km and below) capabilities of MODTRAN into a unified code which retains the capabilities of the older codes (clouds. However at northern high latitudes in the January-March period. Inc. Gruninger. H. Session 5 TIMED/SABER limb measurements of OH Meinel emission at 1. distinct differences in the peak height and intensity are observed between 2004 and 2005. which is an LTE treatment of the problem. H. • spie. NASA Langley Research Ctr. Esplin. (USA) We examine the global latitude and local-time behavior of the OH Meinel emission measured by the SABER limb-scanning radiometer on the TIMED spacecraft in the two SABER near-IR OH-Meinel bands. I.) and adds a high-resolution (0. a visNIR band pass. J.

The comparison of these indices to real in use measurements is a task to develop realistic emission inventory of airports. and with repetition frequency equal to 10 Hz and laser pulse duration equal to 5 ns for the fundamental harmonic and 4 ns for the second and the third. Session 6 Mexico City airport air quality study by remote sensing with passive FTIR K. Richetta. The limitations and of the systems will be discussed. Gaudio. L. KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (Hungary) Airport air quality is influenced by traffic mainly. This is probably due to the relevant of widespread local aerosol sources. N. A. We developed a compact mobile lidar system based on Nd:Yag Q-Switched laser source operating at three wavelengths: . (Italy). Session 6 Budapest airport air quality long-term studies by remote sensing with DOAS and FTIR with focus upon runway emissions K. mathematical modeling and back trajectories as well. Chaikovsky.c. CRATI s. Martellucci. S.r. Nevertheless. C. Groma. degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy) and Consultant (Italy) In order to evaluate the tropospheric aerosol dynamic over Naples under Saharan dust outbreaks conditions a detailed analysis of lidar measurements performed between May 2000 and August 2003 in the frame of the EARLINET project have been carried out. M. G. X. Pisani. Flores-Jardines. N.r. Wang. since our aim was to validate and so to carry out experimental measurements as soon as possible. Institute of Geophysics (Poland). Univ. autumn). the extinction to backscattering ratio. This system has been tested with the experimental measurements of the smoke backscattering coefficients carried out in an ad hoc cell (length 8.I. Near runway the aircrafts are the main source. Climatological analysis on sand plume has been done. Univ. It is used for the localisation of the hot source that additionally suggests the best measurement position is the SIGIS-HR. 6745-49. S. C. M. 6745-46. Univ. NO) within the plume of aircraft turbines at Mexico City airport. NO) within the aircraft engine plumes will be shown. Schürmann. Jahn. De Leo. • • spie. G. Session 6 Evolution study of smoke backscattering coefficients in a cell by means of a compact mobile Nd:Yag lidar system C. Stepanov Institute of Physics and Institute of Geophysics PAS with cooperation with environmental services in the period of increased air pollution probability (spring. with a comparison between normal and dust conditions. Torok. P. These emission indices are compared with those listed for each engine in a data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) for four different thrust levels (Idle. Univ. Remote sensing observations were supported by ground measurements based networks of instruments operated by local environmental services. industrial activities. Moreover an increase of extinction-to-backscatter ratio is observed in free troposphere as a function of the altitude as a consequence of gravitational settling. V. T. Pietruczuk. Bellecci. These results have been used to develop a computational model for simulating the smoke evolution within the cell. Schäfer. The quantification of these emission sources requires remote sensing methods because the airport operations should not be disturbed. Open questions and required further developments will be discussed. Spinelli. Hoffmann. During a measurement campaign these findings were compared with aircraft taxi emissions. Matuse. Ipe. Since the spatial resolution of our laser pulse is smaller than cell length it has been possible to evaluate the evolution of the smoke backscattering coefficients into cell itself. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). spie. L. Univ. Results in terms of backscattering and extinction coefficient as well as of integrated quantities show that from the ground level up to 2 Km the aerosol load during Saharan dust transport events is almost the same of normal conditions. Lo Feudo. In a number of cases the level of air pollution by smoke exceeds sanitary norms in Central and Western Belarus and Poland. Ukraine and Belarus.Conference 6745: Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere 6745-45. This work was financially supported by the European Commission under grant RICA-025991. The results of the investigations of the temperature and gas concentrations (CO. 6745-47. degli Studi di Roma/Tor Vergata (Italy). As it is well known. smoke contains a large number of small particles of ash or soot. degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy) and Consultant (Italy). Gelfusa. 6745-48. Armenante. Trajectories analysis shows that air 6745-50. degli Studi di Roma/Tor Vergata (Italy). CRATI s. Session 6 Properties of fire smoke in east Europe measured by remote sensing methods A.c. such as vehicular traffic. Aircraft emission indices of CO. Schäfer. (Italy). The concentration measurements of CO2 which are necessary to calculate emission indices are provided by open-path FTIR spectrometry. Products of combustion are transported on long range distances. DOAS is used in open-path mode to detect continuously NO2 cross the runway during more than 6 months. the lidar ratio. Information on the processes of smoke transportation with increasing number of fire seats in the East European region appears extremely important for environmental institutions to estimate ecological situation. cruise and take-off). approach. Session 6 Atmospheric aerosol characterization during Saharan dust outbreaks at Napoli EARLINET station G. degli Studi di Roma/Tor Vergata (Italy) Detection of smoke from forest fire was one of the first practical applications of lidar. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Italy).60 m).org • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 103 .I. B. Bertrand. Casanova. Jahn. E. M. P. etc. Gonzalez. The system integrates an infrared camera also.l. leading to a large backscattering efficiency and consequently favourable conditions for lidar application. H. Session 6 Diurnal radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols over Africa from merged GERB and SEVIRI data C. masses from Saharan regions follow two main paths from the sources to Southern Italy and the dust optical properties seem to be trajectory-dependent. Field measurements were carried out by lidar satation at Minsk and Belsk which are part of EARLINET lidar network and collocated CIMEL Sun-photometer federated in AERONET. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany) The scanning infrared gas imaging system (SIGIS-HR) and the quantitative gas analysis software MAPS (Multicomponent Air Pollution Software) are applied to investigate the spatial distribution of the temperature and gas concentrations (CO. G. when sand outbreaks occur. Monitoring of smoke plumes were performed by lidar groups from B. Measurements of smoke backscattering coefficients and simulation are shown and discussed in the paper. Frontoso. NO and NO2 were determine by using open-path FTIR spectrometry also. The obtained results of smokes characteristics was compared to satellite retrievals. P. The rough concept of the system will be presented and operational applications will be discussed. clearly shows that the aerosol type in lowest atmospheric layer changes.l. Those runway emission studies were performed for the first time. A. Subsequently we optimized the model to study the smoke evolution into the atmosphere.. Stepanov Institute of Physics (Belarus) Usually at spring and autumn seasons forest and peat-bog fires takes place at territory of western Russia. C.

S. the aerosol content of numerous sites is investigated under the scope of local pollution sources. S. Caprion. Koukouli. Ichoku. Biomass burning aerosols are first identified at the SEVIRI resolution (3 km at nadir) by applying a multispectral thresholding algorithm to the SEVIRI spectral measurements. on board the Terra and Aqua NASA satellites. E. (USA). NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. interregional transport and large scale dust and/or biomass burning events. • spie. MODIS. retrieved from the two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers. D. The MODIS AOD is further validated over a metropolis of Northern Greece using ground-based Brewer spectrophotometer measurements and co-located AOD and Aerosol Index values from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. on board the Aura satellite. National Observatory of Athens (Greece) This study describes the atmospheric aerosol load encountered over a number of sites from the Southern Balkan region with a relatively well-known air quality factor. OMI. Session 6 Hazard related to anomalous emissions of endogenous gas in the Rome region: estimation of CO2 and H2S air concentration and soil flux by TDL and accumulation chambers K. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . Amiridis. Aristotle Univ. The calculated smoke ADM is a function of aerosol optical depth. Session 6 Comparisons of satellite-derived aerosol optical depth over a variety of sites in the Southern Balkan region as an indicator of local air quality M.Conference 6745: Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere Clerbaux. Dewitte. Fachhochschule Düsseldorf (Germany) No abstract available 104 spie. The TOA SWARF for smoke aerosols is then estimated as the difference between radiative fluxes in the absence and presence of biomass burning aerosols. Finally. Local and regional pollution further influences the quality of the local air and the observed tropospheric optical depth. 6745-78. Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (Belgium) The synergy between the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) broadband radiometer and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra Red Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the European meteorological satellite Meteosat-8 is exploited to estimate the diurnal variation of the direct short wave aerosols radiative forcing (SWARF) from biomass burning over tropical Africa at sub-GERB footprint scale. Using the aerosol optical • spieeurope@spieeurope. Balis. C. Reflected SW fluxes at the topof-atmosphere for smoke aerosols are obtained by converting the measured GERB radiances at a 3x3 SEVIRI pixel window in term of flux using a theoretically derived smoke angular distribution model (ADM) based on the average scene identification from the 3x3 SEVIRI pixel box. The metropolis is situated in a unique sea-side location which inflicts it with high humidity and sea-salt particles. V. Kazadzis. 6745-51. The wide time range of six full years considered permits the discussion of possible climatological aspects as well. and is furthermore frequently affected by biomass burning and desert dust aerosols arriving from surrounding sources. of Thessaloniki (Greece). S. the calculated TOA fluxes for smoke aerosols are compared with those obtained without using a dedicated smoke ADM when performing the radiance to flux conversion to estimate the improvement in the near-real time processing of the GERB and SEVIRI data performed at the Royal meteorological Institute of Belgium due to the introduction of the smoke ADM. AOD. surface type and solar and satellite viewing geometry.

the experimental training set was increased by simulating radar backscattering through the AIEM. Models may have different • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 105 . During the 5 months lasting commissioning phase the complete processing chain will be properly tuned and adjusted. A wide range of processing options spanning from phase preserving complex products in slant range geometry to enhanced ellipsoid corrected intensity images lead to a comprehensive collection of SAR product types and variants. The definition of texture must be changed because it is not anymore characterizing the optical features but the electromagnetic properties of the illuminated targets. RADARSAT. and Techniques IX 6746-02. thresholds for calibration pulse analysis. P. which was driven with soil data taken in the range of ground measurements. since recently ploughed. in homogeneous areas and. The key element of the instrument is an active phased array antenna nominally operated with a bandwidth of 150 MHz and an experimental 300 MHz capability. Processing of the payload data will be performed at DLR’s Payload Ground Segment (PGS) for TerraSAR-X. although with some dispersion of experimental points due to the effect of surface roughness and vegetation biomass. Paloscia. Technische • spie. and correlation length).g. and some very rough. and trained by using the back-propagation (BP) learning rule. In April. Since the local measurements of soil moisture content are strongly affected by spatial variability. A preliminary test confirmed the sensitivity of the backscattering coefficient at C-band (measured in HH polarization and incidence angle of 23 degree at different dates) to the soil moisture measured on ground. whose data will be available soon from ALOS. an approach to correct SAR data for the surface roughness effects. inherited from computer vision. Since state of the art stochastic models of SAR SLC describe mainly the information in the amplitude/intensity. The content of the SAR image is characterized from its own geometry. e. height standard deviation. Hstd. some of them smooth. Breit. Also the configuration of product variants with respect to resolution and radiometric quality will be checked and refined. and ENVISAT satellites. On the basis of the present knowledge the best frequency for measuring soil moisture seems to be • spieeurope@spieeurope. which is operational on ERS-2. Modeling. The ANN inputs were the backscattering coefficient at C-band in HH polarization and 23°. The comparison between measured and simulated data showed a good agreement. Soccorsi. parameterization of estimation algorithms. soil moisture was rather uniform on the whole area and its average value increased from November to April and then decreased again in June. The first experiences with respect to product performance and quality are outlined. all fields were completely vegetated with an underlying rather smooth surface. estimation window sizes for SAR data analysis. In November most fields were bare soils. S. The training dataset was obtained from archive data collected on a completely different test site. in this case. since they were sowed with winter wheat. Bamler. The central part of PGS is the TerraSAR Multi-Mode SAR Processor (TMSP) focusing the SAR data in a unified way for the different imaging configurations. Ground measurements of soil moisture (with a TDR probe) and fresh biomass of vegetation were carried out during the ENVISAT overpasses. mainly of strong scattering scenes or objects show phase patterns. The ENVISAT/ASAR images used for this research were collected in the flat agricultural area of Alessandria in North-west Italy on November 2003. Datcu. In order to better evaluate the effects of surface roughness. Pettinato. which will be launched in April 2007. they describe multi-band. M. The results are presented on single. complex valued textures. 6746-05. the Montespertoli area in Italy during the SIRC/X-SAR project. they aim at the characterization of the spatial phase feature of SLC PolSAR data. we are going to extend it for a characterization of isolated and structured objects The proposed models are in the class of Simultaneous AutoRegressive (AR) defined on a generalized set of cliques in the pixel vicinity. Session 2 Soil moisture maps of agricultural soils from ENVISAT/ASAR images: an attempt to correct the surface roughness effects E. and generating multi-temporal soil moisture maps has been investigated. besides being time-consuming and expensive. DLR Standort Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany) High Resolution (HR) Single Look Complex (SLC) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observations. The instrument’s flexibility with respect to electronic beam steering and pulse-to-pulse polarization switching allows the acquisition of SAR data in stripmap. dual. Phase patterns may occur due to the “system” behavior or they may be “signatures” of the imaged objects. München (Germany).e. The ANN was validated using experimental data collected on a restricted sample of fields. the fields were or covered by already developed vegetation (wheat) grown on a relatively smooth surface (hstd » 1 cm). and is dominated from strong scatterers. April and June 2004. DLR Standort Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany) TerraSAR-X is a national German satellite providing a highresolution X-Band SAR instrument. Session 1 Phase characterization of PolSAR images M. P. Weather was generally cloudy and rainy in springtime and fall. In June. now studies are needed to elaborate better models for the full information content. S. Santi. R. Brogioni. i. This paper gives a short review of the different imaging configurations and product variants and presents first example images. and Techniques Tuesday 18 September 2007 Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. The mission is implemented in the framework of a public-private partnership between the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and EADS Astrium GmbH Germany and will provide high resolution SAR data products for commercial use and scientific exploitation. To cope with the problem of estimation and model order selection Bayesian inference is used. where ground measurements of soil moisture 6746-04. Modeling. new statistical models of HR SLC SAR are proposed.5-4 cm and soil moisture between 10% and 25%. Balss. The retrieval of soil moisture was obtained by using a feedforward neural network (ANN) having two hidden layers of neurons between the input and output. In this paper. DLR Standort Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). the use of microwave satellite sensors. Pampaloni. M. M. or bare smooth soils prepared for the spring seeding. but. U. 6746 SAR Image Analysis. thus capturing different spie. with their complete and frequent coverage of the Earth’s surface. Session 1 Processing of TerraSAR-X payload data: first results H. The TMSP algorithms have to be configured. Therefore.e. and quad PolSAR data. along with the surface roughness parameters (i. spotlight and ScanSAR imaging configurations in different polarization modes for a wide range of incidence angles. The retrieval of soil moisture is also achievable at C-band. S. At each date. mainly for height standard deviation values between 0 cm and 3. is extremely attractive. which differs from the real one of the illuminated scene. degrees of the data complexity. the Advanced Integral Equation Model (AIEM) was used for simulating the backscattering coefficient for different values of surface roughness and soil moisture. Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara (Italy) The availability of multi-temporal soil moisture maps is an important resource for the water management of a basin and the forecast of flood events. furthermore. Thus. and sunny and dry in summer. Nevertheless we are going to accept the classical texture definition. the effects of soil surface roughness and vegetation cover on the backscattering coefficient should be taken into account by using adequate correcting procedures.Conference 6746: SAR Image Analysis.

this methodology allows inferring information on the optical thickness of lakes. 6746-06. Conversely. a great amount of data dealing with Titan’s surface has been collected by means of a radar able to operate in four modes: radiometry. Alparone. RCS. Moramarco. before Cassini reached the saturnian system. Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica (Italy) The role of the space-borne synthetic aperture radar imagery (SAR). conditional probability is de-normalized in such a way that it holds one. was essentially unexplored. Essen. in HR SAR images. Session 2 An information-theoretic feature for identifying changes in multitemporal SAR images: an evaluation for the detection of flooded areas B. by the means of the Integral Equation Method. a family of probability density functions (pdfs) has been built through a comparison between real and simulated radar data. corresponding to the first or second image. altimetry. but one can try to classify a scene based on the phase characteristics of the neighboring image pixels. by coherently adding the scattered radiations from the components of the illuminated scene objects. DLR Standort Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are formed. based on Bayesian methodology. In the case of the High Resolution (HR) SAR. Then. Baronti. Stelluti. In particular the analysis derived from the SAR imagery reveals a complex surface with peculiar features such as: dark and bright areas. mainly for man made structures (from which the urban areas are mostly made). Such an approach could be useful for the recognition of urban structures. could be the Independent Components Analysis (ICA) decomposition. Thus. the reflectance of built-up urban scenes becomes dominated by typical metal reflectors. Beside the estimation of dielectric constant and surface parameters. Politecnico di Bari (Italy) Titan’s surface. the investigation of Titan’s surface parameters (physical and morphological) has been carried out by the means of the Bayesian inversion technique. Chaabouni. Brehm. Posa. Modeling. Starting from these model simulations and the corresponding radar data. mounted on the Cassini spacecraft. Nowadays. Possible limitations induced by the presence of wind and vegetation over inundated areas can be tackled by analyzing multi-temporal overlying patterns and by photo analysis. Indeed. each pdf can represent a surface single hypothesis. In this paper. Experimental results carried out on two couples of multitemporal RADARSAT SAR images referring to the flooding event occurred on 25th . Jet Propulsion Lab. SAR can acquire data at day or night indifferently and in particular can penetrate through clouds. The efficiency of the procedure for flood mapping can be further increased. P. and Techniques and surface roughness were available. on ICA generated bases. W. and enabled us to generating maps with 4-5 levels of soil moisture. dual and quad PolSAR HR SLC images. Subsequently. the results on learning and decomposing the SAR image. It does not require preliminary de-speckling and is capable of providing accurate change maps from a couple of SAR images. Casarano. where prominent human-made scatterers.26th November 2005 along the Tiber River demonstrate that the proposed IT feature outperform the logratio in terms of capability of discriminating changes and identifying flooded areas. On the other side. C. Datcu. FGAN-FHR (Germany). and multiple scattering. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara (Italy). WTD 52 (Germany) 106 spie. The information on soil roughness of the whole area. of these features. Interateneo di Fisica (Italy). if we make the assumption that. T. S. Politecnico di Bari. was derived from the corresponding images in HV polarization. The case of single. are studied. Janssen. corner-like structures. Politecnico di Bari (Italy). Session 2 Multibaseline interferometric SAR at millimeterwaves H. the sensor noise has been also taken into account. Indeed. one alternative for a better understanding of the HR SAR scenes. implemented to study the dependence of radar-scale roughness of the liquid surfaces on the wind speed. M. This approach has been initially applied to the area characterized by the presence of hydrocarbon lakes and then extended to other areas.Conference 6746: SAR Image Analysis. scatterometry. Following this approach. some changes may be emphasized or concealed. D. surface tension and density parameters expected for the hypothesized liquid hydrocarbon mixture. Session 2 Inferring Titan’s surface features by means of Bayesian inversion algorithm applied to radar data B. after two years of the Cassini mission. Session 2 ICA decomposition of HR SAR images: application to urban structures recognition H. A. Aiazzi. periodic structures (“sand dunes”) and. the test was extended to the whole area for generating soil moisture maps from the available ENVISAT images in HH polarization. above all. it allows also the estimation of the tilt angle and the average dune height. The rationale is that the negative of logarithm of the probability of an amplitude level in one image conditional to the level of the same pixel in the other image conveys an information on the amount of change occurred between the two passes. M. needed as ANN input. In order to extract surface • spie. are presented and compared with eigenspace decomposition of the targets. In this paper. Optical sensors have higher spatial resolution then SAR but can be used only during daytime and in good weather conditions. hypotheses on dielectric constant values and surface parameters have been formulated. Notarnicola. in the case of the dunes. M. hard to be modeled. Pandolfo. The obtained results showed a satisfactory agreement with ground truth data and meteorological conditions. the extracted parameters will be compared to radiometric data in order to verify that the hypotheses posed to surface parameters can be also supported by other kind of data. Depending on such a scaling. S. has been carried out resulting in variations of the RCS in excess of 20 dB between the “brightest’’ and the “darkest’’ areas. CNR-IRPI (Italy). This model uses a set of viscosity. Boehmsdorff. 6746-08. • spieeurope@spieeurope. Dip. the random phase assumption does no longer. Univ. The roughness parameters for the hydrocarbons lakes were also matched with the findings of a gravity capillary wave model. and hence the change feature is identically zero. L. 6746-07. respectively. hydrocarbon lakes. The resulting backscattering becomes thus. Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara (Italy). a novel pixel feature suitable for change analysis is derived from information-theoretic concepts. with near regular shape and sub-meter size. for natural risk management. hold for typical high resolution urban SAR scenes. degli Studi di Firenze (Italy). Ventura. These hypotheses and the Titan’s surface morphology have been used in simulations with the IEM approach in order to build a training data set of expected RCS. is increasing in recent years. especially if the remote sensing images are integrated with existent ground-based ancillary data. this inversion allows to identify the predominant scattering mechanism (surface or volume). when the joint probability attains its maximum on either the row or the column. In this work. As a last step. the SAR image is a superposition of different sources. The 6746-09. lead to correlated phase patterns. T. the ICA is a de-mixing process whose goal is to express a set of random variables as linear combinations of statistically independent component variables. These pdfs have been used in an inversion procedure. A first analysis of the Radar Cross Section. and smoothing the outcome by means of a Gaussian filter. thus being able to provide images useful for estimating the extension of inundated areas and delineate flood boundaries. when the pixel size shrinks to a critical threshold of about 1 meter. and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. All joint probabilities are calculated by digitizing the 2D histogram (scatter-plot) of locally windowed backscatters. the resolution cell is comparable with the scale of the imaged objects. IEM. (USA).

Schirinzi. Budillon. GMTI is accomplished by enhancing the target Doppler signature against the competing ground clutter returns. the availability of different frequencies can help the inversion process. Notarnicola. is then assumed to be unambiguous in phase. Possibilities and limitations of this approach are discussed. This model allows to take into account the lack of knowledge of the target radar cross section (RCS) values and provides an analytical form for the interferometric phase probability density function. Dip.000 topographic maps. Session 3 Evaluating SRTM and ASTER DEM accuracy for the broader area of Sparti. i. Recent clutter suppression techniques use space-time adaptive processing (STAP) and time-frequency processing. Politecnico di Bari. The dataset used to verify the reliability of the algorithm is based on the SIRC-XSAR data acquired in 1994 on Southern Italy (Matera test site). RADARSAT.c. In this experiment the sensor acquired contemporary images in the three bands over selected test sites. In this paper we analyze the radial velocity estimation with respect to ATI system parameters. degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope (Italy) Ground moving target indication (GMTI) is a very difficult problem. The information about the radial velocity of the moving target is estimated from the interferometric phase of the images using statistical estimation techniques based on the statistical distribution of the measured phases. due to the difficulty of separating the signal returned from a moving target from the stationary background (clutter).000 topographic maps was created and compared with ASTER and SRTM derived DEMs. the opportunity is unique because now there is the possibility to acquire data with different frequencies on the same area. Session 3 Velocity estimation of slow moving targets in ATInSAR systems V. The paper describes the multiple baseline algorithm and shows the results of tests on a synthetic area. To solve this shortcoming a multiple baseline approach can be used with a number of neighbouring horns and an increasing baselength going from narrow to wide. ASTER and SRTM are two possible sources for DEM covering the whole country. so that the estimation of spatial variations of moisture with the accuracy requested in many applications is still problematic and in many cases it requires complicate correction procedures to take into account the impact of vegetation and roughness. The main purpose of the algorithm is to retrieve information on soil moisture and roughness. 6746-12. Nikolakopoulos. Pascazio. such as velocity values. In this context. While these techniques are effective in improving the detect ability of fast targets. Examples of digital elevation maps derived from measured data at millimeterwaves are shown. research activities carried out worldwide have demonstrated that sensors operating in this portion of the microwave spectrum are able to detect soil water content. ENVISAT. which is operational on ERS-2. Univ. After a first control for random or systematic errors a statistical analysis was done. X-band data are greatly influenced by vegetation and in some cases. Interateneo di Fisica (Italy) In the last years many efforts have been made in order to build and launch satellites which will have on board SAR sensors working at different frequencies. Zervakou. On the expense of this multi-channel-approach the algorithm is simple and robust. This process is repeated consecutively until the interferogram with highest precision is unwrapped. A DEM from digitized contours from the 1:5.Conference 6746: SAR Image Analysis. Moreover. F. Univ. G. medium and high elevation areas. G. 6746-10. The Matera test site was also intensively sampled in terms of soil moisture and roughness measurements. clutter and noise power levels considering a deterministic target whose velocity is estimated using a Gaussian model. Posa. In the frame of that project there is need for a high accuracy DEM covering the whole country. I. The sensitivity to soil moisture of the backscattering coefficient measured at low microwave frequencies (P. Modeling. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the other hand. Greece K. and the combination of two or three frequencies can improve the retrieval process. and Techniques Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar has the capability to provide the user with the 3-D-Information of land surfaces. Institute of Geology & Mineral Exploration (Greece) One of the major projects of the Institute of Geology & Mineral Exploration (IGME) is called “Urban Geology”. urban centre). but it is significantly influenced by vegetation (especially at VV polarization) and surface roughness L-band) is a well-known phenomenon. The multiple baseline approach is especially adequate for millimeterwave radars as antenna horns with relatively small aperture can be used while a sufficient 3-dB beamwidth is maintained. Tsombos. P. as it will be shown. In the past years. Anyway for a long time L-band data have not been available. which in the next step unwraps the interferogram with the next wider baseline using the coarse height information to solve the phase • spieeurope@spieeurope.e. mounted on the same platform and displaced along the platform moving direction. the Cband. environmental planning et. Univ. According to the specifications the ASTER vertical accuracy of DEM is about 20m with 95% confidence while the horizontal geolocation accuracy appears to be better than 50 m. The proposed inversion algorithm is based on Bayesian techniques which makes full use of measured data and simulated data. A. Thus. as the unambiguous height interval is inversely proportional to the radar wavelength. degli Studi di Cassino (Italy).org • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 107 . degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope (Italy). compared to traditional methods. The area of study is the broader area of Sparti. A method that can be used to detect slow ground moving target is Along Track Interferometry (ATI). Along Track Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (AT-InSAR) systems use more than one SAR antennas (typically two). used an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) instrument to produce a near-global digital elevation map of the earth’s land surface with 16 m absolute vertical height accuracy at 30 meter postings. A. As demonstrated in literature. The ASTER and the SRTM DEM were divided in four major categories (low. The data have been simulated by using the Integral Equation Model (IEM) for C and L band data and the GO (Geometric Optics) for X band. However the problem of resolving the phase ambiguity at smaller wavelengths is more critical than at longer wavelengths. An SRTM 3-arc-second product (90m resolution) is available for the entire world. More recent studies have shown that the use of GCP’s resulted in a plannimetric accuracy of 15 m and in a near pixel size vertical accuracy. Almost three hundreds points 6746-11. C and L band SAR images for retrieval of surface parameters C. which in many cases well approximates the true distribution. adoption of a Gaussian model for the moving target RCS instead of the actual deterministic model will not impair significantly the GMTI performance. To gather data with high height estimation accuracy it is necessary to use a wide interferometric baseline or a high radar • spie. The narrowest. this kind of data can be used to infer information about the vegetation impact. and even the amount of processing time is reduced considerably. The DEM should be used for the orthorectification of high resolution images and other applications such as slope map creation. In the past these occasions were related only to some short-term missions such as the SIRC-XSAR in 1994. C-band backscattering is still sensitive to soil moisture. Along with C-band sensors such as ENVISAT-ASAR and RADARSAT spie. corresponding to adjacent horns. for slowly moving targets the signal from clutter separation is more critical. very dense vegetation can hinder the signal to reach soil and detect its features. In some methods. different radar frequencies are sensible to different terrain features. This is the case of ALOSPALSAR that was launched in 2006 and of TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed that will be launched during this year. Session 3 Combination of X. In this paper we examine the accuracy of SRTM and ASTER DEMs in comparison to the accuracy of the 1/5. research for the retrieval of soil moisture has been focused on the potential of existing sensor characteristics. 1. Greece. This initial interferogram is used as a starting point for the algorithm.

M. 6746-15. We will give first results of the performance of the PIMS system recently installed at the German Aerospace Center. notably the feature extraction parameterization. This belief is based on the assumption that we have random phases when a sufficient number of small-scale scatterers generate uniformly distributed backscatter phases that are mixed in each image pixel. H. A common belief is that no information can be gained from the phase of each pixel. The existing system seems to provide reliable results for a variety of users. After feature extraction and clustering. Modeling. Session 3 Land subsidence monitoring using InSAR and GPS S. The subsidence rate was estimated as several centimetres per year using the stacking method. de Buenos Aires (Argentina) Stack filters are a special case of non-linear filters. Session 4 Improvement in SAR image maximum likelihood classification using adaptive stack filters M. their pros and cons as well as pros-pects for ICA (independent component analysis) techniques when applied to complex numbers. We will discuss the basic system layout and its most important design options. of Technology (Iran). Our results show a better classification performance for filtered images. K. 108 spie. Nowadays the InSAR ability to detect the surface deformation has been demonstrated. Toosi Univ. Mejail. Dehghani.N. and cataloguing with image information mining functions permitting automated feature extraction as well as interactive data analyses by users of various disciplines. during the last years considerable effort has been spent in the design of data mining systems and specific image information mining techniques that allow the retrieval of images from large archives based on their content. Mobasheri. An optimum GPS network was then designed using the displacement map obtained from the InSAR in order to achieve a precise time series analysis of the surface displacement. In this study the InSAR technique is implemented in order to identify the surface deformation in a subsiding area located in north-east of Iran. which unlike the one present in optical images. Buemi. On the other hand. a Monte Carlo experiment is carried out: simulated and real images are generated and then filtered with a stack filter trained with one of them. • spieeurope@spieeurope. and specific experiences gained with users. Schwarz. A stack filter decomposes an input image into several binary images according to a set of thresholds. M. M. metadata. the system throughput and performance. and Techniques of known elevation have been used to estimate the accuracy of these three DEMs. 6746-14. and multiple scattering. The system implementation follows general guidelines to be obeyed by today’s system de-signers: multi-mission capability with simple interfaces. Typical examples are the rou-tine generation of complex. Gambini. The resulting phases are hard to model. we attempted a Gauss-Markov random field approach with complex numbers. This interference causes fluctuations of the detected intensity which varies from pixel to pixel. 6746-16. J. M. On the one hand. The three DEMs were used for the orthorectification of very high resolution data and the final orthophotos were compared. that is. This effect is called speckle noise. corner-like structures. Datcu. De Miguel.Conference 6746: SAR Image Analysis. Chaabouni. They have a good performance for filtering images with different types of noise while preserving edges and details. DLR Standort Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany) The properties of single look complex SAR images have already been analyzed by many in-vestigators. Ground water withdrawal is one of the most important factors of land subsidence formation that can cause extremely expensive damages to buildings. Session 4 Phase information contained in meter-scale SAR images M. M. The Vertical displacements due to the land subsidence were calculated using InSAR method and ENVISAT data spanning between 2003 and 2005. K. use of standardized (web) services within well-defined environments. We will describe how the PIMS ground segment architecture combines product generation. when previously output images are used as inputs for the filter. G. “pluggable” modules and component-based systems. A. P. etc. 2D RMSE. A necessary step to perform a proper analysis of the land subsidence is to obtain accurate measurements of the actual amount of subsidence at certain intervals. Each binary image is filtered by using a boolean function. Schwarz. With this aim. where large size SAR data have to be ingested and analyzed in parallel. These images are generated by a coherent illumination system and are affected by the coherent interference of the signal backscatter by the elements on the terrain. The deformation rate obtained by the InSAR method was then compared to the GPS measurements. M. Valadan Zoej. C. Adaptive stack filters are optimized filters that compute a boolean function by using a corrupted image and ideal image without noise at the training stage. R. Jacobo. road and pipelines. The elevation difference between the three DEMs was calculated. The comparison shows the consistency of the InSAR results. it follows other distributions and is multiplicative. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . The area is subsiding due to the excess water withdrawal for the agricultural purposes. E.N. Hosseini. H. the clustering options. M. Univ. The comparisons will be based on available aircraft and spacecraft data. As an alternative. Both techniques led to robust classifications of urban areas. or geocoded image products. S. Soccorsi. E. the reflectance of built-up urban scenes becomes dominated by typical metal reflectors. is neither Gaussian nor additive. Datcu. of Technology (Iran) Land subsidence is caused by human activities in many countries all over the world. but one can try to classify a scene based on the phase characteristics of neighboring image pixels. However. We applied two approaches to quantify the classification potential of these correlated phase patterns contained within SAR images taken from aircraft and satellites. J. archiving. where prominent human-made scatterers with near regular shape and sub-meter size lead to correlated phase patterns. Session 4 The case of PIMS: image information mining in an SAR data ground segment G. We will compare the performance of the two methods. Improvements are noticed when feedback is added to the filtering • spie. we investigated the performance of a covariance and eigenspace method for small targets. If the pixel size shrinks to a critical threshold of about 1 meter. the random phase assumption does no longer hold for typical high resolution urban remote sensing scenes. The outliers were detected. In this work the behaviour of an adaptive stack filter is evaluated for the classification of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. correlation and the percentile value were also computed. 6746-27. and workflow managers for distributed computing. The classification results using maximum likelihood are evaluated and compared with the ones obtained by classifying the images without previous filtering. interactive user interfaces allow for subjective scene labeling and image classification. DLR Standort Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany) Conventional ground segments for spaceborne SAR instruments collect raw SAR data and convert them into standard image and interferometry products. J. These data are archived and accessible via user interfaces linked to browsing tools that use catalogues with quick-looks. detected. Aspect maps were created and compared.Toosi Univ.

which are both frequently used for high-resolution SAR processing. Ctr. Because distributing format of clutter will change with the look number’s changing after multi-look Processing. Guo. this paper draws the conclusions that middle value is stability estimation. Y. In this way. in other words. look number will affect clutter position estimation. Leng. Poster Session Resolution improvement in both azimuthal and range directions with repeat-pass spaceborne SAR Y. Using deconvolution. The rawdata generation and imaging processing model is programed in MPICH-2 Distributed Coputation. J. Airborne L-band repeat-pass interferometric data of the German Aerospace Center(DLR) experimental airborne SAR is used to validate the method. Univ. Most of them are directly introduced into SAR complex data from optical real image discarding the phase information. H. the potential of introducing nonstationary scatterers to SAR complex image coregistration is evaluated to increase the quality of interferogram. The FRFT has a good energy focusing ability to chirp signals because the chirp signal forms a line in an appropriate fractional Fourier domain. of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China) both real-time rate and resolution both are key indexes of Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) imaging. and the availability of mean value estimation is obviously higher than that of middle value estimation when look number goes up. In this paper. If the FT operator can be considered as an anticlockwise rotation in the time-frequency plane over an angle . Han. and Techniques 6746-17. so we can use FRFT to process the azimuth signal to form image. for Space Science and spie. Over the last years. Poster Session The target detection of SAR based on the corrected clutter position estimation C. and it can be applied in real-time parallel imaging. a variety of SAR image coregistration algorithms have been proposed in the literature of remote sensing field. Whereas. Chen. Jiang. Real-time imaging becomes difficult because of the large computational requirement posed by high-resolution processing. so we can separate different chirp signals by FRFT. Fan. prevalent parallel imaging algorithms are either medium grained or large grained algorithms. of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China) The precise coresgistration can improve the quantity of interferogram. The algorithm performs the range processing by frequency scaling and the azimuth processing by FRFT. In this paper. of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (China). the selection of passing pairs may be improperly reflects true backscattering property. usually non. Modeling. It combines chirp-scaling algorithm with subaperture.Conference 6746: SAR Image • spie. Univ. It also reduces the large communication requirement posed by three transposes. Zhang. for the CS procedure needs no communication any more. 6746-20. look number will affect performance of the second type of detector. of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China) A new imaging algorithm based on fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) for Spotlight SAR is proposed in this paper. Y. The experiments about point-target simulation and real echo data on PVM( Parallel Virtual Machine ) have proved that. The algorithm presented in this paper is suitable for high-resolution SAR parallel imaging. Nonstationary scatterers have never been developed for application to SAR image coregistration. Pi. After some common nonstationary scatterers have been selected in images(master and slave). X. Poster Session A new parallel subaperture algorithm for highresolution SAR imaging X. In order to make a compromise between the stability and availability. Univ. one problem concerned is the influence of multi-look on detector. Nonstationary scatterers show varying electromagnetic behaviors as they are illuminated from different positions and at different frequency components during SAR integration. it can compensate the motion errors more accurately and get better images. and we proposed a way of target detection base on the corrected clutter position estimation. the passing function can be obtained through coarse and precise coregistration. Ctr.coherent smoothing technology is used. 6746-22. the parallel subaperture algorithm obviously improves computing • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 109 . for the purpose of improving the quality of SAR image. 6746-24. This paper report that a SAR sumulation system was built up based windows hpc cluster. Subaperture. which are all based on full-aperture processing. the azimuth signal of spotlight SAR is approximately a set of chirp signals with the same time duration and chirp modulation rate and different Doppler frequency centers. can’t be applied in these algorithm because of the large communication requirement. Wang. the average value estimation and middle value estimation. the FRFT can be regarded as an anticlockwise rotation over arbitrary real angle. this paper proposes a detecting method based on the corrected clutter position estimation. C. we provide the detail analysis of the derivation of the new algorithm mathematically. Univ. Liu. in which each note has the same load. but there is a conflict between them. Y. China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (China). of Defense Technology (China) SAR system simulation especally rawdata generation and imaging processing is so hard work with huge computation account that there must be high performance computation(HPC)ability. As a result. which can construct the choice of estimation method. Yin. First. FRFT is a generalized form of the well-known Fourier transform (FT). By comparing single-look position estimation with multi-look position estimation. A statistical analysis of subaperture datasets permits to clearly discriminate nonstationary scatters that showing varying behaviors during the SAR integration. Z. Subaperture is widely used in high-resolution SAR. Pi. while mean value is instability estimation. The new algorithm can highly effectively run on parallel computer. In this paper we have deduced the stability and availability of clutter position estimation. multi-look. Poster Session SAR simulation system based windows HPC cluster H. Z. L. This paper presents a new high-resolution and parallel imaging algorithm based on subaperture. National Univ. Pi. The azimuth processing of conventional SAR imaging algorithms is based on spectral analysis but in this paper we process the azimuth signal by FRFT based on the time-frequency analysis. Poster Session A spotlight SAR imaging algorithm based on fractional Fourier transform M. videlicet. Compared with full-aperture processing. which restricts the application of existing algorithms in high-resolution SAR parallel imaging. 6746-23. it decayed the influence of clutter position estimation in single look map or in multi-look map. and in the end of the paper some simulation experiments show that the new algorithm can offer high sidelobe suppression and high focused image compared to the conventional algorithm. 6746-21. Y. through which we can obtain high-resolution SAR image while implementing parallel processing. for Space Science and Applied Research (China) and Graduate Univ. for Space Science and Applied Research (China). Fan. Leng. Poster Session SAR image coregistration based on nonstationary scatterers J. compared with common CS and serial suaperture algorithm. As we known. China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (China) For SAR image target detector. Han. of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China). L. which correspond to the scene responses under different azimuthal look angles. Furthermore it gets better image than CS algorithm based on full-aperture. Because of serious coherent spots in SAR image. Ctr. as a kind of small grained • spieeurope@spieeurope. Ning. Shi. Finally a spotlight SAR image formed by the new algorithm shows the validity of the algorithm. synthesized SAR images are decomposed into subaperture datasets.

110 spie. a interferometric condition was required and for azimuthal direction. each observation in range direction or in azimuthal direction was treated as a subchirp in • spieeurope@spieeurope. The basic idea of the method was to firstly establish the equivalence between the signal models of repeat pass SAR signals in both azithumal and range directions and the signal model of stepped frequency chirp signals (SFCSs) when some conditions were presumed. In the course of processing. a new approach based on Canny operator is proposed here. In this paper. However. and Techniques Applied Research (China) High resolution Spaceborne SAR images are increasingly demanded in a lot of applications both in military and civilian fields. Poster Session A novel edge detection operator in SAR image W. higher resolution of SAR image usually means larger transmitted signal bandwidth and larger synthesized aperture. i. Sobel operator. this means the complexities of satellite and radar may increases in a geometric series correspondingly because of higher power. The major facts affecting the final resolution one could get were investigated and found they were the relative range measurement accuracy and the absolute squint angle measurement accuracy between repeat passes. This paper introduced a simple method to obtain a much higher resolution than the designed resolution in both azimuthal and rang directions by synthesizing the data taken by repeat passes without increasing any complexity in SAR hardware and satellite platform. For spaceborne • spie. The mathematical theory and simulation all show its superior to Canny operator and others. they all do not wok well when they are employed to detect edges of SAR image for the reason that the SAR image is polluted by the multiplicative noise which satisfied the Gamma distribution. and preprocessing is performed to change noise’s distribution function. Unfortunately. Li. a small squint angle increase between repeat passes was required. are effective to detect edge in images. and then using the already proposed method for SFCSs compression to process the data of repeat passes. in which the kernel function is modified according to the noise.e. Modeling. Detailed derivations and simulations were presented to show the effectiveness of the method. Northwestern Polytechnical Univ. larger data storage and higher date rate for transmission are required. for range direction. 6746-25. even which disturbed by additive noise. such as Canny operator. (China) Most traditional • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 .Conference 6746: SAR Image Analysis.

6747-04. Gardenal. Brendhagen. Canada. Ecoles de Coëtquidan (France).. In this paper. Foerster. refractivity profiles were calculated and using the parabolic equation model TERPEM. Defense Research Establishment Valcartier Canada (Canada).org • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 111 . The cameras observed a set of lights installed on an Island in 16 km distance. The paper describes the experimental approach and discusses results for tropical conditions comparing those with results from European coastal environments. J. TG 51 performed the SAPPHIRE trial (Ship and Atmospheric Propagation PHenomenon InfraRed Experiment) to collect data in littoral areas under conditions of warm sea temperatures. under unstable atmospheric conditions (i. The SAPPHIRE trial: investigations on angular deviation caused by refraction K. W. the sea surface and the geometry between radar and reflection point. Session 1 Refraction effects under atmospheric stable conditions in coastal environments J. Fortunately.Conference 6747: Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems Monday-Tuesday 17-18 September 2007 Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol.V. Dion et al. P. The various models are compared and put in their historical context. (Germany) The performances of Electro-Optical (EO) systems such as visible or infrared cameras. some very good data have been obtained during stable cases. Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (Norway) A multinational field trial (SAPPHIRE) was performed at the Chesapeake Bay. Refraction is responsible for focusing and defocusing of rays. the bulk models results are truly reliable. Forschungsanstalt der Bundeswehr fur Wasserschall und Geophysik (Germany) A wide field of applications ranging from traffic control in coastal regions over protection against terrorist attacks and naval applications. A meteorological bulk model (such as PIRAM developed in France or LWKD developed in Canada) can easily be linked with a ray tracing algorithm to predict the refraction effects for the optical transmission bands. The two main research areas for TG-51 are low-altitude maritime IR propagation phenomenology and ship signature properties. ANAM3 and MEDEX. Defense Research Establishment Valcartier Canada (Canada). Stein. 6747-03. D. Stein. B. In this theory. sea temperature greater than the air temperature). Session 1 Prediction of IR transmission in a coastal Baltic environment: comparison of model predictions and measurements D. L. Dion. Day and night sessions of varying visibility and wind speed were carried out and analysed. atmosphere losses in the 2 IR bands are inferred from the VAMPIRA tracking sessions and compare with model predictions. Moreover. air temperature greater than the sea temperature). In this paper analysis is performed on land and ship mounted infrared sources studied spie. K. are disturbed by various propagation mechanisms: molecular attenuation. It turned out that atmospheric conditions • spie. propagation factors were determined. For radar studies in maritime environments. 6747-05. FGAN-FOM (Germany) The NATO Panel SET-088 TG-51 has the charter to investigate infrared research topics relating to Littoral Ship Self-Defence.e. Vogel.. H. Based upon measurements of atmospheric properties and sea surface parameters. Dion. T. E. Seiffer. during June 2006 to study infrared ship signature and atmospheric propagation effects close to the sea surface in a warm and humid environment. Nurun. Therefore. Madsen. i. To assess the propagation within defined layers. aerosol extinction. experimental data related to stable cases are not so frequent and generally their poor accuracy does not allow any quantitative conclusion. Claverie. So far most trials were conducted in cold waters. Atmospheric scintillation and refraction prediction models were validated in several trials conducted by different NATO groups. in the • spieeurope@spieeurope. The performance of radar sensors operating within the marine boundary layer is influenced by the actual atmospheric conditions. namely: NAM (as in MODTRAN). Inc. demands sensors with a stable performance under any environmental conditions. The data have been analyzed and propagation models have been tested using the relevant environmental information. H. the refractivity vertical profiles are generally used as input data of propagation codes based upon the parabolic equation method. P. Electro-optical sensors are competing with radar. Fonnum. van Rheenen. H. Jr. In this paper. Session 1 Millimeterwave propagation over sea in tropical regions H. operating within the Marine Surface Boundary Layer (MBSL). Wikan. Germany. In June 2006. Session 1 Measurements of IR propagation in the marine boundary layer in warm and humid atmospheric conditions L. This paper gives a description of the SAPPHIRE trial. D. the 3-mode models. E. M. Many measurements campaigns conducted in the past years and concerning radar or EO propagation showed that. We use MODTRAN for the calculation of gaseous attenuation in conjunction with several modal aerosol extinction models currently available. detection range limitations. Danish Defense Research Establishment (Denmark) During VAMPIRA. The purpose of FGAN-FOM was to investigate the influence of changing weather conditions on the apparent elevation of a target. conducted in Eckernförde. which moved on outbound and inbound courses. These effects will be discussed for EO applications as well as for radar applications. which are considerably different from the known European Sea situations. We found that for VAMPIRA. experiments were performed using a radar operating against reference reflectors carried on naval vessels. In the framework of a cooperative program between Singapore and Germany new radar measurements have been done in the sea area around Singapore.e. FGAN-FHR (Germany). during the VAMPIRA trial (conducted during the spring 2004 by the NATO AC/323 SET-56/RTG32). USA. WKD (as in IRBLEM). Session 1 6747-02. Forschungsgesellschaft für Angewandte Naturwissenschaften e. Fuchs. H. Bulk models apply the Monin-Obukhov similarity (MOS) theory. Heen. Almklov. NAM and WKD. Essen. observations were performed in the mid-wave and longwave IR of blackbody-targets mounted on a ship that sailed away from the coast. B. showed that the choice of the stability functions proposed by Kondo in 1975 and implemented in PIRAM and LWKD could lead to some discrepancies between the modelling and the measurements of apparent elevation angles of fixed targets. the choice of the stability functions is one of the major keystones regarding the accuracy of the obtained results. which is a typical tropical environment. mirage formation and angular deviation. In this paper we discuss and analyse the measured elevations and compare them to the propagation model IRBLEM (IR Boundary Layer Effects Model by DRDC. at heights up to a few tens of meters above the sea surface. we will investigate the effects of alternative formulations. describe better the effective atmospheric losses than the 4-mode models ANAM3 and MEDEX. D. A. (Canada). K. The objectives of the trial were to validate ship signature models and scintillation/refraction models. During the last year conference. Jr. It is well known that the validity of the MOS theory is limited under stables cases ((i. Steenfeldt-Foss. lasers. The location of the trial was the US Naval Research Laboratory’s Chesapeake Bay Detachment (CBD) field site on Chesapeake Bay. refraction and turbulence. we setup IRcameras and high speed cameras at CBD overlooking Chesapeake Bay.e. 6747 Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems X 6747-01.

L. Measurements are compared to results from earlier field trials performed in Norway during typical NorthAtlantic atmospheric conditions (cool air with little water content). V. in the summer of 2006. However several experiments showed that Kolmogorov theory is sometimes incomplete to describe atmospheric turbulence properly. Almklov. the turbulence characteristics considerably vary with the local weather. Norwegian Defense Research Establishment (Norway) Measurements of the spectral radiance of the sky and the sea. Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (Norway). Phillips. spectrometric data was collected at the same • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . 6747-06. It is argued • spieeurope@spieeurope. Toselli. Measurement results are compared to results from the IR Boundary Layer Effects Model (IRBLEM)*. emphasizing the role of various scales in the eddy sizes spectrum. B. T. In this paper. Fonnum. the objective was to study the intensity of the exhaust gases from a ship at different distances. we discuss the existing techniques to document the atmospheric turbulence at the scales of interest. etc. The center of the field of view of the cameras was pitched from -15o to +15o. Norwegian Defense Research Establishment (Norway). providing the temperature gradient at a height of 3. we briefly introduce some standard results on atmospheric turbulence and wave propagation in the atmosphere. P. E. Session 2 Atmospheric models to analyze and predict the optical turbulence S. This paper analyzes data obtained under hot and humid conditions during the SAPPHIRE trial at Chesapeake Bay.5 µm wavelength range. many different types of meteorological data were collected. Session 1 Measurements of the relative intensity of ship exhaust gas as a function of distance to infrared sensors A. M. Univ. In addition. E. Heen. Brendhagen. Close to the surface. Fritz. N. performed under hot and humid conditions at Chesapeake Bay. Politecnico di Torino (Italy). It is illustrated that current micro-meteorological models provide an idealized 3D+time view of the large-eddies turbulence.were used to characterize the propagation environment. 4. Andrews. During the analysis of the data a number of hypothetical temperature profiles were fitted to the measured air temperature gradient and the air temperature at zero height. van Rheenen. P. Madsen. First. Institut Franco-Allemand de Recherches de Saint-Louis (France). For this purpose the ship ran a predetermined course making broadside passes at predetermined distances from the shore-based IR camera as part of the course. L. 3. Scintillation index of an optical wave in strong turbulence can be analyzed by extended Rytov theory. Fonnum.e. on a pier and on a buoy . D. 6747-07. J. K. Digital recordings of the sea and sky background were made using cameras sensitive in both the 3 5 µm and 8 . P. Wikan. Steenfeldt-Foss. In particular there is an interest to quantify the intensity decrease of the plume with distance and correlate this with simulations of atmospheric transmission. using a set of mastmounted lamps on the opposite side of the Bay. van Rheenen. of Central Florida (USA). The resulting apparent temperature versus distance data are then compared with simulations using standard atmospheric transmission software. 2. E. predictions for conditions of positive ASTD have only been verified on a limited scale so far. Cheinet. It is challenging to identify gas cloud pixels against a background because the pixels are not necessarily clustered. we discuss the possibility to predict the optical turbulence. Both sub. while sensor heights were logged continuously. were necessary in order to obtain agreement between measurements and results from simulations using atmospheric radiance codes. 6747-10. Norwegian Defense Research Establishment (Norway) We present results from infrared imaging experiments. Therefore the SAPPHIRE trial. Ferrero. allowing original investigations on its impact on optical propagation.Conference 6747: Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems using infrared (MWIR and LWIR FPA) cameras mounted at about 4 m above mean sea level. Politecnico di Torino (Italy) Optical plane wave propagating through atmospheric turbulence is affected by irradiance fluctuations known as scintillation. B. Maryland. TNO (Netherlands) Presently used propagation models predict optical refraction effects due to vertical temperature gradients for paths over water reasonably well when the air temperature is lower than the water temperature (negative ASTD: Air-to Sea Temperature Difference). We present a statistical method to identify the gas cloud pixels and use their averaged intensity as a measure for the estimated temperature.and superrefractive conditions were studied. It was demonstrated. Maryland.2. for horizontal path. Siebesma. and dissimilarities between medium wave and long wave infrared are emphasized. * IRBLEM is proprietory to the Department for National Defence of Canada as represented by DRDC-Valcartier. L. The distance to the apparent horizon is also determined. H. T. was a unique opportunity to investigate refraction for positive ASTD conditions. this approach faces some scientific challenges when applied to the boundary layer and troposphere. USA in the summer of 2006. high altitude atmospheric contributions. The camera is sensitive in the 3 .2 km optical path over the Chesapeake Bay near Washington DC. normalized variance of intensity for land based sources has been calculated for a number of cases and these values can easily be converted to refractive index structure constant Cn^2 values. scintillations. D. In parallel with the imaging experiments. Several meteorology stations mounted on land. E. used in the common propagation models. Session 2 Scintillation index analysis of optical plane wave propagating through non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence • spie. H. 6747-08. Wikan.4. Almklov. The presentation discusses some current techniques and issues in documenting and predicting the optical turbulence. We do it using a non Kolmogorov power spectrum which uses a generalized 112 spie. In addition a theodolite provided series of absolute Angle of Arrival data (AOA). 6747-09. Second. which uses filter functions to eliminate the effect of cell turbulence sizes that do not contribute to scintillation.12 µm wavelength range. K. C. we use extended Rytov theory to carry out plane wave scintillation index analysis in non Kolmogorov strong turbulence. With these data AOA’s were calculated with a precision ray-tracing scheme. Finally. Madsen. taken near Halifax during the September 2001 SIMVEX trial. Heen.7 m. Session 1 Refraction measurements and modeling over the Chesapeake Bay during the NATO (TG51) SAPPHIRE trials.was used to study contrast intensity and intensity fluctuations as a function of distance. Steenfeldt-Foss. B. P. The ship mounted source . organized in June 2006 including a 16. Due to a lack in experimental data. indicated that the use of user defined atmospheric profiles. L. Images were continuously recorded by means of a time-lapse video recorder. Measurements of the vertical radiance profile near the horizon will be compared with simulation results from MODTRAN using various meteorological input parameters and meteorological models. In addition. through signal phase alterations. whereas present-day weather forecasts may be used for surface-layer applications. that some of hypothetical profiles provided much better agreement between predicted and measured AOA’s than the profiles associated with the so-called bulk model. Brendhagen. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (Netherlands) The performance of an optical sensing system may be strongly affected by the atmospheric turbulence. June 2006 A. The distances were 1. and 8 km. B. de Jong. M.a calibrated blackbody source . Digital recordings were made during the ship broad-side passes. 6. USA. R.6. and it already has been calculated by Kolmogorov’s power spectral density model. Session 1 Measurements of the vertical radiance profile using infrared sensors A. i. Specifically. TNO installed a mid-path buoy with a number of accurate temperature sensors.

J. Finally. Univ. Although our final expressions for the scintillation have been obtained by extended Rytov theory. they can be used for every turbulence conditions also in weak turbulence. a better characterization of the microphysical and optical properties of cirrus clouds has been achieved through improvement of both in situ measurement and calculation codes. Negev desert in Israel. multi-directional wawefront sensing on an extended source. which is characterized by the turbulence MTF. ShackHartmann WFS is widely used for measurement of phase perturbations from turbulence. The temporal evolution of monthly statistical turbulence profiles indicates that the turbulence is concentrated at lower altitude layers during winter. L. Session 2 Optimization of the mixing ratio of ice crystal shapes in cirrus clouds for atmospheric point spread function modeling I. de Rouen (France). Michau. Conan. R. ONERA (France) and Univ. C. and particularly by complex ice crystals present in cirrus clouds. The selected Cn2 values are representative for the diurnal run of Cn2 in arid summer. The bulk scattering phase functions of seven size distributions are computed from the optimized ice crystals mixing obtained. Fleury. We present the statistical results of the optical-turbulence profiles at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory and Teide observatory over annual periods. their impact on PSF computed thanks to a propagation model based on a Monte Carlo method are discussed in the spectral domain from visible to near infrared. The IR Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor using an extended source is a sensitive device for atmospheric turbulence and distorted wavefront measurements. In the case of image transmission through cirrus clouds. Based on our turbulence database we calculated the MTFA for our thermal imagers with diverse lenses under diverse turbulence conditions. In addition base motion jitter in the observing platform introduces a frame-toframe linear shift that must be compensated for in order for the multi-frame restoration to be successful. It is seldom possible to rely on other systems spie. C. In the past FGAN-FOM has carried out a long-term experiment to measure the diurnal run of Cn2 in arid climate. Air Force Research Lab.V. Weiss. function on the basis of microphysics description of the cloud thanks to a ray-tracing code. In environmental conditions where strong turbulence is present the visible bandwidth of the electromagnetic spectrum is badly affected and no clear image can be distinguished. Gonglewski. respectively. An optimization of the mixing ratio of four pristine ice crystals shapes is studied to best describe the diversity of shapes encountered in natural cirrus with minimum computation time. Marchi. We then explain and justify the design of the IR wavefront sensor using an extended source. Session 3 Evaluation and progress in the development of an adaptive optics system for ground object observation G. As a figure of merit for the spatial resolution we used the area under the total MTF (MTFA). D. Session 2 Impact of turbulence on the measurement of CC&D materials in desert area K. We present a brief derivation of the algorithm as well as its application to actual image data collected from an airborne platform. Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain) A suitable characterization of the vertical turbulence distribution on a site should be based in statistical behaviour such as it is required for other parameters in site testing. J. The data were obtained using the generalized SCIDAR technique at the 1m Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope and 1. Weiss-Wrana. it is necessary to evaluate the impact of the turbulence on thermal imagers. and the cross wind. Chervet. The individual pixels in these arrays often exhibit spatial non-uniformity in their response. Dayton. 6747-13. M. The total MTF is the product of MTFsensor and MTFturb.Conference 6747: Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems exponent factor and a generalized amplitude factor. Session 2 Statistical turbulence vertical profiles at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory and Teide Observatory B. seems to be the best way to fulfill the requirement. Applied Technology Associates (USA). • spieeurope@spieeurope. R. (Germany) In the past years one of the compelling problems emerged in the recent conflicts has been the ability to distinguish between threats and friendly forces from a safe distance. because it is not sampled enough. the structure parameter of the index of reflection. An analytical analysis of the various error terms is presented including anisoplanatism differential scintillation. a previous study has shown that analytical formulation of the phase function based on the asymmetry parameter was not suitable for the viewing configurations studied. 6747-14. They are compared to the corresponding phase functions used in remote sensing process of MODIS airborne simulator bands. 6747-15. B. Garcí • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 113 . Magli. a critical issue is to obtain a detailed description of the angular distribution of the scattered radiation in the forward direction.5m Carlos Sanchez Telescope under unbiased statistical sample criteria because the campaigns were done monthly in the new moon nights. in some cases even at short distances. Direct measurement of the scattering phase function provided by a nephelometer can not be used in this case. de Rouen (France) The image of a target observed by an airborne detector is blurred by atmospheric particles. (Germany) Within the scope of the investigation of CC&D materials in desert environment. The turbulence MTF depends on system parameters like spectral range. Cn2. Vial. ONERA (France). This approach can be incorporated into an iterative algorithm and implemented in real time as the image data is being collected. Forschungsgesellschaft für Angewandte Naturwissenschaften e. It causes a reduction of the spatial resolution of thermal imagers. During last • spie. A. Turbulence decreases the image quality and so the effectiveness of electro-optical systems. Malaplate. and optics and on the atmospheric parameters. Statistically. An adaptive optics system in the mid IR providing high spatial resolution for tactical applications is currently designed at ONERA. V. This paper discusses the issue of endoatmospheric wawefront sensing. Forschungsgesellschaft für Angewandte Naturwissenschaften e. which is necessary to adopt in strong turbulence conditions. The correction quality relies on a key component: the wave front sensor (WFS) that analyses the perturbation. most of the turbulence is concentrated close the observatory level (2400 m above sea level) with no more than two turbulent layers at higher altitudes. We find a seasonal behaviour of turbulence structure at the ORM. 6747-11. Sofradir (France). Rozé.V. First images with the Shack-Hartmann WFS camera to be delivered in June 2007 will be presented. (USA) Most non-conventional approaches to image restoration of scenes observed over long atmospheric slant paths require multiple frames of short exposure images taken with low noise focal plane arrays. Robert. In this paper we describe a maximum a-posteriori parameter estimation approach to the simultaneous estimation of the frame-to-frame shifts and the array non-uniformity. ONERA (France) Adaptive optics provides a real time compensation for atmospheric turbulence which severely limits the resolution of ground-based observation systems. Session 3 Design of a Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor using extended source in the infrared C. Moreover. Results will be presented. different time of the day. Muguet. Computation of the scattering phase 6747-17. 6747-16. S. wawefront sensing using correlation. Session 3 Shift estimation and non-uniformity in sequences of scene images D. ONERA (France).

Session 4 Singular phase dynamics in vortical optical beam O. K. The vortex beams being the Laguerre-Gaussian modes are found to have the same broadening properties while propagated through a randomly inhomogeneous medium as the Gaussian beams. The second one is the beam focusing on condition that the refractive index is subject to spatial and temporal variations. The first one is the adequate description of turbulence. M.3. Wave front of the beam is constructed from the computed phase. the vorticity being zero. It is shown that reduction of residual phase distortions increases with the number of subapertures for a given telescope size. (Russia) Powerful light pulse self-action in Kerr medium is known to result in self focusing originated from refractive index transverse gradients. A. Smirnova. V. Lukin. The scattering volume is observed from the center of a telescope as an extended source. Using a special form of field stop (diaphragm) uniquely positioned for each subapertures. V. The comparison of the subsequent iterations allows to conclude that the convergence takes place. Process of nucleation and annihilation of vortex dipole is considered to confirm the vortex aftereffect in the process of transformation of an aberration wave front into a singular one. Session 3 Cross-wind profiling based on the scattered wave scintillations in a telescope focus V. Institute of Atmospheric Optics (Russia). also experience distortions. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. The revealed effect should be taken into account when constructing the systems of adaptive optics aimed at functioning in strong turbulence • spie. 6747-20.Conference 6747: Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems than direct vision to achieve a clear distinction of the target characteristics. which is cut out by the field stop. Institute of Atmospheric Optics (Russia) We propose a modified approach [1. Konyaev. P. Nikolaeva. L. 114 spie. I. the wavefront sensor “sees” only a small part of the source corresponding to the area on the sky. Both the expression for the spatial temporal correlation function and spectrum and the algorithm of wind profiling based on the spatio-temporal spectrum of intensity of a wave scattered off an diffuse target are presented. Study of this effect is important for potential applications. the velocity divergence (dilatation) being zero. M. To investigate the features of the vortex aftereffect for simple field the light rays which take part in the combined translational and rotary motion of energy around the field zero-lines are constructed. Dokukina. M. Two kinds of initial conditions were used: (i) the vortical field was given. The broadening of averaged vortex beams does not depend on the vortex charge and coincides with the broadening of a Gaussian beam. N. The research develops on two planes: the first is the characterization of the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the image when the line of sight lies parallel to the ground. 2] to from a laser guide star (LGS) with a wide.V. like Gaussian beams.F. Bol’basova. Pavlova. formed in the plane of the LGS. 2. 1. Institute of Atmospheric Optics (Russia) We present some results obtained by numerical modeling of the propagation of vortex beams with a spiral phase through a randomly inhomogeneous medium being presented by a phase screen placed in the beginning of the propagation path. The phase reconstruction error increases in these areas in the process of wave front sensing. Institute of Solid State and Semiconductor Physics (Belarus). As in the vicinity of the vortex core the energy-stream line takes a spiral shape the phase incursion along the line increases. In all cases. The problem of compensation for turbulent distortions of a laser beam was solved. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations was reduced to the solution of integral equations of the Volterra type. 2002. 6747-21. USA. Shugaev. The result is the simulation of the evolution of the refractive index due to turbulence. S. Integration of the phase gradient along the ray or energystream line allows a unique value of the phase to be connected with a point of the ray. Since the linear size of the subaperture is approximately equal to the coherence radius. Bonaccini. the initial values of the density and temperature were constant. collimated laser beam launched through the full aperture of a telescope. A. “Laser beacon wave-front sensing without focal anisoplanatism”. P. O. V. Institute of Atmospheric Optics (Russia) The spatial dynamics of vortex dipole nested in a Gaussian optical beam is analyzed with scalar diffraction theory. V. Sukhorukov. T. Lukin.V. R. After the vortex annihilation and vanishing of the spiral shape the incursion remains and creates the vortex aftereffect in the form of the extreme wave front distortions. “Laser guide star with collimated laser beam for large aperture telescope”. Shtemenko. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. The knowledge of the resolving function indicates the way to the beam focusing in the turbulent atmosphere. 2006. The iterative procedure was used. the measured wavefront can be restored as a smooth phase function. Marakasov. A. Sennikov. Computer simulations performed under conditions of weak optical turbulence shown wind profiles reconstruction by the developed algorithm. It is shown that the generation and annihilation of vortices are accompanied by extreme wave front distortions. 6747-23.129. (ii) the velocity divergence was given. D. Session 4 New LGS for large aperture telescope L. M. Aksenov. A. causes partial backward-reflection. Khasanov. V. V. Session 4 Modelling of powerful light pulse propagation in air under backscattering conditions O. O. Army Research Lab. Buscher. Vorontsov. A. D. The phase is computed as a potential of the optical field using the light rays. Abstracts. D. The angular resolution and Strehl parameter were analyzed for the telescope working with the signal of the LGS. Session 3 On the problem of beam focusing in the turbulent atmosphere F. the initial data being random functions. A. The second is the development of the adaptive optics sensor and of the programs to achieve the requested performances. Lukin. Terentiev. 6747-18. E. A. Rochester. Hereby we present the idea of a new system based on the applications of the already successful concept of adaptive optics based on the use of wavefront sensors and deformable correcting mirrors to compensate the distortion. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . The turbulence was simulated with the aid of the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations. T. No. p. V. Myers. P. Banakh. After the vortex dipole annihilation the absolute values of the average and Gaussian curvatures increase greatly in the local areas of wave front. which occurs under beam propagation as well. (USA) Reconstruction of wind profile based on the turbulent spatiotemporal statistics of reflected optical wave focused by the receiving telescope is considered. Its longitudinal gradient. Such beams. Frontiers in Optics 2006. Optics Letters. The resolving function determines the necessary deformation of the mirror. We have done the analytical and numerical calculations of variances of the differences angular of arrival between a plane wave (signal from a natural star) and a set of identical spherical waves. A. P. The achievements the work in progress and the future plans are presented. 6747-22. A. V. (Russia) Two parts of the problem were analyzed. 6747-19. We also present calculated variances for high modal components of the phase fluctuation. if propagated under conditions of weak turbulence. Session 4 Effect of phase fluctuations on propagation of vortex beams P. Each of these spherical waves subtends the area of a separate subaperture at the telescope • spieeurope@spieeurope. Love. O. The problem is set in the infinite space. 27. Fedotova. Tikhomirova.

A. S. V. They result in decreasing the efficiency of light energy transportation and the distortion of information carried by laser beam. Forschungsanstalt der Bundeswehr fur Wasserschall und Geophysik (Germany). but are large over the higher latitude oceans. I. The removing of phase singularity from an optical vortex is demonstrated in the close-loop adaptive system including the bimorph deformable piezoceramics-based mirror. Poster Session Determination of evaporation duct heights by an inverse method H. A. (Russia). Dai. direction and altitude of the different turbulent layers detected in each of the five crosscorrelations. and the atmospheric coherence and the isoplanatic angle are relatively smaller in the winter hemisphere. the optical turbulence is weaker in the summer hemisphere. is strongly influenced by the actual atmospheric conditions. V. Application of the eikonal related to the nonlinear phase increment allows to reduce Maxwell equations to the set of equations of non-linear Schroedinger type for forward and backward (BW) waves. Our software has been design to analyse huge amounts of G-SCIDAR measurements. M. humidity and air • spieeurope@spieeurope. Session 4 Wavefront sensing of an optical vortex and its correction with the help of a bimorph mirror F. Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics (China) The forecasts of the optical turbulence in the marine surface layer were made in different seasons based on the numerical products of the numerical weather prediction model. A. Velocities derived from real G-SCIDAR observations are compared to the velocities provided by balloon measurements. which allow a prediction of the propagation factor using the parabolic equation algorithm. and the isoplanatic angle are small over the tropical oceans. de Nantes (France) The detection and tracking of naval targets. Simulation codes were developed in FORTRAN. but stronger in the winter hemisphere. Ltd. Saillard. García-Lorenzo. Li. H. Bourlier.Conference 6747: Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems In this work the nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort intense light pulse in atmosphere is investigated analytically and numerically. 3 t. and the atmospheric coherence length and the isoplanatic angle are generally relatively larger in the summer hemisphere. C. Foerster. The spectrum changes of the propagating beams are investigated. Fuchs. Maslov. Among another processes promoting BW generation we consider higher-order effects such as self-steepening (SS) and space-time self-focusing (STSF). Kochemasov. I. If the propagation path was the horizontal path 10m above the sea level. Kanev. Kudryashov. 6747-24. (Russia). RFNC-VNIIEF (Russia). J. the seasonal variations of the Rytov variance. Backscattering process is investigated in dependence on the ratio of input pulse power to critical one. FEPG. V. The ways of an identification of BW contribution to pulse propagation caused by each of above-mentioned processes such as the reflection from nonlinear focus. M. It was found that the seasonal variation of the optical turbulence was small over the tropical oceans. spie. The comparison and consistency of results in consecutive cross-correlations allow the determination of the velocity of turbulence layers and avoid misidentifications associated with noise and/or overlapping layers. ONERA (France). Sukharev. Poster Session Forecast of the optical turbulence in the marine surface layer based on the products of the numerical weather prediction model Y. 6747-32. The analysis is performed using wavelet and provides the position. The developed software takes into account the projection effects on the observing direction of the actual velocity vector of turbulence layers. Aksenov. Poster Session Determination of the velocity vector of turbulence layers from G-SCIDAR observations using an algorithm based on wavelet transforms B. We have developed a fully automated algorithm involving wavelet transforms to derive the wind velocity of atmospheric turbulent layers from Generalized SCIDAR measurements. F. the results can be combined in order to increase the accuracy of the inversion system. V. The sensing of phase front of the vortex laser beam has been carried out with the help of a Hartmann-Shack sensor. A. Essen. It is urgent to create the wavefront sensors with high measurement accuracy as well as the adaptive systems for correction of wavefront with screw dislocations acquired in the regime of strong scintillations. The intensity of BW is shown to reach more than 0. characterized mainly by air-sea temperature difference. In order to solve the equation system numerically. however. Adopt. Starikov. Ogorodnikov. Kulikov. • spie.1 of forward wave when above ratio exceeds 30:1. V. J. The vortex beam is generated in the form of a Laguerre-Gaussian beam (LG01 mode) with the help of the special helicoidal phase plates manufactured by the kinoform technology. SS and STSF are analysed. Izmailov. BIOFIL Ltd. S. RFNC-VNIIEF (Russia). W. Y. Here an inversion method to determine propagation factors is presented based upon data measured during the Vampira campaign conducted as a multinational approach over a transmission path across the Baltic Sea. The measured shifts of focal spots on the hartmannogram are compared with the calculated shifts. but much larger over the higher latitude oceans. 6747-26. atmospheric coherence length. G. Institute of Atmospheric Optics (Russia). The method is based on the LS-SVM (Least-Squares Support Vector Machines) theory and has already been validated on simulated data. The Rytov variance is generally relatively smaller. particularly over the eastern coast oceans in the north hemisphere. Y. The paper describes the experimental approach and discusses results achieved with the inversion method. N. Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain) The G-SCIDAR data massive processing for the determination of the magnitude and direction of the wind require an efficient and contrasted code. A. Adopt Ltd. From the measured wave front tilts the reconstruction of singular phase surface has been performed with using the novel reconstruction technique. Duvenois. including low RCS objects like inflatable boats or sea skimming missiles requires a thorough knowledge of the propagation properties of the maritime boundary layer. The algorithm makes use of five crosscorrelations of a series of scintillation patterns separated by lapses of t. The horizontal patterns of the forecasted surface optical turbulence are very similar to each other based on the two different products respectively from the two different numerical weather prediction models at the same time. but the horizontal pattern of the strength of the forecasted surface optical turbulence is much sharper based on the numerical weather prediction model with higher horizontal resolution. Malakhov. 2 t. (Russia). The focusing and defocusing processes are taking into account. We have applied the algorithm to simulated data with excellent results. Generally. Univ. • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 115 . F. but the Rytov variance is relatively larger. we introduced a mesh in spatio-temporal domain and approximated the initial task by the system of difference equations realized via iterative alternating direction method involving intermediate layer in z variable at propagation direction. RFNC-VNIIEF (Russia) One of key trends in the development of modern adaptive optical systems is connected with the correction of scintillation effects arising in laser beams at propagation through inhomogeneous medium. The beam exhibits a multifoci behaviour along the propagation axis. while the electron density equation was integrated by Runge-Kutta method. As the propagation factor has been measured on two reference reflectors at mounted onboard a naval vessel at different heights. International Science & Technology Ctr. FGAN-FHR (Germany). R. Fabbro. Models are in existence. pulse duration and its wavelength. N. This parameter. P. 6747-25. As a necessary input the refractive index of the atmosphere has to be known. Manachinsky. We take into account the photo-induced free-electron plasma generation (FEPG) at femtosecond time scale. Obtained equation set was solved by sweep technique combined with iterations. 4 t and 5 t. An approach was initiated to retrieve the vertical profile of the refractive index from sea clutter data. (Russia).

Defence Research and Development Canada (Canada) A multinational campaign was organized by the NATO Technical Group 32 to assess transmission in coastal environments: the Validation Measurements of propagation in IR and Radar (VAMPIRA) • spieeurope@spieeurope. San Diego (USA). at this the free electron number increases with increasing the beam topological charge. Delgado. CTSN (France). de Jong. The signals are then sampled by a fast automatic control system. Danish Defense Research Establishment (Denmark). Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (USA). O. The input beam power increase results in growth of defocusing factors related to the plasma domination. L. Hoegemann. is completely automated and it takes only a few seconds to process a full night of G-SCIDAR measurements. 6747-31. A. M. Seeing measurements obtained from turbulence profiles derived from G-SCIDAR observations and removing the dome contribution with our algorithm are in good agreement with seeing data obtained using DIMMs. The hybrid profiler has been installed at the Carlos Sanchez telescope at the Teide observatory. VAMPIRA comprised sessions where blackbodies mounted on a ship were tracked in the midwave and long-wave IR as the ship sailed away. Acernese. Forand. The spatial and temporal behavior of the turbulence structure is crucial for optimizing the efficiency of adaptive optic (AO) systems whose compensate from atmospheric distortions in the light from astronomical objects. We have performed the comparison and crosscalibration of data from these techniques obtained at the Teide Observatory. O. K. and sent to the deformable mirror. Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (Spain). while aerosol measurements were made on the pier using Particle Measurement Systems (PMS). E. Inc. The process of the electron plasma formation due to multiphoton ionisation in this case is responsible for a nonlocal character of the light. Poster Session Measurements of transmission in the visible and the IR in the coastal Baltic environment D. Poster Session Dome-seeing subtraction from G-SCIDAR measurements B. Smirnova. Moscow State Univ.matter interaction. degli Studi di Salerno (Italy) In this paper we present a prototype of an adaptive optics system for the control of geometrical fluctuations in a laser beam in air based on the interferometric detection of the beam phase front. Some VAMPIRA measurements have already been presented at SPIE. H. B. Germany. Y. F. M. Rodriguez Hernandez. We base on the numerical solution of the system of modified nonlinear (3+1)D Schrödinger equation for an electric field envelope and kinetic equation for free electron density. Barone. Nurun. Session 2: Simulation of high-intensive tubular pulsed beam propagation in air. SCIDAR and SODAR are two independent remotesensing techniques to characterize the turbulent atmospheric structure. the input parameters for the design of AO systems working with several deformable mirrors (Multi-conjugated AO) are determined through the statistical behavior of turbulence layers. Pezery. The main technique adopted for the control is based on the interferometric detection of phase-front fluctuations: the beam is made to interfere with a reference beam. García-Lorenzo. d. l. Gardenal. Transmision was measured in the IR and the visible using a diversity of techniques.V. and the phase difference is read by means of a pixellated photodiode. Stein. near Surendorf. which computes also the correction signals.. J. N. Tsintikidis. In particular. J. This may be the main factor for the attainment of vortex beam stability condition. Sukhorukov. H. Hernandez. Hurtaud. Dion. M. The variational approach predicts the vortex pulsed beam multifoci behavior when its input power is close to critical one and the loss is negligible. GarcíaLorenzo. Defense Research Establishment Valcartier Canada (Canada). from 27 March to 4 April • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . Romano. M. 6747-29. Institute of Solid State and Semiconductor Physics NASB (Belarus): A. The algorithm.Conference 6747: Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems 6747-27. D. Khasanov.power femtosecond vortex pulsed beam dynamics in atmosphere under large distance propagation at photoionization • spie. R. 6747-34. K. The purpose of this paper is to compare transmission measurements and make comparisons with transmissions that can be deduced from the blackbody tracking sessions. discussing the most important limits and estimating the possibility of future developments and improvements. C. Univ. degli Studi di Roma Tre (Italy). turbulence structure. The effect of delayed (Raman) contribution is considered. 6747-28. Furthermore. A. In the paper we show and discuss some experimental results of the technique. instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (Spain). Vogel. Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (Spain) We have built a hybrid turbulence profiler measuring simultaneously the atmospheric turbulence structure with a Shack-Hartmann wave front sensor and a G-SCIDAR (scintillation sensor). Space and Naval Warfare Systems Ctr. based on the parity of functions. Jimenez Fuensalida. Ctr. Y. We show that this technique is of particular interest when high sensitivity and high band-pass are required for correction of small perturbations. favouring the establishment of a quasi-soliton regime of radiation propagation over a distance exceeding several diffraction lengths. VAMPIRA was conducted in the Baltic. d’Expertise Parisien (France). (Russia) We study high. Grasso. Petukh. Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain). The interaction of a singular pulsed beam with nonlinear dielectric medium stipulates higher plasma densities in comparison with gaussian pulsed beams. Poster Session The hybrid Shack-Hartmann/G-SCIDAR instrument M. Poster Session Atmospheric turbulence profiling at the Teide Observatory: comparison and calibration of SODAR and SCIDAR measurements B. B. Univ. (Canada). The competition of Kerr nonlinearity and plasma defocusing is taken into account. 6747-30. Transmissometers were installed across the Bay. The GSCIDAR arm is already working properly and we are still testing the Shack-Hartmann arm. Forschungsgesellschaft für Angewandte Naturwissenschaften e. Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain) We have developed an algorithm to eliminate the dome seeing contribution to turbulence profiles derived from G-SCIDAR data. L. Fedotova. properly obtained. TNO (Netherlands). T. This is the first instrument combining two different techniques and measuring simultaneously the 116 spie. J. Poster Session Adaptive optics system prototype for the automatic control of geometrical fluctuations in a laser beam in air S. Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain) The atmospheric optics is of relevant importance for the modern astronomy due to the excellent image quality requirements of current projects. Vazquez Ramio. H. (Germany). and visibilitymeters and particle volume monitors (PVM) were deployed on the coast and on a ship. F. García-Lorenzo.

Spectral information is then added from a co-registered coarse spatial resolution multispectral image. However. Royal Belgian Military Academy (Belgium) INTRODUCTION The availability of very high resolution satellite images has enabled the automatic detection of man-made structures of large areas for applications such as damage assessment or change detection. Scheunders. Chan. We tested on both synthetic and real data. Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (Belgium). showing the rapidity of the approach. Short segments are filtered out. Younan. Due to a limited number of pixels accross track and a maximum amount of storage onboard. Session 1 Superresolution techniques for remote sensing applications P. However. On the other hand. The implementation is simple. L. Building segments are clearly highlighted thanks to their height attribute while building shadow cast on the ground. APPROACH Important cues for buildings in 1-m satellite images are linear edges corresponding to roof limits or ridges and shadow casts. A matching pair is given a confidence equal to the average of the left and right segment mean edge magnitudes. The disparity of an area of 1Mpixel was processed in about 1 second. Current PCA-based pan-sharpening methods make an assumption that the first principal component (PC) of high variance is an ideal choice for replacing or injecting it with high spatial details from the high-resolution histogram-matched panchromatic (Pan) image. This paper proposes a new method to improve the quality of the resultant images that are obtained using the PCA-based pansharpening methods. stereo pairs of Ikonos or Quickbird images allow the estimation of the third dimension so distinctive for buildings and responsible for artifacts complicating traditional 2D approaches. A linearity criteria based on the minimal inertia moment is applied to keep strongly linear segments. b) Segment disparity Linear segments of the left and right images are paired according to their (vertical) mutual coverage. 6748-03. a single image with improved spatial resolution can be created. This allowed for a considerable increase in spatial resolution while maintaining good image quality. The pan-sharpened image obtained by the proposed method is evaluated using well-known quality indexes. Non-paired linear segments are possibly associated to a building supported by a disparity segment based on proximity and parallelism or perpendicularity. This approach is based on adaptively selecting the PC required to be replaced or injected with high spatial details. A first image data set was acquired with a digital camera of 120 frames per second. several restrictions apply. in remote sensing. Vrije Univ. Disparity estimation along linear edges saves unnecessary computations. Debacker. • spie. Other important linear edges relate to ground objects like roads or parking lots. Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (Belgium). Canters. their orientation and the (horizontal) disparity range specified as parameter and roughly known from the image set. Bertels. P. L. This limits the number of tracks and thus the area that can be covered. Brussel (Belgium). N. Session 1 Building detection from disparity of edges C.Conference 6748: Image and Signal Processing for Remote Sensing Tuesday-Thursday 18-20 September 2007 Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. Another tradeoff that is typically encountered in airborne sensors. The limited integration time does not allow to acquire data with a maximum number of spectral bands at the highest spatial resolution. Unmatched segments in the vicinity of elevated segments are potentially used for additional assessment of building presence or building completion. data transformation is performed before performing pan-sharpening. superresolution techniques increase the spatial resolution if a number of overlapping images is available. In particular. Hence. Several hundreds of frames (images) were obtained over the same scene. B. Shah. In this case. Several techniques have been proposed to improve the image data quality. Univ. Beumier. CONCLUSION We presented an efficient building detection based on the disparity of corresponding linear segments of a Ikonos stereo pair. Session 1 An adaptive PCA-based approach to pansharpening • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 117 . experiments show that the low-resolution first PC is not always an ideal choice. An edge following procedure based on orientation and magnitude groups edge pixels into thin segments. a) Linear segments Both images of a stereo pair are first preprocessed to obtain the gradient magnitude and orientation at each pixel. overlapping images are only available from multiple acquisitions during different overpasses or using multi-angular viewing satellites such as CHRIS (Compact High Resolution 6748-02. King. In particular spaceborne sensors acquire imagery in lines (pushbroom or whiskbroom). Mississippi State Univ. We tested this technique for urban applications such as the detection of house fronts. Since the areas to be studied are quite large we propose a simple. c) Segment selection Segments possessing a disparity with high confidence are easily classified as building or non building thanks to the corresponding height. Kempeneers. The remaining segments are precisely approximated by a line with sub-pixel localization. All buildings of interest were detected by the approach. concerns spectral and spatial resolution. R. Pan-sharpening is an image fusion technique that is used when a high spatial resolution image with low spectral information is available (typically a panchromatic image). while observation angles were only slightly different. If the sub-pixel shift can be estimated accurately enough. fast and accurate approach for building detection which computes the disparity at pixels of sufficient gradient and highlights linear segments so representative of building outlines. Pairing segments to estimate disparity has the additional advantage of tackling nearly horizontal segments which are poorly addressed when the disparity is estimated by single pixels due spie. we not used to such high frame rates. The disparity of corresponding linear segments offers a robust discrimination of building candidates relative to other objects. 6748 Image and Signal Processing for Remote Sensing XIII 6748-01. a satellite sensor can only acquire data with high spatial resolution at the cost of a small coverage (swath). F. The objective of this study is to reveal most of these restrictions. J. mounted on an airborne platform (helicopter). Vrije Univ. Univ. roads and fields are rejected. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been a popular choice for spectral transformation of low-resolution multispectral images. We perform building detection or verification thanks to the localization of linear edge segments in stereo pairs. S. linearity and disparity. Candidate segments are filtered based on length. It was applied to the detection of buildings for change detection or damage assessment. APPLICATION The approach was applied to the case of building detection in a stereo pair of Ikonos images of the Bagdad region in the context of GMOSS European network of excellence. increasing the complexity at different stages. C. The sub-pixel precision of linear segments allows for the fine disparity estimation. Results show that the proposed algorithm increases the quality of the resultant fused images when compared to the standard approach. (USA) A pixel in multispectral images is highly correlated with the neighboring pixels both spatially and spectrally. fast while allowing subpixel • spieeurope@spieeurope. The problem with airborne acquisition is merely its high cost. However. Antwerpen (Belgium) Most remote sensing applications have to deal with tradeoffs that exists in satellite or airborne sensors. Antwerpen (Belgium). Brussel (Belgium). H. to the horizontal confusion.

. Wavelet transforms are applied to the difference image in order to generate multiscale observations of the image itself. Ten lectures on wavelets. Different superresolution algorithms were implemented for this purpose. H. D. but also to be more affected by noise. Another aspect of our study was to investigate the reliability of the spectral information in the reconstructed image. References: Daubechies. Both accuracy and the delineation of class boundaries were assessed. greatly improves the discrimination capability of the classifier. C. degli Studi di Trento (Italy) see attached file 118 spie.. Proc. Dubes. but also a greater immunity to noise. Session 1 A multiscale joint segmentation technique for multitemporal and multisource remote sensing images L.: 1993. under mild assumptions. IEEE Trans. S. the performance of a classifier was tested on both the original and reconstructed image. of the number of extracted observation scales. “The Expectation-Maximization Algorithm”. the iterative expectation-maximization algorithm is adopted (Storvik et al. Geosci. 2) again multivariate Gaussian model for the multiband optical images and multivariate log-normal distribution for the SAR images. I. An MRF approach is adopted to fuse the information conveyed by the multiscale data. L. noise level. or environmental disaster prevention and management. Session 2 Multiscale unsupervised change detection by Markov random fields and wavelet transforms S. the MRF-based approach proposed in (Storvik et al. 1996). Chang. 6748-05. Serpico. such as segmentation and restoration (Dubes et al. MRFs are adopted since they allow both the contextual and the multiscale information to be integrated in the detection process by using suitably defined “energy functions. Galli.. a detailed experimental analysis is carried out by analyzing the impact on the detection accuracy of the choice of the specific adopted wavelet transform. for multivariate normal and lognormal distribution both the GL distance and Bhattacharyya distance are analyzed. 13:47-60. Univ. 16-131-163. each highlighting the image content at a given observation scale (Daubechies. Jain. Bovolo. which is a usual choice for unsupervised change-detection problems involving remotesensing optical imagery. Melgani. F. One of objectives was to apply the superresolution techniques to hyperspectral imagery. and different observation angles that apply for the different methodologies.A. For gamma distribution. “Random field model in image analysis”. degli Studi di Genova (Italy) Multitemporal remote-sensing images represent a powerful source of information for monitoring the evolution of the state of the Earth surface. Fjortoft. R. Mag. G.. a multiscale contextual unsupervised changedetection method is proposed.: 2005. Here. E. where spectral signatures must be conserved. In this paper. the other hand. We will show the results on the available image data and present the requirements on coregistration. pp. “A Bayessian approach to classification of multiresolution remote sensing data”. On 6748-06. 2005) that addresses estimation problems characterized by data incompleteness and that converges. 1992. Serpico S. like remote sensing images. B. 405-426. which provides an effective fusion of a sequence of multitemporal single-channel SAR images of a given area with multispectral optical images over the same target area. R. In order to generate accurate change maps. the generalized-likelihood (GL) distance is used. Appl. Avolio. World Scientific Publishing. which has been proved to be effective for the segmentation of data. Moser. To this purpose. Relevant accuracy improvements are also obtained as compared to the results provided by a previously proposed single-scale approach (Moser et al. Stat. S. From this viewpoint. (Italy) We developed a new hierarchical joint segmentation technique. Univ. forest monitoring. Angiati.. while. Wavelets provide a two-dimensional multiresolution signal decomposition that allows the input (difference) image to be expanded as the superposition of several components. K. in Frontiers of Remote Sensing Information Processing. They convey a great potential for applications like environmental monitoring. The method adopts an image-differencing strategy. G. An MRF provides an effective way for blending information about local spatial interaction into a global framework. T. It is based on a fast multi-scale iterated weighted aggregation • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . Moon. a multiscale approach can be adopted. we generalize the weighted aggregation method to multitemporal SAR and multisource optical remote sensing data. Moreover. B. To this purpose. Remote Sensing. Passaro.. any desired classification schema can be applied after the segmentation step on the identified homogeneous regions. Results show that the proposed joint segmentation technique. which allows the full exploitation of the spatial-temporal information available in the multitemporal and multisource data. MRFs permit the introduction of spatial context into pixel labelling problems. K. combined with even simple classification methods. • spieeurope@spieeurope. The proposed change-detection method is validated by experiments on real optical satellite images. In this paper.. that are to be estimated before detection. SIAM. Solberg. a multiscale approach.” Specifically. exploiting the information at coarser scales to globally identify change areas and the information at finer scales to improve the accuracy of detection of the details. 2003. A. Marchesi. and it allows identifying regions that are homogeneous with respect to the whole data set (both optical and multitemporal SAR images). In both cases.. Advanced Computer Systems • spie. G.p. Moser. S. The images at the finest scales are likely to highlight many geometrical details.. in which several images at different scales are computed and used for change-detection purposes. in which the wavelet and Markov random field (MRF) approaches are combined to integrate the information conveyed by different scales. a relevant task is the identification of the changes that occur in a given monitored area between two distint observation dates. 2005) for multiresolution image classification is adopted and combined with the above-mentioned wavelet and imagedifferencing processing steps in order to extend it to multiscale change-detection. editor: C.. Specifically. Storvik. In this context.: 1996. urban studies. data at coarser scales present less precise geometrical details. Finally. IEEE Sig. 6748-04. which present heterogeneous multiscale properties. H. This MRF model is characterized by several internal parameters. J. 2003). and of the spatial contextual constraints related to Markov modelling. 43:539-547. A quantitative analysis of the proposed joint segmentation technique for the fusion of multitemporal SAR and multispectral optical images is carried out using real images.. “Advances in unsupervised change detection”. A. the number of overlapping images is restricted to only a fraction of high speed frame cameras. 1993). to maximum-likelihood estimates of the unknown parameters (Moon.. may represent an effective choice. 1992). the effect of different observation angles increases the complexity of image coregistration. Session 2 An adaptive parcel-based technique robust to registration noise for change detection in multitemporal VHR images F. including POCS (Projection onto convex sets) and IBP (Iterative Back Projection). considering two different joint statistical models: 1) multivariate Gaussian model for the multiband optical images and gamma distribution for the SAR images. The proposed segmentation method is totally unsupervised.Conference 6748: Image and Signal Processing for Remote Sensing Imaging Spectrometer) or MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer).

simulated annealing and GibbsMarkov spatial-spectral clustering. Wu. J. change from no-change observations. Results of the comparison will be presented. In order to fully use the statistical a priori knowledge of the polarimetric SAR data and the spatial relation between neighboring pixels. where N is the dimensionality of the data (number of multispectral bands). K. With Algorithms for ENVI/IDL. Although the ICM has good robustness and fast convergence. of Defense Technology (China) There is richer information contained in fully polarimetric SAR • spieeurope@spieeurope. Conradsen.93 for the NDVI. Canty. Maison de la teledetection (France) Time series of satellite images acquired with high spatial resolution are an important source of information for change detection and trend analysis in the agricultural domain. L. J. the MAD variates have nice statistical properties. [5] C. Bruzzone. Danmarks Tekniske Univ. followed by pairwise subtraction of the canonical variates [1]. a number of strategies are investigated to improve computation efficiency: sub-sampling of the MAD variates. Y. 64:1—19. In the case of the clustering alternative. de València (Spain). i. three strategies can be identified: (1) In [2] the MAD variates are standardized at each iteration step in the usual way by dividing them by their standard deviations. For example they are mutually uncorrelated and invariant under affine transformations of the original data. referred to as the MAD variates. so a Wishart-based ML is used to obtain the initial segmentation map. differences between the normalized temporal profiles of the NDVI were still noticed. Springer. Univ. Bovolo. Ji. Simpson. The comparison showed a good correlation between methods: the coefficient of determination values are greater than 0. [1] A. Improved automatic radiometric normalization of multitemporal satellite imagery. The parameters of the mixture model may be estimated with the EM algorithm [5]. Good results are observed both with linear and radial basis function (RBF) kernels in two complex change detection real multispectral problems. Session 2 Investigation of alternative iteration schemes for the IR-MAD algorithm M. of the two images. These differences can lead to different interpretation on crop development and can have an impact of the biomass estimation. The next step is to test a third method that processes an absolute atmospheric correction followed by a relative correction. In fact. dimensionality reduction with the MAF • spie. It permits to retrieve the Top Of Canopy reflectance from the Top Of Atmosphere reflectance. A. degli Studi di Trento (Italy) This paper proposes a maximum-margin support vector method for change detection based on change vector analysis (CVA). 2007 [3] M. A. G. In this study. Several frequently used feature vectors and segmentation methods are investigated. (3) As an alternative to assigning weights on the basis of chi-square values. it is easily affected by initial conditions.and hyperspectral data. A. Exploiting the information to improve accuracy is important in segmentation of fully polarimetric SAR images. The relative correction method consists in isolating points of the image with constant reflectance through time and in establishing calibration equations between a reference date and the other dates. Normalization results are compared on sugarcane fields. An ambiguity arises in the method to be used to determine nochange probabilities on each iteration. Nielsen. 6748-08. Remote Sensing of Environment. In • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 119 . Su. (Denmark) The Multivariate Alteration Detection (MAD) algorithm consists of a canonical correlation analysis of two co-registered. In the present contribution these different re-weighting schemes are compared quantitatively on the basis of partially simulated change/no-change observations as well as with real multispectral imagery. and J. The absolute correction method is performed by using 6S model. For a quantitative use of these data. degli Studi di Trento (Italy). 16(2):463—478. Image Analysis. Session 2 Radiometric normalization of high spatial resolution multitemporal imagery: a comparison between relative and absolute correction methods M. Specifically. Univ. Canty. 6748-38. Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning. The methods were tested using a Spot 4&5 time series belonging to the KALIDEOS-ISLE database. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. El Hajj. [4] M. consequently the statistical a priori spie. 2006. Bishop. again after each iteration. for clustering on the basis of a probability mixture model. J. Our work concerns the sugarcane monitoring on Reunion Island using multi-temporal imagery. Multivariate alteration detection (MAD) and (MAF) post-processing in multispectral. Poster Session Segmentation of multi-look fully polarimetric SAR images based on Wishart distribution and MRF Y. and is 0. built up by the CNES.91 for all the bands. J. Nielsen. National Univ. Camps-Valls. multi-resolution clustering. the nochange probabilities can be used directly for iterative reweighting. Canty and A. The method is automatic and unsupervised. W. relative and absolute radiometric normalization methods are compared. and the MAD transformation is repeated. as these should more closely reflect the statistics of the no-change observations. and the most effective iteration scheme will be recommended. M. multior hyper-spectral images. have the desirable property of ordering the change information in the bitemporal data according to similarity. In particular. radiometric normalization is necessary. submitted for publication to IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Classification. A. we propose to apply the support vector domain description (SVDD) classifier to deal with high dimensional spectral change vectors (SCVs). The differences. one can apply. compared with single polarization. [2] A. since the EM algorithm is slow to converge for large datasets. the image observations are weighted according to their probability of no change as determined by the chi-square distribution. Moreover. (2) In [3] and [4] it is suggested to standardize with respect to the standard deviations determined from the eigenvalues of the canonical correlation for the reweighted data. and a novel method is proposed for segmenting multi-look fully polarimetric SAR images. the sum of the squares of the standardized MAD variates is approximately chisquare distributed with N degrees of freedom. However. The aim is to examine whether a relative normalisation method can replace an absolute radiometric correction. Session 2 An unsupervised method for maximum margin change vector analysis F. A. a clustering algorithm to discriminate 6748-09. 6S needs atmosphere characterization at satellite acquisition times. Nielsen. 2006. the Wishart distribution of the covariance matrix is integrated with the Markov random field model. and Change Detection in Remote Sensing. Bégué. 1998. correlation.e. Taylor and Francis. bitemporal image data: New approaches to change detection studies. The imagery (ASTER and LANDSAT TM) is obtained under ground cover conditions exhibiting wide variations in the amount of change present. This provides a better background of no change against which to measure change [2]. The regularized iteratively reweighted MAD method for change detection in multi. In [2] advantage was taken of the latter property to propose an iterative re-weighting scheme (IR-MAD) to further enhance the change information. This procedure is found to give improved results when the MAD transformation is used for radiometric normalization [3]. A. Nielsen. The procedure is iterated until no further change is observed in the canonical correlations. and then the iterative conditional modes (ICM) algorithm is taken to implement the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation of pixel labels. This method doesn’t require exogenic data. K. In this scheme. Yu.Conference 6748: Image and Signal Processing for Remote Sensing 6748-07. and provides stable results with regard the Bayesian threshold selection method.. Univ.

Poster Session A new algorithm for filling the depressions in massive DEM data J. The adopted approach is based on image processing techniques rather than on cloud micro-physical knowledge. the new approach just scanned the remaining data needed to be further processed.Conference 6748: Image and Signal Processing for Remote Sensing knowledge can be exploited more completely in the initial segmentation procedure. and then sets the category value to each cell of a category as its quartile except boundary ones. Poster Session A new algorithm to determine flow direction using grid digital elevation models and its application in computing topographical index J. was many times. there were no 6748-46. which process DEM data straightforward without utilizing the topographical features implied in the data. S. ten 90mÅ~90m USGS DEMs. Furthermore. which again showed its superiority over prior ones. Institut Fresnel (France). restore its initial value if its initial value is larger than or equal to the sum of its neighbor’s and ∆H(where ∆H is a tiny number). As a result. as well as integrated filling depressions with determining flow directions. This new method notably improved both filling depressions algorithm and determining flow directions algorithm. This detection and masking is necessary for land studies from remote sensing data. Andre. even thousands of times faster than the exiting algorithms.e. Le Hegarat-Mascle. which depends on the algorithm used to compare and the size of DEMs. due to full consideration of the statistical a priori knowledge of the polarimetric data and the spatial relation between adjacent pixels. This newly proposed • Tel: +44 (0)29 2089 4747 . As expected. The algorithm is parameterized by only three parameters that are rather robust since their value was kept identical for the processing of all the 39 SPOT/HRVIR images considered that 120 spie. ranging from 1201Å~1201cells to 12001Å~12001 cells in size. cause a new problem since it cost additional time. 6748-45. Moreover. and it was especially true for massive DEM data. with the advent of remote sensing projects such as SRTM. Bourennane. Ghorbel. i. instead of scanning all the cells in the matrix of DEM data. 6748-44. which depends on the algorithm used to compare and the size of DEMs. F. C. vegetation and soil moisture monitoring. Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale (France) and Univ. and it is especially true for a hydrologic model for emergency decision. Institute of Atmospheric Physics (China) Abstract: Previous research has almost universally recognized that depressions in DEM data are the major obstacle of determining hydrologic flow directions. of Manouba (Tunisia). categorizes the initial DEM data into eight groups according to the elevation values in each cell of the DEM with the quartile classification method. such as land cover / land use classification. of Manouba (Tunisia) To limit the impact of stationarity of Markov models on change detection results. 6748-43. It is innovative because. and the filled data were all stored in one of the stacks. The proposed approach is compared with other five ones. Secondly. Poster Session Unsupervised SAR images change detection with hidden Markov chains on a sliding window Z. The new algorithm is fully detailed and a pseudo-code is provided. which had to scan all the cells in the DEM matrix one by one. we propose a new Hidden Markov Chain (HMC) model on a sliding window. For studies of the land cover changes. Furthermore. the topographical indices of Hanjiang watershed and Jinghe basin were computed using 90mÅ~90m USGS DEMs. Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (France) In this study. evaluated on 10Å~100 random surfaces which were generated using the fractal theory and the two-dimensional inverse Fourier method. which makes massive DEM data available. however. by employing two stacks to store them. the total cells and scanning times were dramatically decreased due to stack’s nature of “first in last out”. are used in experiments. A new innovative approach was proposed and presented in this study. were employed to test this new method. Multitel (Belgium). first of all. flat areas in the DEM and hence all cells can be easily designated a flow direction. As a result. acquired by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR sensor. 2002) and compared to other Markov models (with the Kullback-Leibler divergence as detector). Institute of Atmospheric Physics (China) Previous research has almost universally recognized that depressions in DEM data are the major obstacle of determining hydrologic flow directions. Paris Sud (France). Institut Fresnel (France) In this paper we propose to segment images with a new model called Fuzzy Pairwise Markov Chain (Fuzzy-PMC) with is the combination of previously published Fuzzy HMC and PMC models. such as C-mean method and that based on the multivariate Gaussian distribution. The Univ. However. cloud shadows and mist present on optical remote sensing images such as SPOT/HRVIR ones. which were based on the new method and conventional methods respectively. This model is applied to detect change between two SAR images (Nyiragongo Volcano. Xu. the accurate masking of cloud and their shadows is even more critical since the actual changes generally represent only a small percentage of the whole scene. as well as less isolated pixels and better connectivity. The proposed algorithm. However. Derrode. is many times. Poster Session Reduced false alarm automatic detection of clouds and shadows on SPOT images using simultaneous estimation S. The Univ. Numerous methods were proposed to tackle this problem. evaluated on 10Å~100 random surfaces which were generated using the fractal theory and the two-dimensional inverse Fourier method. and their overestimation (due to cloud or shadow presence) is at once important relatively to the actual percentage of changes. from the category of the minimum quartile to the one of the maximum. One is the L-band image of Flevoland. The new algorithm is fully detailed and a pseudo-code was provided in the present paper. the conventional approaches failed to process filling depressions and determining flow directions as a whole so that they are too time-consuming and inefficient in calculating topographical index. another is the L-band image of San Francisco. It • spieeurope@spieeurope. even thousands of times faster than the existing ones. The new method’s practical computation time. A new method is presented here. The Netherlands. C. unlike the traditional method. Bouyahia. Numerous methods were proposed to tackle this problem. So far. higher segmentation accuracy is obtained using the novel method. the new method employs two stacks to store the remaining data needed to be further processed. The interest of such an algorithm is to better model transitions between segmented classes in the case of fuzzy gradations between areas in images. To eliminate the new problem. it first categorizes the DEM data into eight groups by an imagery category technique. unlike all existing methods. Poster Session Fuzzy pairwise Markov chain and copulas for non-Gaussian image segmentation • spie. Ecole Nationale Superieure (France). which was very useful for computing terrain slope and in turn for calculating topographical index. Also. Carincotte. 6748-42. Two famous multi-look fully polarimetric SAR images. else sets its value to the minimum of its neighbor value if its quartile value is larger than its neighbor’s and continue this process until the depressions are filled in the original DEM. the conventional approaches become time-consuming and inefficient in dealing with the massive data. another novel algorithm is proposed in this paper so as to categorize the data as quickly as possible. and stores the new values in a transient matrix. Xu. The result also suggested its superiority over the existing ones. the total cells and scanning times are dramatically decreased due to stack’s good nature: “first in last out”. scan the transient matrix from the outside to inside of the matrix. S. Derrode. we propose an automatic approach for detecting and masking clouds.

we divide the whole image into sub-images with the same size as the first step. To detect the image texture main orientation. Ding. with low temporal resolution observation. obtaining the covariance matrix by using the Fourier transform Spectrum to weight the coordinate. then getting the texture main orientation by PCA).Compared to the above conventional 3D coding methods. So a new algorithm with rectangle loops Fourier spectral energy percentage is proposed by analyzing the conjugate symmetry of Fourier transform. Poster Session Hyperpectral image compression using KLT and adaptive directional wavelet transform J. Here. The SVM is employed as our Classifier. the target’s kinematic states cannot be estimated accurately and the classic Kalman filtering algorithms are no more applicable. this paper proposes a water wake recognition method based on orientation fourier power spectrum and Support Vector Machines (SVM). improve the traditional method which use the Principal Components Analysis and the Fourier transform Spectrum to obtain the orientations of every sumimages from their fourier power spectrum. detect lines using Hough transform and judge whether there is a wake in the whole image. MIR and green band measurements are approximately linearly linked. The shadow is then estimated using a growing region technique from a germ pixel (those having the minimum value) within the estimation of the translated cloud Ct. which can overcome changes in target’s pose and imaging viewpoint. because of its good generalization performance. Then. which is to determine if the information from two or more images are related to the same target and should be fused together. its performance was evaluated. its shadow location is obtained minimizing the average value of the MIR values of the pixels corresponding to the translation of the considered cloud pixel along d direction. (iii) Knowing the acquisition geometry. for example 3DSPECK and AT-3DSPIHT . In the algorithm. Secondly. The experiments demonstrate that the new algorithm can reflect the texture features of the image with different frequencies better. Because the symmetry of Fourier transform spectrum. To solve the problem. Because the sub-image sample of wake texture is of orientation in evidence. especially for dataset with small number of samples in high dimensional feature space. The value influence of image Fourier transform Spectrum upon image texture orientation is ignored. on soil/vegetation surfaces. D. and each rectangle loops of the frequency domain is divided into four segments by the image texture main orientation. from previous cloud detection. (ii) Second shadows are estimated from MIR image. the ACM is constructed based on the dissimilarities of MSA feature matching between any target pairs from two images respectively. then. acquiring more accurate result of target recognition. The two last features allow the mutual validation of cloud and shadow detections. our method makes use of three principal cloud/shadow features that allow the reduction of the false alarm rate: (i) Clouds (or shadows) can be viewed as connex objects (once for detection it is no matter to consider as different clouds the different connex parts of a cloud). Pan. image feature-based single target association algorithms cannot deal with the illegibility arising from multiple targets association. and landscapes. it is very important to detect the texture orientation features for