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Julie Nguyen Research paper TOPIC: Crohn’s disease Crohn’s disease is a condition where the bowels are inflamed

more specifically the lining of you digestive tract, called inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This can lead to flare-ups or extreme inflammation. The diagnosis of Crohn's disease is suspected in patients with fever, abdominal pain and tenderness, diarrhea with or without bleeding, and prior anal diseases. Laboratory blood tests may show elevated white blood cell counts and sedimentation rates, both of which suggest infection or inflammation. Other blood tests may show low red blood cell counts (also called anemia), low blood proteins, and low body minerals. The reflecting loss of these minerals is due to chronic diarrhea. To be certain of Crohn’s disease patients can undergo a series of test such as direct visualization (colonoscopy) or x-ray scanning (CAT or CT), also, a video capsule endoscopy(VCE) can also be used. A VCE is a small camera the size of a large vitamin that periodically takes pictures as it passes through the intestinal tract. The population that is most affect is both men and women. The are equally likely to be affected, and while the disease can occur at any age, Crohn's is more prevalent among adolescents and young adults between the ages of 15 and 35. The exact cause of Crohn's disease remains unknown. Previously, diet and stress were suspected, but now doctors know that although these factors may aggravate existing Crohn's disease, it is now known that it isn’t the main source of it. Now, researchers believe that a number of factors, such as heredity and a malfunctioning immune system, play a role in the development of Crohn's disease.

Julie Nguyen Research paper In the immune system, it's possible that a virus or bacterium may trigger Crohn's disease. When your immune system tries to fight off the invading microorganism, an abnormal immune response causes the immune system to attack the cells in the digestive tract, too. Heredity could also be at fault for developing Crohn’s disease. Crohn's is more common in people who have family members with the disease, leading experts to suspect that having specific one or more genes may make people more susceptible to Crohn's disease. However, most people with Crohn's disease don't have a family history of the disease. To treat Crohn’s disease, you can use a number of things. An anti-inflammatory such as Corticosteroids can help reduce inflammation anywhere in your body, but they have numerous side effects, including a puffy face, excessive facial hair, night sweats, insomnia and hyperactivity. More-serious side effects include high blood pressure, diabetes, osteoporosis, bone fractures, cataracts, glaucoma and an increased susceptibility to infections. Long-term use of corticosteroids in children can lead to stunted growth. You can also take immune system suppressors, like Adalimumab (Humira). This works similarly to infliximab by blocking TNF for people with moderate to severe Crohn's disease. It can be used soon after you're diagnosed if you have a fistula, or if you have more severe Crohn's disease. It also may be used after other medications have failed to improve your symptoms. Adalimumab may be used instead of infliximab or certoluzimab pegol, or it can be used if infliximab or certoluzimab pegol stop working. Adalimumab may reduce the signs and symptoms of Crohn's disease and may cause remission.

Julie Nguyen Research paper And antibiotics are always an option. For example, Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) can improve symptoms in some people with Crohn's disease, it is now generally preferred over metronidazole. But a rare side effect of this medication is tendon rupture. To help prevent Crohn’s disease, you can change your diet with: o Limit dairy products o Try low-fat foods o Experiment with fiber o Consider taking multivitamins o Avoid “gassy” foods o Eat smaller meals o Drink plenty of liquids

SOURCES: http://www.mayoclinic.org/Research/Research%20Home/search/searchresults?q=crohn%27s+disease&site=site-search Wardlaw, Gordon, Anne Smith, and Angela Collene.contemporary nutrition . 2013. 288. Print. papadakis, M., mcphee, S., & rabow, M. (2014). Current medical diagnosis and treatment 2014. american medical association. American medical association family medical guide (ama family medical guide). (4th ed.). John Wiley & Sons Inc. maxwell, R. W. (2011). Maxwell quick medical reference. (6th ed.). Maxwell Publising Company.