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# Math 109b - Problem Set 5 Evan Dummit

4.3.3.
K Hu, vL =

By

equations
=
I E G- F 2 M 1
2

e g- f 2 E G- F 2

AHxu , xv , xu u L ÿ Hxu , xv , xv v L - Hxu , xv , xu v L2 E.

3.3.2

and

3.3.4

of

Docarmo,

for

any

surface

S,

For xHu, vL = Hu cos v, u sin v, ln uL, one has xu = Hcos v, sin v, 1 ê uL, xv = H- u sin v, u cos v, 0L, xu u = I0, 0, - 1 ë u2 M,
F = 0, G = u2 , implying that K Hu, vL =
I1+u2 M 1

xu v = H- sin v, cos v, 0L, xv v = H- u cos v, - u sin v, 0L. So H xu , xv , xu u L = - 1 ê u, H xu , xv , xu v L = 0, Hxu , xv , xv v L = u, E = 1 + 1 ë u2 ,
2

AH- 1 ê uL u + 02 E = -

I1+u2 M

1

2

.

For x Hu, vL = Hu cos v, u sin v, vL, one has x u = Hcos v, sin v, 0L, x v = H- u sin v, u cos v, 1L, x u u = H0, 0, 0L, x u v = H- sin v, cos v, 0L, x v v = H- u cos v, - u sin v, 0L. So Hxu , xv , xu u L = 0, Hxu , xv , xu v L = 1, Hxu , xv , xv v L = 0, E = 1, F = 0, G = 1 + u2 , implying that
K Hu, vL =
I1+u2 M 1
2

ÿ I0 ÿ 0 - 12 M = -

I1+u2 M

1

2

.

So the Gaussian curvatures at xHu, vL and x Hu, vL are equal. However, as E = Xxu , xu \ = 1 + 1 ë u2 but E = X x u , x u \ = 1, x ë x-1 does not preserve the first fundamental form and hence is not an isometry. Thus the converse of Gauss' Theorema Egregium is false. 4.3.9. The sphere consists entirely of elliptic points ( K > 0 everywhere), the cylinder consists entirely of parabolic points ( K = 0 everywhere), and the saddle consists entirely of hyperbolic points ( K < 0 everywhere). Then by the contrapositive of Gauss' Theorema Egregium, none of these surfaces can be pairwise locally isometric, since their Gaussian curvatures are different because negative numbers are different from positive numbers and from zero (...duh). Explicitly: K Hu, vL =
I E G- F 2 M 1

2

AHxu , xv , xu u L ÿ Hxu , xv , xv v L - Hxu , xv , xu v L2 E for any regular surface, as noted above.

For the saddle parametrized by Iu, v, u2 - v2 M, xu = H1, 0, 2 uL, xv = H0, 1, - 2 vL, xu u = H0, 0, 2L, xu v = H0, 0, 0L, xv v = H0, 0, - 2L, so
K Hu, vL =
AI1+4 u2 M I1+4 v2 M+4 u vE 1
2

I2 ÿ H- 2L - 02 M = -

AI1+4 u2 M I1+4 v2 M+4 u vE

4

2

< 0.

For the cylinder parametrized by Hr cos u, r sin u, vL, xu = H- r sin u, r cos u, 0L, xv = H0, 0, 1L, xu u = H- r cos u, - r sin u, 0L,
xu v = xv v = H0, 0, 0L so K Hu, vL =
Ir2 M 1
2

ÿ 0 = 0.

For the sphere parametrized by H r sin u cos v, r sin u sin v, r cos uL, xu = H r cos u cos v, r cos u sin v, - r sin uL, xv = H- r sin u sin v, r sin u cos v, 0L, xu u = H- r sin u cos v, - r sin u sin v, - r cos uL, xu v = H- r cos u sin v, r cos u cos v, 0L,
xv v = H- r sin u cos v, - r sin u sin v, 0L. So E = r2 , F = 0, G = r2 sin2 u, and so K Hu, vL =
1 r2

> 0.

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