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Math 109b - Problem Set 7 Evan Dummit

4.5.5. Following example 4.4.1, consider the cone with vertex on the sphere that is tangent to the sphere along C . The cone has angle p ê 2 - j, so when it is mapped into the plane by the usual isometry it becomes a circular sector of angle
2 p ÿ sinHp ê 2 - jL = 2 p cos j. Performing the parallel transport in the plane as in example 4.4.1 / problem 4.4.15 on last week's

set (here q = 2 p) yields that the transport of w0 along C yields a terminal vector that makes an angle of Dj = 2 p - 2 p cos j with the original vector. 4.6.10. Let g = j ë y-1 so that g is also an isometry of S , and let q e S be arbitrary. Since S is connected, there exists some (closed, hence compact) regular curve a connecting p and q, since on surfaces connectedness and path-connectedness are equivalent as surfaces are locally euclidean. By propositions 4.6.1 and 4.6.2, for any t e a there exists an et > 0 such that expt is defined and differentiable in the interior of subcover of the open cover ‹t e a expIBet HtLM of a -- let p = p0 , p1 , … , pk = q be the centers of the respective open balls in the subcover in order along a, and G1 , … Gk be the geodesics, with Gk joining pk -1 and pk . We show that g H pi L = pi and d g pi HvL = v for all v e T pi HS L for each i ¥ 0, via induction. Clearly the result holds for i = 0, as
g H pL = p and d g p HvL = v for all v e T p HS L by the hypothesis of the problem. So now suppose the result holds for i - 1. Bet HtL, which yields a unique radial geodesic joining t to any point in expIBet HtLM. Then as a is compact, there exists a finite

Since isometries preserve angles and distances, and geodesics can be defined (geometrically) via angles and distances, isometries preserve geodesics. So the image of the geodesic Gi between pi-1 and pi with starting direction v under g is also a geodesic g HGi L between g H pi-1 L and g H pi L with starting direction g HvL. But since geodesics are uniquely defined by a starting point and an initial sis, it follows that Gi = g HGi L so that pi = g H pi L and d g pi HvL = v for all v e T pi HS L, by taking values and derivatives along G1 = G1 ' at
pi . Hence the result holds by induction.

tangent vector as noted in Docarmo, and G1 , g HGi L both start at g H pi-1 L = pi-1 in the direction of v = g HvL by the inductive hypothe-

Setting i = n yields that g HqL = q whence jHqL = yHqL as required.

4.6.14a. One has IPg ë P b M ë Pa = Pgë b ë Pa = PHgë bLëa = PgëH bëaL = Pg ë P bëa = Pg ë IP b ë Pa M, so the operation is associative. Also,
P0 , the transport along the "trivial" zero curve that stays at p, acts on the tangent plane as the identity so that P0 ë Pa = Pa ë P0 = Pa , so P0 is an identity element. Finally, P-a , the transport along a traversed in the opposite direction, clearly

is an inverse of Pa , since traversing a in the opposite direction will rotate a tangent vector the same angle in the opposite direction as traversing a normally, so composing them in either order will have the effect of leaving the tangent vector fixed, so Pa ë P-a = P-a ë Pa = P0 . Thus the set of Pa forms a group as claimed. 4.6.14b. By equation 2.6.2, Dj = Ÿ ŸR K d s so if K ª 0, Dj = 0 on all paths C enclosing the region R. Thus all loops have trivial parallel transports, so the holonomy group just reduces to the identity. 4.6.14c. Since S is connected, there exists a path b from p to q; let g be the group action of transporting of a vector along b (i.e., from p to q), and then define the map j : H p HS L Ø Hq HS L mapping Ha # g -1 Ha g . This map is well-defined since g -1 Ha g transports a vector along a path starting and ending at q. It is surjective since for any curve g from q to q, the curve a = b g b-1

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In particular. problem 4.4. through an angle q along the colatitude. which means that the action was merely a rotation).2 Math 109b . any Ha which fixes one of the basis elements must also fix the other. First note that every element of H p HS L is a rotation of the tangent plant T p HS L as transports of orthogonal vectors along paths on a sphere preserve orthogonality (so the standard orthogonal basis is sent to another orthogonal basis. Finally. Hence j gives an isomorphism between H p HS L and Hq HS L as desired. conversely. By the result of problem 4. it is injective.14d.cos jL. because jHHa L = H0 implies g -1 Ha g = H0 or Ha = g H0 g -1 = Hg 0 g-1 = H0 so that a = 0.5 on this set) the parallel transport of a tangent vector at p along the curve g given by traveling along a great circle to a parallel of through the angle qH1 . so this map is also injective. it is evident that with an appropriate choice of q and j (such as q = 2 a and j = p ê 3) this angle can be chosen to be equal to any desired angle a. and then traveling back along a great circle to p rotates the tangent vector Printed by Mathematica for Students .Problem Set 7 solutions. therefore. Hence H p HS L surjects onto the set of rotations of T p HS L.15 assigned on problem set 6 (or. Hence it is a bijection which clearly respects the group actions and is thus an isomorphism. essentially. 4.nb has jHHa L = g -1 H b g b-1 g = g -1 Ig Hg g -1 M g = Hg by the definition of g .6. colatitude j.5.