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Ancient History and Literature Seamus Burke 3/21/13 Word Count: 333 Week 23 The Second Punic War The

Second Punic War, a so kno!n as the Hanna"a ic War, asted #rom 21$ to 2%1 BC& This !as the second o# three ma'or con# icts "et!een (ome and Cartha)e& The !ar is #amous #or Hanni"a *s crossin) o# the A +s& The con# ict !as i)nited "y a dis+ute o,er the city o# Sar)entum& The city o# Sar)entum !as ocated in S+ain& A#ter +rominent su++orters o# the city o# Cartha)e !ere assassinated, Hanni"a , the son o# Hami car, aid sie)e to it& Sar)entum !as a -reek co ony a ied !ith (ome, !hich res+onded "y dec arin) !ar& Sar)entum #e to the Cartha)inian army under the command o# Hanni"a a#ter a +ro on)ed sie)e in 21. BC& A (oman # eet, under the command o# Sci+io, anded on the /"erian Peninsu a to con#ront Hanni"a , "ut the Cartha)inian army e,aded them and esca+ed& /n 21$, Hanni"a ed his army o,er the Pyrenees and the A +s into /ta y& The crossin) o# the A +s !as necessitated "y the (oman contro o# the sea, and Hanni"a *s desire to strike at the (omans on their home )round& A on) the !ay he con0uered the and #rom the 1"ro ri,er to the Pyrenees, ea,in) "ehind a +ortion o# his army to )arrison the and& Hanni"a "rou)ht e e+hants !ith him o,er the mountains, a thou)h on y 2 sur,i,ed o# the 33 !hich "e)an the 'ourney& /n 4o,em"er, the Cartha)inians !ere interce+ted "y a (oman army under the command o# Sci+io, !hom Hanni"a had e,aded ear ier& The Batt e o# Ticinus ensued, !here the (omans !ere de#eated "y Hanni"a *s ca,a ry& Sci+io !as in'ured in the "att e, and the (omans retreated across the Tre"ia ri,er& As ne!s o# Hanni"a *s ,ictory s+read, a most a o# the -a ic tri"es re,o ted across northern /ta y& /n 5ecem"er, Hanni"a de#eated the (oman #orces under the command o# Consu Sem+ronius Lon)us, in the "att e o# the Tre"ia& /n the s+rin) o# 212 BC, Hanni"a tried to dra! the (oman army under the command o# the consu 6 aminius into a decisi,e "att e "y de,astatin) the surroundin) countryside 6 aminius !as ordered to +rotect& 7+on the #ai ure o# that strate)y, Hanni"a marched around the (oman army, cuttin) them o# #rom (ome88no rein#orcements or messa)es cou d )et +ast& Pro,okin) 6 aminius into +ursuin) him, Hanni"a hid his army in a narro! +ass on the shore o# Lake Trasimenus& Hanni"a sent a sma #orce to dra! +art o# the (oman army a!ay, s+ ittin) their #orces& Then the )enera attack "e)an& The Cartha)inian ca,a ry and in#antry attacked #rom their concea ed +ositions and en)a)ed the (omans& The am"ush succeeded s+ectacu ar y, the (oman army !as annihi ated& Hanni"a then marched south, ho+in) to !in o,er a ies in the -reek and /ta ian +o+u ations there& The (oman senate, in a +anic o,er the de#eat at Lake Trasimene a++ointed an actin) dictator, 9uintus 6a"ius :a;imus& (ea i<in) the +re8esta" ished strate)ies !eren*t !orkin), 6a"ius in,ented the 6a"ian strate)y& An essentia e ement o# the 6a"ian strate)y !as a,oidin) o+en "att e !ith ar)e armies, instead skirmishin) !ith sma er enemy detachments& :inucius, 6a"ius*s second8in8command, !as a)ainst the ado+tion o# the 6a"ian strate)y& As soon as :inucius !on a minor skirmish, the (oman Senate +romoted him to the same rank as 6a"ius& Hanni"a ured :inucius*s #orces into an am"ush at -eronium, "ut !hen 6a"ius rushed to :inucius*s aid, Hanni"a !ithdre!& 6a"ius "ecame un+o+u ar !ith the (oman +u" ic, as there !as no c ear end in si)ht to the !ar& /n 21=, -aius Terentius >arro !as e ected as consu , and +ursued a much more a))ressi,e strate)y& /n the s+rin) o# 21=, Hanni"a sei<ed a su++ y de+ot ocated at Cannae, cuttin) the (omans o## #rom an im+ortant su++ y source& >arro marched #or the Cartha)inian army !ith the intent to destroy it& Hanni"a took ad,anta)e o# >arro*s ea)erness #or a decisi,e "att e and dre! him into a tra+& Hanni"a arrayed his #orces in a semicirc e, !ith the ca,a ry on the ed)es& ?nce the "att e !as 'oined, the

ertin) (oman #orces #rom "esie)in) Ca+ua. than those !hich +receded it can "e seen "y the "eha.er #or the sim+ e reason that they des+aired o# (oman +o!er&@ 6o o!in) the Batt e o# Cannae.a ry encirc ed the (oman army& ?n y a sma #raction o# the (oman army esca+ed the ensuin) "att e& Po y"ius says @Ho! much more serious !as the de#eat o# Cannae. "ut !as re+u sed& He tried a)ain in 21C. Hasdru"a Barca. "ut !as +ushed "ack a second time& Hanni"a tried a third time in 213.ior o# (omeAs a iesB "e#ore that #ate#u day. Sci+io in. at the time the ar)est +ort in /ta y& /n 211. in contrast. Hasdru"a is ki ed and his army is destroyed "y the (oman army commanded "y C audius 4ero and Li. as a ast des+erate de#ense a)ainst the (omans.ades S+ain and ca+tures 4e! Cartha)e& Hanni"a is a!ay in /ta y and de#eats a (oman army under the command o# C audius :arce us& /n 2%$.er and (ome #irm y esta" ished it*s +o!er throu)hout the re)ion& Cartha)e !as #or"idden #rom raisin) an army& When it did so to +rotect its citi<ens #rom the 4umidians. )i.ius Sa inator& Sci+io continues throu)h S+ain and de#eats the Cartha)inian*s commanded "y :a)o Barca at the Batt e o# / i+a in 2%C& Sci+io then +roceeds to and his army in A#rica. and 4orth A#rica.ed as his "ase& Hanni"a then tried to take the city o# 4o a.y& The second Punic War had #ar8reachin) conse0uences& Cartha)e ost the /"erian Peninsu a #ore. the city o# Ca+ua de#ected to 'oin Hanni"a .ca. "ut a)ain #ai ed.. and ser. no! it "e)an to !a.er& Hanni"a marches on (ome in ho+e o# di.er the entire /"erian Peninsu a south o# the 1"ro ri. and de#eats t!o Cartha)inian armies in the Batt e o# the -reat P ains in 2%3& Hanni"a rushes "ack to Cartha)e to de#end it& /n 2%2. Hanni"a tries an 1 e+hant char)e.entua domination o# the :editerranean Wor d& .e u+ on takin) 4o a& The tide o# the !ar s o! y starts to turn !hen the (oman e)ions under the command o# C audius :arce us ay sie)e to the city o# Syracuse and ca+ture it& The Cartha)inian e. and Cartha)e surrenders& A +eace is si)ned re0uirin) Cartha)e to surrender a o# her con0uests in S+ain. /ta y.er "e a ma'or +o!er a)ain& (ome. and #ina y )a. in 212 !hen Hanni"a ca+tured the city o# Tarentum.+ansion reached it*s a+e. (ome destroyed Cartha)e in the Third Punic War& Cartha)e !ou d ne. their oya ty remained unshaken. "ut #ai s& The Cartha)inian*s are com+ ete y de#eated in the "att e o# Dama. "ut #ai s& Ca+ua #a s to the (omans in 211& /n 2%. and destroy her army and 4a.in) them contro o. Hanni"a *s youn)er "rother is de#eated "y Sci+io at the Batt e o# Baecu a& Hasdru"a and the remains o# his army cross the a +s into /ta y to meet u+ !ith Hanni"a & Be#ore they can meet. had taken a ma'or ste+ to!ards its e. Cartha)inian #orces de#eat more (oman armies.

htt+://+ene o+e&uchica)o&edu/Thayer/1/(oman/Te.ts/Po y"ius/1E&htm .Bibliography Po y"ius& The Histories of Polybius.