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APES- Carbon Cycle and the Greenhouse Effect Go to: http://www.esrl.noaa.

gov/gmd/education/carbon_toolkit/basics.html Name: Melissa-Aimi Burgoyne Influential Greenhouse Gases: For each of the following, list WHAT they are, WHERE they are found and HOW they affect climate Carbon Dioxide (CO2): What: Colorless, odorless gas consisting of molecules made up of two oxygen atoms and one carbon atom; can exist as a liquid or a solid (dry ice); room temperature Where: Produced when fossil fuels are burned, decaying vegetation or chemical changes in the bedrock, surface soils, cellular respiration, dry ice, carbonic acid; electricity, transportation, industry, How: “enhanced greenhouse effect” ; stays in the atmosphere for approximately 100 years ; traps radiation Methane (CH4): What: colorless, odorless non-toxic gas consisting of molecules made up of four hydrogen atoms and one carbon atom; combustible, main constituent of natural gas Where: released when organic matter decomposes in low oxygen environments; wetlands, swamps and marshes, termites, oceans, cows; mining of fossil fuels and transportation of natural gas, buried waste in landfills How: “enhanced greenhouse effect” ; lifetime in the atmosphere is shorter than CO2, but it’s more efficient at trapping radiation; the comparative impact of methane on climate change is over 20 times greater than CO2 over a 100 year period Nitrous Oxide (N2O): What: colorless, non-flammable gas with a sweetish odor; “laughing gas” used as an anesthetic Where: Naturally produced in oceans and rainforests; man-made sources: fertilizers, nylon and nitric acid production, cars with catalytic converters, burning of organic matter; naturally present in atmosphere as part of the nitrogen cycle How: “enhanced greenhouse effect” ; Broken down in atmosphere by chemical reactions driven by sunlight ; stays in atmosphere for an average of 120 years before being removed by a sink or destroyed through chemicals reactions Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6): What: extremely potent greenhouse gas Where: human made; electric power industry; electrical insulation, current interruption, arc quenching ( to prevent fires) in transmission and distribution of electricity; used extensively in high voltage circuit breakers and switchgear, and in magnesium metal casting industry How: “enhanced greenhouse effect” ; atmospheric lifetime of more than 1000 years

Draw a diagram and label to EXPLAIN the greenhouse effect:

Explain how the Carbon Cycle is involved in global climate change: -CO2 is absorbed and emitted naturally as part of the carbon cycle, through animal plant respiration, volcanic eruptions, and ocean-atmosphere exchange. Human activities, such as burning of fossil fuels and changes in land use release large amounts of carbon to the atmosphere, causing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere to rise. When there is carbon in the atmosphere, it always reacts with oxygen to create CO2, which adds to the enhanced greenhouse effect. What are Carbon SOURCES and SINKS? Sources: Processes that release CO2 into the atmosphere Sinks: Processes that remove CO2 from the atmosphere

How does deforestation increase the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere? Explain. -Deforestation is the removal of forests. During cellular respiration, CO2 is released and O2 is used, while in photosynthesis, O2 is released and CO2 is used. However, all organisms take part in cellular respiration, while only plants take part in photosynthesis. So, if a forest full of plants that do photosynthesis is removed, then there will be less CO2 used and less O2 released, which will eventually lead to more CO2 in the atmosphere, and less O2 in the atmosphere. How do the oceans absorb excess CO2 from the atmosphere and how does this affect the oceans? -The process of the ocean absorbing excess CO2 from the atmosphere is considered a Carbon Sink. The ocean absorbs the CO2 from the atmosphere in an attempt to reach equilibrium by direct air-to-sea exchange. This process takes a lot of time, but once it is dissolved in the ocean, is will stay for, on average, more than 500 years. When CO2 is dissolved into the ocean, it reacts with the water and forms carbonic acid. The acid can lead to shells and other things essential to life in the ocean to dissolve. Explain how the industrial revolution has increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. - The industrial revolution is marked as the beginning of strong increases in the use of fossil fuels. However, this lead to an increased amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to the fact that tons of CO2 are released through the process of burning fossil fuels. According to the graph, which country is the biggest contributor to global carbon emissions worldwide? -United States