You are on page 1of 17

Modernist Miniatures: Literary Snapshots of Urban Spaces Author(s): Andreas Huyssen Source: PMLA, Vol. 122, No.

1, Special Topic: Cities (Jan., 2007), pp. 27-42 Published by: Modern Language Association Stable URL: . Accessed: 31/03/2014 20:07
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .

JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact


Modern Language Association is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to PMLA.

This content downloaded from on Mon, 31 Mar 2014 20:07:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

and they affect its narrative the first sentence of the novel has this to say about Paris: "So. the narrator. but the crisis of traditional (Stanford UP. The imagination of destruction took a different form in Rilke's prewar text. laments. es stiirbe sich hier" 'So this iswhere people come to live: Iwould have thought it is a city to die in' (709. traumatized bymetropolitan life. ?Theodor W. An edited experiences of time and space in themetropolis already pointed to that of the battlefield: shock. Postmodernism (Indiana UP. 1995). in the years 1904-10. in the famous 1936 essay "The Storyteller. also hierher kommen die Leute.24 on Mon. "in a force field of destructive tor as the result of the destruction of experience in the trenches: "Begin ning with the First World War. is forthcom ing from Duke University Press. A generation later. ending with the cosmic vision of the "tiny. form. fragile hu man body" beneath the clouds. and anonymous death per vade the early pages of Rilke's novel. entitled Other Cities. Notebooks 146). really knew how to tell stories must have been before my time' (Aufzeichnungen 844. Minima Moralia AT A REVEALING POINT INRAINER MARIA THENOTE RILKE'S books ofMalte Laurids Brigge. include After the Great Divide: Modernism. written beforeWorld War I. das mufi vor meiner Zeit gewesen sein" 'The days when people knew. 3).218. 2003). Already This content downloaded from 194. 1986). Adorno. Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia (Routledge.1 Modernist Miniatures: of Urban Spaces ANDREAS HUYSSEN Literary Snapshots The splinter inyour eye is thebestmagnifyingglass. and Present Pasts: and the Politics of Urban Palimpsests Memory men who returned from the battlefield had grown silent?not richer. um zu leben.12 2. Mass Culture. but poorer in communicable experience?" What follows this rhetori cal question is thatwell-known enumeration of destructive aspects ofmodernity. ? 2007 BY THE MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA 27 volume on Third World cities. a process became apparent which continues to this day.177. 31 Mar 2014 20:07:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . wirklich erzahlte." Walter Benjamin diagnosed the end of storytelling ANDREAS HUYSSEN is the Villard Pro Lit fessor of German and Comparative erature and founding director of the Center for Comparative Literature and Society at Columbia His books University. violence. ichwiirde eher meinen. He is a senior editor of New German Critique. "Dass man erzahlte. Other Worlds: Urban Imagi naries in a Globalizing Age.Wasn't itnoticeable at the end of thewar that rents and explosions" (143-44).

Then suddenly a dull. Irgendwo klirrt eine Scheibe herunter. len sich. (4-5) suddenly approaching.. die man lange kommen sah" 'For the sake of a single poem. Although Benjamin This content downloaded from 194. ist lange da. simply emotions are (one has emotions early enough)?they experiences/ continues: libermich hin. in laufen. wie die Leute meinen Gefuhle (die hat man fruh genug).?es sind Erfahrungen" 'Poems are not. fort sche rennt ganz uber alles. And the street. Menschen und Dinge Man muss zuriickdenken konnen anWege unbekannten .. A girl screams. uberho fur eine Erleichte kraht sogar Morgen Gegenden. barks. Ein Madchen kreischt: Ah tais-toi. Electric trol windowpane requires a wealth ofmemories. Man muss sie ver house. soon even lose their temporal moorings in the diary form. turn' (724. You must be able to forget themwhen they are many. The di agnostic premonitions underlying this alleged Rilke's and Benjamin's suggestion that the age of storytelling had ended has nothing to do with the nostalgia of which both authors ster zu schlafen. dass man hear its large fragments laugh and its small ones giggle. as Malte writes. ist Wohltun ohne Grenzen.177. and this crisis affected Rilke's writing of both poetry and narrative. What up dog even a is lief: a dog. and to partings you had long seen coming. und But what eines is experience? Malte willen muss man "Urn Verses viele Stadte sehen. is there there. as Benjamin claims. As a result.1 For Rilke. Experience focusing on perception and its disorientation. The coher the novel form disintegrates into frag ence^ sketches that ments. Leute bellt. many people and must be able to think back to Things-You streets in unknown neighborhoods. and you must have immense patience to wait until they re the Erinnerungen hat.218. sener Hause. gegnungen und an Abschiede. Dann schlafe ichplotzlich ein. Dann Larm plotzlich dumpfer. und man muss die grosse Geduld haben. eingeschlos von der anderen Seite. The second miniature reads: Dass ich es nicht lassen kann. passes excitedly. Then I fall asleep. tend durch meine gehen nostalgia were thoroughly misconstrued. open. an extended sense of orderly spaces and times is no longer to be had. Was Gegen das dariiber Jemand Elektri fort. then passes on. Malte's attempt to regain a lost form of experience. People catch running. A door on slams. to be sure. everything.. sure. Ein Hund rung: ein Hund. 19-20). Thus the narrator's re flections on poetry: "Denn Verse sind nicht.' shipwrecks.. up inside the stairs: the is is Someone walking gessen konnen. The novel begins with a series ofminiatures itself is in an epochal crisis. Rilke turned to prose be cause his ability to write poetry seemed to have abandoned him. you must see many cities. again ne veux races up tais-toi. dass siewiederkommen" c[I]t is not yet enough to have memories. innen im steigt die Treppe. time in the remembrance of things past eludes Malte. Eine Tiir fallt zu. the one that can be rendered as Erzahlung cstory. Die erregt heran. ruft. their novel kind ofwriting practice was seems not understood. as people think. bei offenem Bahnen Automobile rasen Fen lau have often been dismissively accused. It sounds very Proustian avant la lettre. je ne veux plus. But. Jemand Kommt unaufhorlich. to unex pected encounters. Elektrische Stube. mere Aufzeichnungen. Somewhere I can a shatters the pavement. wenn es viele sind. "Und es geniigt auch noch nicht.28 Modernist Miniatures: Literary Snapshots of Urban Spaces PMLA With Malte. The trolley on over over it. muffled noise from the other is direction. 1stda. Kommt.' Writing poems also an unerwartete Be ein Hahn. Cars over me. Und wieder die Strasse. zu warten. 31 Mar 2014 20:07:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . je plus. Toward there morning rooster and that is an infinite plea crowing. geht vorbei. Ah. die kleinen Splitter kichern. (710) To think that I can't give up the habit of sleeping drive with the window leys speed clattering throughmy room. a re A with each other. ich hore ihre grossen Scherben lachen. are Someone calls out. but Proust's heroic achievement of grounding narrative one more ceaselessly approaching: for a long time.24 on Mon..

177. the Berlin of expressionism. as a minor first part of the Notebooks. The diffi as a specific ofwriting may indeed be more central to the new in literary modernism than the or poetry. poeme en prose. forwhich the ban allegory with theGerman words "Es lasst sich nicht lesen" 'It cannot be read' (506.i22. aphorism. Siegfried Kracauer. and Alfred Doblin to realize that something fun damental changed in the literary representa miniature tion of social space in the city. The modernist enters our discussion as a specific lesser-known authors such as Peter Altenberg. and Walter Serner. written as late as the 1880s and 1890s. remains central to the trajectory of themodernist miniature genre attractive to poets. as much were not new in 1900.). its filth. while Rilke's these texts are fairly well known. But it is enough to com and philosophers in subsequent decades. Instead his literary prose pieces were read as autobiography. modernist miniatures flourished in the first three de cades of the twentieth century. novelists. It is "learning to see" (Notebooks 6) rather than to read or write ("Ich lerne sehen" [Aufzeichnungen 710]). many of form that departs in significant ways from those earlier city narratives.24 on Mon. and prose and develop his early experimental when Robert Walser wrote many of his urban newspaper feuilleton pieces. Walter Benjamin. Walser. even though writing about seeing iswhat Malte ends up doing. Kafka. sketch. fragment. before I turn to the issue of the miniature citpoetique. It couples the breakdown of the tempo ral dimension of erzahlen 'to narrate' and the modernist miniature spatial aspect of erfahren 'to experience' with a foregrounding of vision and the legibility of urban space. re is important formy argument in yet another sense. or Berliner Kindheit as the modernist transformation of an older type of Erzahlung. feuilleton This content downloaded from 194. itself. All themore is the absence of any broader critical puzzling analysis that attempts to read thiswhole body ofwriting as a central phenomenon ofmod ernism. Berliner Chronik. Gottfried Benn. as well as in pare these novels or Theodor Fontane's Berlin novels. however. Hofmannsthal's. The modernist miniature mode novel Malte was absurdly read as a bildungsroman rather than a city novel in fragments. with Rilke's Notebooks or themodernist city novels by James Joyce. and Dziga Vertov. Ernst Jun ger. can think of Bal Engels's Man Saint Petersburg: chester. and itsmiseries as its exhilaration and exuberance. Ernst Bloch. cultywas to properly name this new form that exceeded traditional generic descriptions such as Historical Excursus A brief historical excursus is in order here. metropolis at a time was an when it island ofmodernization in a society inwhich country and small-town life were still dominant but losing ground?the period of high modernism stretching from Charles Baudelaire's ler's. and theMoscow of Sergey Tretyakov. writ ten at the time when Franz Kafka began to Attempts towrite themetropolitan city." it is read his literary endeavors inEinbahnstrasse. Mynona. inHugo von Hofmannsthal. The place of the restructuring of tem poral and spatial perception. is different. and Theodor Adorno. left-wingDada. 31 Mar 2014 20:07:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .218. Bertolt Brecht. parable. Sergey Eisenstein. to the Paris of the cubists and surrealists. Dickens's London. The narrator in Edgar Allan Poe's Man of the Crowd introduces that ur is an important field of is the experimentation. Franz Hessel.i Andreas Huyssen 29 to theorize the loss of storytelling in his essay much more interesting to "The Storyteller. or Dostoevsky's us texts their with earlier fictional present and sociological reflections on urbanization and modernization. In German and Austrian literature. Among Germanists. Robert Musil. Rilke's writing practice in theNotebooks Kurzprosa. JohnDos Passos. We zac's Paris. Alfred Polgar. Malte's project in Paris. my trans. its seething chaos. This Paris toArthur Schnitz and Krauss's Vienna Brecht.

rhizomic literature. in themodernist miniature Ausdruckskunst from this crisis are simply read as anticipating from Kafka and Rilke to Kracauer and Ben jamin. and disturbances of vision.177. the epigram. Aesthetic Theory 133). represents only one be ginning of themetropolitan miniature. I have argued. Lautreamont. and Mallarme surrealists. They also differ in their coding of subjectivity (e. My emphasis here is therefore not on a genre poetics but on the brief trajectory of a privileged form-content-medium triangle at a specific time and a specific place. has now become history. Yet themodernist min iature differs significantly from those other short prose forms?though. coming much closer to the emphatic This content downloaded from 194. auditory confusion.218. came modernism earlier unevenly?it poeme veloped de to Paris and the immediately following decades must we want to be recaptured and historicized if understand how that crisis of perception gen erated themodernist broader miniature of the as part of a much process urbanization of literature. not coinciden turns to be the me the out feuilleton tally. forms such as the anecdote. Indeed. My hunch is that while short prose is still being written in various forms. anticipated much of what later came to be known inGerman than to London or Berlin. minor moralists biicher. the fragments of the JenaRomantics. Baudelaire. Consider the aphorisms of the French postmodernism culture. etc.). But the specific crisis of perception as it is articulated in Vienna and Berlin as compared cities as London scholarship as Prosagedicht. flourish so em phatically inGerman writing? The flourishing may have been an effect of the exceptionally fast-paced late-nineteenth-century urban modernism. Rilke's use of the diary form and of a fictional lairean sense. space air through consumerism. Attempts to define such Kurzprosa tions. the calendar or almanac story. 'herald of always the "Herold der Moderne" growth with such older European and Paris. in France recitpoetique as it evolved through to the Rimbaud. and mass communica the in ge neric or poetic terms have generally not been successful. nostalgia. As we know. interested in the specificity and nonidentity of cultural phenomena over time. They lack Baudelaire's irony and distance. Why did this new form.' as Adorno once called him (As thetische Theorie 201.30 Modernist Miniatures: Literary Snapshots of Urban Spaces PMLA Something else must be said about the genealogy of what I call themodernist min iature. For after World War II..We must resist such presentist we are appropriation and back shadowing if eighteenth century. spatial disorientation. 31 Mar 2014 20:07:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and it surely can be related to the collapse of theGerman and Austrian Empires in 1918.we would have to look to other media and their effects on our lives to determine whether or not the has itself perceptual regime of modernism been altered or transformed into something new in our own time.2 The ir ritating and exhilarating novelty of theme tropolis at the end of the nineteenth century dium of preference for itswriters. which has its own genealogy with the Baudelairean en prose. travel.24 on Mon. and observations pub lished in newspapers and feuilletons since the cisely because there is some truth to the argu ment that something fundamental changed in post-World War II modernity thatwe should guard against such elisions of historical dif ference. the culture of the spectacle. Short prose forms existed well before 1900.metropolitan in the West invaded and saturated urbanity all social automobile. sketches.g. But the prose fragments of Rilke's are not really prose poems in the Baude Malte that initiated a new relation to space and time. and all those of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries or of Georg Lichtenberg's Sudel short notices. TheWriting ofBilder Rilke. All too often today the texts resulting that emerged with expres its sionism. cliche. It is pre (Weimar surfaces. which seems less bound than the novel or themod ern epic to a national culture.

in thismore than visual sense. What ifall thesemodernist miniatures. Raumbild Wortbild 'word image' (by Hofmannsthal). perception that themetropolis gen erated? I propose that the advantage the Bild have to be read as Schriften 'writings. Before being gathered in publication book form under an overarching title.1 Andreas Huyssen 31 protagonist) from the postexpressionist min iatures by such writers as Kracauer. and abstraction. Remember ian distinction between Bild and Abbild: only In a more pragmatic register. and the promise of linguistic trans parency is denied in the complex texture of with the documentary.My reading of paradigmatic texts tests this hypothesis. or monthlies. the recourse the Benjamin ernism in its love affairwith the feuilleton of European newspapers such as theNeue Presse in Vienna. themarquees of theaters and movie palaces. an urban literary medium that. the fictional diary. described as Bilder. lay in that a Bild. As certain problems.122.' They play off the fundamental difference between Schrift and Bild. not only visual but also auditory and embodied. condensed the ex tensions of time and space. as Miriam Hansen in has shown her work on hiero sequential observation. which. The recourse to the visual in naming this literary form is striking. the (advertisement pillars). Even less is it identical to photography. literature) and genres of writing (poetry or prose). and simply Bilder 'images' and Betrachtungen 'observations' (subtitles inMusil's Nachlass [Posthumous Papers of a Liv The ingAuthor]). philosophy. As such they are not easily legible. Al ready since the later nineteenth century. writing of such Bilder was now a separate enterprise from the writing of the novel or even.218. metaphor.Bewusst seinsbild 'consciousness image' (by Benn). The visual dimension disturbs legibility. together ekphrasis. Itwas. and other dailies. But such pragmatic observations jamin). but it also poses zu Lebzeiten fall short of addressing the deeper question. electric ads. and Bloch. But there is an other. Junger. perhaps more important. is one of the few genu inely novel modes ofwriting created bymod Something form the prose poem into themodernist min iature of the interwar years. compressed them into an overdetermined synchronous image thatwas significantly different from ambling This content downloaded from 194. All these Bilder come in the medium of written language and thus offered to these writers Schrift-Bilder 'scriptural images' they draw on the tradition of the hieroglyph. 31 Mar 2014 20:07:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . attempting to strike sparks from their confrontation in theminiature. dimension. When the Baudelairean tradition of writing and reading the citymerged with internal to philosophy?as developments ever more literary in the of such antisystemic phi aphoristic writings as losophers Kierkegaard and Nietzsche?the prose poem shifted to a specific kind of highly philosophy became condensed known as Denkbild short prose that has come to be 'thought image' (by Ben 'space image' (byKracauer). street signs.24 on Mon. Litfassaulen to Schrift-Bilder could be easily explained. Bilder are and suggest typically two-dimensional perspectival precisely organization. theNeue the Frank Abbild refers to simple representation. else had to happen to trans glyphic writing and mass cultural images in Kracauer and Adorno. Some of this difference results from the authors' differing discourses (sociology. description. understood as un realism. and so on. And then there was the medium of itself. as part of a newspaper. as for Rilke.most of these miniatures were published separately in the feuilleton. Bild is never meant here simply as a stand-in for Gemalde 'painting' and its post-Renaissance mediated regime of perspectival visuality. streets of the metropolis were full of store signs.177. weeklies. or the merely empirical urban sketch. sandwich men. Korperbild 'body image' (by Junger). Rundschau. Benjamin. account for a different organization of sensual. furter Zeitung. often combined text and image. that metro perspectival viewing politan experience threw into turmoil. however.

eighteenth century Lessing's Laokoon. And even where it has been recog nized as an important part of a writer's oeuvre (Kafka. reification of time.218.and Benjamin come tomind). and Architecture My examples for themodernist miniature fo cus on certain crucial aspects of reading and reoccur in the that many texts: the seeing city feeling of terror emanating from space.which is no longer a form' (Briefe 278. As a specific historical form. Itmay also seem poorly chosen new to the modernist discuss guiding concept This content downloaded from 194. between commentary and interpre tation. been neglected or domesticated by scholars. between was codified in the narrative and space. Photography. Thus Bloch. einer literarischen Gattung vorzustehen" 'not suitable to preside over a literary genre' (Mu sil 1468. Betrachtung. between language and the visual. and life at that earlier stage of moderniza Moretti represents epic in a something like national encyclopedia in the form of a macroscopic fictional map. The authors who engaged inwriting such miniatures did not know how to name the genre. in a review of Kafka's out Kafka's first book. then the in all its incredible vari tion. which is absent in Giedion's account of the programmatic. my trans. time. At stake with modernist miniatures was a profound transformation of the literary project that crossed the disciplining border line between language and the visual. the Schrift-Bilder of urban advertising and their excess of legibility. I pro to read the modernist miniature poems. lamented in a let snapshot of urban space and to see it as a field of experimentation to test the validity ofwhat Siegfried Kracauer described in the 1920s as 'the new feeling of "das neue Raumgefuhl" and of what the architec space' ("Expose") tural historian Siegfried Giedion at the same as spatial Durchdringung 'in Build terpenetration. die keine of writing.177. 31 Mar 2014 20:07:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Let me dramatize as form it is firmly grounded in themicrolog ical observation ofmetropolitan space. it ismore often avoided than actually read. as it in E. philosophy boundaries losophy. with his Spuren (Traces) and sections of Erbschaft dieserZeit (Heritage of Our Times) another major contributor to this new mode pose as a ter to Kracauer einen Namen mehr (June 1926). iron. But sociology. themotif 'void' and Hohlraum 'hollow space'. "Hatte man nur fur die neue Form.). Rilke Moretti has called themodern from the novel. theminiature has been seen as a minor genre Schrift-Bilder. ing 6) inmodern architecture. overlapping' (Bauen 6. I give a double frame tomy discussion. G. and phi Snapshot at first sight suggests superfici ality. crossing the between poetry. Ithas that in common with Moretti smodern epic.). singles feuil short prose and Walser's miniature leton pieces as the prototype of a new mode ofwriting. Robert Musil in turn. which is however "nicht geeignet. the other from architecture.32 Modernist Miniatures: Literary Snapshots of Urban Spaces PMLA a bit for argument's sake. The modernist time described ist" 'If only we had a name for the new form. living space and street space.3 Much epic as distinct as themodern epic has condensation ety represents themicroscopic never gels of a metropolitan that imaginary into some encyclopedic totality. the loss of boundaries between private and public space. one frame taken from pho tography. arbitrariness of the as a image. The new form as antiform resists the laws of genre as much as systemic or urban commonsense just as it reveals the threatening aspect of the new experience of space. my trans. fiction. Junger.4 can be shown to complicate the understanding of the snapshot of building in glass. even Utopian dimensions and concrete. the mod at best by comparison with the heroic efforts of the modern novel or the seminal cycle of oiLeere ernist miniature emerges only in retrospect.24 on Mon. If themodern modernist miniature is only an early example here for this largely undertheorized phenomenon within the other side of what Franco modernism.

its past. This content downloaded from 194. its threatening.modernist miniatures articu late the new dynamic experience of space in Let us take "Das Karree" ("The Quadran gle").5 When transposed intowriting. and Durchdringung. just as it is inmodernist ence in assessing the phenomenon of Durch to the experience of urban central dringungas space could be further explored. as Maurice once noted. Schriften 5. and its future al first in rather metaphysical ways and later. The easy legibility of the snapshot is a myth. which is then textually transfigured into a spatial imaginary or even into dream space. Any snapshot. is poignant to the Sociology of Space. who was trained as an architect and studied with the author of Blow ing his own snapshots.218. in sociological and Marxist ways (Mulder). Space in his miniatures is typically triangulated.). the roller coaster. from the mid-1920s on. paradigmatically is the temporal rather than spatial dimension of the snapshot that justifies its usage here. this unexpected eruption onto the scene of vision that Barthes called thepunctum and Merleau Ponty described in its temporal dimension as the holding open of the moment in space toward its present. 31 Mar 2014 20:07:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . one of two pieces under the umbrella title "Zwei Flachen" ("Two Planes"). "that accident which pricks me (but also bruises me. Snapshots also must be carefully read because. The snapshot marks the space where the present turns intomemory. Mass Ornament 38-39). This fundamental differ acknowledges the present and past imaginary any snapshot of space carries with it. the renovated the arcade. one that transcends the seen and the scene and Urban Space in Kracauer's. articulate the negative side of Durchdringung.122. my trans. Benjamin's Miniatures Kafka's. Kra cauer serves as my main example. the unemployment office. themodernist miniature seems easily legible. however. Deeply influenced by Georg Lukacs's notion of the transcendental homelessness of themodern subject. resisting interpreta tion. After all. even horrify ing dimension as experienced by the subject lost in urban space. Similarly.we read. But it painting. since photography remains tied to the perspectival organization of space. snapshots can be fundamentally opaque and mysterious. The literary texts in question here. a street in a Paris neighborhood. but more often than not here. may have its punctum.24 on Mon. Kracauer deploys this triangulation to allegorize the fallen state of theworld?at multaneously itpreserves the appearance of a presence. which seem to reveal a murder he actually did not see. Kudamm it resists facile understanding. Urban space is coded 'The im ages of space are the dreams of society' (Kra cauer. which is challenged and transformed in the in cubism.6 There is absolutely nothing natural about this piece. As snapshots of space open up to the passing of time. "Die Raumbilder sind die Traume der Gesellschaft" in Berlin.1 Andreas Huyssen 33 modernist miniature regime of space. but si me)" (27). any Merleau-Ponty photograph holds open a specific moment that the rush of (lived) time would otherwise have immedi ately closed (39). There is concretely described architectural and urban space such as the hotel lobby. In theminiature on the un employment office.177. long before Henri Lefebvre's seminal work. firstpub lished on 26 September 1926 in the feuilleton of the Franfkurter Zeitung and republished in Das Ornament der Masse in 1963 in the introductory section entitled "Natiirliche Ge ometric" ("Natural Geometry") (Das Orna ment 12-13. the one with the arguably most astute sense of urban space is Kracauer. lows for a palimpsestic writing of space. It is no coin cidence thatKracauer meshes the two oppos ing senses of the concept most interestingly.2 186. the dimension of the photograph that eludes transparence. Think ofMichelangelo Up and the photographer's Antonioni's frustration read Among thewriters I am considering. as Roland Barthes has taught us. as social space. Georg Simmel.

"ein Karree. But the place name is estranged to the abstract quadrangle. a piece about the harbor ofMarseilles that resonates gle. 39). The transla tion "Whoever the place finds did not seek it" does not quite capture the reversal of subject and object as succinctly as the German does how 38). entrances. is (39) imaginary of Marseilles's suous and sleazy labyrinth: Ein Hintertreppenquartier. The quadrangle with . red lights suggesting brothels. ihnenpreisgegeben_ die Mauern_Split (13) the place finds did not seek it. PMLA sea waste come little red lamps lead theway. 38). dringen ihreBlickstrahlen durch die Fensterladen. wen er findet" (Das Ornament 12). The following sentences conjure up a rifewith putrefied smells. and dreamlike. flying buttresses. das mit einer Riesenform in das Geschlinge gestanzt worden ist" 'which has been stamped into the urban tangle with a giant template' (13. From the Kracauer correspondence we also know that named the quadrangle Place de that "uncanny square we en strongly with "The Quadran it clear enough that the location is countered at night" (my trans. with its reminiscences of urban scenes inHofmannsthal's Marchen der 672. is replaced by a different spatial regime: Auf dem menschenleeren Platz begibt sich dies: durch die Gewalt des Quadrats wird der in seine Mitte Er ist al gestossen.218. 31 Mar 2014 20:07:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . fehlen. (Das it lacks Ornament the magnificent smells of 12) Lampchen weisen den Weg. An den with a ruler. Briefe 33). remembering his Marseilles walks with Kra Then the quadrangle. des unheimlichen tences. finds the who instantlybecomes itsprisoner.. Prunkauf aus denen bunal The further analogy to certain court scenes inKafka's Trial are obvious: "Ein Gericht tagt auf unsichtbaren Sitzen um das Karree" 'On a tri invisible seats around the quadrangle is in session. Benjamin. Eingefangene zu lein und ist es nicht."makes theMediterranean Benjamin Kracauer l'Observance. signs in Arabic. "Nicht gesucht hat den Platz. its "Horizontalen dem Lineal gezogen" 'horizontal lines drawn of Foucauldian setup is a kind in reverse. but no gange rote graugriin der Geruch derMeerabfalle schwelt. as Benjamin.' and the "hundischem Gehorsam" 'canine obedience' of thewall. The flaneur.. are tence immediately disorients the reader. isn't. dreamlike spatial imaginary of the first sen cauer. mit its military barracks. the rays of theirgazes pierce through the stark naked. Ohne dass Beobachter and the name of the city is never mentioned.177. auf den wir nachts stiessen". The first sentence of the text contains a punctum. The subject becomes grammatical object. arabische Schriftta feln. Fear chaotic urban the empirical object becomes grammatical subject.34 Modernist Miniatures:Literary Snapshotsof UrbanSpaces The accompanying miniature "Die Bai" ("The Bay"). the walls. Stufengewinde. A backstairs ascending quarter. Turen stehen die offen. smoldering out of open doors. city.). observers . tectural space?the condensed harbor infamous quarter as sen visible.. (Mass Ornament ever. whose strangely nonvanishing lines lead into the quadrangle. writes after receiving a copy of themin iature from Kracauer himself ("das Portrat Platzes.24 on Mon. The meaning. He no the per is alone. durch ternackt istdie Angst. But instead of liberating the subject's body and permitting Grayish-green This content downloaded from 194." The uncanny reversal of human subject and urban space in the German sen human On the deserted square something happens: the force of the quadrilateral son who and is trapped yet he shutters. contorted archi landscape. through at their mercy. Nacht. Durchblicken sindVersatzstiicke improvisiert: Reihen von Schwibbogen. In the spaces one finds back improvised rows of Arabic drops: signs. Although pushes into its center.' The whole panopticon less oppressive for that. that afford a view. represent the natural geometry of Cartesian perspectival space (13. stair (Mass Ornament 38) windings. 39. is clear: "He whom sehenwaren. .

Indeed. Karree can be read as exemplifying the dystopian dimension of Kracauer's mass ornament itself. 31 Mar 2014 20:07:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .218. (13) alleys. it is also theater in the round?better.' The cold geometry of 'square invisible gazes overwhelms the "soft. no one armseligen ohne In this tangle of pictorial quadrangle. is turned into theworld. private parts of the dream" ("Traumweichteile"). would once have After to describe have seeks the one But painstaking settled reflection. die nach den vier Weltseiten Traumweichteile und ist ein Quadrat Erbarmen. becomes a mise-en-scene displaced (verschoben).122.177. parts of it expands overpowering the four sides thedream: it is a squarewithoutmercy. a theater in the square? The text remains enigmatic on this score. The fate of the subject becomes identical to that of the city. the "Quadrat ohne Erbarmen" quadrangle. But the di dacticism is itself thrown off track.2 243-48]). The narra tor in one of his strolls and in a state ofmind calls Strassenrausch 'street Also note themove crete Karree from the con render thismove. No need to point out how this Weber's text translates the critique of rationalization concrete iron cage. the ob in which natural servers take their position in a perspectiv ally organized theatrical space. is not just and surveillance. comes with an imaginary ex quadrangle of the oppressive power of geomet pansion ric space across theworld: natural geometry without mercy. What observers? What chairs? Where are we? aufhielten.' inGerman A different form of spatial terror is de an eine Pariser in "Erinnerung scribed a Strasse" ("Remembering Parisian Street" [Kracauer. which Anthony Vidler has so brilliantly analyzed. It is in this linked to the recognition of the disciplining power of a rationalist and abstract regime of the fear of empty open spaces that dwarf the subject and unmoor its perception. just as the quadrangle wins out over the labyrin thine "tangle of pictorial alleys" ("Knauel der Bildergange").' or do these observers look inward from all four directions. in the concluding paragraph: Niemand gange sucht in dem Knauel der Bilder Seine Grosse ware bei pein das Karree. Netze der weissen. intox to him in the proletarian Quartier Grenelle. rather didac an allegory of the state of tically. of the world. gab mich nicht frei. Schriften 5. private (39) urban space and its imprisoning effecton the human subject. The condensation read of urban space into the allegorically zu nennen. wenn Stiihlen sich niedergelassen aus. The quadrangle. soft. while Quadrat refers only to the geometric figure. This ending may strike the reader as embarrassingly didactic. Doch licher Uberlegung massig die Beobachter auf ihren dehnt es sich. und mich ubertrieben so fiel mir ich spurte. this ab stract perspectival space exudes power and domination. its size as moderate. since square in English sig nifies both the geometric figure and the ur ban square.24 on Mon. The as translation of Quadrat "square" does not he ication' is lost in a side street unknown euphoria. ifyou will?into its observers toward into their chairs. But is it the geometry of the Guckkastentheater 'fourth-wall stage. The translation of "Knauel der Bildergange" as "tangle of pictorial alleys" inevitably loses the notion of the walking subject contained in the neologism Bildergange 'image walks. But it suggests that the terror of the invisible gaze of these observers overpowers the subject in the center of the now worldwide second sense that the quadrangle. abgelost. Suddenly a nightmarish perception overcomes him: Aber nun geschah es: kaum hatte ichmich von wand schwer. (244-45) This content downloaded from 194. as if in a visuality that denies agency to the human body as subject of sensual perception. erdriickt haben. mich befand. without mercy. Die hohen Theater das Weitergehen dass unsichtbare Strasse. in der ich by the comment about the observers settling into their chairs. disciplining Kracauer's agoraphobia. the pitiful.1 Andreas Huyssen 35 visual control over the environment. estranged to the abstract Quadrat.

24 on Mon. stretched out their tentacles anxiety' lack the social and philosophical lan guage that characterizes Kracauer s rendering of urban space. trans. den hinaufgerissen Mobel.I had troublewalking on.blutend und zerfetzt. The pas Stuben hereinziehen konnen. a a utter a word. the miniature is condensed into one kein Wort.) nicht acht gibt. which suggest prostitu tion. a comparable situation appears in amore purged. Stepping up to one of these hotels. Eine schrecklicheGewalt ging von ihrerblos sen Gegenwart aus. Angst-Raume At the of in fetters. poses fewer and pulled me into the rooms. of several From houses.' Jiinger's example This content downloaded from 194.218. modified) (Diaries 291. die meine Reste erstbeim Durchbrechen der Dachziegel verloren hat. Wie die mir hatten. which. (my trans. walls. sie stumm sie mir worden von zu Here breathless sentence. that I had been observed. of the execution. Sie sprachen sie schauten mich immer nur an. at the end of which the narrator's body has been thoroughly disap leaving only the empty noose?a sur schienen ausgebriitet peared.177. as a result. excessively high wall of the theater. Rather than provide protection and shelter. furniture. Aus one's neck and to be yanked up. As mute 'spaces motionless. Their mere presence looking terrifying certainty force. sein. Any moment. ifnot the agent. selber dass sie es waren. und ich hielt es beinahe fur eine Gewissheit. 31 Mar 2014 20:07:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the nar rator suddenly becomes conscious of the fact dass ich beobachtet worden mehrerer war. die und den Fesseln reglos Hausern angelegt dastanden. and more violent form in Kafka's di aries. Sie hatten jeden Augenblick ihre Fan garme nach mir ausstrecken und mich in die real vision of an urban hanging that destroys both human body and built space. and was that it they were I considered they who standing had put and just kept exuded almost me it The terror emanating from urban space and the dreamlike contortion of space are shares with Kafka. The street inwhich I foundmyself keptme captive.) spatial stracted. Mauern und Dachbo auf dem werden. as if a person who is paying no attention. If illicit combine they could have (my trans. ab Yet reading these texts riddles to the interpreter. bloody and ragged. they They didn't at me. by noose on roof the the up appears. the building has become a tool. without consideration. ing losthold ofwhat remained ofme only as itbroke through the roof's tiles. (245) the upper lads in shirt story windows down sleeves and slovenlyclad women were looking upon me. in themid-1920s. Kafka's sive voice points to the absence of an execu tioner. through all the ceilings. empty until hav by a rope tied around den sahen Obergeschossfenstern Hauser Burschen inHemdsarmeln und schludrig ge kleideteWeiber aufmich nider. and attics. whose things Kracauer novels he was one of the first to review for the Frankfurter Zeitung same time. from the houses to have been hatched they seemed themselves. city had on its I could go on and compare as rendered in Kafka's terror and Kracauer's approaches to urban space the spatial an ei miniatures um den Hals und ohne Rucksicht wie Strick hineingezo von einem der with texts by Ernst Junger from in Das abenteuerliche Herz the capriccios 'The Adventurous Heart. durch alle Zimmerdecken. we are confronting togethermakes it clear that not simply a case of intertextual influence.36 Modernist Miniatures: Literary Snapshots of Urban Spaces PMLA But now ithappened: hardly had I come de tached from thewhite. a rich source ofmodernist miniatures: Durch nem gen das Parterrefenster gelegten eines Hauses sexuality and class anxiety in this surreal scene. (Tagebiicher567-68) To be pulled in through the ground-floor window of a house He then sees several hotel signs without names on derelict buildings.Kaf ka's and Kracauer's are grounded in the similar effects themodern most astute observers. and I felt invisiblenets holding me back. bis oben Dach die leere Schlinge erscheint.

not a new just anticipating perception but also re 'fittinglyhouses only the corpse. Thus in Einbahnstrasse.24 on Mon. The house of the self in both senses caves in. which.177. desinvolture ('posture. focus on this process of the breakdown of the inside-outside division in subject-object relations and in the relation between private and public space. be tween the subjective imaginary and objective world. ing. are constantly crossed. 447). and the suite of rooms prescribes the path of the fleeing victims" (446). body though Haltung. gaze. a fre and nameless.3 In 293). tied to the hidden power of ur ban space and its Durchdringung. these miniatures in their very form record and construct a new Proustian memory project. There is a certain logic of form in that Benjamin's This content downloaded from 194. If the terror experienced the narrating or narrated. and Musil. carefully constructed montage ofminiatures sensibility in perceiving time and space. space Junger. endangering the borders between the coherence of observing or observed subject. The slight elevation of the Schwelle 'threshold' on the floor separating one room from another was one of the distinctive features of Berlin apart of Benjamin's time. or mythic referentiality. whereas in Kracauer's and Kafka's texts Benjamin's analysis of the arcade as an inte rior street space. Kafka. One-Way 446).i22. philosophical. It caves in because the boundary between the secure private space of the bourgeois interior and its inwardness. ous outside. than other literary genres. Benja min speaks tongue in cheek of "Schrecken der Wohnung" once celebrated as the space of privilege and protection from an unfriendly and danger by the sub emanates from outdoor urban ject mainly in and Rilke. and the public space of the street and the city. Ten years later Kra cauer took up the theme of indoor murder as favorite topic of the boulevard press. on the one hand. the spatial threat serves to strengthen the subject. his Berliner Kind comes to us as a heit um Neunzehnhundert. Kafka. press (Schriften Benjamin's text.' And: "Auf diesem Sofa kann die Tante nur ermordet 'On this sofa the aunt cannot but (89. and what he calls the telescopic bearing'). on the other. To different degrees. it is not absent from the bourgeois interieur. anthropological. Think of the disruptive ringing of door bells or telephones in Benjamin's miniatures. belongs in this context thresholds not just (Menninghaus): between interior and street life (think of the all-important space of the loggia in Berliner ences' as well Kindheit) but also between dream and wak ing. surface world and myth-laden underworld. penetration In Junger. 31 Mar 2014 20:07:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but it is imbued in his writing with an allegorical dimension that exceeds any single architectural. literally the and overpowering of the subject. as those by Rilke. inKafka's Trial. Kracauer.i Andreas Huyssen 37 could urban serve to take the argument one step further and to establish the analogy between experience and war experience. lacks a proper outside. is increasingly blurred?most famously in ness. inside and outside. for thatmatter. Benn. past and present. but here the focus was werden" be murdered' interiorwith all its furnishings. potted as subject to intrusions from the outside as is the bourgeois the traditional bourgeois self and its inward the anonymous hotel room as the space of murder sensationalized in the 5.however.218. and collected knickknacks is nature.7 Or. to create the armored Weimar literature and paint quent topos in In the terror is sudden all three writers. like the dream. life and death. miniatures by Benjamin and by Kracauer. all these writers read this breakdown as a symptom ofmajor historical change. The arrangement of nineteenth-century furniture is to him Time and again. More quiring a new organization of social life. in the old and new West of scholarly discussion 'threshold experi Schwellenerfahrungen extended in Benjamin The ments "the site plan of deadly traps. The bourgeois interior "wird adaquat allein der Leiche zur Behausung" 'the horror of apartments' Street (88.

31 Mar 2014 20:07:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .We know that both Kracauer and Benjamin were interested in new the architecture and its Utopian visions in the work of Paul Scheerbart. Benjamin distinguished his project from autobiography as a temporal form focusing on "den stetigen Fluss des Lebens" 'the con or PMLA tinuous flow of life. Bauen inEisen. as it were. Durch dringung "stands for a weakening chical models on all levels?social architectural" of hierar as well as Giedion and Durchdringung IfDurchdringung ofinside and outside.'He continued. in an as yet unpublished piece archived Marbach. wo endet sie? Die Gebiete durchdringen nicht mehr in einem sich. starr die Die Wande Die umstehen Strasse wird Strasse. "Hier aber ist von einem Raum. and many others. a programmatic of modern architecture that was promises extensively excerpted in Benjamin's notes for his arcades project. in his Nachlass Gleise und Zug bilden mit dem Bahnof eine (Bauen 6) einzige Grosse. modernist miniature aphorism about the splin ter in the eye as magnifying glass captures the kind of vision that generates thewriting of the (Minima Moralia 57). and even in the tools (Schriften 5. bestehen blei uberhaupt BegrifF'Architektur" kaum Auskunft iiber ben wird. Adorno's tecture. Lilly Reich. In Berliner Chronik. Bauen inEisen statement about the beton.What appears as terroriz ing spatial experience in themodernist minia ture appears here as the liberatory dimension of Durchdringung and a new understanding of architectural space. Adolf Loos. von Augenblicken.218. Giedion writes: Es scheint uns time over space. ofmoments and discontinuities' (488. since all too often in recent decades. What answer the question: Bewegungsstrom umgewandelt. 'literary estate' in neue of "das spoke Raumgefuhl" Where does itbegin. continuity to das Unstetige. whereas the privileging a as of factor space emergence key structuring has been attributed to postmodernism. most famously perhaps by Fredric Jameson. Le Corbusier.Miniatures:Literary 38 Modernist Snapshotsof Urban Spaces rather than as an extended narrative in novel autobiographical form. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Yet it is important to re member.2 exhibiting of household In such comments on the new archi 68-74). in his 1928work Bauen inFrankreich. the Berlin montage preceding Berliner Kind heit. Wir konnten Wo beginnt sie. belongs to architecture? where does itend? This content downloaded from 194. Walter Gropius.177. which opens up a new form of see to the felicitous phrasing by ing. Thus Kracauer. Frankfurter Zeitung review of the StuttgarterWerkbund exhibition of 1927 of traditional in interior de 'the new feeling for space' produced by the development of technology and so far hardly understood sign (Loos comes tomind). This view shipwrecks on the modernist minia ob der beschrankte fraglich. private and public space is as in the modernist miniature presented 'space of anxiety' and Angst Angst-Raum it took on entirely Traum 'nightmare. Siegfried Giedion. even Utopian connotations architectural discourse of the 1920s. as has been discussed literary modernism in the positive. According architectural historian Hilde Heynen.24 on Mon. die Frage geben: Was gehort zur Architektur? ture (and not only there). The idea that space was central tomodernist literature (35). sub ject and object. he seems to approach the Utopian di mension of architectural modernism. vom Unstetigen die Rede" 'Here I am talking of a space. the sovereign sur he emphasized the dissolution perspective in urban housing. It seems doubtfulwhether the limited con cept of "architecture" We can hardly will indeed endure.' is not exactly new. veying gaze to the spatially isolating and frag menting look through themagnifying glass. Berlin Chronicle 612). describes this new spatial experience with themultivalent termDurch dringung. which is largely absent from his literaryminiatures. Time gives way to space. ("bisher noch kaum erfasst" ["Ex In his pose"]).

Critics have pulled his Stadtebilder 'urban images' too much into the orbit of his philosophy of history. has been suggestive of how one argue this point: the intermingling Berlin is seen as the decisive cauldron ofmo dernity in political and social crisis. One would to define the literary techniques to architectural Durchdrin corresponding then want gung as the intermingling of spaces through the partial absence of floors (as for instance in such nineteenth-century iron constructions as the Eiffel Tower) or the interpenetration of equivalent volumes that erase the borders between them (Gropius's Bauhaus inDessau). my trans. station. fall point. urban space as social loss of the the space. 31 Mar 2014 20:07:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .). into The street has of movement. If architecture's (Building 90) Kracauer Let me into Exile conclude with some broader com realm is no longer just that of built objects but also one of spatial and social relations. as Giedion suggests. and so forth. and it can be compared with Benjamin's no tion of an empty homogeneous time or with Bloch's characterization ofWeimar's Neue Sachlichkeit im Hohlraum" 'New Sobriety' as "Funktionen 'functions in the void' (Erb der Asthetik Selbstbesinnung konne" 'that the problem of space may become the point of departure for a new self-reflection of aesthetics' (95. form a singlewhole. not coded exclusively as homogeneous nega tivity. which interprets the city exclusively of alienation. reifica tion. with the been transformed lines and a stream together Rail railroad technologies.3 170-74]). Die Gesellschaft dauert fort als habe sie den Krieg Kunst wirklich und gewonnen.2 207]) or undergo such rapid architectural change that they no longer hold any memory of the past ("Strasse ohne Erinnerung" [Schriften 5. The variety of writing "Quadrangle" miniatures might of spatial mappings. bodies of philo In "Pariser Beobachtungen" ("Paris Observa tions" [1927]). de spite its largely negative coding ofDurchdrin ments on Kracauer's urban imaginary. But as the differentia tion of spatial models in "The Quadrangle" urban space inKracauer is already suggested. void' appears frequently in his miniatures. the result is a mix of fascination and terror. ego loss. Kracauer writes about France: as a city of the past. as the catastrophic space of a modernity gone awry and overwhelmed by abstract forms of empty time and empty as emblem gung. and as with the introduction of all new ing through missing floors as in Junger's "Das Entsetzen" ("The Horror") or being pulled up through ceilings as inKafka. cauer's but I of Kra of other porary suggestions such as Ernst Cassirer's. then one could argue that themodernist miniature. The seems to be missing in Paris in this perspective of the visitor from Berlin.218. Both architecture and literature reflect new modes of seeing and experiencing space and time. and anomie. subject's firm stand visual and bodily disorientation. is the literary analogue of this new way of seeing and experiencing space. one can note how street in Paris still functions as site ofmem ory and experience.24 on Mon. my trans). True. while Paris is described modern world sophical and descriptive text overlapping or interpenetrating one another.i22. while streets in Berlin either scream with emptiness ("Schreie auf der Strasse" [Schriften 5. trains. werden I cannot perform here this task of trans into a lating architectural Durchdringung strategies in themodern hope my reading in the context ist miniature. he differentiates between the two cities. This project could further draw on contem space. wie man spricht uber Literatur in verschollenen This content downloaded from 194. "dass das Raumproblem zum Ausgangspunkt einer neuen schaft 212.As Paris and Berlin provide the privi leged spaces for his texts.177. the notion of Leere 'emptiness.i Andreas Huyssen 39 Fields overlap: walls no longer rigidly de fine streets.

streift mit Lichtbekundungen endlos aus derNacht indie Nacht.. harbors a po wenn die Kaufleute sichmit Lichteffekten ein lassen. wird zur Sie schiesst uber die Wirt gemeint davon. If only it disappear. becomes but are not all commerce and what ismeant Such analyzes the historical de as a creative mental state. Leere Korper Geist. things ing the street in the evening: Da Ziehen leuchtende Worte an den Dachern voruber. andwhen itshines in all its Light remains light. which Kra cauer has paradigmatically analyzed in the well-known essay "The Mass Ornament. Here iswhat he writes about the flaneurwalk happen when businessmen handle lighteffects. 31 Mar 2014 20:07:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The descrip tion of "Lichtreklame" 'electric advertising' of 1927 is very different: of holiness.) The visitor returns to Berlin "mit dem Be .) excess of advertising poured Lichtreklame as uncontrollable der nicht mehr aufklarenden im Asphalt.). Die Lichtreklame geht an einem Himmel auf. eigenen Der forthby economic life is transformed into a constellation in an alien sky. (Mass Ornament 332) rail lines at Bahnhof Charlottenburg. it breaks thebounds setby itscon colors.40 Modernist Miniatures: Literary Snapshots of Urban Spaces PMLA Jahrzehnten. One speaks about art and and their (my literature exude are as in an au lost decades. und ihre Generale sind echteGenerale. and concrete low-ceiling construction and the human chaos ofmotion." The tension he developed there between the dys topia and the Utopia of reason also emerges if den dasWirtschaftsleben ausschiittet. (my trans. typical of an antiurban German Kulturkritik. beggars. odor Property and dowry generals before Kracauer turned tomore sociologically and politically inflected views. in the earlier text.2 19) (Schriften Electric harbor They ads rise in the heavens that no longer either. Kracauer cline of boredom angels exceed economics. . The drizzle advertising illumination. This harsh reality. by which time the dystopian vision has returned.177.Ware ihmnoch ein Verschwinden gegonnt! (Das Ornament 322) Illuminated words glide by on the rooftops. elude any kind of human rational Durchdringung: This content downloaded from 194. one's one's spirit?which ceaselessly is no longer own?roams out of the night in the asphalt. aber auch nicht nur Geschaft. und der schlagt Wurzeln unser Geist ist. wird zu Sternbildern an einem fremden 5. my trans... Himmel. Licht bleibt Licht. dass er hier wieder die Luft wusstsein der rauhen Wirklichkeit atme.. litically promising contradiction. Besitz und Mitgift stehen im Geruch der Heiligkeit. und strahltes gar in alien Farben. . really tractors. and already takes one is banished from one's own One's together emptiness body into the alien root advertisement. gezeichnet seinen Auftraggebern Der Reklamespriihregen. It remains so until 1933.24 on Mon. generals. iron This is still the subjective discourse of loss. schaft hinaus.2 25) (Schriften Society continues as if ithad reallywon the war. were allowed to and into the night. 5. die so bricht ihm von sind. however. however. Even ifoverall the rhetoric is less apocalyptic than of social realities after the crash of with the enlightening revelations of the il luminations. und was Illumination. ist. as they say' (26. which is always crowded with travelers. wie es heisst" 'conscious here of breathing the air of harsh reality. es erst recht aus den vor Bahnen.. Kracauer makes much of the oppo sition of the oppressive and unshakable 1929. In "Langeweile" ("Boredom" [1924]). supported now by Kracauer's concrete obser ismuch vations points to an alternative future to be read as a Sternbild 'constellation' in an alien sky. als Reklame Das kommt thentic trans. the form of theminiature the same.218. as we compare the several miniatures that focus on advertising. den und in die schon fremde ist man Reklame aus der verbannt. Both.. in dem es keine Engel mehr gibt. and hawkers. and. In "Die Unterfuhrung" ("The Under a a miniature about passage under the pass").

published just a couple of days after its author leftBerlin for good on 28 Feb ruary 1933 to enter the extraterritoriality of miniature exile. There modernist is an extensive literature that discusses mix of passersby and beggars. Briefe an Siegfried Kracauer.3 41) (Schriften with and Adorno. Frankfurt am Main: Schweppenhauser. 7. What has always intrigued me about this is that. Cambridge: Harvard UP. melte Schriften. ofMinnesota -.. furt am Main: Suhrkamp. then that depth has now been transformed into an Abgrund. Bloch. the aimlessness. 1997. This content downloaded from 194. der Passanten und Bettler. Jen nings. Theodor W. Suhrkamp. Adorno Archiv. the abyss that six years laterwas to engulf theworld. Walter. Ed. (211) seine Zerstorung 5. 6. Gesam Frank Notes 1. Rolf Tiedemann -. 1986. Vol. Lucida: Reflections on Photogra New York: Farrar. The central concept of Durchdringung (30-38). (my trans. Suhr kamp. articulated by Giedion before the crash. by Robert Hullot-Kentor. 1987. 3. The Fragmented Laurids Brigge"). but also theplanned construction as opaque just of the passage..24 on Mon. Howard Eiland. and Gary Smith. Frankfurt marks end point of themodernist miniature as a spe cific form in the urban feuilleton. has been much Focus on the modernist as Bild may help of expand our understanding the relation between the literary and the visual domains inmodernism. describes the silent crowds looking at the burnt Reichstag the day after the fatal fire: Die Blicke dringen durch dieses Symbol hin durch. to include close readings ofworks by Kafka. One of Kracauer's The Utopian dimension ofDurchdringung.. cidly described by Heynen has been lu not been fulfilled. Volume 2. Berliner Kindheit um Neunzehnhundert. -. it representa the which people driftabout. The relation of literary texts to photography less discussed. 1981. Camera Reflexionen aus dem beschddig am Main: 1971. Trans. and they dive down into the abyss opened up by itsdestruction. Suhrkamp. Works Cited Adorno. son 2. On che Herzy Totally: Junger's short prose pieces of Das see Huyssen 127-44 ("Fortifying Ernst Junger's Armored Texts"). 31 Mar 2014 20:07:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . I hope to expand the scope of this investigation Benn. For a fuller discussion sen 105-26 ("Paris/Childhood: Malte of Rilke's Notebooks of Rilke's novel. "Rund um den Reichstag" the logical. 6. Frankfurt Barthes.218. The owes much Fenster. Ed. 4. Ed. 1970. and Junger as well as by Benjamin. Gretel Adorno Trans. Theodor W. Minima Moralia: ten Leben. to open up the surfaces of urban space to the dangerous and exhilarating depths underlying them. Part 2: 1931-1934. If themain function of the formwas to enable readers to see the dangers and pleasures of urban life in new ways.177. Tillman Rexroth. Berliner Chronik: Gesammelte and Hermann Schriften. A comparable argument about the temporality of can be found in Kracauer's photography "Photography" in Mass Ornament (47-63). and with a transla Minneapolis: am Main: U tor's introd.1. das istwie das anarchische Gemisch is a first attempt to describe the mod as a central laboratory of urban litera ture.. This essay ernist miniature dern auch die planmassige Konstruktion der Passage_Ein und verlassen so undurchdrungen System. P. abenteuerli the Heart following reading of Kracauer's to Briiggemann's path-breaking miniature Das andere The gazes penetrate and go through this symbol. nieder.) city novel in terms of cinematic narrative and technique. and Rolf Tiedemann. Ed. ed. 1999. -.1 Andreas Huyssen 41 Unmenschlich istaber nicht nur die Planlosig keit.. den und tauchen in den Abgrund eroffnet.) In certain ways. Marbach: Deutsche Schillergesell schaft. see Huys Body in -. Richard Howard. Aesthetic Theory. (my trans. Roland. 235-304. Musil. phy. Ed. in the wake of Baude specific mode of writing was practiced by most of themajor modernists in laire.122. Michael W. 1972. Inhuman is not only 5. mit der die Menschen umhertreiben. In future work. Asthetische Theorie. and forsaken It is a system as the anarchic Germany and Austria as well as by the major tives of German critical theory. though not chronological. Berlin Chronicle: Selected Writings: Benjamin. Vol. 4. has last Ber linminiatures.

denjahren Bauen Symbol. Ernst. Howard Eiland and Michael W. Epic: The World System from toGarcia Mdrquez. Cambridge: Bloch. Hdu Bruggemann. 1. bek: Rowohlt. MIT Hilde. Harvard 1985. -. Cambridge: 1978. London: Verso. Sprache: Aufsatze 1985. Moretti. Thomas Das Y. Ed. Levin. Einbahnstrasse. Erbschaft kamp. 1985. Hans-Gerd Koch. 1927-1931. "The Storyteller. am -.42 Modernist Miniatures: Literary Snapshots of Urban Spaces PMLA -. Rilke. Culture ofAmnesia. Stephen Mitchell. By Dirk lass. Trans." New German Cri and Modernity. Suhrkamp. Marcus Bullock and Michael W. Siegfried Kracauer: Grenzganger zwischen Theorie und Literatur. Heynen. Ernst. "Agoraphobia: Spatial Estrangement Georg Simmel and Siegfried Kracauer. dieser Zeit. Leipzig: Klinckhardt.177. New Left Review July-Aug. Frankfurt Neuen -. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. 1990. Technik. Siegfried. Tagebucher. Giedion. Harvard UP. Jameson. Schwellenkunde: Walter Ben Suhr jamins Passage kamp. Hieroglyphic Writ Kracauer. KN/DLA Heidelberg: Winter. 1910-13. am Main: The Mass Ornament: Weimar Harvard Oschmann. Ed. and Sketches. in France: Building in Iron: Building in Building Mon Ferro-Concrete. Modern Auge und der Geist. tique 56 (1992): 43-75. Jen nings. 1932-1965. Sdmtliche Werke. Frankfurt am Main: Insel." 1984: 53-93. Auszug aus der Innerlichkeit. Main: Suhrkamp. Bauen in Eisenbeton. 83-148. 9. Ernst. of 1985. Vol 4. 1966. of Franz Kafka. 6. Frankfurt am Main: Ullstein. Joseph Kresh. Hamburg. Bauen in Frankreich. UP. Schriften 5. 1999. The Fredric. Adolf Frise. Robert. 1999. Kracauer. 194. 1831-1842.1. Menninghaus. der Masse. Trans. The Diaries Brod. J. 1978. Vol. Goethe Mulder. aus Schriften 5. Das Frankfurt am Main: -. Marbacher Rundschau. Rein ica: Getty Center 1995. 143-66. Frankfurt -. Jennings. Frankfurt am Main: Suhr -. manities. Stuttgart: Metzler. 2002. -. as The Notebooks Malte Laurids Brigge. Ed. Ed. Cambridge: Ornament 1977. ler. Franz. Trans." Selected Writings: Volume 3: 1935-1938. New York: Schocken. Das abenteuerliche Herz 1985. am Main: Suhrkamp. 31 Mar 2014 20:07:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Cassirer. "Expose Reorganisation 18 July 1928. Inka. Trans. Anthony. Mabbott. Max 1965." New German Critique 54 (1991): 37-45. Essays. Briefe. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Musil. 1927-33. New York: Routledge. Gesammelte Frankfurt Schriften. 2 of Collected Works of Edgar Allan Poe. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer. Vol. 1989. Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a 1995. This content downloaded from 194. -. Inka Mulder Bach. Cambridge: Harvard UP. Ed." Nach 3. Ed. UP. 1986. Pasley. Miriam. Kafka. 1996. Vol. Ed. One-Way Street: Selected Writings: Volume 1:1913 1926. Logic of Late Capitalism. "Postmodernism. inEisen.3: Aufsatze. Tillman Rexroth.218. Merleau-Ponty. 1928. Andreas. Ollive Werke.24 on Mon. Inka Mulder Bach. Edgar Thomas Tales Huyssen. Die Aufzeichnungen des Malte Lau rids Brigge. 1972. "Mass Culture ing: Adorno. Franco. Ed. Hansen. Rainer Maria. 1967. zur der Siegfried. Michael Miil Fischer. des Mythos. York: Random. for the History as of Art and the Hu Maurice. Gesammelte Rowohlt. and Malcolm 2002. Cultural or. Heinz. Vol. in Vidler. Frankfurt am Main: -. New [The Adventurous Junger. 709-946. 1995. 1973. Ed. 1990. Winfried. Cambridge: Architecture Reinbek: Poe. Duncan Santa Berry. Heart]. Derrida. P.2: Aufsatze. 1996. Das andere Fenster: Einblicke in ser und Menschen. 1903-1975. Trans. Allan.