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Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014
TM

COMPLETED TOPICS PART 2
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. Concept of unilateralism – China and USA 119 and 120 constitutional amendment bill India and Bangladesh relationship Andhra Pradesh issue – centre state relationship Commission of enquiry centre state relationship Bilateral security agreement and Afghanistan issue India’s interest in South Asia and Look South Policy (Nirupama Rao Article) Person with disability bill 2013 Sushma Singh and collegium regarding CIC Difference between PTA, FTA, CECA and CEPA Mudgal panel for IPL LCA project and Cauvery engine African crisis – detailed analysis Al-Qaeda Maghreb South Sudan crisis Central African Republic crisis Pakistan indigenous fighter and other countries fighters Shield system of the world and important kimberlite rock C Rangarajan committee for natural gas pricing C Rangarajan for sugar levy norms Government ruling for RIL gas pricing Coal beded methane rights to CIL A 20 (1) and Ashok Ganguly Analysis about section 377 (rights based issue ) SRE experiment of ISRO CBI reforms and analysis (R K Raghavan) Tiger census in India and National tiger conservation authority Critical analysis of women workplace act 2013 Guidelines by Kasturi Rangan committee on Western Ghats Difference between Kasturi Rangan and Madav Gadgil committee India’s CMS system Critical analysis of CMS Importance of BCIM corridor India’s stake in South Sudan India’s role in OPCW and Syria (Geneva 2) Inflation index saving bonds and critical analysis Critical analysis of bit coin Geneva conference and Iran nuclear issue Kishenganga award and analysis

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Kishengana article by Ramaswamy Iyer Physiography of Himalayas and glaciers Mass contact programme and good governance India Myanmar Land dispute Importance of Myanmar for India Exclusion within exclusion Social exclusion essay Pakistan nuclear enrichment programme (Kushab) Russia Arctic oil rush Importance of Arctic sea Arctic council Direct tax – analysis, recent data GSLV D5 and cryogenic engine Innovation and recent innovation in India Diabetic friendly rice variety Vulture conservation programme in India Judicial activitism and over reach (Delhi Nursery) Avalanches CCMB Hyderabad Vienna convention critical analysis – Artcile 41 (1) (3) India Nepal relationship Nepal political crisis chronology Sadhu bet island India’s environmental conservation chronology National green tribunal Mobile seva and the role of Deity Artificial heart – France Cervical cancer New guidelines by department of health regarding rape Consumer rights act Solid waste management Vayoshrestha samman – result for old age issue Rope way in Jammu and Kashmir United nations award for Ngo Basic premises regarding New Industrial policy Bangalore –Mumbai industrial corridor and their significance Child sex ratio in India UNFPA report India Pakistan DGMO talks Purn shakthi Kendra Nigeria president and related issue China Pakistan nuclear Vs India – Russia Nuclear co=operation Mapping of Odisha M B Shah recommendations

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10/70 ORN N.Delhi-60 9999801394

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Nagaland issue – comprehensive analysis 125. Top 10 scientific achievements 96. RBI ease norms in relation to gold imports 134. New system to hold railway fire 130. India Saudi Arabia labour co-operation 133. Importance of Indian railway for Indian economy 112. Z security 103. RBI strategy to control NPA 127. UNMIS role in Sudan 123. Provisions regarding working of ASHA 119. Fiscal deficit – reason and suggestions to control it 137. Employment issue in India 150. Teltail – women security application 135. Pension reforms and new pension plan 111. Trafficking and definition of human trafficking 102. Railway security 113. Bangladesh political crisis 122. Double taxation avoidance agreement and 95. 89. United Nations convention on the law of nonnavigational uses of watercourses 142. August westland VVIPhelicopter – India scraps deal 136. Basudeb Acharya and technical expert committee ) 124.2 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM 83. Hydrophonics 99. Muslim brotherhood terrorist group 94. Succeeded first women FICCI head Naina lal Kidwai as President of FICCI Samaresh Jung – National shooting championship Mission director – NRHM – Anuradha Gupta Maldives President .Delhi-60 9999801394 www. 88. Gujarat riots chronology 104. Hydrogen fuel cell technology and related problem 97.aspireias. Malnourishment in India 156. Uruguay drug cartel 91. Mass spectrometer 143. Guardian Microsoft application for women security 107. University grants commission 154. Snake venom and related mechanism 98. UGC extend deadline on accreditation 109. Difference between apes and monkeys 100. International criminal court 147. Attention deficit hyperactive disorder 115. The 6 bills 153. Difference between NSSO and census and their impact over India’s policy 131. Kakodkar committee 114. Financial stability bill 155. 85. Women role in India’s politics 132. National youth policy 149. International Sea bed authority 141.com . Project Lakshya and DBT 129. Comprehensive analysis about US stimuls programme and present status of Indian economy 128. Census regarding differently abled population 121. International court of justice 148. Apes in the world 101. Disability and right to education 126. UNCLOS 140. 86. Rabindra nath tagore 116. Diamond jublee of UGC and suggest 108. Lampedusa 93. Performance based ASHA allowance 118. Land acquisition act Personality       Elizabeth Susan Koshy – gold in 57th National shooting championship Rajat Chauhan – Archer Sidharth Birla. India Sri Lanka Maritime boundary issue 139. Solar luminosity 145. 84. MERS virus 144. Maternal mortility rate causes and solutions 92. Middle income countries’ key to future developed 120. Poverty estimation in India 146. China’s freebie in South Asia 110. 87. Syria crisis – complete analysis 138. Community neutral analysis 105. Nepal political parties reach accord Land of fire and ice NSSO survey regarding slum and drinking water Difference between endangered and endemic species Karnataka endangered bat Characteristics associated with bats CERTin RECENT REPORT ABOUT CYBER SECURITY 90. H7N9 bird flu 106. Millennium development goals 151. Hindu marriage act 117.Yameen Abdul Gayoom Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. The direct tax code bill 152. GM crops critical analysis (paroda.

employment generation. to control the problem of CAD. Last class articles India to conduct on-ground assessment in South Sudan New land acquisition rolled out A programme to address malnutrition Marijuana stores open in Colorado Greece takes EU reins Rotating Presidency policy Election in May Latvia joins Eurozone Latvia (part of former USSR) adopted euro Became the 18th member of the Eurozone Anand Sharma hints at further liberalisation of FDI policy Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. The specific regions where these plants occur are termed as 'mangrove ecosystem'. where the annual rainfall exceeds 1250mm and mountain ranges greater than 700m high are found close to the coast. tidal pressures.Delhi-60 9999801394 www.. To cope up with such a hostile environment mangroves exhibit highly evolved morphological and physiological adaptations to extreme conditions. the ecosystem also harbours other plant and animal species Mangrove plants live in hostile environmental conditions such as high salinity. These are highly productive but extremely sensitive and fragile. hypoxic (oxygen deficient) waterlogged soil strata. Besides mangroves. WHERE DO MANGROVES OCCUR The richest mangrove communities occur in tropical and subtropical areas. i. strong winds and sea waves. designer of AK 47 dies Jacques kallis to quit cricket Zakia Jafri – fighting for 2002 Gujarat riot against Modi Sushma Singh.3 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM                 IAF chief – Arup Raha Taxonomist passes away – T C Narendran – recipient of E K Janaki Ammal National award of Ministery of Environment and forests Suresh Das tipped to head CSIR Mathew Chosen for Prestigious Journalism award Maldives President .e. Mangroves are found practically in almost all the continents. the Arctic and Antarctic.aspireias. industrial growth. excepting Europe. between the 30°N and 30°S latitudes where the water temperature is greater than 24ºC in the warmest month. implementation of AravindMayaram committee Relaxation of FDI norms in railways and construction activities 2013 – India most favoured investment destination globally Shining light through skin to diagnose malaria A laser pulse creates a vapour nanobubble on a malariainfected cell and is used to noninvasively diagnose malaria rapidly and with high sensitivity Get answers to comet queries this year From European spacecraft Rosetta Magroves in Florida expanding polewards Example of climate change MANGROVES Mangroves are salt-tolerant plants of tropical and subtropical intertidal regions of the world. New CIC Application: infrastructure and development.com .Yameen Abdul Gayoom IAF chief – Arup Raha Taxonomist passes away – T C Narendran – recipient of E K Janaki Ammal National award of Ministery of Environment and forests Suresh Das tipped to head CSIR Mathew Chosen for Prestigious Journalism award Sunitha Narain – waste disposal management Ronjan Sodhi – free rifle nationals Ashwini ponappa and G Jwala – badminton Kalashnikov.

com . Of the total mangroves 80% are present along the east coast. They are a major predator of crocodile and turtle eggs. Mangrove Crab (Scylla cerata) : Scylla serrata. Due to overkilling and very long periods of incubation (8-9 months) it has become endangered in India. Bhitarkanika and the Andaman & Nicobar mangroves. Molluscs and Crustaceans Mangroves are a paradise for aquatic animals like molluscs and crustaceans. DISTRIBUTION OF MANGROVES IN INDIA Zooplankton The zooplankton in the mangrove areas mostly includes crustacean larvae. Insects Insect fauna of mangroves has not been adequately researched in India. km whereas Andaman & Nicobar is about 700 sq km.4 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM The total area of mangroves in India is about 6.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. the largest nesting site ever recorded is Gahirmatha near Bhitarkanika. Estuarine or Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylusporosus): This is the largest crocodile found in India or in the world. Salmona is a butterfly which is associated with the mangrove associate. as well as coastal brackish water. Krishna. Large nesting sites are found in Orissa.740 sq.000 sq. The mangrove habitats offer rich feeding grounds for many of the large and more spectacular species as well as a multitude of small birds. Mammals THE MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. In India it is found in association with the estuarine crocodile. Water Monitor Lizard (Varanussalvator) : The Water monitor is one of the largest lizards in the world. Butterflies and moths are also commonly found in the mangrove ecosystem. Salvadora. Fish : Mangroves are the breeding and nursery grounds for several species of fish. growing upto 3 mtrs. Another moth. The remaining 20% mangroves are scattered on the west coast from Kutch to Kerala. Hybloeapuera. The GangeticSunderbans is about 4. The reason for such a restricted mangrove cover is the peculiar coastal structure and the nature of estuaries formed by the relatively small and non-perennial rivers except Narmada and Tapi. Besides. Cauveri. large rivers like Mahanadi. which is about 7% of the world's total area of mangroves. mostly forming the Sunderbans. has recently been observed to be infesting large tracts of Avicennia marina on the Western coast.aspireias. Sea Turtles : Olive Ridley (Lepidochelysolivacea) is the most common sea turtle in Indian waters. km. Godavari also harbour major mangroves in their estuarine regions. inhabits the muddy bottom of mangrove estuaries. the large edible swimming crab. Birds are a prominent part of most mangrove forests and they are often present in large numbers.

deterioration. the Government of India set up the National Mangrove Committee in the Ministry of Environment and Forests in 1976 to advise the government about mangrove conservation and development. These ecosystems are also well known for their economic importance. adoption of a multidisciplinary approach involving state governments. Recognizing the importance of mangroves. research institutions and local organizations.aspireias. located in the Bay of Bengal (partly in India and partly in Bangladesh). Experiences have proved that the presence of mangrove ecosystems on coastline save lives and property during natural hazards such as cyclones. THREATS TO MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM The threats to the mangrove ecosystem could be broadly grouped into two: Natural and Anthropogenic. fishing. The Sundarbans mangroves. Rest of the mangrove ecosystems is comparatively smaller. universities. with the growing demand for timber. aquaculture and human encroachment (including reclamation).5 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM Royal Bengal Tiger (Pantheratigristigris) Dugong (Dugong dugong)/Sea cow Otters Crab eating macaque THREAT TO MANGROVES Anthropological pressures and natural calamities are the enemies of the ecosystem.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. MANAGEMENT OF MANGROVES IN INDIA India has a long tradition of mangrove forest management. these areas are used for captive and culture fisheries. preparation of a management plan. promotion of research. the panel. which consists of scientists. NEED FOR MANGROVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Increasing human population in coastal areas is resulting in increased pressure on mangrove ecosystems in many countries. beekeeping and cottage industries based on mangrove forest products. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. To ensure the conservation of mangroves for environmental benefits. etc. helping to improve the socio-economic conditions of the local communities.. fuelwood. apiculture. Over 1600 plant and 3700 animal species have been identified from these areas. feeding and nursery grounds for many estuarine and marine organisms. The ecosystem has a very large unexplored potential for natural products useful for medicinal purposes and also for salt production. The distribution of mangrove ecosystem on Indian coastlines indicates that the Sundarban mangroves occupy very large area followed by Andaman-Nicobar Islands and Gulf of Kachch in Gujarat. good number of studies has been carried out in almost all ecosystems. appropriate management of mangrove ecosystems is needed. etc. fodder and other non-wood forest products. fuel and fodder. The values shown by satellite data shows a decrease in the mangrove area. Growing industrial areas along the coastlines and discharge of domestic and industrial sewage are polluting these areas. They are breeding. research scholars and experts on the mangrove ecosystem. etc. pollution. consisting of:     identification of selected mangrove areas for conservation. In its first meeting. emphasized the need to conduct a survey of the extent of existing mangrove areas within the country. are considered as the anthropogenic threats to the ecosystem. were the first mangroves in the world to be put under scientific management. These factors may affect the system as a whole or any one entity within the system. The natural threats include: Climatic changes. storm surges and erosion. However. Diseases. Cyclones and Physical processes. Management can also open new avenues for self-employment such as ecotourism.com . grazing. together with a sustainable supply of various forest and other products to meet the day-to-day requirements of local people. which may be due to several reasons such as   grazing by domestic cattles and exploitation of mangrove woods for fuel and timber the neo-tectonic movement of river courses    abatement of upstream freshwater discharges due to construction of dams and reservoirs rapid trend of reclamation of mangrove forests for habitations pollutant discharges from cities and industries etc. Hence. Many studies have highlighted these problems and the conservation efforts are being considered. agriculture. The government subsequently introduced a scheme for mangrove conservation and protection.

electromagnetic waves India lost 63 wild tigers in 2013 Tiger conservation strategy of India Gogoi for Assam local time Mean time line of India – Allahabad Tea Garden time was a time line given by East India Company Cap on subsidised LPG may be raised CCTVs in public vehicles Application: women rights.aspireias.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. 1927 and the Wildlife (Protection) Act. rate of growth of forest trees and seasonal variations of environmental parameters. Legislative framework In India. The plans broadly cover survey and demarcation. afforestation of degraded mangrove areas. It can be Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. natural regeneration in selected areas. The Indian Forest Act. 15 mangrove areas were identified for conservation. their flora and fauna. social networks. their microbiology and the biochemistry of organic matter and sediments. which included the following:  nationwide mapping of the mangrove areas. these acts can also apply to the conservation of the flora and fauna of mangrove ecosystems. a DRDO laboratory. web forum messages. and is run by Research and Analysis Wing(RAW). blogs. and time series to assess the rate of degradation of the ecosystems. deformable robotic exoskeleton. the ecology of mangroves. climatic regime. Most of these plans are now being implemented. Is working in a nuclear power plant risky? Nuclear explosion affects DNA NETRA(NEtworkTRaffic Analysis) It is a software network developed by India's Centre for Artificial Intelligence and Robotics. protection measures. assessment of suitable sites for reserve forests. 1972 provide protection to flora and fauna. Since 1927. Although they do not specifically mention mangroves. Now. study of management methods.com . fencing and awareness programmes. afforestation. The primary purpose of the system will be detect words like 'attack'. AERB is a international body responsible for Nuclear security Controlling spacecraft Is controlled through radio frequency. the Indian Forest Act has been applied to the mangrove forests of the Sundarbans. 'blast' or 'kill' from a lot of sources over the Internet. Traffic analysis means the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication. conservation programmes. the National Mangrove Committee recommended areas for research and development and for management of the mangroves. 'bomb'. which have been declared as a reserved area Flexible rover could explore Titan SUPER BALL BOT – Making solar exploration easier and cheaper by embedding science instruments inside a flexible. the country's external intelligence agency to intercept emails. images using pre-defined filters. The Government of India has provided guidance and financial assistance to states and Union territories for the preparation and implementation of Management Action Plans for the conservation and development of these mangrove ecosystems. quantitative surveys of area. a legislative framework for the conservation and management of mangroves is already in place. old age safety The project is a part of Nirbhaya fund Global centre for Nuclear energy partnership (Haryana) National cancer institute (Haryana) Mr Yameen in India No firm assurance from Yameen on GMR issue Maldives for out-of-court pact with GMR on airport project Big brother is watching you      On the basis of the National Mangrove Committee's recommendation.6 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM In 1979. preferably by remote sensing techniques coupled with land surveys.

Intelligence Bureau. though in 2013. Security agencies were looking to build a system that could monitor Internet traffic on a real time basis due to the rapidly escalating threat posed by terrorist and criminal elements using data communication. and could not handle more data. Capabilities NETRA can capture all voice traffic passing through software such as Skype and Google Talk. This was done as the intelligence gathered by the external intelligence agency was largely irrelevant for the use by law enforcement agencies. * October 29 2006: President Iajuddin Ahmed is sworn in as head of caretaker administration.com . Centre may pick up half the cost of transportation of targeted PDS grain Cabinet clears changes to Mega Power Policy Power system development fund gets cabinet nod Government strategy to solve energy crisis Indian film evokes memories of Pakistan’s ‘flying bird’ Personality: Louis Braille –invention of reading and writing tool for blind Expert panel urges Kerala to repeal ecologically fragile lands act Telangana: no constitutional barriers Bitcoin: missing the real revolution SASTRA-CNR Rao award for two CSIR directors Panel moots more powers for RBI in financial benchmarks Mass grave found in Nagaland GSLV D5 launch today Violence of Bangladesh ahead of polls (Acc to new trend) October 28. Department of Telecom. A team of 40 scientists from CAIR developed NETRA. * January 11 2007: President declares state of emergency and imposes night-time curfew. He also steps down as head of Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. The committee further observed that CAIR has been continuously investing in R&D to keep up with the fast-changing web technologies. The committee is staffed by members from Ministry of Home Affairs. Skype and Gmail into the focus of law enforcement agencies. and National Investigation Agency. says her alliance will boycott January 22 election. and intercept messages with keywords passing through emails.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. Internet Scanning and Coordination Centre will use this software to monitor the Internet similar to the ones used by USA. An inter-ministerial committee selected NETRA as the internet monitoring system. leader of the Awami League.aspireias. The system was first demonstrated at the premises of Sify Technologies to capture the entire internet traffic passing through its probes. social networks and even images to obtain the desired intelligence. The committee said that NETRA was an indigenous solution involving government scientists and personnel and no component of solution had been outsourced to an outside agency. * January 3. The system with RAW analyses large amount of international data which crosses through the internet networks in India. R&AW is the only user of this monitoring system.7 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM performed even when the messages are encrypted and cannot be decrypted. blogs. * November 28 2006: Activists set fire to five election commission offices as Awami League begins new campaign to force removal of election officials. Department of IT. 2007: Sheikh Hasina. Twenty-five people are killed in resulting clashes between political parties over appointment of caretaker government. UK. web forums. and many other nations. the Ministry of Home Affairs recommended the use of a second NETRA system by law enforcement agencies. which had brought service providers like BlackBerry. 2006: Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia steps down after her term ends.

2007 August .In a ruling on the decades-old dispute between two main political parties. Worker protests close hundreds of factories and extract a government pledge to raise the minimum wage and make it easier to form unions. 2012 January . Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. who proclaimed independence from Pakistan in 1971. mainly army officers. 2011 June . Jaamat-e Islami supporters clash with police repeatedly in following months in protest at the trial. including leader MotiurRahmanNizami. 2013 January . Candidates backed by the Awami League party perform strongly.Muslim rioters attack Buddhist villages and shrines in south-east Bangladesh after an image said to show a burnt Koran was posted on Facebook.8 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM caretaker government and hands charge to Fakhruddin Ahmed.Army says it has foiled a coup planned by "fanatical officers".The government bans the local branch of the global Islamist organisation Hizb-utTahrir. Parliament elects Abdul Hamid as Bangladesh's new president.aspireias.European retailers promise to sign an accord to improve safety conditions in factories after a garment factory building collapsed in April. The government denounces the attacks as "premeditated and deliberate acts of communal violence against a minority". 2008 August . and not late husband of her arch-rival Khaleda Zia.Constitutional change scraps provision for a neutral caretaker government to oversee elections.Sheikh Hasina is temporarily freed to get medical treatment in the US. Sheikh Hasina is sworn in as prime minister in January. Sheikh Hasina returns to lead her party in the poll.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. former governor of the central bank. Police arrest some 700 guards. 2012 October .Local elections take place.Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina vetoes Islamist bill to outlaw criticism of Islam. 2010 January . He was tried in absentia. following the death in March of ZillurRahman.Key figures from the main Islamist party Jamaat-e-Islami. saying it poses a threat to peace. Those charged include leaders of Jamaat-e-Islami party.Government imposes a curfew on Dhaka and five other cities amid violent clashes between police and students demanding an end to emergency rule.Around 74 people. 2013 May . are killed in a mutiny in Dhaka by border guards unhappy with pay and conditions. 2013 April . killing more than 1. are charged with war crimes by a government tribunal investigating alleged collaboration with Pakistan during the 1971 independence struggle.com . 2008 November .000 guards are detained in May. as he had fled abroad. seen as a big step towards restoring democracy. 2009 February . 2009 October . * April 12 2007: Murder charges are filed against former leader Sheikh Hasina and more than 50 others relating to deaths of 10 activists on October 28 during street protests.War crimes tribunal sentences prominent Muslim cleric AbulKalam Azad to death for crimes against humanity during the 1971 independence war. the High Court decides that it was the father of PM Sheikh Hasina.The authorities say general elections will be held on 18 December. 2012 May-June . 2009 June .100 people. A further 1.Five former army officers are executed for the 1975 murder of founding PM Sheikh MujiburRahman.General elections: Awami League captures more than 250 of 300 seats in parliament. Awami League win 2008 December . 2008 June .

2005 April .GP Koirala returns as prime minister. government declare ceasefire. for war crimes committed during the 1971 war of independence. 1994 .King Gyanendra assumes direct control and dismisses the government. The rebels want the monarchy to be abolished. 1995 . He declares a state of emergency. Street protests suppressed by security forces resulting in deaths and mass arrests. 2001 November .Rebels.New elections boycotted by NCP.Delhi-60 9999801394 www.King lifts the state of emergency amid international pressure. 2002 May .Parliament dissolved. with frequent changes of prime minister. New elections lead to formation of Communist government. who was convicted in February of crimes against humanity during the 1971 war of independence.Communist government dissolved. declare peace talks with government failed.aspireias. 2005 February . 2002 October . 2013 December .Pro-democracy agitation co-ordinated by NCP and leftist groups. heading the ninth government in 10 years.Start of Maoist revolt which drags on for more than a decade and kills thousands. 1985 – Nepal Congress Party begins civil disobedience campaign for restoration of multi-party system.Maoists end four-month old truce with government. 1980 . renews emergency. CHRONOLOGY OF NEPAL POLITICAL CRISIS (As per new trend of UPSC) After the death of King Mahendra in 1972 he was succeeded by Birendra. King agrees to allow direct elections to national assembly but on a non-party basis. Girija Prasad Koirala becomes prime minister. 2014 January .Koirala's government defeated in no-confidence motion. SherBahadurDeuba heads interim government. Small majority favours keeping existing panchayat system.9 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM 2013 July . as is the usual custom.Supreme Court upholds death sentence on Islamist leader Abdul Kader Mullah of the Jamaat-e-Islami party. 2000 . leader of the Jamaat-e-Islami party.Rebels pull out of peace talks with government and end seven-month truce. 2003 August . 2003 January .Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina gains a third term in elections.King Gyanendra dismisses Deuba and indefinitely puts off elections set for November.Nepali Congress Party wins first democratic elections.State of emergency declared after more than 100 people are killed in four days of violence. 1997 . 2001 November . fresh elections called amid political confrontation over extending the state of emergency. Many hundreds are killed in rebel and government operations in the following months. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N.Constitutional referendum follows agitation for reform. 2013 November . 1991 . King Birendra eventually bows to pressure and agrees to new democratic constitution. ushering in period of increased political instability.Opposition Bangladesh Nationalist Party and Jamaat-e-Islami supporters clash with police in protests at the government's refusal to make way for a caretaker administration to oversee parliamentary elections in January. 1995 . citing the need to defeat Maoist rebels. Launch coordinated attacks on army and police posts. 1990 .com . King Gyanendra orders army to crush the Maoist rebels. 1986 .Prime Minister SherBahadurDeuba loses no-confidence vote. The following months see resurgence of violence and frequent clashes between students/activists and police.At least two people are killed as police clash with thousands of protesters after the conviction of GhulamAzam.

2007 January . Maoists join government 2007 April . 2009 May .King Gyanendra agrees to reinstate parliament following weeks of violent strikes and protests against direct royal rule. Maoist party disputes results.the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) declaring a formal end to a 10-year rebel insurgency. with Nepali Congress going into opposition. 2007 December .Nepal becomes a republic. 2011 May . The Treaty represents the only binding commitment in a Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N.Maoist leaders enter parliament under the terms of a temporary constitution. 2010 May .Parliament approves abolition of monarchy as part of peace deal with Maoists.com . 2008 April .Delhi-60 9999801394 www. but fail to achieve an outright majority.10 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM 2005 November .Election for an assembly which will write a new constitution.Prime Minister Bhattari dissolves parliament. Mr Bhattari remains in charge of a caretaker government 2013 November .Constituent Assembly fails to meet deadline for drawing up new constitution. to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.Maoist leader Prachanda forms coalition government. Cases registered for supplying low quality imported Indonesian coal Jammu and Kashmir Wild Life Sanctuaries Kishtwar Wild Life Sanctuary Dachigam Wildlife sanctuary Hamis Wildlife sanctuary Salim Ali Wildlife sanctuary Ministry passing the buck to states on illegal mining Centre soft pedalling on enforcing Western Ghats report Bitcoin critical analysis All eyes on today’s launch of refurbished GSLV – D5 Majestic welcome to INS Vikramaditya NPT AND CTBT AND THEIR DIFFERENCE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY The NPT is a landmark international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology. Maoists quit interim government to press demand for monarchy to be scrapped.aspireias. This forces the postponement of November's constituent assembly elections. who agree to re-join government. a move that takes them into the political mainstream.Prime Minister Prachanda resigns in a row with President Yadav. Nepali Congress party wins most seats. the first in nearly three years. Maoists leave government after other parties oppose integration of former rebel fighters into national army.Former Maoist rebels win the largest bloc of seats in elections to the new Constituent Assembly (CA). The government and Maoist rebels begin peace talks. 2006 May .Government and Maoists sign a peace accord .Maoists join interim government. 2008 August . Peace deal 2006 November . 2008 May . 2006 April . Maoist rebels call a three-month ceasefire. calls elections for November after politicians miss a final deadline to agree on a new constitution.Maoist rebels and main opposition parties agree on a programme intended to restore democracy.Governing coalition and Maoist opposition extend deadline for drafting of new constitution to May 2011. 2012 May .Parliament votes unanimously to curtail the king's political powers.

the Treaty was extended indefinitely. Entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban (CTBT) would create a legally binding prohibition on nuclear explosive tests for all of its parties. the Treaty establishes a safeguards system under the responsibility of theInternational Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). is a treaty which is to ban all nuclear explosions in all surroundings. Egypt. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. a testament to the Treaty's significance. Indonesia. Safeguards are used to verify compliance with the Treaty through inspections conducted by the IAEA. Indonesia has been signalling that it will soon ratify the treaty and following the US Senate's ratification of New START DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NPT AND CTBT The world is trying to control chemical and nuclear weapons. including the five nuclear-weapon States. Impede states with more established nuclear weapon capabilities from confirming the performance of advanced nuclear weapon designs that they have not tested successfully in the past. On 11 May 1995. security and effectiveness of the nuclear forces we maintain to deter nuclear attacks on the United States. which stands for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. the Treaty entered into force in 1970.aspireias. where states are building up and modernizing nuclear forces. our allies and partners.India.S. Kennedy. Iran.com . and North Korea have not signed the Treaty. As President Obama first stated in Prague in 2009. A further six states China. NPT stands for Non-Proliferation Treaty. More countries have ratified the NPT than any other arms limitation and disarmament agreement. and the United States have signed but not ratified the Treaty. States interested in pursuing a nuclear weapons program or advancing or expanding the capabilities of an existing nuclear weapons program would have to either risk deploying weapons without confidence that they will work as designed.Israel. This moratorium is based on our national security assessment that the United States does not need to conduct nuclear explosive tests in order to ensure the safety. so that the treaty can enter into force. while safeguards prevent the diversion of fissile material for weapons use. Moreover. whose aim is to prevent nuclear weapons for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. the United States has observed a unilateral moratorium on nuclear explosive testing.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. a provision which was reaffirmed by the States parties at the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference. The CTBT was opened for signature in 1996. The Treaty promotes cooperation in the field of peaceful nuclear technology and equal access to this technology for all States parties. reinforcing the international norm against nuclear explosive testing is very much in the U. A total of 190 parties have joined the Treaty. To further the goal of non-proliferation and as a confidencebuilding measure between States parties. These constraints will be particularly important in Asia. and to helping secure ratification by others. The CTBT will:  Hinder states that do not have nuclear weapons expertise and experience from advancing their nuclear weapons capabilities. Pakistan. security interest. Since 1992. Of the 44 states. CTBT. consent of the United States Senate to ratify the treaty. three . Opened for signature in 1968. The provisions of the Treaty envisage a review of the operation of the Treaty every five years.11 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM multilateral treaty to the goal of disarmament by the nuclearweapon States. the Administration is committed both to seeking the advice and  Constrain regional arms races in the years and decades to come. or incurring international condemnation and reprisals by conducting nuclear explosive tests  in violation of the Treaty. while not affecting the ability of the United States to maintain its own nuclear deterrent force. As of early 2011. and COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR-TESTBAN TREATY (CTBT) The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a legally binding global ban on nuclear explosive testing and the final step in the vision laid out fifty years ago by President John F.

nobody bothered about the agreement. In fact. India.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. North Korea. A total of 190 parties joined the treaty. US signed the treaty. Though after few years. but for so many years they were not banned. The Non-Proliferation Treat (NPT) of nuclear weapons was signed in 1968 but it was entered into force in 1970. in areas of technology transfer for peaceful purposes. Each State Party undertakes not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion. Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty [FMCT] A Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty [FMCT] would strengthen nuclear non-proliferation norms by adding a binding international commitment to existing constraints on nuclear weapons-usable fissile material. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. The states were the United States. and to further the goal of disarmament. CTBT was floated by the former American President Bill Clinton. the basic obligations of CTBT are: 1. Iran. with five states were recognized as nuclear weapon states. Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru also signed to ban all nuclear test explosions all over the world. Then. Nuclear weapon States Parties are also compelled. Partial Test Ban Treaty came into existence. It would not apply to plutonium and HEU for non-explosive purposes. underwater and in space. Since the early 1950s. However. to "pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament.com . furthermore. Pakistan. and it would not address existing stockpiles.It would also not apply to non-fissile materials.12 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature in 1996. United States. with the circumstance of Cold War. and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control.aspireias. to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. whereas. The United Kingdom. Till date. The treaties are to stop nuclear weapons in all the countries. seven other countries did not ratify the treaty. which banned nuclear tests in the atmosphere. Under Article 1." The NPT aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology. like tritium. nearby 1900 nuclear tests have been carried out at different locations all over the world. and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control. It is intended to prohibit all nuclear weapon test explosions. however. but not underground. Israel. The Treaty establishes a safeguard system under the responsibility of the IAEA. the treaty has not been put into effect as either countries have yet to ratify the treaty. They require nuclear weapons for their states but not to transfer nuclear weapons. There is ongoing debate whether or not the CTBT should be approved. Each State Party undertakes. These countries are: China. so many new explosions came into existence. Thus. Russia. The treaty was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996. CTBT is the treaty in which the countries are to ban the nuclear explosions and tests of nuclear weapons. 2. under Article VI. which also plays a central role under the Treaty. little progress was made until the end of the Cold War. encouraging. The proposed treaty would ban the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. NPT is the treaty which bans development of nuclear weapons altogether but allows the development of nuclear energy for experiments or peaceful uses. Egypt. Also. or in any way participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion. France and China. the adaptation of banning all the nuclear explosions are going on until now . In 1991. to refrain from causing. in 1963. but they did not approve it. or other explosive devices to any non-nuclear weapon state.

and provide a forum for the State Parties. Under Article I. and North Korea). and would have applied to only the five recognized NWS. as well as desires to hold parallel negotiations on outer space arms control issues. the CD took up a mandate presented by Canadian Ambassador Gerald Shannon. and for the four nations that are not NPT members (Israel. Those nations that joined the nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as non-weapon states are already prohibited from producing or acquiring fissile material for weapons.aspireias. and China). The Shannon Mandate established an ad hoc committee that was directed to negotiate an FMCT by the end of the 1995 session.S. negotiations for an FMCT have not taken place. The plan failed to achieve consensus within the UNAEC. Bernard Baruch presented the Baruch Plan. UN resolution 78/57 L. Discussions on this subject are being held within the UN Conference on Disarmament (CD). Robert Oppenheimer. under the 2009 International Panel on Fissile Materials' (IPFM) draft treaty. The Obama administration’s support of an FMCT was displayed prominently in a speech President Obama delivered in Prague in 2009. prevented negotiations from getting underway. excess for all military purposes. The George W. though preliminary discussions are ongoing. Each State Party would also agree to disable. In 1946 the Acheson-Lilienthal Report.com . and for use in military reactors. Consequently. India. acquire or encourage the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. two key components of nuclear weapons. ensure implementation with the IAEA. ―the United States will seek a new treaty that verifiably ends the production of fissile materials intended for use in state nuclear weapons. a number of states often call for a fissile material treaty (FMT) Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. While a "ban on the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices" implies a cut-off. The plan called for the United States to disassemble its nuclear arsenal. Article V of the draft treaty would establish an FM(C)T Organization to implement the treaty objectives. A lack of consensus over verification provisions. dismantle its fissile material production facilities. advocated for an Atomic Development Agency to regulate fissile material and ensure that state rivalries over the technology did not occur. Ultimately. The proposal did not include any verification measures. United Kingdom. but only after an agreement had been reached assuring the United States that the Soviets would not be able to acquire a bomb. when feasible. multilateral and internationally and effectively verifiable treaty banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Russia. Obama stated that. States Parties would be required to declare to the IAEA all fissile materials in its civilian sector.‖ Obligations: There are two primary issues that divide the different drafts for an FM(C)T: verification and pre-existing stocks. plan to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (UNAEC).13 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM A fissile material cut-off treaty (FMCT) is a proposed international agreement that would prohibit the production of the two main components of nuclear weapons: highly-enriched uranium (HEU). which also would have established an Atomic Development Authority that answered to the UN Security-Council. Much later. Background Efforts to curb the spread of nuclear material and technology began only a short time after the world was introduced to the destructive potential of atomic weaponry. authored in part by Manhattan Project physicist J. neither Dean Acheson or David Lilienthal presented the U. Bush administration submitted an FMCT proposal at the CD 2006 which proposed a fifteen year ban on the production of HEU and plutonium. With regard to the issue of pre-existing stocks.‖ In March 1995. a body of 65 member nations established as the sole multilateral negotiating forum on disarmament. France. called for a ―non -discriminatory. Instead. which passed unanimously in 1993. An FMCT would provide new restrictions for the five recognized nuclear weapon states (NWS—United States. decommission and. State Parties would agree not to produce. a point which has further stalled efforts to begin FMCT negotiations. and plutonium. The CD requires consensus for action to take place. including dropping the previous administration’s opposition to FMCT verification. Pakistan. Article I also calls on States to declare and submit to IAEA monitoring fissile materials in excess of their military requirements and future excess materials resulting from future nuclear disarmament measures. China and Russia continue to articulate a desire to hold parallel negotiations on Preventing an Arms Race in Outer Space (PAROS).Delhi-60 9999801394 www.

China. in particular. another submitted Greenpeace International in April 2004 and a third in September 2009 by the International Panel on Fissile Material (IPFM). The states that will most be affected by an FMCT are the P5: the United States. Other states that also will be affected by such a treaty are those which produce the greatest amount of fissile material for nonmilitary purposes. Whatever the scope of the eventual FMCT. and and nature of any FMCT since a comprehensive treaty could. universalize export All the best Hope this material helps my NEWSPAPER programme students Jai Hind Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. and to accept International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards on all their nuclear material to verify this. Since then. France. and Japan. most of the nonnuclear weapons states that are party to comprehensive safeguard agreements associated with the NPT will already satisfy the requirements of an eventual FMCT. These states have undertaken not to produce or acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. has advocated for the negotiation of an FMT due to its concern regarding India's large stockpiles of weapons-usable nuclear material. In this manner an FMT would promote the principles of both nonproliferation and disarmament. and the United Kingdom. and Israel. Pakistan.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. Russia. from actually defining fissile material to ensuring that the treaty is effective by developing specific procedures for verification. while the 35 member states of the Zangger Committee (also known as the "NPT Exporters Committee") have different positions on the critical issues that have prevented the launch of negotiations—definitions. Australia. such as Canada. there has been very little formal progress. An FMCT will require many technical issues to be resolved. There are three draft treaty texts which have been presented as documents of the CD. in theory. Pakistan. existing stocks and verification—they all have a special interest in the potential scope control. one presented by the United States in May 2006. Critical issues of FMCT The concept of a cut-off of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons has been discussed for a long time.aspireias. Additionally. and the nuclear weapons possessing states that are not party to the NPT: India.com . There are a number of different approaches to these issues ranging from a simple approach to a more comprehensive one. The Shannon Mandate specifically does not preclude these states from raising this issue in negotiations.14 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM that would limit existing stockpiles of fissile material in addition to future production. Key players the agreement on a mandate (known as the Shannon Mandate) to begin negotiations in the Conference on Disarmament (CD) broke down in 1995.