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Text Structures: Chronology & Comparison

Informational Writing Workshop
Sara Chatfield 3/16/14

Introduction    Grade 4 Informational writing workshop Approximately 40 minutes in length, over the course of two days

Learning Objectives/Lesson Outcomes   The student will be able to use chronology or comparison to organize information Common Core Standards o CCSS.W.4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. o CCSS.W.4.2b Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. o CCSS.SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-onone, in groups, and teacher led) with divers partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. Teaching and Learning Sequence 

Introduction/Anticipatory Set o I will ask students to pull out their informational writing and the lists of text features and text structures that I gave them. o I will explain that today, we are going to look at how chapters are structured using chronology and comparison.

Lesson Development o The following sequence is an outline of how the lesson will go 1. I will explain that one way to organize information is to write it in order. The author gives information in the order it happens.

2. Certain key words can be used to signify order. Certain text features may also be used. 3. I will model a place in a chapter I have drafted that can be organized by chronology. I will ask the students to look at their “Text Structures” list and help me decide which words to use to organize this piece of writing by using chronology. I will also display that information in a flow diagram. 4. I will explain that another way to organize information is by comparing two or more things that are being described, by telling how two or more things are alike and how they are different. Again, certain key words and text features may be used to signify comparison. 5. I will model a place in a chapter I have drafted that can be organized by comparison. I will ask the students to help me fill out a Venn diagram to compare my information. 6. The students will have time to revise one of their chapters in order to organize it using either chronology OR comparison. (This cannot be the chapter they revised as description.)  Modeling the Behavior (5-6 minutes) o I will display a chapter of my book that I have drafted that can be reworded to use a chronologic text structure. o I will display a chapter of my book that I have drafted that can be reworded to use a chronologic text structure.  Check for Comprehension (1-2 minutes)

o I will ask questions along the lines of, “What key words can be used to let the reader know that we are providing information in the order in which it happens? What key words can be used to let the reader know that we are comparing things?”  Guided Practice (5-6 minutes) o I will ask the students to help me reword my passage about Escargot so that it has a chronologic text structure. o I will also put that information into a flow diagram as an example of a visual that students can use for this type of text structure. o I will ask the students to help me fill out a Venn diagram that compares the different crepes I’ve written about. o I will also add in key comparison words into my writing as an example of how a comparison text structure should sound.  Independent Practice (25-30 minutes) o I will tell the students to use my example, and the list I handed out to them as guides for their own writing. o I will tell them to choose a chapter from their book (other than the one they worked on the previous day) that they can organize using a chronologic or a comparison text structure. This may mean re-writing a chapter, or it may mean adding in key words, and maybe even text features. o If they finish early and their work meets my approval, they may work on unfinished chapters, free write or work on a story starter for the remainder of class.

Closure (3-5 minutes) o To end the lesson, I will summarize and reinforce the focus of the day’s teaching point – that writers use chronology and comparison to organize their writing. o I will call on one or two student volunteers to share what they have come up with to the class.

Assessment/Evaluation 

I will be using formative assessment for this lesson by walking around and conferring with students at their groups. I will redirect those students who need help.

Before students may move on, they will need to meet with me to approve their text structure. They will gain my approval if they meet the following requirements: o They have to be able to correctly tell (and show) me what kind of text structure they used. o They have used at least three key words that signify the text structure they used. o They have included a text feature for that particular structure.

Materials    

My own writing sample as an example Access to document camera/projector Writer’s notebooks & pencil “Text Structures” list for each student

Modifications for Students with Disabilities 

If the student cannot write, another student or a paraprofessional can translate the student’s words into writing.

Technology Integration  

I will use the computer to display a sample of my writing on the board. I will use visually appealing, computer generated text features as an example in my sample writing.

Mechanics and References o This lesson was adapted from the MAISA Nonfiction Writing Matters writing unit. The “Text Structures” list is from session 8 of this unit.