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Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014

INTRODUCTION The world is home to 1.2 billion individuals aged 10-19 years generally known as the phase of ‘Adolescence’.Adolescence is a phase during which major physical and psychological changes take place in children, along with changes in their social perceptions and expectations. Adolescence is also the stage when young people extend their relationships beyond parents and family and are intensely influenced by their peers and the outside world. They are also the years of experimentation and risk taking, of giving in to negative peer pressure, of taking uninformed decisions on crucial issues, The vast majority of adolescents live in developing countries and India has the largest national population of adolescents. Studies show that millions of adolescents today do not enjoy access to quality education, basic sexual and reproductive health care, and support for mental health issues and disability, protection from violence, abuse and exploitation, and forums for active participation. Gender-gap in the World of Adolescents Women constitute nearly half of the population of the country, but gender disparities in socio-cultural spheres have adversely affected a balanced equitable development. These disparities get reflected in important social development indicators such as health, nutrition, literacy, educational attainments, skill levels, occupational status etc. The same is also reflected in the situation of Adolescent girl. The Adolescent girls in the 10–19 years constitute almost 47 per cent of the total population of Adolescents in the country. But their development is fraught with varied problems. Almost 50% of women marry before the legal age of 18 verses 10% of young men. Overall, one in six women in age group of 15-19 has begun childbearing. Early childbearing is most common in rural areas and among women with no education. Around 41% of all maternal deaths take place among those aged 15-24. 56% adolescent girls are anemic (verses 30% adolescent boys). Anemic adolescent mothers are at a higher risk of miscarriages, maternal mortality and still-births and lowweight babies. The drop-out rates among the girls are quite high. 21% adolescent girls and 8% adolescent boys have no education. Dropout rates among girls are high

largely due to distance from schools, male teachers, sanitation facilities at school, early marriage and early assumption of domestic responsibilities etc. Adolescent Girls are a core resource for national growth. Investment in their health and development is investment in the greater well-being of the country. Considering that several of these girls are out of school, get married early, face discrimination in accessing health, education and other services, work in vulnerable situation, and are influenced by peer pressure, they need special attention. The public health challenges for adolescents, which include pregnancy, risk of maternal and infant mortality, sexually transmitted diseases, reproductive tract infections, rapidly rising incidence of HIV, etc., require influencing the health-seeking behavior of AGs. They need to be looked at in terms of their needs both as a group as well as individuals as they are the productive members of the society in future. Recognizing the unmet needs of AGs, Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls – Sabla has been launched as a comprehensive intervention for Adolescent girls in the age-group of 11-18, with a focus on out of school girls. To begin with, the Scheme is being implemented in 200 districts of the country on a pilot basis. The Ministry of Women and Child Development administers the scheme at the central level and State/UT Governments implement the scheme. The SABLA Scheme has been launched by merging two schemes namely Nutrition Programme and Adolescent Girls (NPAG) and Kishori Shakti Yojana (KSY) in to a single scheme.

Key Areas of Sabla Scheme
Using the ICDS platform, this scheme is reaching out to nearly 1crore adolescent girls between 11 – 18 years of age in 200 districts across the country with an integrated package of services. Sabla aims at all-round development of adolescent girls of 11-18 years (with a focus on all outof-school AGs) by making them ‘self reliant’. At the Anganwadi Center, supplementary nutrition providing 600 Kcal and 18-20 g of protein and micronutrients is provided every day at the anganwadi centers either as hot cooked meal or as take home rations to out of school adolescent girls in 11-14 years and all girls between 14-18 years for 300 days in a year. In addition, out of school adolescent girls are being provided non- nutrition services which include life skills

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an entitlement tool to monitor girls’ access to and uptake of the services under Sabla. decision making and accessing public services. They serve the group for one year and each girl will have a term of four months as a Sakhi on rotational basis. interactions of the school going and the non-school going adolescents is also organised so that interactions of the school and non school going adolescents are enhanced and the latter is motivated to join school. Every girl enrolled in Sabla are given a Kishori Card. Post Office. Kishori Samoohs meetings.e. With the support of community-based frontline workers (anganwadi workers) and civil society groups. spread awareness among them about health. Under this arrangement efforts are made to provide commercially viable training and develop employable skills among youth who have atleast passed the 8th class. Once a week.18 year olds) are being given vocational training to make them self reliant. sexual and reproductive health education and counseling.aspireias.   mainstream out‐of‐school AGs into formal/non formal‐education. Education. Each Samooh is led by a peer leader (Kishori Sakhi) and meet at least 5-6 hours a week to receive programme services and function as a peer support group.2 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM education. the state government has clubbed the vocational training of the adolescent girls 16 – 18 years and is reaching out to them through the Hunar scheme of the Education department. Each adolescent group comprises of 15 – 25 adolescent girls led by peer leaders i. hygiene. CHC. In states like Orissa.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. such as PHC. Police Station. and Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI) to achieve the programme objectives. In addition.e. With the basic framework of the scheme. a special state level initiative to empower the minorities. In Gujarat.5 mg of folic acid) supplementation and nutrition counselling. schedule castes and scheduled tribes.e. State-Specific Initiatives of Sabla In many states like Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. adolescent girls have been organized in groups called Kishori Samoohs. In Bihar. etc. NGOs are being utilised for all awareness generation activities and training of the Sakhis and Sahelis. The non-nutrition services under the Sabla programme interventions also reach out to the non-school going adolescent girls through adolescent groups i.  upgrade their home‐based skills. general health checkups including measurement of height and weight and referral services are organised for all the adolescent girls by the Anganwadi worker with help from the health functionaries and referrals to specialised health care facilities for health problems that need special .. The Sakhis and Sahelis are imparted training and serve as a peer monitor/educator for adolescent girls. problem solving. on Kishori Diwas. Bank.. older adolescent girls (16 . nutrition. State governments have undertaken special initiatives to reach out for the well being of adolescent girls. The AGs also participate in day to day activities of AWC like Pre School.. Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health (ARSH). Once in three months on a fixed day i.e. Youth affairs and Sports. Each adolescent girl is provided a Kishori Card which is a tool to monitor the services the adolescent girl utilises under the Sabla scheme. and family and child care.. life skills and vocational skills. the state government has prioritized training the girls in textile craft and has tied up the vocational training with the existing cottage industries and market linked the trainings so that the older girls can be economically independent. growth monitoring and SNP and facilitate the AWW in other activities. Education. supervised weekly IFA (100 mg of elemental iron and 0. the state government has rolled out the MamtaTaruni programme to ensure adequate healthcare and timely counseling to adolescent girls. Inform and guide them about existing public services. Kishori Sakhi and their two associates i. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. The programme is aimed at providing healthcare to girls who are out of The objectives of the scheme are to:    enable self‐development and empowerment of AGs improve their nutrition and health status. Similar efforts are also being undertaken by the state governments of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Sahelis. They also accompany the AWW for home visits (2-3 girls at a time) which serves as a training ground for future. skills in leadership. The Scheme also emphasizes convergence of services under various programmes such as Health.

It may also be possible to catch bird flu by eating poultry or eggs that are not well cooked or through contact with a person who has it. Sakhis a small token amount of Rs 25 for every meeting so that they bring as many girls to the kishori samooh meeting as possible. the nutritional status and hemoglobin levels of the girl are achieved and they are given treatment for anemia if needed. a worldwide outbreak of the illness. which was inaugurated by Health minister of the state in a function where all interventions under Sabla were initiated. This could lead to a pandemic. because there already exists a health programme especially for school students. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes participate in the programme. the bird flu virus has spread to birds in countries in Asia. nutrition and development needs of adolescent girls to advance their rights to education.Every six months. The state government is undertaking steps to link every adolescent girl under 18 with the formal school setup. In addition. Africa.e. To ensure maximum participation in the programme. BIRD FLU Birds. the state government of Jharkhand. or mutate. Most bird flu viruses can only infect other birds. and may help prevent the flu in people who were exposed to it. However.3 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM school. Since then. other poultry. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. The state has also started a statewide social mobilization Campaign for Health and Nutrition for adolescent girls.aspireias. through the life skills education. In order to address this problem. The first case of a bird flu virus infecting a person directly. 50 for calling the meeting and counseling the girls. including chickens. the government is investing in the health. will in turn help in building of a self-reliant and confident women citizenry. Sabla. Bird flu can make people very sick or even cause death. the state government has taken a special initiative to establish effective linkages for vocational training in order to build the technical and professional skills of adolescent girls. the state government has introduced a small monetary provision. The adolescent girls groups are also being linked to the existing self-help groups so that interactions with these groups can help in their economic self-reliance. to more easily infect humans. improved nutrition and health status with enhanced skills and the capacity to make informed choices. and Europe. bird flu can pose health risks to people. under the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Through various schemes including. FUNDING PATTERN Centrally sponsored scheme. All this.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. except nutrition provision for which Government of India will share upto the extent of 50% of the financial norms or the actual expenditure incurred. for which linkages with National Programme of Education of Girls (NPEGEL) and KGBV (Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya) scheme have been established. There is currently no vaccine. Through this programme the young girls are also given physical and psychological counseling for the changes taking place in the body during adolescence. whichever is less. especially in rural areas. people who have contact with infected birds can become sick. get the . the Middle East. In Jharkhand. hopes that the incidence of child trafficking is reduced. health and protection which will help to them to build a future of gender equality and justice. implemented through the State Governments/UTs with 100% financial assistance from the Central Government for all inputs. was in Hong Kong in 1997. Antiviral medicines may make the illness less severe. Child trafficking especially that of tribal girls is a major problem faced by the state. funds are being utilized for creating small library and learning centre in every AWC. the Anganwadi worker is also given an incentive of Rs. Human infection is still very rare. appropriate vocational training and enhancing literacy levels in the state. The state also gives the 'peer educator' i. Linkages for the vocational training and placements have been established with the NSDC (National Skill Development Corporation) and 30 local non-government partners. and wild birds such as ducks. During an outbreak of bird flu. and make them aware. but the virus that causes the infection in birds might change. just like people. The state government in collaboration with the Department of Education is in the process of designing a special curriculum to mainstream the out of school adolescent girls into the school system through specially designed educational courses that cater to their literary needs. At the same time. H5N1. The idea is to ensure that maximum number of girls. Bird flu viruses infect birds. Sabla endeavors to have AGs with enhanced self esteem.

the mortality rate is about 60%. Almost all people with H5N1 infection have had close contact with infected birds or H5N1contaminated environments. such as avian influenza virus subtypes H5N1 and H9N2 and swine influenza virus subtypes H1N1 and H3N2. Several domestic species have been infected with and shown symptoms of H5N1 viral infection. However. some are zoonotic. thought to have originated in swine. dogs. This virus does not appear to transmit easily from person to person. H7N7. Avian influenza in humans Most avian influenza viruses do not cause disease in humans. they can act as a "mixing vessel. especially markets where live birds have been sold. H5N1 H5N1 avian influenza is an infectious disease of birds that can be spread to people. but is difficult to transmit from person to person. or may cause more severe disease in humans than the original viruses. The H1N1 virus that caused the influenza pandemic in 20092010. Some of these infections have been very severe and some have resulted in deaths. and sustained human-to-human transmission has not been reported. but many infections have been mild or even subclinical in humans. These are types H5N1. ferrets. raising concerns about the risks and safety of such research. Because pigs can become infected with influenza viruses from a variety of different hosts (such as birds and humans). However. but only some strains of four subtypes have been highly pathogenic in humans. and birds. The most well known example is the avian influenza subtype H5N1 viruses currently circulating in poultry in parts of Asia and northeast Africa. since then. some countries have reported cases of human infection with SIVs. This particular A(H7N9) virus had not previously been seen in either animals or people until it was found in March 2013 in . Most of the cases of human infection with this avian H7N9 virus have reported recent exposure to live poultry or potentially contaminated environments. Most of these human infections have been mild and the viruses have not spread further to other people." facilitating the reassortment of influenza genes from different viruses and creating a "new" influenza virus. including cats. H7N9.aspireias. Signs and Symptoms of Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Signs and symptoms may depend on which avian influenza A virus caused the infection. have also infected people. including H7N7 and H9N2. There are many subtypes of avian influenza viruses. Public health scientists want to know if genetic changes in the virus could make it more easily transmissible between people. Swine influenza in humans Most swine influenza viruses (SIVs) do not cause disease in humans. is an example of an SIV that was able to spread easily among people and also cause disease. so they can improve public health surveillance for early detection of potential pandemic strains. meaning that they can infect humans and cause disease. and H9N2 Avian influenza A (H7N9) virus Avian influenza A(H7N9) is a subtype of influenza viruses that have been detected in birds in the past. Low pathogenic avian Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. The disease is of concern because most patients have become severely ill. The concern is that such "new" reassortant viruses may be more easily spread from person to person.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. When people do become infected. The primary risk factor for human infection appears to be direct or indirect exposure to infected live or dead animals or contaminated environments. However. which have caused human disease and deaths since 1997. pigs. H7N3.4 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM INFLUENZA AT THE HUMAN-ANIMAL INTERFACE Influenza viruses circulating in animals pose threats to human health. Other avian influenza subtypes. Humans can become ill when infected with viruses from animal sources. Researchers have recently succeeded in creating H5N1 viruses that are more transmissible in mammals than those that occur naturally. WHO and animal health sector partners are working at the human-animal interface to identify and reduce animal health and public health risks within national contexts. infections in both humans and birds have been observed.

consistent with national legal authorities and relevant international law and frameworks. the laboratory looks for avian influenza A virus either by using a molecular test. shortness of breath. Partners are concerned about the potential for large-scale outbreaks. This specimen is sent to a lab. Partnerships goals of improving global readiness by:      elevating the issue on national agendas. Sometimes infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus infection leads to death. sore throat. Avian influenza A virus infection is usually diagnosed by collecting a swab from the nose or throat of the sick person during the first few days of illness. vomiting and sometimes neurologic changes (altered mental status. abdominal pain. International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza The International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza is committed to protecting human and animal health as well as mitigating the global socioeconomic and security consequences of an influenza pandemic. Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People The Best Prevention is to Avoid Sources of Exposure Currently. diarrhea. The partnership seeks to work with all concerned states to limit the spread of H5N1 avian flu and any other highly pathogenic influenza strain by taking all necessary steps to prevent. by trying to grow the virus.5 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM influenza A virus infections of humans have been associated with generally mild. As such. This means having a comprehensive plan. Most human infections with avian individuals and societies can be reduced by being well prepared. National plans should be flexible enough to respond to outbreaks of various intensity. pneumonia. contain and respond to a pandemic influenza. fever. PUBLIC HEALTH PREPAREDNESS The impact of pandemic influenza outbreaks on has been tested and refined through conducting exercises.. engaging the whole of society. coordinating efforts among donor and affected nations. to influenza-like illness. sometimes accompanied by nausea. respiratory failure) with multi-organ disease. Detecting Avian Influenza A Virus Infection in Humans Avian influenza A virus infection in humans cannot be diagnosed by clinical signs and symptoms alone. seizures). that Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. viral pneumonia. laboratory testing is required.g. participants are committed to the following principles to establish a more coordinated and effective basis for limiting the social. Illness has ranged from conjunctivitis only. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus infections of humans have been associated with a wide range of illness. economic and health impacts of avian and pandemic influenza.g. non fatal illness. especially with HPAI H5N1 virus. acute respiratory distress. including seasonal influenza A or B viruses. the best way to prevent infection with avian influenza A viruses is to avoid sources of exposure whenever possible. Communication will be one of the most challenging tasks during an outbreak and it should be planned well in advance. can overlap considerably. prepare for. and building capacity to identify. difficulty breathing. increasing transparency in disease reporting and . The accuracy of clinical diagnosis of human infection with avian influenza A viruses on the basis of signs and symptoms alone is limited because symptoms from illness caused by other pathogens.aspireias. mobilizing and leveraging resources. The reported signs and symptoms of low pathogenic avian influenza A virus infections in humans have ranged from conjunctivitis to influenza-like illness (e. muscle aches) to lower respiratory disease (pneumonia) requiring hospitalization. to severe respiratory illness (e. cough. and respond to the growing threat. or both.Delhi-60 9999801394 www.

Training flights were held by the users for various missiles that are already inducted.000 crores for surface-to-air missile AKASH have been placed by the users.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. simulation and life sciences. Develop infrastructure and committed quality manpower and build strong technology base.1. develop and lead to production state-ofthe-art sensors.aspireias. weapon systems. advanced computing. two of four prescription antiviral medications currently licensed for use in the United States.000 crores. To fulfill this mandate. missiles.10. CDC and WHO currently recommend oseltamivir or zanamivir.   Core . combat vehicles. Vision Make India prosperous by establishing world-class science and technology base and provide our Defence Services decisive edge by equipping them with internationally competitive systems and solutions. listing its achievements. These include 8 squadron for IAF and Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. armaments. DRDO is working in various areas of military technology which include aeronautics. Deptt of Defence Research and Development (R&D). sensors & platforms required by the three wings of the Armed Forces. Orders worth over Rs. materials. the 3500 km range ballistic missile was successfully launched with user’s participation. Agni-III. 25. These included two flight tests each ofAgni–I. DRDO while striving to meet the Cutting edge weapons technology requirements provides ample spinoff benefits to the society at large thereby contributing to the nation buliding. DRDO dedicatedly working towards enhancing self-reliance in Defence Systems and undertakes design & development leading to production of world class weapon systems and equipment in accordance with the expressed needs and the qualitative requirements laid down by the three services. Provide technological solutions to the Defence Services to optimise combat effectiveness and to promote well-being of the troops.6 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM influenza A viruses have occurred following direct close or prolonged contact with sick or dead infected poultry. Here it is in full: DRDO has made many significant achievements during the recent past. Many important systems were inducted/accepted by the services. ACHIEVEMENTS India's DRDO holds its annual awards ceremony tomorrow for technology excellence. naval systems. platforms and allied equipment for our Defence Services. The organisation released the following feature today. Competence Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) works under Department of Defence Research and Development of Ministry of Defence. Mission Deptt of Defence Research and Development (R&D) is working for indigenous development of weapons. including the last year. Research and Development (R&D) Centres and production agencies of Science andTechnology (S&T) Ministries/Deptts in Public & Civil Sector including Defence Public Sector Undertakings & Ordnance Factories. The production value of systems based on technologies developed by DRDO (inducted/accepted/orders placed) during the past one decade is well over Rs.   Antiviral Drugs Can Be Used to Treat Illness For treatment (and prevention) of human infection with avian influenza A viruses. instrumentation engineering systems. is closely working with academic institutions. Agni–II and Dhanush (from naval ships) and five flights of Prithvi II (P– II). electronics.

monitoring of the manned as well as unmanned aircraft structures.000 gram Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) designed and developed by DRDO were carried out. major thrust has been given to develop unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Besides. the only one of its kind in the world. DRDO has developed expertise in the field of testing and certification for various components sub-systems and systems as well as complete airborne platforms.2. The first prototype of LCA Navy was rolled out and its induction tests were concluded. which is a vehicle mounted system was demonstrated in a series of user trials.1. the third generation anti-tank missile. a UAV with endurance of 14 hours and altitude ceiling of 8.3 were major activities in this area. SANJEEVANI Mk. Fire Services. over 100 test flights of a 3. A medium sized aerostat based platform was developed for surveillance applications. the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) concluded its extensive flight tests including weapon trials.000-km class target were carried out. A novel method was developed and flight-tested for an in-flight structural Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. The scheme was flight tested on a NISHANT UAV. A laser seeker kit SUDARSHAN for 1. Similarly. An advanced facility was created to undertake full scale processing of large rocket motors. Major milestones in the indigenous development of fighter aircraft engine was achieved with the completion of “Official Altitude Testing” (OAT) of Kaveri Gas Turbine Enginefor simulated operating conditions. Thus.7 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM 2 regiments for the Army. Subsequently. dropping of bombs. Successful flight tests of endoatmospheric interceptor for 2. leading to its Initial Operational Clearance (IOC) on 10th . developed and installed on various ships of Indian Navy. Successful flight trials of RUSTOM-1. A carbon dioxide curtailment System for submarines was designed and developed. The system has been accepted by the user. BrahMos block III with capability for steep diving from high altitudes and high maneuvers at multiple points during supersonic flight. Over 1. Each flight led to a direct target hit and disintegration of the target. RLG based Inertial Navigation System was developed. Initial Operational Clearance of LCA and Advanced Light Helicopter Mk.000 meters demonstrated the capabilities for automated/remotely piloted landing/ takeoff and associated technologies.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. Advanced versions of BrahMos supersonic cruise missile. Development of advanced missile systems is a continuous effort and requires systematic development of more and more advanced technologies. were developed and flight-tested. another UAV developed by DRDO was ready for induction by the Army. NISHANT.aspireias.000-pound bombs was developed and initial demand for significant number of seekers kits has been received from the users. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) capable of navigation was demonstrated at sea. Capabilities of NAG. This is the first time that an indigenously developed gas turbine engine for fighter aircraft has been flown on a FTB board.640 flights covering a period of over 969 hours have been completed by Tejas Mk. The facility was commissioned and the casting of various motors commenced. Development of PINAKA – multi barrel In the area of aeronautics. qualified and tested. a device designed and developed to locate victims trapped under the debris was handed over to National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) and Kerala Govt. In tune with changing war of scenario. Tejas. the flights of Kaveri engine were successfully carried out on a Flying Test Bed (FTB) proving the technological capability and maturity of the indigenous efforts. A fibre optics gyro was successfully developed and tested on board. jettisoning drop tanks and night flights. 2011. Advanced Active-cum-Passive integrated sonar system HUMSA NG was designed. Active Radar Seeker for advanced missions was developed. Thus. BrahMos block II with target discrimination precision strike capabilities was test-fired.

DRDO’s technological strength in this highly security sensitive and critical area is exemplified by the development. Production order worth Rs. Development of Solar Powered Modular Green Shelters was another significant achievement in supporting our soldiers. 3D medium range surveillance radar . A Carrier Command Post Tracked (CCPT) vehicle was accepted by the Army for induction. The NBC Recce Vehicle designed for ‘surveillance and on-site collection & analysis of samples from contaminated environment’. two regiments of PINAKA (worth Rs 1300 crores) have been raised by Army which is likely to place orders for another two regiments.1 was successfully inducted in the Army and two regiments of Arjun Main Battle Tank have been raised. 168 crores has been received.ROHINI and its naval variantREVATHI were inducted. 3D low-level light weight radar -Aslesha (for IAF) as well as Bharani (for Army) was accepted by the user. Bharani.000 Launchers. Orders have been received for the Combat Net Radio (CNR) with anti- Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. Three mobile laboratories for nuclear.aspireias. was handed over to the users. Radars and electronic warfare systems has emerged as yet another strong area.8 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM rocket launcher system was achieved with the successful transfer of technology to production agencies. Completion and acceptance of Varuna. As spin-offs for civil sector and social cause. The transfer of Technology (ToT) for multimode grenade was completed. a 3 dimensional tactical control radar. jamming features. was accepted by the Army. underwent extensive sea trials on its way to induction. User trials of remotely operated vehicle (ROVDAKSH) were successfully carried out and LSP order for 20 numbers is being executed. 3D TCR. biological and chemical defence were handed over to the user and rigorous training was imparted to them. the man behind machine is the most crucial factor in winning the war. Among the weapon systems. The electronic warfare system SAMYUKTA (naval variant) and SUJAV were inducted. Design of Snow Gallery for for protection studies of on personnel and equipment were from avalanches and design of Instrumented Composite Tower avalanches completed. The engineered version of upgraded Weapon Locating Radar (WLR – Swathi) developed by DRDO was realized by the production agency. A new Modular Bridging System capable of yielding single span of up to 46 mtrs and capable of bearing load up to 70 ton was developed and is undergoing user trials. a heavy weight torpedo. An In the field of electronics and electro-optics. Some of the major achievements are highlighted. Under Barrel Grenade Launcher (UBGL) for INSAS and AK-47 rifle was introduced into service with order for 10. productionisation and acceptance of WLR. The Life Sciences laboratories of DRDO continued to develop technology to maximize the operational efficiency of our soldiers and provide them with adequate support and protection. VARUNASTRA. Biodigesters developed for environment friendly disposal of human excreta in extreme cold regions of high altitudes were adapted for Railway coaches and Lakshadweep islands. Even with the most advanced weapon systems. a modern ESM system for Navy with capability to intercept and process all modern radars including LPI radars was another step in achieving self-reliance in the field of Electronic . many systems were inducted/accepted by the services.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. A holographic sight for rifles/carbines was developed for aiming in closed quarter battle role and was accepted by the users. a 3D Low Level Lightweight Radar. A modifiedArmoured Amphibious Dozer (AAD) completed its user trials. The technology has been selected to equip over two lakh Gram Panchayats with bio-toilets. a Low Level Lightweight Radar and ASLESHA. The state-of-the-art microcontroller based system Instant Fire Detection & Suppression System (IFDSS) BMP-2/2K developed for providing protection against fire to the troops & engine compartment. for which Army has placed an order for 10 lakh grenades. an advanced electronically scanned pulse Doppler weapon locating radar. MBT Arjun Mk.

weapon systems and military hardware. A dedicated team of DRDO engineers executed highly specialized nature of Civil works at some of the most difficult and hazardous area within the stipulated time frame. The Plant was inaugurated by the Defence Minister on 27 Feb 2011. endocrine and nervous systems to maintain optimum physical fitness and mental health of troops deployed at high altitude extreme climates. developed and accepted by the Air Force. Technology for rapid repair of runways in cold regions was developed and successfully demonstrated at sub-zero temperature. Yoga training was provided to over 2000 personnel who were to be deployed at Siachen Glacier. Agreements for co-operation / co-development in frontline areas of science.aspireias. Chushul. of Urban Development for installation in rail coaches & homes. MoU has been signed with Indian Railways for joint development of Biotoilets to be installed in rail coaches. Battalik etc and an average of 1400 kg vegetables of high nutritive values were produced in each greenhouse by standardizing the practices and procedures. respiratory. Series production of systems for deployment at all the Air Force Selection Boards of the IAF is underway. Navy has projected a requirement of over 400 suits. Biotoilets have been installed in Lakshadweep Islands and NE region of India for safe disposal of human waste and MoUs signed with Indian Railways & Min. Technology for producing DRDO developed kits for detection of swine flu was transferred to the production . The runways at strategic locations often require rapid repairs. The Combat Free Fall (CFF) protection system to meet the requirements of high altitude paratrooper’s mission requirements was designed developed and is under limited series production. Light-weight composite armour for Mi-17-IV helicopter of IAF has successfully undergone integration and flight-trials. Greenhouses were established at power plant locations such as Siachen Base camp. All these endeavours have a single-minded focus: to transform India into a world-class centre for design development and production of defence systems and technologies. The alloy was successfully proven by successful demonstration in the intended application. A 500 ton per annum capacity titanium sponge plant based on DRDO technology was set up at Kerala Minerals and Metals Limited (KMML). Yoga Training Modules have been developed for toning up cardio-respiratory.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. Significant milestones were achieved in this critical area. A low-alloy steel “DMR-1700” with ultrahigh strength and high fracture toughness was developed as a cost effective replacement of 250 grade maraging steel. ensuring freedom from denial regimes and external controls. MoU with Ministry of Urban Development is under process for joint development of biotoilets and their installation under mass civilian program. DRDO is leading the way in taking India’s defence strength Advanced materials have been always at the core of to new heights in making: One of 4 countries with multi Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. technology and engineering were signed with several countries. Technology developed for vacuum investment casting of gas turbine blades for Kaveri engine was extended for making high pressure turbine blades for land-based gas turbine for power generation. Many of these locations are in extreme cold regions where the normal concrete does not set in easily.9 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM upgraded first-aid kit for protection against chemical and biological agents as well as the nuclear radiation were accepted by the services. About 5000 MT of vegetables are locally grown for meeting Army’s requirements A Computerized Pilot Selection System (CPSS) was designed. A Submarine Escape Set (SES) for escape from an abandoned submarine from depths of 100m was designed and developed.

would be considered for funding. FUTURE PLAN Long-range SAM India and Israel have worked out an agreement to develop and produce the long-range Barak 8 air defence system for both the Indian and the Israeli militaries. with much larger scope and with predominantly new subsystems. GATET engine The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has launched a 1 billion (US$16.0 million) project in R&D in the area of gas turbines. While DRDO had revealed some details about the project over the years. Astra BVRAAM Astra is a 80 km (50 mi) class.00) to 50 million (US$800.000.10 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM level strategic deterrence capability. Agni V gives you the boosting capability and the 'kill vehicle'. The initial codevelopment funding is about US$350 million. One of 5 countries with own BMD Program. This satellite will help Indian intelligence agencies to significantly boost surveillance of terror camps in neighboring countries. The ABM project has benefited from all the incremental improvements achieved by the DRDO and its associated industrial partners via the long-running and often contentious Akash missile and Trishul missile programs.. However. Several tests of the missiles basic propulsion and guidance have taken place from land based launchers. and not visible among DRDO's other programs. will be able to home into the target satellite.aspireias.. with advanced seekers. being developed by DRDO. and the project itself was unlisted. "An ASAT weapon would require to reach about 800km altitude. It will be India's first officially declared spy satellite and according to ISRO it should be in the sky by 2014. and IAI. Air-launched trials will follow thereafter Anti-Ballistic Missile Defence Project Unveiled in 2006. GTRE was the nodal agency to spearhead this venture. of which IAI will finance 50 per cent. The ABM project has two missiles—namely the AAD (Advanced Air Defence) and PAD (Prithvi Air Defence) missiles. it is a completely new program.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. One of 6 countries with own Main Battle Tank.00). which went up to 600 km into space during its parabolic trajectory. Under the initiative of DRDO's Aeronautics Research and Development Board. called GATET Anti-satellite weapon After testing the over 5. Israel Aircraft Industries refers to the system as Barak-8. between the DRDO. R&D projects. The venture is a tripartite one. a DRDO official said on April 2010. active radar guided missile meant for beyond visual range air to air combat. the Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) now feels it can fashion deadly anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons in double-quick time. which need investment in the region of 5 million (US$80. the ABM project was a surprise to many observers. and will have a range of 72 km (45 mi). its progress had been marked by strict secrecy. the Indian Navy.000 km Agni V missile. One of 7 countries with own 4th Gen Combat Aircraft. The missile is referred to as the LRSAM in Indian Government literature.000. NEWSPAPER SYNOPSIS Cabinet clears new framework for TV ratings    Advertisements duration during programme TRP calculation tampering New guidelines by I&B ministry Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN . Communication-Centric Intelligence Satellite (CCI-Sat) Communication-Centric Intelligence Satellite is an advanced reconnaissance spy satellite.

AIDS SAMARTH a festival for showcasing the amazing abilities of persons with disability – by Ministry of Social justice and empowerment Affordable diabetes testing by Department of Health Research ICMR has developed two glucose monitoring devices – Suchek and Quickcheq Upbeat global sentiment South Korean President to take ties beyond POSCO on first visit Tripura to devise rehab plan for displaced people soon India polio free for third straight year Three .S. Australia and India are driving their new attention to the ‘Indo-Pacific’ as a geostrategic category United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N.S.’s position as the world’s foremost rule-maker. central policy issues include reversing the slide in its economic fortunes and dealing with the shift of power to Asia in ways that preserve existing international rules and the U. For the U. the distinctive domestic and foreign policy priorities of the U.S.11 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM Mission to cut Neonatal deaths A different model for DRDO India US to move WHO resolution on addressing violence against women Iran says nuclear deal to take effect from Jan 20th Centre issues new guidelines for phone interceptions Personality – Anees Salim Guidelines under Standard operating procedure Environment and development Will attack against those attacking minorities Bangladesh crisis Ugandan bombing will jeopardise talks warns South Sudan opposition Canada reports first H5N1 bird flu death Malaysia probes priest for sedition RBI eases FDI norms to give foreign investors exit option Fungal infections no less lethal than TB. Australia’s Defence Minister Stephen Smith.Delhi-60 9999801394 www.aspireias.” What is behind this new-found discovery of the Indo-Pacific and does it imply a strategic convergence between these three democracies? A closer analysis suggests that the Indo-Pacific regional construction is driven more by a desire to resolve distinctive domestic and foreign policy preoccupations rather than promote a common regional vision.. India’s National Security Advisor Shivshankar Menon and Foreign Secretary Ranjan Mathai have all spoken of the “IndoPacific” — a region spanning the Indian and the Pacific Oceans — as the world’s new “strategic centre of gravity. one centre of gravity (For TPP and Indo pacific Geo strategic zone) The Hindu More than a common regional vision.

which would deter China from ascension.-centred TPP as well as the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN)-centred Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). human rights. and China and refocusing its attention on the Indian Ocean RimAssociation for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC). rule of law.-driven framework of rules and regulations with the knowledge that its economic future is increasingly intertwined with Asia and China.S. Despite embracing the Indo-Pacific Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. have dominated recent foreign policy debates. Australia has also welcomed both the U.S. has recently launched the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP).com .S.aspireias. To see how different domestic imperatives lead to distinctive Indo-Pacific regional constructions. For this reason. pivot to the IndoPacific while advocating greater political. freedom of navigation and peaceful dispute settlement.S. prominence as a global rule-setter. Leaving out China The U. it is increasingly clear that its preferred regional architecture in the “Indo-Pacific” will be shaped by the demands of its domestic economic restructuring and its continuing adherence to the principle of strategic autonomy.S. is attempting to act as a classic middle power bridge between the East and West by balancing its commitment to a U. Australia and India. a free trade initiative that does not involve China and includes trade.S.S.S. excluding issues such as labour standards. For both the Australian and U. These regional initiatives are built on the promotion of regulatory frameworks in the IndoPacific — in areas such as intellectual property rights — that serve domestic political and economic agendas. The implications of continuing a close alliance with the U. trade. economic and strategic enmeshment between the U.S. any assumption that India will sign up to an Indo-Pacific security architecture devised in Washington and Canberra fundamentally misreads the domestic political projects that animate India’s own vision of the Indo-Pacific. namely increasing the competitiveness of the American economy and maintaining U. adopting and shaping the “Indo-Pacific” as a geostrategic category helps them resolve their key domestic and foreign policy dilemmas while maintaining their positions in the global order as a great power and middle power respectively. while growing increasingly economically enmeshed with Asia. in particular.. policymakers.. Fitting in India But how does India fit into this emerging concept? While India supports a basic adherence to international law. health care. and accountable governance” in the Indo-Pacific region.” which Australia has supported. Australia regards the TPP and RCEP as complementary pathways to a regional free trade area and has vowed to promote the inclusion of elements such as environmental and labour standards during RCEP negotiations.12 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM Australia has long been preoccupied by the disjuncture between its geographical positioning in Asia and its historical links with the West. The Australian bridge Australia. we can examine some of the major regional initiatives that have recently been promoted by the U. It is thus central to emerging geo-economic competition over the regulation and rules of the regional and global political economy.S. meanwhile.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. It has also called for a “regional architecture of institutions and arrangements to enforce international norms on security. intellectual property. investment. Despite the differences between the two schemes. The IndoPacific regional construction is a key part of the U. it has encouraged the U. environmental and labour standards. The RCEP includes China and focuses on a narrower set of issues than the TPP.’s “pivot to Asia. To manage these growing tensions.

issue-driven approach to Indo-Pacific regionalism may prove. to be more sustainable than the elite-driven regional projects that were the hallmark of Asia-Pacific regionalism. energy and food security. Signed in 2005 by Brunei. at the When the dragon comes calling The new Chinese leadership wants to reach out to India and New Delhi should make the most of the opportunity to move forward on the strategic and economic fronts Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. the only question that seemed of interest was: who got the better of the other? However.13 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM concept. Malaysia. inclusive and open security architecture in the Indo-Pacific” and India has long resisted the inclusion of non-trade related provisions in multilateral trade negotiations. The United States has seized the opportunity to announce a “pivot” to East Asia. since they are more congruent with its domestic imperatives of development and . reflects the wider international considerations confronting China. the TPP has drawn the interest of five other countries: Australia. too. India will have to deal with this Chinese leadership for the next decade or so.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. The U. From an economic perspective. Domestic imperatives also drive India’s increased attention to regional groupings like the IORARC and smaller. New Zealand and Singapore. the situation seems less than sanguine. during the Chinese Premier’s recent visit. is promoting a Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). Hence. China faces a worsening situation along its maritime periphery in the East China and South China seas — thanks to its own swaggering style in recent years. This suggests the contested nature of the Indo-Pacific. Chile. Diplomatic scorecards are notoriously difficult to draw up. The TPP has an ambitious tripartite agenda. The Chinese naturally assume that the move is aimed at them. This bottom-up. if not rewrite. more specialised forums that deal with issues like piracy. a new “Indo-Pacific” era may well be dawning. Australia and the United States reflect a heightened focus in all three countries on domestic political and economic challenges rather than a strategic convergence or a common regional vision. RCEP’s provisions for “the different levels of development of the participating countries” and ASEAN’s emphasis on consensual decision-making are far more conducive to the type of regional architecture that India desires. Let us start with the big picture.S. It aims at a regular Free Trade Agreement with provisions for protecting intellectual property. any serious assessment of the visit should focus on questions of continuity and change. Indeed. The game goes on for too long and the points scored are often incommensurable. But the adoption of the concept in the foreign policy debates and vocabularies of India.aspireias.” This. After all. Peru. More worrying to Beijing is the new government in Tokyo — under the leadership of Shinzo Abe — that seeks to reinterpret. The TPP’s rigid objectives of regulatory coherence do not fit with India’s stated desire for a “plural. in turn. ‘Pivot’ to East Asia From a strategic standpoint. Did Premier Li Keqiang’s decision to visit India on his first official trip abroad indicate anything significant? Many seasoned Indian observers. have sought to deny this. which India sees as posing the most significant external threat to its economic development. These initiatives focus on non-traditional security issues. including former diplomats. Vietnam and Japan. over the long run. Premier Li himself insisted that the visit was meant “to demonstrate the high importance the Chinese government attaches to India. Yet the temptation to pronounce an immediate verdict is difficult to resist. India is not a member of the TPP but has joined the RCEP. Japan’s pacifist Constitution and to invigorate ties with countries like India.

there is the possibility of progress on the boundary negotiations. But it hasn’t put its money where its mouth is. In particular. But it is unlikely that they will agree to commence an exercise on clarifying the Line of Actual Control. Premier Li has said that his government will work towards rectifying this situation both by facilitating market access to Indian companies and by encouraging Chinese firms to increase investment in India and expand trade in services. The government has been quick off the blocks. however limited. especially by tapping into Indian markets. First. any progress. the Chinese seemed reluctant to follow through on the political parameters agreed upon in 2005. In any case. particularly in infrastructure.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. It is conceivable that they are offering progress on this issue to palliate India. Since then. The Chinese are well aware that a successful TPP may eventually compel China to come to terms with it — just as China had to do with APEC and WTO. The Chinese have always insisted that this would be a distraction from the main task of settling the boundary dispute. too.aspireias. In this context. So far. Haryana. he openly said that the boundary dispute would take long to settle. it not surprising that the Chinese leadership wants to reach out to India. The Chinese have also indicated that they want to strengthen the mechanisms for maintenance of peace and tranquillity along the frontiers. they were less than happy with the provision which suggested that areas with settled populations would not be up for grabs. To be sure. which has invested in a 1320 MW power plant in Jhajjar. The plant was commissioned ahead of schedule in 2012. Prime Minister Abe has announced his intention to push for Japan’s entry into the TPP and his willingness to take on the strong agriculture lobby that opposes the idea. New Delhi has rightly insisted that further deepening of economic ties will depend on redressing the prevailing imbalance in trade. will be in our interest. there is an opportunity to press for greater market access for Indian firms in China. They also want to begin negotiations with India on a China-India Regional Trading Arrangement (RTA). it has languished for the Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. Both President Xi Jinping and Premier Li have indicated that they would like to move forward as soon as possible. This is India’s largest foreign direct investment in this sector. These are unlikely to remain open forever. the Chinese are keen on expanding economic ties with . Besides. But it would be unwise to prejudge this issue. Moreover. Greater market access Second. The Chinese leadership. the immediate cause for concern is the position of Japan. Premier Li was seeking reassurance as well as reassuring India when he publicly stated that “we are not a threat to each other. China regards the TPP as an economic grouping directed at it.” China also knows that the TPP will not be welcome to India either. Take the case of China Light and Power (CLP). The current Chinese leadership appears to have a different stance. given the differences between the two sides’ perceptions of the LAC — especially in the Ladakh sector — such an exercise would be doomed to failure. Even as the government keeps the pressure on this issue. it should get its own act together for attracting investment from China. New Delhi has expressed interest in Chinese investment. including measures to ensure that state-owned companies “compete fairly” with private companies and do not put the latter at a disadvantage. and at emerging issues.14 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM creation of investor-friendly regulatory frameworks and policies. Here too. but more needs to be done. Beijing knows that India is a “swing” power in the present strategic constellation. All this opens a few windows of opportunity for India. Its choices could alleviate or exacerbate China’s problems. is aware that the current pattern of trade is unsustainable. nor will we ever contain each other. so it is important that we make the most of them. When Premier Wen Jiabao visited India in 2010.

spoke of a similar five-pronged proposal in an interaction with a group of reporters from the BRICS (Brazil. Mr. Mr. Yet Pakistan’s ability to deliver in Afghanistan. but the government has not been responsive. made during a visit to India last year. Instability in Afghanistan is bound to impact on existing and proposed investments of India and China in that country. to maintain strategic communication and keep bilateral relations on the right track. India. Xi on Tuesday echoed his predecessor Hu Jintao’s suggestion. the present strategic conjuncture presents interesting possibilities for India. Both countries are concerned about the situation in Afghanistan after the NATO withdrawal in 2014. At any rate. we should strengthen cultural ties and constantly increase mutual understanding and friendship between our peoples. as the new leadership in Beijing takes control following a oncein-ten year change. Fourth. Xi proposed five steps to boost ties: “First. mutual investment and other areas. we should expand coordination and collaboration in multilateral affairs to jointly safeguard the legitimate rights and Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N. Hu. the two sides also seem poised to work together on regional issues like Afghanistan. In talking to India. who took over from Mr.15 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM lack of coal supplies from Coal India Limited. the groups whose writ runs in these areas have a good relationship with India. Indeed. The new Chinese leader.aspireias. The simple fact is that the main outlet for any resources to flow into China will be through the north of Afghanistan. during a visit to India in 2012 had called for maintaining high-level contacts. It is in Beijing’s own interest. Mr. to ensure that Pakistan doesn’t stir the pot too vigorously after 2014. if Afghanistan descends into something like a civil war. the former Chinese President. Premier Li has had a rather good visit to Pakistan. New Delhi should neglect the naysayers and press ahead with engaging China on all fronts. South Africa) group of countries held ahead of his first overseas State visit to Russia and South Africa for the BRICS Summit later this month. and for both countries to “properly handle” their differences in his proposal. it was China which suggested earlier this year that they begin a dialogue on . of a “five-point proposal” to improve ties with India. especially if the security situation markedly worsens. Conversely. is open to question.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. we should harness each other’s comparative strength and expand win-win cooperation in infrastructure. China. Hu last week. expanding economic complementarities. Russia. But there seems to be more in play here. This is not to suggest that China’s strategic relationship with Pakistan is weakening. To bolster ties with India. So. boosting people-to-people ties and multilateral cooperation. Xi details five-point plan (India and china ties 21st century) The Hindu China’s new leader Xi Jinping has indicated that he will look to follow his predecessor’s policies in engaging with India and seek continuity in bilateral ties. This can scarcely be encouraging to other Chinese firms contemplating investment in India. Beijing is evidently not confident that Pakistan will be able to secure Chinese interests in Afghanistan after the western forces pull out. Regional issues Bilateral matters apart. Pakistan and its proxies have no influence in these parts. Third. Second. Interestingly. The CLP’s position is fast becoming untenable. Pakistan cannot be of much help to China. China has already made a successful bid for the copper mines in Anyak and is keen to acquire stakes in extraction of other natural resources. therefore. China’s interest may simply be to secure support for its increasing presence in Afghanistan.

“China and India have a traditional friendship. Mr. Singh earlier this year. In a letter to Dr. trans boundary rivers and China's ongoing projects in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir. “To jointly follow the path of peaceful development and development through cooperation meets the common interests of the two countries. describing the border issue as “complex”. “The boundary question is a complex issue left over from history and solving the issue will not be easy.” Mr.” he said.” He reiterated that message on Tuesday.aspireias.” All the best Hope this material helps my NEWSPAPER programme students Jai Hind Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N.Delhi-60 9999801394 www. which emphasised boosting economic ties and cooperation on multilateral issues. reasonable and mutually acceptable settlement. Xi is expected to have his first meeting with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh later this month on the sidelines of the BRICS Summit in South Africa. China sees its relations with India as one of the most important bilateral relationships and is committed to pushing forward the China-India strategic and cooperative partnership.” the Chinese President said. as long as we keep up our friendly consultation we can eventually arrive at a fair. according a transcript made available. We should seize these opportunities and take solid steps to bolster exchange and cooperation in all fields and take China India relations to a new height. while at the same time appearing less willing to engage on more difficult issues such as the border dispute. the two sides should work together to maintain peace and tranquility in border areas and prevent the boundary question from affecting the all-round development in ties. Xi suggested any breakthrough on the long-running boundary dispute remained unlikely. the new CPC General Secretary said he was of the view that “the world has enough space for China and India to achieve common development. We are the two largest developing countries in the world and combined population exceeds 2. However. we should accommodate each other’s core concerns and properly handle problems and differences existing between the two .5 billion. Xi’s comments suggest the new Chinese leadership will largely continue with the previous administration’s approach to India. Fifth.16 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM interests of developing countries and tackle global challenges. Pending the final settlement. Mr. and the world also needs common development.

Delhi-60 9999801394 .aspireias.17 Newspaper analysis 2014 Aspire IAS Class synoptic notes NEWSPAPER analysis 2014 TM Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN N.