Baptism Portrayed as Martyrdom in the Early Church ‫תהליך ההפנמה בתפיסת מרטיריום וטבילה‬

Gordon Jeanes Pp 62-80 in: Forms of Devotion: Conversion, Worship, Spirituality, and Asceticism Everett Ferguson (Editor) SERIES: Re ent Studies in !"ristianit#, $%%& ' G(R)(*+ P,$)IS-I*G, ne. /or0 and )ondon, 1222 345678

"Baptismal rites before the fourth e!tur" tal#e$ about re%e!eratio!& after the patter! of 'oh! ()*+& more tha! about $"i!% a!$ risi!% ,ith -hrist i! the ,or$ of .aul i! /oma!s 0)(ff12 this shift i! emphasis from the o!e u!$ersta!$i!% of baptism to the other ,as probabl" %e!eral throu%hout the -hur h i! both 3ast a!$ 4est2"5p 016 5m" phrase)6 7! these later rites& the ritual assume$ a purifi ator" hara ter& a!$ is 8ie,e$ as a battle ,ith 9ata!9 93D3 4;<4C= :;847= 5CB8 :;<;C3 :;45;B:3 48A= 62-@ >?= :;<63= Et"is paper suggests t"at the baptismal

language of the combat with Satan 222i! the

ate heses6 ",as ta#e! o8er from the histor" a!$ literature of the :his ha!%e of $"!ami s " a!!ot be 8ie,e$ i! the baptismal rites i!

martyrs"2

isolatio!& but i! the ha!%e of $"!ami s i! the -hur h as a ,hole2 :he a%e of the mart"rs ,as past& the ima%er" a!$ la!%ua%e of mart"r$om ,as& as it ,ere& "up for %rabs"& a!$ also ,hat the mart"rs stoo$ for& the ra$i al halle!%e of the %ospel to the ,orl$& ,as a #i!$ of "!o ma!;s la!$" Ep 6@F ."i " needed to Ge o upied iH t"e .itness oH t"e !"ur " .as to Ge ontinued9 In part t"at .as ta0en up G# t"e Ion0s, Gut 999EaJsoF in t"e ne. rites oH GaptisI ever# !"ristian no. "ad to spea0 personaJJ# t"e Janguage oH t"e Iart#rKs reLe tion oH t"e .orJd and engage in oIGat .it" Satan9 Ep6MF 9imilarities bet,ee! baptism a!$ mart"r$om 999"ave t"eir Gasis in t"e sa#ing oH Jesus asso iating "is deat" .it" "is GaptisI ()u0e 12:'0)9E!"rist .as Nt"e supreIe Iart#rN p9 6'F Eon t"is Gasis Iart#rdoI .as seen as a se ond GaptisIF9 Et"ereHore Iart#rdoI, Ji0e GaptisI, NO43;=B3 :;S=>= 7<S43= =S;4 B= ,R;53; O4>3 Q> C4B P=;44 B= OBN 1 ;:4B PRB:< OA US ,;:;>= 3>;P :;;>8 ;:4B ;<PRB:< OB999;<=8T< ;:;>= ,?;C4 R4C>= ;<=8T< 5CB ;<=;SN 2 N ,;:44R:8

and is set to ombat i! the %la$iatorial %ames < o!l" the ombat is a%ai!st 9ata! M9 Ep 68F99 :he o!test .orJd9Ep 6MF $ut .orJd and stiJJ s"ares in its guiJt9999 Ep 68F V"e pi ture oH t"e martyr as athlete and soldier is eWtreIeJ# oIIon and goes Ga 0 to t"e Geginning oH !"ristianit#9 In PauJKs ."ereas t"e Iart#r is t"e Hait"HuJ onHessor oH !"rist."en t"e Iart#rs Ge aIe a t"ing oH t"e past t"at t"e Janguage oH Iart#rdoI ouJd Ge appJied to t"e inintiation oH ever# !"ristian999V"e iIage. Gut Joser to our t"eIe EYIart#rsF is t"e GJending oH ra ing and onHJi t in 2 ViI9 M:X-89 999V"e Iart#r at"Jete is Iore .ith 9ata! . "as to Ge a step reIoved HroI t"e reaJit#999 :he passi!% a.hi h the la!%ua%e of $"i!% . p9 118-12 ."ere..it" Iart#rs @: 999Got" oH t"eI die to t"e .i!% feature i! the baptismal rites i! both 3ast a!$ 4est 9Ep 68F IIitation oH !"ristKs deat" aJso Ieant iIitation oH "is suHHering and "is triuIp" over eviJ9 Ep X2F :he histori al pro ess b" . in order to Ge Hreed Hor t"e oIIon Janguage.ith -hrist e!tere$ i!to baptismal litur%ies has bee! reliabl" $ate$ to the fourth e!tur" a!$ later 9999EV"usF t"e tradition Ge aIe a Jiturgi aJ Janguage onJ# aHter it "ad999 eased as a urrent a tuaJ issue9 It is onJ# .as a! e8er=%ro. !"r#sostoI Ia0es a dire t oIparison oH t"e neop"#tes .a" of the a%e of mart"rs free$ the ima%e of mart"r$om222 EearJier !"ristiansF did not need to eIp"asiZe t"e deat" iIage Ge ause it . Ep X8F 999EGut Jater it Gegan to Ge eIp"asiZed t"atF the ascetic in the desert [was] "putting self to death" Ep X2F With the triumph of Constantine and the end of the period of persecution the idea of the spiritual combat might ha!e dropped out of use if there had not immediately become a!ailable another class of men to whom it could be applied 6M >?8 34<633 =? 4:A=4P @ E9g. Passio Sanctarum Perpetuae et Felicitatis 109 EngJis" trans9 In: The Acts of the M Christian martyrs.as Hostered eJse.ritings t"ere is t"e at"Jete .ee0 to t"e neop"#tes in t"e "ur " oH t"e Iart#rs in (ntio ".onHers Horgiveness oH sinsF9 In a serIon deJivered in Easter . t"e andidate preparing Hor GaptisI oIes in HroI t"e .restJer t"an runner."o is t"e runner in t"e ra e (1 !or9 2:2M-X).

ar i!to his o.‫לפי המאמר הנוכחי‬ ‫ יש הקבלה בין‬. '0.now that the martyrs were no more namely the mon"s 99 9 V"e vi tor# .as still possible to .‫השינוי שחל בתפיסת המרטמיריום‬ ‫עבור סגפנים והן בליטורגיה של הטבילה – שנתפסה גם היא כמאבק של כל‬ ‫נוצרי מהשורה נגד השטן‬ . G# s"edding "is GJood.! territor" 5the $esert6& ### $he monastic profession then becomes a substitute for martyrdom and to the mon" are applied the epithets formerly bestowed upon the martyr# %e is both the athlete and the soldier# # # # $he spiritual combat introduced into Christian thought by St Paul transferred by necessity to the physical plane in the age of the martyrs has now once more mo!ed bac" to the realm of the spirit [p &'] [(uoted from) V"e warfare of Christ G# GeraJd $onner. t"e Iart#r pro JaiIed and Iade IaniHest t"e vi tor# oH !"rist and t"e rout oH Satan ouJd no Jonger Ge Joo0ed Hor[ Gut it . pp9 M8.i! 8i tories o8er the $e8il b" re>e ti!% his temptatio!s& a!$ b" arr"i!% the .on in t"e arena ."en.‫ והלאה‬4 ‫מהשינוי בדאגות ובעיסוקים של הכנסיה ממאה‬ ‫ שאיפשר להשתמש בשימוי הזה הן‬. '2F ‫ במקביל לתהליך הנ"ל חל שינוי בליטורגיה – כחלק‬.