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Presenting a Technical Paper for Cenacle-09

ON

4G
The Miracle

$he bandwidth provided will be %&&Mbps for stationary objects and '& Mbps while in motion. #inally. and applications. #uture networ! protocols will be G defined over an entirely pac!et"switched networ! with digital networ! elements. networ!s. we present an overall G feature framewor! based on the two !ey features +diversity and adaptability. of the three targets +terminals. Current times are just the beginning for deploying 3G mobile communication systems. high bandwidth and built"in networ! security. networ! security. Key Words: Mobile communication. )fter a brief review on the development history and status of mobile communications and related G perspectives. G wireless networ!s will support global roaming and service portability across multiple wireless and mobile networ!s. with advanced techniques emerging in all the fields of mobile and wireless communications. $his paper studies visions of G from a technical perspective. a short summary on G visions is presented as a continuum of features in the development of the mobile communications world. wireless ()*. for example from a cellular networ! to a satellite"based networ! to a high"bandwidth wireless ()*.ABSTRACT Mobile communication is continuously one of the hottest areas that are developing at a booming speed. while research on the next generation of mobile communications. . Mobility computing is the networ!"access paradigm of the future. are described in detail. G wireless and mobile networ!s begin to pave the way for the future.

3G is necessary but not sufficient to the mobile communication strategy. according to the historical indication of a generation revolution once a decade.according to 3G goals. mobile and wireless access networ!s. in which many problems are only partly solved and there are still many problems left to be solved in the next generation.INTRODUCTION: Mobile communications and wireless networ!s are developing at an astounding speed. e. together with the respective evaluations on the chief contributions. 4G – A “MIRAC !": 4G is an initialism of the term #o$rt%&Ge'er(tio' Communications 0ystem. $raditionally. 11. anywhere. )nywhere2 basis at higher data rates than previous generations. $he history and status of mobile communications are shortly listed in the following. . 0peech chat was the only service of %G. data and streamed multimedia can be served to users on an 2)nytime. in outdoor and indoor environments with end"to"end quality of service and high security.g. and now we are near the end of 3G standardi/ation phase and the beginning of 3G deployment.e. non"interrupted communication in mobile circumstances. offering any !ind of services anytime. %. multiplexing frequency band. at affordable cost and one billing+%. i. with evidences of significant growth in the areas of mobile subscribers and $erminals. wireless systems were considered as an auxiliary approach that was used in regions where it was difficult to build a connection by wire line. and several other convergences that will be capable of providing %&& M bit3s and % G bit3s. respectively. %G was based on analogy technique and deployed in the %45&s. G. because of• . but the objectives that are predicted for G can be summari/ed as followsG will be a fully 1. '. MOBI ! COMMUNICATIONS R!)I!W*+."based integrated system of systems and network of networks achieved after the convergence of wired and wireless networ!s as well as computer. ) G system will provide an end"to"end 1. • Necessity. and mobile services and applications. *o formal definition is set as to what G is. communication technology. $he present time is just right to start the research of G mobile communications +%. etc. consumer electronics. 1t built the basic structure of mobile communications and solved many fundamental problems. roaming across domain. solution where voice. cellular architecture adopting.ossibility.

$he development trends of mobile communications can be summari/ed by the improvement of three aspects. speed. $he internal diversity of users. $he utili/ation of 01M +0ubscriber 1dentity Module. e. etc. techniques. data rate. body.g. touch sense.g. . '. 9ased on intelligent :0. together with the coexistence of different services needing different . 1n the following we give some representatives of G perspectives. 7.7G extended the 'G with data service and pac!et switching methods. mobile spatial range. • (ac! of end"to"end seamless transport mechanism spanning a mobile sub"networ! and a fixed one.7G brought the 1nternet into mobile personal communications. $he limitations and difficulties of 3G include• :ifficulty in continuously increasing bandwidth and high data rate to meet multimedia services requirements. which has gained tremendous success during %44&s with G0M as the representative. speech. 4G #!ATUR!S:*-. researcher and engineer. • (imitation of spectrum and its allocation.g.o0 and bandwidth. '. and it was regarded as 3G services for 'G networ!s. User Diversity: $he external diversity of users. 8nder the same networ!s with 'G. i.e. and category. e.g. *ote that as for users. both their external and internal diversity are to be adapted by the other two targets.3. both the external and internal diversity of terminals and applications are the solution. physical property. e.e. vision.terminal and application. economic capability. 3G is deploying a new system with new services instead of only providing higher data rate and broader bandwidth. services quantity. • :ifficult to roam across distinct service environment in different frequency bands. include e. educational bac!ground. service provider. various multimedia data communications services are transmitted by convergent 3G networ!s. quality. including networ! area. 3G still leaves some unsolved problems that it does not concern or concerns only partly. %. i. and networ! capacity< mobility field. Moreover. cost. coverage ability< and service property. cards and support capabilities for a large number of users were 'G6s main contributions . includes e. for adapting the two !inds of user diversity. 'G was based on digital signal processing techniques and regarded as a revolution from analogy to digital technology. etc. hearing. bandwidth.g. :ifferent G feature framewor!s have been defined from the standpoints of service subscriber. people with different interfaces. hands and fingers. culture. people in different situations. $his was a revolutionary concept leading to hybrid communications. personal preference.

Mobile attributes include dynamic attributes of both temporal and spatial features. and also direction. #or users.hone 3G?however. pedestrian or vehicular qualities. while wireless networ!s !eep the same property.g. 0tatic attributes include e. flexibilities. networ! adaptability aims to ma!e multiform mobile devices with a wide range of moving speeds and mobile areas connectable to wireless networ!s. $he former category contains e. $he internal diversity of networ!s means that one networ! can interconnect with other different networ!s and transfer various !inds of loads. geo" fencing based coupon advertising promotions and asset trac!ing will drive the need for high accuracy. e. G networ!s that will act as an enabling platform for these 2beyond navigation2 applications. it includes the provision of different terminals to satisfy different users and an individual user6s various requirements.g. Moreover. interfaces. si/e. voice. high"yield and low"latency location"based services on G networ!s. e. processing capability. low"latency multimedia applications including mixed data.. while the latter is connected to spatial range. security. 1nternet is assorted by nature. in urban and rural environments.g. along with stationary.g. #or instance air interfaces can integrate all !inds of standards and wor! on different frequencies. multiple operators deploy networ!s with multiple standards and protocols. we hope that miscellaneous services can be delivered to one single terminal. )nd it is the all"1. indoors. $hree targets are related to networ! adaptability. etc.rotocol +1. style.2) Terminal Diversity and Adaptability: $he terminals6 external diversities are the differences of terminals in both static and mobile attributes. functionality. )s for applications. 3) Network Diversity and Adaptability: $he external diversity of networ!s is obvious. battery life. a single terminal can reach a wide range of networ!s despite of location and mobile rate. (ocation"based services are already available on today>s 3G networ!s?most notably on the )pple i. modes. cellular systems with various coverage. multiplayer gaming. video and location"based services. weight. $he internal diversity of terminals means that one terminal may integrate multiple functions. eventually bringing speeds of '& Mb3sec and higher to wireless devices. =hen networ!s are concerned. and cost. throughout the networ! from the radio lin! through the core networ! infrastructure. $here are three targets for terminal adaptability. on"campus. More pervasive and interactive mobile social networ!s. . more resilient and more flexible next"generation G carrier networ!s will drive the proliferation of high"bandwidth. these applications are primarily centered on basic turn"by" turn navigation tools. moving speed and acceleration. G will leverage 1nternet . $hese more powerful. antenna. human interface. 1n reference to terminals.

) product architecture that leverages existing wireless location $he proliferation of G networ!s also promises to create a convergence in wireless technologies and services on a worldwide scale. adding complexity to mobility management systems.ST!MS- G/S Tr(c0i'1 G/S Tr(c0i'1 W AN A223s Aori/ontal Aandoff G/RS4-G C! 8pward Bertical Aandoff S :ownward Bertical Aandoff #uture wireless environments will not consist simply of one radio access technology such as current cellular systems +e. or @:G@. where multiple disparate networ!s are accessible from a mobile terminal. . Moreover. a location can be identified by a unique set of values including measurements of neighboring cell signal strengths.. unified global wireless infrastructure for content"rich applications where location awareness is ubiquitous and transparent. time delays and other networ! parameters. (i!e a fingerprint>s pattern of lines and swirls. G0M. =C:M). (ocation"based .. will be a basic feature in mobile terminals to allow connectivity in this pervasive computing environment. creating a single. becomes a complex procedure. but will integrate multiple access networ!s.g. seamless inter"networ!ing +as shown in #igure. detecting the possible options and choosing the optimal combination of networ! resources and active applications at the correct moment.#UTUR! 4G COMMUNICATION S.attern matching location technologies use the principle that every location has a unique radio frequency signature. 1n this case. Giving such capability to users across heterogeneous networ!s is much more complicated than in homogeneous scenarios.

=hile there are still concerns about a solution that relies on G. @xisting solutions use a variety of independent location technologies including )ssisted G.. reliability and yield needed for G networ!s. @ven )pple has recogni/ed the problems with G. most industry experts agree that a G. G. these technologies can dramatically improve accuracy.hone 3G relies on G. but a hybrid solution made up of AGPS and W S provides much !reater accuracy" #S$%&'() Polaris Wireless* .0"only solutions. but these are essentially standalone technologies. Aowever. @nhanced Cell"1: +@C1:. driving the wide"scale development and deployment of powerful applications that thrive on frequent and accurate location updates on a mass scale and in real"time. (ocation awareness will become an integral element?weaved throughout a range of new services and applications.: =hile the i.0 wor!s great in open"s!y environments but is severely limited in dense urban and indoor environments? the concrete and steel canyons of large cities acting as barriers to satellite signal reception. it is generally accepted that only a hybrid approach using multiple wireless location technologies will provide the accuracy. latency.0 +)"G.services will wor! seamlessly across continents and oceans.0 technology to pinpoint the handset>s location. pooled together. and unique pattern matching location technologies li!e =ireless (ocation 0ignatures +=(0.hone 3G. coupling satellite technology with =i#i on the i.0"exclusive wireless location solution does not provide the accuracy or reliability needed to drive G applications. OCATION&BAS!D S!R)IC!S AND 4G N!TWORKS*4.0... 8plin! $ime :ifference of )rrival +8$:C). incapable alone of providing the necessary consistency of location performance across all environments. leveraging each technology>s advantages while mitigating the other technologies> wea!nesses #igure.0 unmanaged =i#i networ!s.New York field trial shows that A-GPS can not provide the accuracy needed in dense urban environments.

enhance interoperability through simultaneous support of several radio interfaces in a single terminal. wearable computers as a novel terminal type. 0ome function modules can even be downloaded to a terminal when needed 4G Mobile Communications Terminals Air Interfaces Access Points Applications . 3. )daptive techniques such as smart antennas. and tablet. just li!e all the previous generations. often based on some wireless low power sensors that are human sensitive and3or environment"sensitive in order to monitor and interact with the physical world to report the human and3or environmental factors. $erminals will be aware of location and context. but also by mar!et requirements. together with the various requirements of users. . $hese approaches can also be used on wireless access points as an advanced smart base station. 0upport techniques of the field may include the following%. A. $he advances in this area have been used in e.1t is obvious that G. display. vision. to new interfaces based on speech.. is driven not only by technology. software radio.g. $his ma!es a terminal roam able across any air interface standard and connectable to any wireless access point by exchanging configuration software. )n intelligent terminal is able to dynamically improve its processing capability in order to contain various services. the terminal domain must possess both internal and external diversity.4G T!C5NICA /!RS/!CTI)!S*6. Terminals 1n order to adapt to the diverse applications and networ!s. touch. soft buttons. etc. 8ser interfaces of terminals vary from traditional !eyboard. '. and smart transceivers. $his will be common at a time when one terminal has multiple user interfaces.

channel condition. or data stream type. macro cell. multiple levels of . 0mart antenna. $he Mobile 1.vD also presents a great contribution to the adaptability of heterogeneous networ!s. importance. $raffic conditions will be dynamically monitored and controlled via techniques such as distributed and decentrali/ed control of networ! functionalities advantages while mitigating the other technologies> wea!nesses. )d hoc wireless networ!s are a !ind of self"deployed wireless networ!s to ma!e networ!s portable and adaptable. software radio. . E. )ccording to the service types. Miscellaneous services can be delivered through a mixture of transmission networ!s including unicast. *etwor! resource can be dynamically allocated to cope with varying traffic load. users Mobile Accesses Fixed Backbone . '. together with advanced base station are the !ey techniques to achieve adaptability of wireless access points to diverse terminals. i. microcell. $hus. and service environment. *etwor! reconfiguration can be obtained by the reconfiguration of protocol stac!s and programmability of networ! nodes. and broadcast ones. to ma!e radio systems and air networ!s re" configurable.o0 can be defined for various services. e. real"time attribute.B. and mage cell ones. Aierarchical and ubiquitous as well as overlay cellular systems. including picocell. multicast. and thus dynamically share unlicensed radio spectrum 7. *etwor! layer hierarchical mobility management based on Mobile 1. implement seamless networ! interconnection of both symmetric and asymmetric nature. Networks More advances in networ!s are needed to !eep pace with the rapidly changing terminals and applications. and seamless terminal handoff of both hori/ontal and vertical levels respectively. 3.vD and Cellular 1.e.g. it can adapt dynamically to the changing channel conditions and low or high data rate users. brings quic! and seamless handoff to terminals. bandwidth demand. D. as follows%.

e. 7. 3. 0ervices will be tailorable in order to fit the different networ! environments and the varying traffic conditions. )pplications can negotiate with networ!s so that they can be transferred with the most efficient channel. 0ervices and applications can also be smoothly delivered across a multiple domain of operators and service providers.0 receivers are the main driven techniques. . CONC USION 7 #UTUR! SCO/!: . which act as a platform for service development.A// ICATIONS: )daptability will be one of the basic requirements to the development and delivery of new mobile services. '. Mobile application should refer to a user6s profile so that it can be delivered in a way most preferred by the subscriber.romising techniques and possible topics may include%. such as context"based personali/ed services. Micro"sensors and G.g. delivery. and auto"configuration. . $echniques such as adaptive multimedia and unified messaging ta!e the terminal characteristics into account and ensure that the service can be received and run on a terminal with the most suitable form to the host type. indoor networ!s or =()* or cellular systems in a wide area. 1ntelligent mobile software agent is a common technique to all of the three targets. $his also brings the applications with adaptability to terminals that are moving in varying locations and speeds.

we are now than!ful to the great visionaries behind this idea who laid the foundation for a more advanced future. higher data rate. $hus a lot brighter future is ahead racing towards us provided that we utili/e this for a much greater deeds than to destruct. $he stage has finally been set for a launch of #ourth Generation and the supremacy over all others will boost up this high strategical technology. =ell. R!#!R!NC!S: .)s this G technology has been highly advancing it will be more fruitful to us in each and every aspect. lower cost. wider mobile area. more various service. smoother and quic!er handoff. etc G also enhances various critical factors li!e networ! security which is now a prime problem to any field. =e experience an entirely different scenario as G features broader bandwidth.

Auomo.ath $o G =ill $a!e Many $urns.rasad. Iawad 1brahim +:ecember '&&'. JBisions of G. Mobility Management Challenges and 1ssues in G Aeterogeneous *etwor!s. )rtech Aouse '. )CM D. 9echtel $elecommunications $echnical Iournal . G " 9eyond '. @vans and G.8G +G +96G -G . Hamjee. 9. AND STATUS*+. $he . *o!ia. 0iemens mobile 7. Foung Gyun. 4G Roadmap and Emerging Communication Technologies.. Mobile1nfo. A. 9aughan.G. Mobile Communications 9eyond 3G in the Global Context. Gim< .K in "CT# $o%ile #ummit&&..com 3. =erner Mohr +'&&'.%. T(ble898 /ro2erty MOBI ! COMMUNICATION 5ISTOR..7G and 3G =ireless *etwor!s.K Electronics Communication Engineering !ournal 5. *oah 0chmit/ +March '&&7. J#ourth generation mobile. =ireless 0ystems :esign E. G #eatures.

A0C0:. M$lti&(ddress Tec%'i<$e Cell$l(r Co.e St('d(rd R(dio #re<$e'cy *5=. :ata 0ome Multimedia . $:M) %447 .erson"to"machine 5&&M"4&&M 4. $:M). 1"Mode.DG"% .*?.e' Tec%'i<$e Re2rese't(ti. *M$ &&M"5&&M '.ac!et switching G. @:G@ %5&&M"%4&&M %E%G"35 G $:M). . C:M) Medium area $elecom networ!s '&&' 1ntelligent signal processing 1M$"'&&& +8M$0. C:M) Mini area )ll"1. networ!s Multimedia Machine"to"machine . C:M)'&&&. G Boice. 9andwidth +bps.er(1e Core Net>or0s Ser. networ!s Boice. 0M0 Mono"media . 'G 'M"7M C:M) 0mall area $elecom networ!s.St(rti'1 Ti:e Dri.H0.erson"to"person %44' :igital signal processing G0M. $)C0.erson"to"person :ata service 89+ 4G )ISIONS SUMMAR. B('d>idt% *b2s. Multi"address $echnique Cellular coverage Core networ!s 0ervice type 4G '&%&"'&%' 1ntelligent software )uto configuration C#:M. G"3&G #:M) (arge area $elecom networ!s Boice Mono"service .0.: /ro2erty 0tarting $ime :riven $echnique Hepresentative 0tandard Hadio #requency +AL.ice Ty2e %457 )nalogue signal processing )M. 0ome 1.=C:M). 8=9 3G"7G %&M"'&M :M).