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Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 56, No. 6, June 2010, pp.


Effect of a Magnetic Field Induced by Using a Solenoid on a Compact Microwave Proton Source
I. S. Hong,∗ B. S. Park and Y. S. Cho
Proton Engineering Frontier Project, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Received 24 November 2009, in final form 19 March 2010) A compact microwave proton source for the high power proton linear accelerator was proposed and has been developed. A hydrogen microwave plasma in the proton source was ignited using a standard double ridged waveguide and a solenoid at a very low microwave power of 50 W. The magnetic field induced by the solenoid assists not only plasma ignition but its sustainment. The wave absorption efficiency into the plasma and the beam extraction condition depend on this magnetic field. A relatively better region of the wave absorption efficiency exists with fields higher and lower than the electron cyclotron resonance(ECR) field and a good matching can be obtained for an axial magnetic field higher than 1.6 kG without any ECR in the plasma.
PACS numbers: 42.79.C Keywords: Proton source, Hydrogen plasma, Microwave, Magnetic field DOI: 10.3938/jkps.56.2013


A high power proton linear accelerator requires a highly reliable proton source with a high current and a low emittance, and the source must be matched with subsequent acceleration systems, such as a RFQ(radio frequency qudrapole) [1,2]. Microwave proton sources with an electro cyclotron resonance (ECR) magnetic field are typically used as high-power proton source at LANL and CEA because of their long life times [3,4]. Because these microwave proton sources have relatively bigger plasma chamber of around 10 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length, and with more than 2 solenoids, we propose a compact microwave proton source to enhance the power coupling efficiency between the driving microwaves and the hydrogen plasma with a single solenoid. Operation knobs in this microwave proton source are limited to a few parameters, such as the microwave power and the axial magnetic field, because the beam energy should be matched to the subsequent accelerator system. The axial magnetic field driven by a solenoid, which can affect the coupling between the microwave and the plasma, is an important parameter. This paper describes the effect of the axial magnetic field on the coupling between the microwaves and low-power hydrogen plasma.

Fig. 1. Schematic drawing of the proposed compact microwave proton source.

1. A Compact Microwave Hydrogen Plasma in the Proton Source

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The microwave power driven by a 2.45-GHz, 2-kW magnetron, an isolator, and a 3-stub tuner is delivered into the plasma chamber, which is made of water-cooled oxygen-free copper (72 mm in diameter and 50 mm in lengh). Figure 1 shows a schematic drawing of the proton


and fully discharges in the chamber with the help of the solenoid magnetic field. (dT : 20◦ ) Journal of the Korean Physical Society. with an inner diameter of 12 cm and a length of 8. 2. III. 4 magnetic field measurement with an axial hall probe is in a good agreement with the calculation. Figure 3 shows the magnetic field line. A standard WR284-WRD250 waveguide transition with a length of 30 cm was used. A vacuum quartz window with a 1-mm thickness and WRD 284 double ridges were used for the major coupling between the microwave and the hydrogen plasma.6 mm outer. 56. The vacuum window is located at the center of a solenoid with a maximum axial magnetic field of around 1. the solenoid axial magnetic field was estimated by using the superfish code. The solenoid. Around the ECR magnetic field. The double-ridged gap distance was 3. By increasing the magnetic field. WAVE ABSORPTION TO A PLASMA WITH AN AXIAL MAGNETIC FIELD The initial plasma discharge is sustained in front of the vacuum window. 4. 9. June 2010 Fig. The detailed specifications are given in Table 1.4 cm were shielded with 5 mm-thick iron.4 mm inner. the ECR field is in the plasma. Vol.1 1/min. A standard double-ridged waveguide (WRD250) was chosen to optimize the coupling between the driving microwaves and the compact plasma chamber and to focus the electric field at the center of cylindrical plasma chamber.6 A. The solenoid is made of a water-cooled halo copper conductor. the power coupling efficiency is the best ones as expected.5 kG of the at the window ECR region cannot be observed in the plasma. For a magnetic field higher than 1. 6. Figure 5 shows the forward wave power reflection as a function of the axial magnetic field at the vacuum window. Fig. Axial magnetic field Power Conductor size in diameter Turns Flow rate 1. source.8 V 4. The hydrogen plasma can be ignited easily with even 300 W of microwave forward power if above ECR magnetic field of 875 G exists in the plasma in the driving region or in the extraction region.4 kG at the window. 2. 8 × 16 1.8 mm. which can support an axial magnetic field above 1. The plasma discharge is sustained at a very low microwave power of less than 50 W. as shown in Fig. Though the light of the plasma is slightly dark. Calculated and measured axial magnetic field of the constructed solenoid. the hydrogen plasma was sustained even with a low magnetic field of less than 0.-2014Table 1. Detailed specifications of the designed solenoid magnet.2 kG at the center 134. matching between the . which is made with the same ridge. As shown in Fig. Before construction. 2. Magnetic Field Using a Solenoid We used a single solenoid to generate the microwave plasma. 3. No.5 kG in the center of the magnet. and the magnetic field at the extraction region is around 0.4 kG. Designed solenoid magnet.7 kG. 2. Fig. Magnetic field shape calculated by using superfish.

IV. Gobin et al. S.-I. where ω uh is the upper hybrid resonance frequency. a higher magnetic field can reduce the electron cyclotron radius.. CONCLUSION The hydrogen plasma in a proton source driven by microwave was ignited through a standard double-ridged waveguide and window and a single solenoidal magnetic field and was sustained even at a very low microwave power of 50 W. After some rotations.-S. REFERENCES [1] Y. wave and the plasma becomes worse. Korean Phys. we can observe another relatively good matching point around a magnetic field of 400 G. Less Than the ECR Magnetic Field at the Vacuum Window At the magnetic field less than ECR. B = Becr/1. D. and an axial magnetic field can be used to operate knobs for this proton source. 721 (2008).. 5.1 kG. so the electrons can be in phase and can be heated with the resonance even without an ECR magnetic field in the plasma. Ratio of the reflected to the forward power as a function of the axial magnetic field. the wave absorption into the plasma can be theoretically understood as an upper hybrid resonance of the Eq. Jang and Y. Korean Phys. [3] J. Cho. Electrons can be heated efficiently in . In the case of higher magnetic fields. can be shown. If some wave at an angle relative to the axial magnetic field is assumed.-S. In this case. 2 + ω2 ωpe ce ωU H = (1) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work is supported by the Ministry of Education. 922 (2002). 54. the matching gets better.-J. Rev. When an electron orbits with some collisions. Kwon. The Bernstein harmonic wave is a nonlinear process that decays into the plasma. J. Kim. J. electrons absorb the wave energy according to the basic principle of the ECR. J. Joseph Sherman et al. However. which may compensate for the time lost with a collision. The hydrogen plasma can be derived at higher and lower magnetic fields. Sci. ω pe is the plasma frequency.6 kG. H. the resonance can be described by 2 2 2 2 2 2 ωRF (ωRF − ωU H ) + ωce ωpe cos (θ ) = 0 (2) Fig.Effect of a Magnetic Field Induced by Using a Solenoid on a Compact Microwave Proton Source – I. When the axial field less than ECR magnetic field. 2. . [4] R.. Instrum. 52. Soc. The reflection result around an axial magnetic field of Becr /2 shows that the plasma depends on Bernstein wave at low magnetic fields. as well as at the ECR magnetic field. 1003 (1998). Sci. and ω ce is the ECR frequency. Soc. 73. S. 69. the wave can penetrate with a different mode than that of the ECR. (1). More probable models are collisions. Rev.-H. . [2] H. 2015 (2009). -2015- synchronization with a rotating electric field. where Θ is the angle realtive to the axial magnetic field. However. . The ECR is not a pre-requisite for generating a higher density plasma. Hong et al. at the fields higher than 1. the electrons can not be in phase and cannot be heated with ECR resonance. and eventually is the second best around 1. Higher Than ECR Magnetic Field at the Vacuum Window An ECR of 875 G was identified with a well matched magnetic field. Instrum. Cho et al. When a Bernstein wave is launched to heat electrons. Kim. 1. Science and Technology of the Korean Government. 2. Θ is so difficult to find practically.