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INTELLIGENT URBAN TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM KKKA6424 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Urban Traffic Management System

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PROF. IR. DR. RIZA ATIQ ABDULLAH OK RAHMAT

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Done by:

ALAA.H.MOUSA

ID: P71081

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Introduction
An Urban Traffic Control framework dependent upon executor innovation that can adjust and react to activity conditions continuously and still uphold its respectability and soundness inside the general transportation framework and meanwhile get a framework that brings about a noticeable improvement utilization of the limit of convergences. The key parts of enhanced control, for which commitments from counterfeit consciousness and fake canny executors could be normal The proficiencies of managing numerous issues and clashing

Objectives
-The proficiencies of settling on choices on the premise of fleeting investigation and developments . - The capacity of overseeing, taking in, and reacting to non-intermittent and unforeseen occasions; - self movability is an indispensable some piece of based units. - The, more adaptable, control unit can, genius dynamic, advance while working. The most of service operator in UTC might be an activity sign control gadget. Saito have found that the utilization of snappy reaction request forecast demonstrates in soaked circumstances could enhance delays for every vehicle on a solitary methodology crossing point in immersed circumstances such a change is tremendous and is achievable by adroit indicator control. Such an UTC framework obliges: overseeing arrangement of activity, a standard or model base for assessment and change, a model of the encompasses and an effective symptomatic normal for both movement light operations and guideline and parameter conformities. UTC framework could be dependent upon a few, coupled, convergence control (Intelligent Traffic Signaling Agent). The configuration of a multi-operator framework requires adaptable self-governance. Implying that executors will be obliged to Work independently, however will regularly be affected by others for a particular ITSA, executed to serve as a urban activity control operator, the accompanying perspectives are considered

1.MAXBAND Introduction: MAXBAND is a bandwidth optimization program that calculates signal timing plans on arterials and triangular networks. MAXBAND produce cycle lengths, offset, speeds and phased sequences to maximize a weighted sum of bandwidths. The primary advantage of MAXBAND is the freedom to provide a range for the cycle time and speed. The lack of incorporated bus flows and limited field tests are disadvantages of MAXBAND

2.SCATs
Introduction: In 2010 SCATS has been distributed to 145 cities in 24 countries worldwide controlling more than 33,500 intersections. Aldridge Traffic Controllers (ATC) is an RTA authorized Distributor of the world leading SCATS™ Urban Traffic Management Control (UTMC) System .ATC have a large team of SCATS™ Urban Traffic Management System qualified technical personnel to support customers in the design, deployment and implementation of the SCATS™ system including the supply of its own Traffic Signal Controllers giving clients a total system solution. The SCATS™ Urban Traffic Management System is a MS-Windows based software solution that works in a tiered fashion via 1 or more Regional Controllers (RC) that means traffic authorities are getting a highly redundant and therefore resilient system

for maximum visibility and control of traffic .ATC have designed its latest generation of Traffic Signal Controller to be compatible with SCATS™ to provide traffic authorities with a single supplier solution for complete Urban Traffic Management Systems.

Application Most of Highway operator in Malaysia using SCATS to control their traffic lights in urban area. These very popular SCATS are an area wide traffic management system that operates under the Windows environment. It controls the cycle time, green splits and offsets for traffic control intersections and mid-block pedestrian crossings. With the inclusion of vehicle detectors, it can adaptively modify these values to optimize the operation to suit the prevailing traffic. Alternatively, it can manage intersections in fixed-time mode where it can change plans by time of day, day of week. It is designed to coordinate traffic signals for networks or for arterial roads. Intersection connections to a regional traffic control computer can be permanent or may be on-demand using dial-in or dial-out facilities. Each regional computer can manage up to 250 intersections. A SCATS system can have up to 64 regional computers. Monitoring is provided by a graphical user interface. Up to 100 users can connect to a SCATS central manager at the same time. Up to 30 users can connect to a single regional computer simultaneously. Performance monitoring, alarm condition notification and data configuration facilities are included. SCATS automatically collect alarm and event information, operational and performance data and historical data. SCATS operate automatically but operation intervention is provided for use in emergencies.

Benefit The popular concept is that coordinating traffic signals is simply to provide greenwave progression whereby a motorist travelling along a road receives successive green signals. While this is one of the aims, the principal purpose of the control system is to minimise overall stops and delay and, when traffic demand is at or near the capacity of the system, to maximise that capacity (throughput) and minimise the possibility of traffic jams by controlling the formation of queues. Can be upgraded or expanded to meet changing requirements, other applications can be integrated into the system and provides details/reports of traffic flows for other planning purposes.SCATS enable a hierarchical system of fall back operation in the event of temporary communications failure. Such equipment faults are monitored by the system

3. Scoot Introduction: SCOOT is the world's leading adaptive traffic control system. It coordinates the operation of all the traffic signals in an area to give good progression to vehicle through the network whilst coordinating all the signals, it responds intelligently and continuously as traffic flow changes and fluctuates throughout the day. It removes the dependence of less sophisticated systems on signal plans, which have to be expensively updated.

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Information on the physical layout of the road network and how the traffic signals control the individual traffic streams are stored in the SCOOT database. Any adaptive traffic control system relies upon good detection of the current conditions in real-time to allow a quick and effective response to any changes in the current traffic situation. SCOOT detects vehicles at the start of each approach to every controlled intersection. It models the progression of the traffic from the detector through the stop line, taking due account of the state of the signals and any consequent queues. The information from the model is used to optimize the signals to minimize the network delay The operation of the SCOOT model is summarized in the diagram above. SCOOT obtains information on traffic flows from detectors. As an adaptive system, SCOOT depends on good traffic data so that it can respond to changes in flow. Detectors are normally required on every link. Their location is important and they are usually positioned at the upstream end of the approach link. Inductive loops are normally used, but other methods are also available. When vehicles pass the detector, SCOOT receives the information and converts the data into its internal units and uses them to

construct "Cyclic flow profiles" for each link. The sample profile shown in the diagram is color-coded green and red according to the state of the traffic signals when the vehicles will arrive at the stop line at normal cruise speed. Vehicles are modeled down the link at cruise speed and join the back of the queue (if present). During the green, vehicles discharge from the stop line at the validated saturation flow rate. The data from the model is then used by SCOOT in three optimizers, which are continuously adapting three key traffic control parameters - the amount of green for each approach (Split), the time between adjacent signals (Offset) and the time allowed for all approaches to a signaled intersection (Cycle time). These three optimizers are used to continuously adapt these parameters for all intersections in the SCOOT controlled area, minimizing wasted green time at intersections and reducing stops and delays by synchronizing adjacent sets of signals. This means that signal timings evolve as the traffic situation changes without any of the harmful disruption caused by changing fixed time plans on more traditional urban traffic control systems.

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Benefit Throughout its life SCOOT has been enhanced, particularly to offer an ever-wider range of traffic management tools. The traffic manager has many tools available within SCOOT to manage traffic and meet local policy objectives
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SCOOT detectors are positioned where they will detect queues that are in danger of blocking upstream junctions and causing congestion to spread through the network SCOOT will continuously monitor the sensitive area and smoothly impose restraint to hold traffic in the specified areas when necessary. SCOOT naturally reduces vehicle emissions by reducing delays and congestion within the network. In addition it can be set to adjust the optimization of the signal timings to minimize emissions and also provide estimations of harmful emissions within the controlled area

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4. ITACA Introduction: ITACA - An Intelligent Traffic Area Control Agent It has an Adaptive Subsystem that operates with a traffic model and produces Cycle Split and Offset times for a centralized area of traffic control. These times minimize delay and stops of traffic moving in the area. ITACA provides real time urban traffic control by computing the best solution for every intersection and continuously adapting signal sequences to match traffic demand. The ITACA Intelligent Adaptive Traffic Control System uses real time traffic flow data, obtained from detectors located in the field, to model traffic line-ups at every stop line. It then continuously adjusts traffic signal parameters (cycle, split and offset) at every intersection in order to minimize the number of stops and delays throughout the street network within the ITACA system's control. The system produces small and frequent changes in traffic control parameters that smoothly adapt the traffic control plan to evolving changes in traffic demand. In this way, the negative effects on the network that otherwise would be caused by plan changes - such as flow disturbances and time delays in re-establishing flow - are avoided.

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Application Currently (as per 2011) there are 150 numbers of junctions that had been installed with traffic signals in Putrajaya. There are junctions that are fully operated, while some were operated in ‘Flashing Amber' and a few others are still under construction (Ducting and cabling works in progress) An the latest news in Malaysia for greater KL done by Special Task Force to Facilitate Business (Pemudah) said the initiatives included enforcing the towing of Vehicles of traffic offenders and implementing traffic monitoring using Sydney''s Coordinated Area Traffic System (SCATS) and Intelligent Traffic Adaptive Control Area (ITACA) to further enhances traffic flow. In opposite to the traditional system, the ITACA introduce enhancement to every 5 seconds on carry on a time of collection and processing to the transportation data. All produces the corresponding parameter to each street intersection to distinguish the treatment. (In system has each street intersection in entire network accurate position, therefore system all collects information from each street intersection all neighbors street intersection). Each several cycles on have carried on a time of adjustment according to the system-computed result to each stature region cyclical length, namely cyclical adjustment. Each cycle all carries on the assignment adjustment according to the system computed result to each street intersection different green light time, namely the green letter compares the adjustment. Each cycle all starts the time according to the system computed result to each street intersection cycle to carry on the adjustment namely phase adjustment. It may act according to the transportation expert's experience and carries on the optimization to the system. Under this condition, it will introduce the ITACA system from following several aspects. Firstly, the system structure systems control divides into three ranks: The first level is the control center, it and the street intersection machine connects through the region controller. The second level is region controller CMY. The third level is street intersection controller RMY. The system structure following chart shows: ITACA is the intellectualized auto-adapted transportation control system, this system by the real-time control way work, and can most greatly expand to 4,800 street intersections controls. !

Center control level
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The general center control level is composed by a control server and the client center control level installs ITACA software, realizes the communication function, the database handling and function, the software start and software stops the function.

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Central computer system is connected continuously with region control

machine maintenance communication, and then through region control machine and street intersection machine maintenance communication.
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region control machine transmission and the receive data and the control

command; the central computer may in any time and the region control machine exchange information. ITACA software gathers the information involves:
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street intersection machine reports to the police starts to report to the police intersection machine active status change.

the conclusion with the street intersection machine.
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street intersection machine interior saves control form condition and change region control machine reports to the police starts to report to the police the

situation
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conclusion with the region control machine.
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Region control machine condition change Vehicles detector condition and examination data. ITACA auto-adapted pattern, the system inquires to the detector wheel with clear zero works every 5 seconds to carry on time.

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ITACA software may the manual start or the automatic start.

Under two methods, ITACA software all defers to the quite same not less than step start. After ITACA software stops the movement, all street intersections machine can automatically degrade to locally control the pattern, according to in advance the local transportation control plan automatic movement which compiles in various street intersections machine. After ITACA software restarts, it can automatically succeed with the central computer connected all equipment connects the system, before cannot because starts in ITACA software some equipment already add the electricity work but to need them to restart. After ITACA software starts successfully, the entire

transportation control system will be able automatically local to control the pattern from the street intersection machine to cut to the ITACA software control pattern, will safeguard the entire transportation network to be at the optimizing control condition as necessary. ! Benefit Has included the auto-adapted traffic signal control system in the existing new technical method, it is the intelligent transportation control system core. It uses the auto-adapted traffic signal control system, may reduce the transportation in the existing path to support stops up with the driving delays, reduces the traffic accident the formation rate and the mortality rate, simultaneously may cause the energy the consumption reduction, reduces the pollution degree. Transportation control for a long time the well-known company and the Spanish Oviedo university cooperation, in summarizes in the foundation which the predecessor experiences, developed in 1990 has developed set of auto-adapted traffic signals control system ITACA (Intelligent Traffic Adaptive Control of Areas) the system. This system is based on the coil real-time collection data, in the computer module the simulation real-time optimization movement, and real-time issues the transportation control command, achieves the best transportation control effect the advanced system. The ITACA system in the world many cities success movement, the performance is outstanding, in domestic city and so on Beijing, Wuhan has the small scale application, in the near future also in other city large-scale uses.

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5. RONDO Introduction:

Figure above shows a typical scenario that arises in Rondo when using destination routing based on finding the shortest path. Traffic from nodes A to C and from nodes B to C flows along a common set of network segments. With explicit routing through MPLS tunnels, the data from node B to C can be rerouted to a longer but more lightly congested path. The ability to monitor the global state of the network coupled with the fine control afforded by MPLS makes congestion control possible in Rondo. Application Rondo uses a feedback loop to govern the behavior of traffic in the network core. It manages the flows that originate and terminate between various PoPs (Points of Presence) in the network by directing these flows into the multiple pathways that are created using MPLS Label Switched Paths. These LSPs serve as conduits through the network that are unaffected by the local optimization strategy of shortest path routing. Rather, Rondo optimizes performance based on global traffic considerations in the network. System Components Rondo is composed of the major parts shown in Figure 2 above. In the remainder of this paper, we will describe each element with emphasis on the data collection subsystem and the analysis engine.

1) Physical Network The experimental network is a set of 10 MPLS-enabled counters and interconnections patterned after a much-scaled down representation of a major service provider’s network backbone as depicted on their web site. We note that the provider has 2500 PoPs worldwide so our model has only rough equivalence to reality. However, even with only ten routers, our network exhibits complex and often fascinating behaviors. Routers are connected with 10-megabit links, which makes possible the creation of realistic over load conditions. Each router models a PoP (Point of Presence) on the network where customer nodes are attached. In Rondo, each node attached to a PoP is a PC that sends and receives packets. The network uses a combination of Cisco® 3620 and 3640 series routers. The release of Cisco’s IOS (Internet Operating System) available on our routers allows only destination - based selection of MPLS tunnels. -Cisco is a registered trademark of Cisco Systems, Inc. Upgrades will ultimately allow selection of the tunnels based on other parameters in the IP packet. 2) Programmable Load Generators and Loading Strategy We use a collection of PCs programmed to generate time-varying loads similar to those expected in an operational network. Background network traffic on the networks constant in time and is generated by commercially available packet generators. Loads are carefully crafted to cause a buildup of congestion that does not have an overall steady state solution, and are designed to stress the given physical topology. 3) Data-Collection System The data-collection system uses a variety of devices and techniques to monitor the conditions in the network. These include both active and passive methodologies that capture such characteristics as throughput, loss, delay and jitter. Data collection, a key part of Rondo, uses an extensible architecture to provide rapid processing of data under time constraints for its collection, reduction and transmission. Data flow from the network probes through the collection system to the analysis engine with little latency and to archival storage at a lower priority. Data are retained in a database system for other applications such as service-level management that do not require rapid data processing. We describe this part of the system in detail below.

4) Data Model and Database Rondo uses the database for a variety of classes of information including physical and logical network topology, configuration information and archived measurement data. The algorithms, displays and other components are driven by the information described by this model, and as such, the organization of this model is crucial to the effectiveness of Rondo. The model, which is important for other applications, is realized in a relational database. The most important function of the database is to hold the state of the network topology, which changes as the system reroutes LSPs to alleviate congestion. The analysis and reroute engine periodically updates the topology as the network is reconfigured. 5) Analysis and Rerouting Engine This element of the system contains techniques for detecting congestion in a network and altering the existing traffic flows to eliminate an overload condition. The engine is designed to focus on more than link utilization, which is the most basic metric of network performance. Utilization indicates the level of activity between network elements and is often viewed as a measure of network congestion. This view is too simple when one considers the classes of traffic that flow over an IP network. High utilization of a link is one form of congestion, but others might include excessive delay, jitter or high packet loss, all of which could happen at relatively low levels of link utilization. These are measures of congestion that seriously affect proposed services in next-generation IP networks, including voice and video. The engine is designed use any measurable quantity as an indication of a network problem that needs correction. 6) MPLS Configuration and Control Rondo relies on MPLS to form explicit paths through the core network. Explicit paths allow precise control over the placement of traffic flows within the routed domain of Rondo. All traffic in Rondo flows through explicitly routed MPLS tunnels, which specify each node along a path from the ingress to egress routers. The network configuration is initially optimal in the sense that all tunnels travel via the shortest path in the network. Once established, packets enter the MPLS tunnels as a function of their destination address and are delivered to the egress router. Rondo thus uses MPLS as a mechanism for packet forwarding that is not directly

aware of quality of service. Mixing packets with different levels of quality of service in an LSP is possible though but limits the effectiveness of available controls. Once the initial explicit paths are established, the analysis and reroute engine operates to reroute packets through a path established by a new MPLS tunnel, which may no longer be the shortest path. This action currently takes place via IOS commands that are issued from the controller. When MPLS traffic-engineering MIBs become available, the controller will use SNMP to establish the new routes. System Operation The analysis and rerouting engine is in overall control of the system. The engine communicates with the data collection system to establish a schedule of network measurements. As the data collection system takes each measurement, it notifies the analysis and rerouting engine of the presence of new data. The engine combines the new data with the current system configuration and previous data to decide on the appropriateness of rerouting an MPLS tunnel. If a move is appropriate, the analysis engine reconfigures the network through the LSP configuration control and updates the network state in the database. As we discuss in the following, the route of the new MPLS tunnel does not necessarily preserve overall network optimality. Rather our goal is to reroute traffic as quickly as possible to minimize the congestion at the expense of achieving a theoretical optimum over the whole network. Global optimization might imply moving many or even all the routes in the network. The strategy in Rondo is to move from one to a few MPLS tunnels over a period of a few minutes with minimal disruption to network traffic.

6. UTOPIA-SPOT
Introduction: The increasing traffic volume requires an integrated and balanced approach to traffic management. The aim is to improve traffic over the whole area by minimizing travel time for private traffic, while giving priority to public transport. In creating a better flow of vehicles, it leads to energy savings, a reduction of emissions and a welcome increase in safety. Urban Traffic Optimization by Integrated Automation (UTOPIA) is widely regarded as one of the most advanced adaptive traffic signal control systems available worldwide that has been successfully deployed in many places in Europe. UTOPIA operates on distributed intelligence. The processing capabilities at intersection level enable a swift response to the traffic volumes at the intersections. This makes UTOPIA ideal for flexible traffic control and priority to specific identified traffic, like public service vehicles. Application The power of UTOPIA is prediction. UTOPIA estimates how the traffic situation will develop and calculates the best possible strategy. The ‘best strategy’ is based on a socalled ‘cost function’ method. The cost function weighs issues such as delay time, the number of stops and specific priority requirements. Taking into account the effect on adjacent intersections, the distributed control is optimised for each intersection in the network. All intersections communicate the expected traffic flow to neighboring intersections, allowing for a long prediction horizon.

Benefit
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the flow going; timely public transport; strategic traffic policy objectives; priority levels for public transport vehicles;

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adaptive, adjusts to the traffic situation;

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and tested in lab situation before installation on-site;

communication infrastructure.

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