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2006 3 7th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference

Je Ju, Korea, 2006

Interharmonic currents assessment in high-power cycloconverter-fed drives
J. Pontt, IEEE Senior Member, J. Rodriguez, IEEE Senior Member, J. San Martin, IEEE Student Member, R. Aguilera, J. Rebolledo, E. Caceres, I. Illanes. P. Newman Department of Electronics Technical University Federico Santa Maria +56-32-654553 Valparaiso, CHILE Email:

Abstract Large drives fed by Cycloconverters (CCVs) are extensively applied in industrial and traction drives. For 12pulse configurations, multi-winding transformers are employed. For high-power applications, three separated three-

For having a design tool, in this paper, a study and evaluation of the interharmonics currents behavior injected engineering and operation issues. by CCV in the transformer windings is presented.The methodology is based on a computational modeling and Keyw,cycloconverters, Koweywords--rvers,hransformons, synchronmotor.procedure for the evaluation of harmonic and interharmonic power convertes,tranformerssynchrnmocurrents injected to the network by a medium voltage CCVfed drive. Results from simulation and measurements of I. INTRODUCTION internal currents in transformer windings feeding a 12-pulse CCV belonging to an actual system validate the modeling. Cycloconverters (CCV) are currently employed for highThe developed methodology can be employed for design power applications, especially for low-speed and highand development of monitoring and diagnostics systems for torque system drives [1], [2]. Although conventional automation and performance improvement of industrial thyristors technology is employed, advances in power facilities with high-power cycloconverters-fed drives. In the semiconductors design, electronics and automation, next section a brief description of the power system enhance reliability and performance in applications analysis is presented, showing a single line diagram of the covering the range of 5-21 MW. Drawbacks of CCVs are network. In section III, simulation results are presented, the injection of harmonics and interharmonics currents [3] section IV is dedicated to show the experimental results and [4], [5] into the network with wide-band spectrum, section V is dedicated to the analysis of the simulation and especially by variable speed operation. Because medium experimental results. voltage systems with power converter loads have relative low losses, overall damping factors are very low [6]. II. POWERSYSTEMDESCRIPTION Combination of Network resonance, low damping factor and injection of harmonics and interharmonics currents with a broad band-spectrum, increase the probability of unwanted effects, like overvoltages, additional losses and Fig. 1 shows the single-line diagram of a CCV-fed EMC-issues. In addition, the risk of downtimes caused by synchronous motor drive (SMD) for a grinding mill. A 12pulse configuration is used for reducing the network unexpected phenomena or undesired protective device interaction and filter sizing [7], [10]. The 17000 HIP motor operations increases, [7], [8] reducing the efficiency and with 9.5 rpm rated speed, 80 poles, has two three-phase reliability of the industrial system [9], [10], [11]. Some techniques for interharmonics detection and measurement windings, fed by two separated 6-pulse 50 Hz CCV s, have been developed and some methods for mitigation have building the 12-pulse behavior to the network. The 12-pulse been presented and analyzed [12], [13], [14], [15], [16]. CCV is arranged with 72 thyristors using three identical That is why, for high-power range, medium voltage three-phase transformers, namely TA, TB and TC, with two converter-transformers issues are becoming more important secondaries each one. The first one is wye connected and

phase transformers with two secondary windings with starand delta connection are used. In this paper, a study and evaluation of the interharmonics currents behavior injected by CCV in the transformer windings is presented. Field

and high reliability must be assured. For 12-pulse configurations, multi-winding transformers are employed. For high-power applications, three separated three-phase transformers with two secondary windings with star- and delta connection are used. Few documented information regarding the interharmonics currents in the transformer winding is available.

measurements and simulations support the analysis. Results supports further improvements concerning design,

6.l1. 23kV Currents Waveforms hpA TA tP~11B cc I TB TC ccv 4 ccv lccvt9 cc ccv 1 ismI L~~~~~~~~~~~~~R rpmll i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Fig. 2006 5_Hi. Time behavior ofphase currents The system of Fig. 3: Simulated Current Spectrum of ISSA in wye secondary winding. corresponding to the rated value of one of the stator windings of the synchronous motor. sidebands reach up to 37% of fundamental frequency. Spectral behavior ofphase currents Fig. III. The modeling considers that each secondary winding feeds a three-phase dual converter with 12 thyristors.7 [s] 1.6 1.3 shows the spectrum of one phase current including a zoom around the fundamental component for highlighting the low-frequency side-band components.9 2 Fig. I net | simulated current waveforms of one secondary winding star connected. Korea. IpB and Ipc.l was modeled and simulated focusing in the secondary windings. The network current Inet is built by the sum of IpA. secondary windings ISSA The currents in wye and delta secondaries of TA are named IssA and IsdA. There is very few documented information regarding the behavior of interharmonic currents at each secondary winding of power transformers feeding a high-power CCV-fed drive. the scale of the current measurements is normalized to 1. 2: Simulation of currents waveforms in the for an operation at rated speed and power.8 1. 2 depicts the 0C. In the same way currents are defined for TB and TC. Moreover. IV. B. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Measurements were carried out in an actual industrial system drive depicted in Fig. The current control has three-phase references of sinusoidal waveform. The voltage control mode has been considered with an operation of sinusoidal modulation in the base-speed range. both having the same power rating. 9. In the authors' experience the behavior is very similar for the power range of 1O to 21 MW. Fig.5 2 [Freq pu] 10 15 Fig.0 Hz for a rated speed of ca. The Problem 1. Output frequency is ca. A four-channel oscilloscope Tektronix using Current probes LEM PR3O with 0 to 100 kHz . operating near rated power and rated speed. It can be noticed that characteristic harmonics and interharmonics are present in the spectrum. For the sake of simplicity.2006 3 7th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference Je Ju.5 rpm of the 80-pole synchronous machine. A dead time of 1. respectively._ 80 60 37 33 . 5 0.0 p. Current Spectrum 1 100 .5 1 1.u._ 40 20L + A. I 0 :1. The software Matlab Simulink was employed. MODELING AND SIMULATION B.0 [ms] was chosen for the zerocrossing of the controlled current.5 1. 1 Single-line diagram of an industrial CCV-fed SMD Q 1 second is delta connected. The motivation and goal of this study was to clarify this behavior with the benefit for assessing the design and operation of the power transformer.

SI l. 2006 bandwidth were employed.CH I I V t )} [4dnplesCH2 I V.CHI I V 0 rm t .CH1I IEV J01rrm TI L 0i1lt 11111 . 1 [V] 0. with an amplitude modulation given by the output current. 5: Phase currents of secondary wye winding LSA.r V >r.0 Hz. field measurement. L es]. where. fo c..I .pnilep]i IVl I4 .| |||| |||1 1i L 1 i| |' i I i | i I t l | i i| I i |0 Ch 1) 4 don Ale |]. 5.L. 1 [V] -0. 4: Measured Phase currents of secondary delta windings 1. A i i r For one of the two stator windings.. 1 [V] 1. . Korea./div. 50 ms/div = S V V.2006 3 7th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference Je Ju..0 Hz. fo c.of the phase current shown in Fig.a. 1. 6 Hz) building a modulation with twice the frequency as seen in Fig. and fo is the output frequency of cycloconverter.7 pu. Clearly the B | currents are very similarly modulated by the B .J _) _pL. 4 presents the current waveform of secondary delta-windings I. . 2 . 8 and 9 show the j tA JIhi ioutput (motor) currents IsM and IdM (fundamental frequency. depicting a 12-pulse harminic behavior. is the rated corrent of one of the stator windings. I. field measurement. 6. )i . 8 and 9. The orders of the interharmonic currents are given by: + nf0 + are I Fig.7 pu.a.. 6..i.0 Hz) built as the envelope of the StarR and Delta-secondary currents.: behave very similarly.24 (50+2*6 62 Hz).' . I[14.u. ih2 are: fo =c. ..76 (50-2 6=38 Hz) and ih2 c [cna I V. 50 ms/div ih = 1-2f and ih = 1 +2f (2) . . B . ih is interharmonic order. ANALYSIS .l J41i A ||| ||| ||||.|l 111|0 1: 114 | F 5 7 # ! j V j ! L 1XA. Fig. 50 ms/div. 50 m. 14cannles].u/div. Fig.f i. primary delta windings 'pA btained during a field .7 p.. 6 shows the current of primary delta windings IpA..1 I C 4canila ]. Fig. F~~~~~~~~~ ~ Phase currents in the secondary windings . 7 depicts the spectrum of current in a secondary Delta-winding. ~~~output frequency... interharmonics of orders ih1 0.a..0 p.. 1) 1 11 1 1: 1 1 1 phase 1 1 corresponding to the measurement of Fig. Both. controlled in the CCV with sinusoidal references of lowfrequency (ca. Fig. 10.7 p.I .winding currents show a similar 6pulse behavior. The side-bands around the fundamental component given by (1) can be recognized in the spectrum .I B-> .f ] 6: Phase currents of F Fig.7 pu. UV. where 1.. delta and star. . Both secondaries .6 0Hz.dA. 50 f =1.a. SQ. Major side-bands are the . c.u. + . . Fig.l ||||lmeasurement.: (1) Where: h is the integer harmonic order.. Aobtained during a field measurement. fh = fh n. respectively. lit .T1l 1l The output currents ISM and IdM to the motor .¢l . The time scale is 50 ms/div and vertical scale is 1. . r r. 5 shows the current waveform scale is 50 ms/div and vertical scale is 0. -.CH2 tl rl11111111r 1 :1t1 h|e ~~~~~~~~~~~~secondary N:l = Fig.H 1 . n =0. the frecquencies of ihl. 6.

there are additional side-bands at the secondary windings. Simulated and measured results agree very well validating the modeling and simulation. etc. 10: Spectrum of Current in a secondary delta winding around fundamental component (Measurements of Fig.2006 3 7th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference 80 35 Fig. ao. 8: Output current IDM of CCV as the envelope of three-phase Deltasecondary currents (Measurements of Fig. ldM not only have a fundamental component of frequency.0I | -- -1. n =2. Currents waveforms or secondary delta windingis T u S -E r ---------- 0. 9 Output current secondary currents (Measurements of Fig.04 Pu][Freq pu]l [Freq 0 20 40 60 80 Fig. Phase currents in the primarywindings The currents in the primary winding IpA have a similar behavior of secondary currents... 4. 7i.. This situation may be modeled by extending (1) with additional components. 11 shows the calculated current spectrum for the primary windings currents. Korea.0 0 . with sidebands orders given by: fh = fh ± nfo (3) where..5) rren t Spectrum ISM of CCV as the envelope of three-phase Star- Time [Ims] 100 120 140 160 1i0 200 =_C u -. 11.iXE=~ ~ ~ 27Current Spectrum Je Ju.0 - 5 0 10 15 -1~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. 7: Spectrum of Current in a secondary delta winding (Measurement shown in Fig.. etc Fig.13..4). 2006 Currents waveforms of secondary we windings A 1. Because the controlled output currents 'SM.6. 80 Time [is] 100 ]tl 120 f_ I 10 140 160 180 200 0 0.50 | 1 100% 2f -- i i. It can be noticed that . 25.4) A similar analysis can be done for the sidebands around characteristics harmonic orders like the 5i. 5). but rather also harmonics. but without 6-pulse characteristic harmonics. 23... 1 li and 1 3i harmonic orders. M--<--J-----.5 kHftLftd Fig. h =1. 20 40 60 i_I Fig.14 htil [Freq pu] 21..76 l ljli I1. B.5 0..

Three-phase symmetry and controlled current balance. are commonly employed.W currents have 6-pulse harmonics and interharmonics which be considered for the proper design.0 5 rrwl *-l. the harmonic with the developed methodology iS ^ ~~~~Further work consier for improvemns ofed enginerig an components resulting from the modulation are cancelled at of fo industr coerao cieswith the line side with the exception of those of 6k-orders. maintenance and operation. . because interharmonics are commonly not considered for the power calculations for transformers design.110-1998 [17] and IEEE Std C57. the cancellation of 6-pulse harmonics and motorallows f. VII.__ . at the secondary windings the Where h . operation. the motor currents of frequency in phases VI. For high-power applications. Main IEEE Std's like IEEE Std C57. and interharmonics given by: currents behavior injected by CCV in the transformer + + I (4windings is presented.considered.h frequency modulation at the network side building a 12pulse behavior. Bmust Because. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors gratefully acknowledge the support provided by Millennium Nucleus in Industrial Electronics and Mechatronics granted by Mideplan-Chile and FONDEF Proj.5. at the secondary windings the currents have 6-pulse harmonics and interharmonics which must be considered for the proper design.] network side. Despite the fact a unique three-phase multiwinding power transformer with 6 secondarywindings may also be used. n . constructive aspects. For a 12-pulse configuration high-power applications. L_ 2 40 20 0 . B oeain operation.pulse behavior. Korea. Interharmonics components generate power losses in the windings and transformer core. transportation and maintenance issues suggest the use of three separated transformers. (5) Betcause. the motor currents of frequency in phases A. three identical transformers with two secondary windings star-delta.] Fig. reducing the utilization factor of power transformers. 100 Current Spectrum __ .18.5T-l 0 1[Freq p 1v:. The currents in the main medium voltage feeder Inet have In this paper. a study and evaluation of the interharmonics a 12. Results presented in this work are very important for improving the understanding and design. maintenance and A. . three separated three-phase transformers with two secondary windings with star. Phase currents in the main medium voltage feeder delta connection are used. offer good performance for high-power applications. with low distortion currents at the motor. 11: Calculated Current Spectrum in the primary winding of the transformer (Measurement shown in Fig.101998 [18] establish harmonic considerations for power transformers but interharmonics are not specifically . Field measurements at an industrial net 10 15 [Freq p. Large drives fed by 12-pulse Cycloconverters (CCVs) are Three-phase symmetry and controlled current balance. . IpA PA IpB PB pC ± nfo ±h C (4) drive and simulations support the analysis. of industrial facilities with hgeingh-oe high-power = I~. 6). However. These losses can reach important levels considering that interharmonics component are up to 40% of the fundamental. allows the cancellation of 6pulse harmonics and motor-frequency modulation at the cycloconverters-fed drives. t . D04-11392 granted by CONICYT.u. . 2006 interharmonics components reach up to 388% of the fundamental._ 80 60 38 ____ C 28 X 1-0 . .and C. However. IMPACT OF THE RESULTS Phase-controlled cycloconverters with current-free control mode.Chile and noledge the support given by the Technical University eeioSnaMra . and C are displaced 120 degrees among them. COMMENTS AND CONCLUSIONS extensively applied in industrial and traction drives.2006 3 7th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference Je Ju.1 0n:-7T.

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