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GATE EE Topic wise Questions CONTROL SYSTEMS

YEAR 2010

TWO MARKS

Question. 1

The frequency response of G (s) = 1 s (s + 1) (s + 2)

plotted in the complex G (jω) plane (for 0 < ω < 3) is

EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS

**www.gatehelp.com
**

Question. 2

**o = AX + Bu with A = >− 1 2H, B = >0H is The system X 0 2 1 (A) Stable and controllable (C) Unstable but controllable
**

Question. 3

(B) Stable but uncontrollable (D) Unstable and uncontrollable

The characteristic equation of a closed-loop system is s (s + 1) (s + 3) k (s + 2) = 0, k > 0 .Which of the following statements is true ? (A) Its root are always real (B) It cannot have a breakaway point in the range − 1 < Re [s] < 0 (C) Two of its roots tend to infinity along the asymptotes Re [s] =− 1 (D) It may have complex roots in the right half plane.

YEAR 2009

ONE MARK

Question. 4

The measurement system shown in the figure uses three sub-systems in cascade whose gains are specified as G1, G2, 1/G3 . The relative small errors associated with each respective subsystem G1, G2 and G3 are ε1, ε2 and ε3 . The error associated with the output is :

(A) ε1 + ε2 + 1 ε3 (C) ε1 + ε2 − ε3

Question. 5

(B) ε1 ε2 ε3 (D) ε1 + ε2 + ε3

**The polar plot of an open loop stable system is shown below. The closed loop system is
**

Page 2

www. 6 The first two rows of Routh’s tabulation of a third order equation are as follows. Its transfer function is Page 3 .gatehelp.com EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS (A) always stable (B) marginally stable (C) un-stable with one pole on the RH s -plane (D) un-stable with two poles on the RH s -plane Question. 7 The asymptotic approximation of the log-magnitude v/s frequency plot of a system containing only real poles and zeros is shown. s3 2 2 s2 4 4 This means there are (A) Two roots at s = ! j and one root in right half s -plane (B) Two roots at s = ! j2 and one root in left half s -plane (C) Two roots at s = ! j2 and one root in right half s -plane (D) Two roots at s = ! j and one root in left half s -plane Question.

33 dB (B) 17.95 dB (C) 21.gatehelp.1s) /s . The value of K is (A) 0. The gain margin of the is system is (A) 11.5 (C) 4 Question. 9 (B) 2 (D) 6 The open loop transfer function of a unity feed back system is given by G (s) = (e .67 dB (D) 23. 8 TWO MARKS The unit-step response of a unity feed back system with open loop transfer function G (s) = K/ ((s + 1) (s + 2)) is shown in the figure.EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS www.9 dB Common Data for Question 10 & 11 : A system is described by the following state and output equations dx1 (t) =− 3x1 (t) + x2 (t) + 2u (t) dt dx2 (t) =− 2x2 (t) + u (t) dt y (t) = x1 (t) when u (t) is the input and y (t) is the output Page 4 .0.com 10 (s + 5) s (s + 2) (s + 25) 100 (s + 5) s (s + 2) (s + 25) 1000 (s + 5) s (s + 2) (s + 25) 2 (A) (C) (B) (D) 80 (s + 5) s (s + 2) (s + 25) 2 YEAR 2009 Question.

3t (D) = G 0 e .3t (C) = G 0 e .2t + e .2t − e .com Question. 10 EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS The system transfer function is (A) 2 s + 2 s + 5s − 6 (C) 2s + 5 s2 + 5s + 6 (B) (D) s+3 s2 + 5s + 6 2s − 5 s2 + 5s − 6 Question. Assuming zero initial condition. 12 ONE MARK A function y (t) satisfies the following differential equation : dy (t) + y (t) = δ (t) dt where δ (t) is the delta function.2t − e . 13 TWO MARK The transfer function of a linear time invariant system is given as G (s) = 1 s + 3s + 2 2 The steady state value of the output of the system for a unit impulse input applied at time instant t = 1 will be (A) 0 (B) 0.3t e + e e . 11 The state-transition matrix of the above system is e .2t e . and denoting the unit step function by u (t).t u (t) YEAR 2008 Question. y (t) can be of the form (A) et (C) et u (t) (B) e .2t e .3t (B) = G 0 e .2t YEAR 2008 Question.gatehelp.3t 0 (A) = .2t G .5 (C) 1 (D) 2 Page 5 .t (D) e .3t e .3t e .2t e 3t e .www.

gatehelp. 15 The asymptotic Bode magnitude plot of a minimum phase transfer function is shown in the figure : This transfer function has (A) Three poles and one zero (C) Two poles and two zero Question. 14 The transfer functions of two compensators are given below : C1 = 10 (s + 1) .EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS www.com Question. 16 (B) Two poles and one zero (D) One pole and two zeros Figure shows a feedback system where K > 0 The range of K for which the system is stable will be given by (A) 0 < K < 30 (B) 0 < K < 39 (C) 0 < K < 390 Page 6 (D) K > 390 . C2 = s + 10 (s + 10) 10 (s + 1) Which one of the following statements is correct ? (A) C1 is lead compensator and C2 is a lag compensator (B) C1 is a lag compensator and C2 is a lead compensator (C) Both C1 and C2 are lead compensator (D) Both C1 and C2 are lag compensator Question.

18 The transfer function G(s) of this system will be s (A) (B) s + 1 (s + 2) s (s − 2) (C) s (s − 2) (D) 1 s (s + 2) Question.Y = CX where X is state vector. C = [1 0] G 0 −2 1 Question. 19 A unity feedback is provided to the above system G (s) to make it a closed loop system as shown in figure. the steady state error in the input will be (A) 0 (C) 2 (B) 1 (D) 3 YEAR 2007 ONE MARK Page 7 . 17 EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS The transfer function of a system is given as 100 s + 20s + 100 2 The system is (A) An over damped system (C) A critically damped system (B) An under damped system (D) An unstable system Statement for Linked Answer Question 18 & 19.com Question. The state space equation of a system is described by o = AX + Bu.www.gatehelp. Y is X output and A == 0 1 0 . B = = G. For a unit step input r (t). u is input.

and y = Im [G (jω)] then for ω " 0+ . 21 If x = Re [G (jω)].gatehelp. but unstable for input u2 YEAR 2007 TWO MARKS Question. the Nyquist plot for G (s) = 1/s (s + 1) (s + 2) is (A) x = 0 (C) x = y − 1/6 (B) x =− 3/4 (D) x = y/ 3 Question. 22 The system 900/s (s + 1) (s + 9) is to be such that its gain-crossover frequency becomes same as its uncompensated phase crossover frequency and provides a 45c phase margin.EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS www. 20 The system shown in the figure is (A) Stable (C) Conditionally stable (B) Unstable (D) Stable for input u1 . one may use (A) a lag compensator that provides an attenuation of 20 dB and a phase lag of 45c at the frequency of 3 3 rad/s (B) a lead compensator that provides an amplification of 20 dB and a phase lead of 45c at the frequency of 3 rad/s (C) a lag-lead compensator that provides an amplification of 20 dB and a phase lag of 45c at the frequency of 3 rad/s Page 8 .com Question. To achieve this.

com (D) a lag-lead compensator that provides an attenuation of 20 dB and phase lead of 45c at the frequency of 3 rad/s EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS Question. Z = b0 s + b1 (B) X = 1. 23 If the loop gain K of a negative feed back system having a loop transfer function K (s + 3) / (s + 8) 2 is to be adjusted to induce a sustained oscillation then (A) The frequency of this oscillation must be 4 3 rad/s (B) The frequency of this oscillation must be 4 rad/s (C) The frequency of this oscillation must be 4 or 4 3 rad/s (D) Such a K does not exist Question. Y = (c0 s + c1) / (s2 + a0 s + a1). 24 The system shown in figure below can be reduced to the form with (A) X = c0 s + c1. Y = 1/ (s2 + a0 s + a1).gatehelp. Z = b0 s + b1 Page 9 .www.

R-L-C circuit shown in figure Question. since the system is not under damped (B) 5 % (C) 16 % Page 10 (D) 48 % .25 (D) 0 Data for Q. Y = 1/ (s2 + a1 s + a). Z = b1 s + b0 Question.27 are given below.com (C) X = c1 s + c0. ω = 500 and ξ = 0. The system is stable and has following parameters Kp = 4.26 & Q. Ki = 10. 26 For a step-input ei .The steady state value of Z is (A) 1 (C) 0.7 .gatehelp.1 (B) 0. Z = 1 (D) X = c1 s + c0. the overshoot in the output e0 will be (A) 0. Solve the problems and choose the correct answers. Y = (b1 s + b0) / (s2 + a1 s + a0).EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS www. 25 Consider the feedback system shown below which is subjected to a unit step input.

28 ONE MARK For a system with the transfer function H (s) = 3 (s − 2) . 4s2 − 2s + 1 o = AX + Bu is equal to the matrix A in the state space form X V V R R S1 0 0 W S0 1 0 W (A) S 0 1 0 W (B) S 0 0 1 W W S S W S− 1 2 − 4 W S− 1 2 − 4 W X X T T V R S0 1 0 W (C) S3 − 2 1 W S W S1 − 2 4 W X T YEAR 2006 Question. 27 EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS If the above step response is to be observed on a non-storage CRO. then it would be best have the ei as a (A) Step function (C) Square wave of 300 Hz (B) Square wave of 50 Hz (D) Square wave of 2.com Question. Which of these plots represent a stable closed loop system ? Page 11 .www.0 KHz YEAR 2006 Question. 29 V R S1 0 0 W (D) S 0 0 1 W S W S− 1 2 − 4 W X T TWO MARKS Consider the following Nyquist plots of loop transfer functions over ω = 0 to ω = 3 .gatehelp.

gatehelp. except (3) (B) all.com (A) (1) only (C) all. except (1) (D) (1) and (2) only Question. 30 The Bode magnitude plot H (jω) = 10 4 (1 + jω) is (10 + jω) (100 + jω) 2 Page 12 .EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS www.

gatehelp. T (s) = s2 + 4 (s + 1) (s + 4) The system output is zero at the frequency (A) 0. 32 ONE MARK A system with zero initial conditions has the closed loop transfer function. 31 EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS A closed-loop system has the characteristic function 2 (s − 4) (s + 1) + K (s − 1) = 0 .5 rad/sec (C) 2 rad/sec (B) 1 rad/sec (D) 4 rad/sec Page 13 .com Question.www. Its root locus plot against K is YEAR 2005 Question.

34 The gain margin of a unity feed back control system with the open loop transfer function (s + 1) is G (s) = s2 (A) 0 (C) 2 (B) 1 2 (D) 3 YEAR 2005 TWO MARKS Question. G (s) H (s) = (1 + s) becomes stable when (A) K > 1 (C) K < 1 Page 14 (B) K > 1 (D) K < − 1 . having an open loop gain K (1 − s) . 33 Figure shows the root locus plot (location of poles not given) of a third order system whose open loop transfer function is (A) K s3 (C) K s (s2 + 1) (B) (D) K s2 (s + 1) K s (s2 − 1) Question.com Question. 35 A unity feedback system.gatehelp.EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS www.

732 (D) 2. 3]T and the unit step input u (t) has Page 15 . Solve the problem and choose the correct answer.40 are given below. the closed loop control system shown in the figure will have a steady state error of (A) − 1. 38 (B) (− 0. j0) (C) 0 Question. 37 (B) − 0.366 (B) 0.738 Data for Q. then value of the gain K is (A) 0.0 (C) 0 Question.5 If the compensated system shown in the figure has a phase margin of 60c at the crossover frequency of 1 rad/sec. j0) (D) 0.5.25.www. the Nyquist plot of the loop transfer function G (s) H (s) = πes passes through the negative real axis at the point -0.25s (A) (− 0. o (t) = = A state variable system X 0 1 1 X (t) + = Gu (t) with the initial G 0 −3 0 condition X (0) = [− 1.com Question.5 In the G (s) H (s)-plane. 36 EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS When subject to a unit step input.5 (D) 0.366 (C) 1.39 & Q.gatehelp.

39 The state transition matrix 1 (A) = 0 1 (C) > 0 1 3 (1 − e− 3t) G e− 3t (e3 − t − e− 3t) H e− 3t 1 (B) > 0 1 (D) > 0 1 3 (e− t − e− 3t) H e− t 1 3 (1 − e− t) H e− t Question.EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS www.3t G 3e t − e .t G e ONE MARK Question.t G e t − e 3t (C) X (t) = = .gatehelp. j 0) in the G (s) H (s) plane. F (s) = 5 s (s + 3s + 2) 2 where F (s) is the Laplace transform of the of the function f (t).com Question.3t (D) X (t) = = . The phase margin of the system is (A) 0c (C) 90c Question. The initial value of f (t) is equal to (A) 5 (C) Page 16 5 3 (B) 5 2 (D) 0 . 40 The state transition equation t − e-t (A) X (t) = = .3t G 3e YEAR 2004 1 − e-t (B) X (t) = = . 41 The Nyquist plot of loop transfer function G (s) H (s) of a closed loop control system passes through the point (− 1. 42 (B) 45c (D) 180c Consider the function.

www. o = AX where X is the two dimensional state vector and A is the X 0 2 system matrix given by A = = . 44 (B) Kt s (D) Kt TWO MARKS For the equation.com Question. if θ (t) is the rotor displacement in radians. 43 EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS For a tachometer. E (s) then the transfer function. s3 − 4s2 + s + 6 = 0 the number of roots in the left half of s -plane will be (A) Zero (C) Two Question. will be Q (s) (A) Kt s2 (C) Kt s YEAR 2004 Question. The roots of the characteristic 2 0G equation are (A) − 2 and + 2 (C) − 2 and − 2 (B) − j2 and + j2 (D) + 2 and + 2 Page 17 . 46 The state variable description of a linear autonomous system is. 45 (B) One (D) Three C (s) For the block diagram shown in figure. e (t) is the output voltage and Kt is the tachometer constant in V/rad/sec. the transfer function is R (s) equal to 2 1 (A) s + 2 s 2 (C) s + s + 1 s 2 +1 (B) s + s 2 s (D) 1 s2 + s + 1 Question.gatehelp.

the input x (t) = sin t . 50 (D) sin (t + 45c) The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback control system is given as 1.gatehelp.EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS www. 48 (B) 20 and 0.5e . are respectively equal to (A) 20 and 0.7 and an undamped natural frequency ωn of 5 rad/sec. G (s) = as + s2 The value of ‘a ’ to give a phase margin of 45c is equal to Page 18 . t $ 0 . The values of K and P such that the system has a damping ratio of 0.25 (D) 1. the response y (t) will be (A) 1 sin (t − 45c) 2 (B) 1 sin (t + 45c) 2 (C) sin (t − 45c) Question. The steadystate value of the unit step response of the system is equal to (A) 0 (C) 0.3 (C) 25 and 0.6t sin 8t.3 Question. 47 The block diagram of a closed loop control system is given by figure.2 The unit impulse response of a second order under-damped system starting from rest is given by c (t) = 12.0 In the system shown in figure. In the steadystate.2 (D) 25 and 0.5 Question.com Question. 49 (B) 0.

141 (C) 0.135 (B) = (A) = G 1.736G 0.2t 0 given by = G.gatehelp.271 (C) = 0.2t) dt dt2 The response of the system as t " 3 is (B) x = 2 (A) x = 6 (C) x = 2.100 G YEAR 2003 TWO MARKS Page 19 .271 0.841 (B) 0.4 Question. 51 ONE MARK A control system is defined by the following mathematical relationship d2 x + 6 dx + 5x = 12 (1 − e .441 (D) 1.135 (D) = 1.100 0. The state of the system at the end of 1 second is 0 e-t given by 0.www.com (A) 0. The state transition matrix for the system is e .141 EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS YEAR 2003 Question. 53 (B) b < a (D) a < Kb 2 A second order system starts with an initial condition of = G without 3 any external input. 52 (D) x =− 2 A lead compensator used for a closed loop controller has the following transfer function s K (1 + a ) s (1 + b ) For such a lead compensator (A) a < b (C) a > Kb Question.368G 0.

57 (B) 6 and 10 (D)− 6 and − 10 The following equation defines a separately excited dc motor in the form of a differential equation d2 ω + B dω + K2 ω = K V dt J dt LJ LJ a Page 20 . 54 A control system with certain excitation is governed by the following mathematical equation d2 x + 1 dx + 1 x = 10 + 5e− 4t + 2e− 5t 2 dt 18 dt2 The natural time constant of the response of the system are (A) 2 sec and 5 sec (B) 3 sec and 6 sec (C) 4 sec and 5 sec Question. 56 (B) 0. The steady state error in the response of the above system to unit step input is (A) 25% (C) 6% Question.gatehelp.EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS www.com Question. 55 (D) 1/3 sec and 1/6 sec The block diagram shown in figure gives a unity feedback closed loop control system.55) (A) − 1 and − 15 (C) − 4 and − 15 Question.75 % (D) 33% The roots of the closed loop characteristic equation of the system shown above (Q-5.

3 dB Page 21 . 0. The error in phase angle and dB gain at a frequency of ω = 0.9c.gatehelp.com The above equation may be organized in the state-space form as follows R 2 V Sd ω W dω S dt2 W = P dt + QV > H a S dω W ω S dt W X matrix is given by Where T the P K K − B − LJ − LJ −B J (A) = J (B) G G = 1 0 0 1 2 2 EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS 0 1 (C) =− K − B G LJ J 2 1 0 (D) =− B − K G J LJ 2 Question.www. 59 (D) K = 96 The asymptotic Bode plot of the transfer function K/ [1 + (s/a)] is given in figure.7c.5a are respectively (A) 4. 58 The loop gain GH of a closed loop system is given by the following K expression s (s + 2) (s + 4) The value of K for which the system just becomes unstable is (A) K = 6 (B) K = 8 (C) K = 48 Question.97 dB (B) 5.

gatehelp. 62 TWO MARKS 2 3 1 o == For the system X X + = Gu . The transfer function G (s) = Y (s) /U (s) of the system is (A) 1 s 18`1 + j`1 + s j 12 3 1 s 27`1 + j`1 + s j 12 9 (B) 1 s 27`1 + j`1 + s j 6 9 1 s 27`1 + j`1 + s j 9 3 ONE MARK (C) (D) YEAR 2002 Question.EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS www.97 dB The block diagram of a control system is shown in figure.com (C) 4. 3 dB Question. 60 (D) 5. 0.1 X (0)] YEAR 2002 Question.1 (B) eAt X (0) (C) Laplace inverse of [(sI − A) .1] (D) Laplace inverse of [(sI − A) . which of the following statements G 0 5 0 is true ? (A) The system is controllable but unstable (B) The system is uncontrollable and unstable (C) The system is controllable and stable Page 22 .7c. 61 o = AX with initial state The state transition matrix for the system X X (0) is (A) (sI − A) .9c.

The root locus plot is s2 Question.www. 63 EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS A unity feedback system has an open loop transfer function. Y = 84 0B X. becomes (A) 2e2t (C) 2e 4t (B) 4e2t (D) 4e 4t Page 23 .com (D) The system is uncontrollable and stable Question. 65 For the system o == X 2 0 1 X + = Gu . G (s) = K . 64 The transfer function of the system described by d2 y dy + = du + 2u 2 dt dt dt with u as input and y as output is (s + 2) (s + 1) (A) 2 (B) 2 (s + s) (s + s) (C) 2 (s2 + s) (D) 2s (s2 + s) Question. the output y . G 0 4 1 with u as unit impulse and with zero initial state.gatehelp.

66 The eigen values of the system represented by R0 1 0 0 V S W 0 0 1 0W S o =S X X are 0 0 0 1W S W S0 0 0 1 W T X (A) 0. 0 A single input single output system with y as output and u as input.EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS www. is described by d2 y dy du 2 + 2 dt + 10y = 5 dt − 3u dt for an input u (t) with zero initial conditions the above system produces the same output as with no input and with initial conditions dy (0−) =− 4 . 1 (C) 0. 0. 68 (D) None of these A system is described by the following differential equation d2 y dy . 1.gatehelp. 0.com Question. 0. 0 (B) 1. − 1 Question. 1.2y = u (t) e− t 2 + dt dt dy the state variables are given as x1 = y and x2 = b − y l et . 67 (D) 1. 0. 0. the state dt varibale representation of the system is o1 1 x 1 e− t x 1 (A) > o H = > − tH> H + > H u (t) 0 x2 0 e x2 o1 1 1 x1 1 x (B) > o H = > H> H + > H u (t) 0 1 x2 0 x2 o1 1 x 1 e− t x 1 (C) > o H = > >x H + >0H u (t) H x2 0 −1 2 (D) none of these Page 24 . y (0−) = 1 dt input u (t) is (A) 1 δ (t) − 7 e(3/5) t u (t) (B) 1 δ (t) − 7 e− 3t u (t) 5 25 5 25 (C) − 7 e− (3/5) t u (t) 25 Question. 0.

70 (B) 60c. − 6.9433 ONE MARK The polar plot of a type-1.056.www.9433 (D) 1. 71 (D) − 8 Break away points are (A) − 1. 360c Question. 72 (B) − 2. 3-pole. − 6.471 (C) − 1.9433 YEAR 2001 Question.com EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS Common Data Questions Q. 180c. 300c (D) 90c.056. 270c. − 6.gatehelp.112. 120c. 300c (C) 90c. 69-71 The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by 2 (s + α) G (s) = s (s + 2) (s + 10) Question. open-loop system is shown in Figure The closed-loop system is (A) always stable (B) marginally stable Page 25 .056 . 270c Intercepts of asymptotes at the real axis is (A) − 6 (B) − 10 3 (C) − 4 Question. 69 Angles of asymptotes are (A) 60c. − 3. 180c.

EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS www.gatehelp.com (C) unstable with one pole on the right half s -plane (D) unstable with two poles on the right half s -plane. Question. 74 The asymptotic approximation of the log-magnitude versus frequency plot of a minimum phase system with real poles and one zero is shown in Figure. 73 −3 1 Given the homogeneous state-space equation xo = = x the 0 − 2G steady state value of xss = lim x (t). Its transfer functions is (A) 20 (s + 5) s (s + 2) (s + 25) 20 (s + 5) s (s + 2) (s + 25) 2 (B) 10 (s + 5) (s + 2) 2 (s + 25) 50 (s + 5) s (s + 2) (s + 25) 2 (C) (D) Page 26 . given the initial state value of x (0) = 810 − 10B 0 (A) xss = = G 0 − 10 (C) xss = = 10 G YEAR 2001 t"3 T is −3 (B) xss = = G −2 3 (D) xss = = G 3 TWO MARKS Question.

75 10000 s (s + 10) 2 Determine the magnitude of G (jω) in dB at an angular frequency of ω = 20 rad/sec.86c (D) − 90c The gain margin in dB is (A) 13. 75-78 A unity feedback system has an open-loop transfer function of G (s) = Question. 76 (B) 0 dB (D) 10 dB The phase margin in degrees is (A) 90c (C) − 36. 77 (B) 36.gatehelp.97 dB Question.97 dB (C) − 13.02 dB (D) None of these The system is (A) Stable (C) Marginally stable (B) Un-stable (D) can not determined Question.86c Question.com EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS Common Data Questions Q. 79 For the given characteristic equation s3 + s2 + Ks + K = 0 The root locus of the system as K varies from zero to infinity is Page 27 . (A) 1 dB (C) − 2 dB Question.www. 78 (B) 6.

com ************ Page 28 .gatehelp.EE Topic wise 2001-2010 CONTROL SYSTEMS www.

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