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Porter Institute for Poetics and Semiotics

Poetic Metaphor and Frames of Reference: With Examples from Eliot, Rilke, Mayakovsky, Mandelshtam, Pound, Creeley, Amichai, and the New York Times Author(s): Benjamin Hrushovski Source: Poetics Today, Vol. 5, No. 1 (1984), pp. 5-43 Published by: Duke University Press Stable URL: . Accessed: 09/03/2014 10:52
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POETIC METAPHOR AND FRAMES OF REFERENCE WithExamples fromEliot, Rilke, Mandelshtam, Pound, Creeley, Mayakovsky, Amichai,and the New York Times*
Poetics and Comparative Literature, Tel Aviv


Metaphor again? This time, an attempt to observe it as part of the poetic fiction - and fiction in speech - rather than as a mere device of language.

1 is a curious case. Perhaps it reflects the currentstate of Metaphor fields of the humanities. On the one in relation to other poetics hand, there is an endless cross-disciplinary procession of theoretical books and papers on the subject. One wave peaked in the nineteen fiftiesand sixties, another has developed in recent years. Important contributions have been made to the clarification of the basic notions of a theory of metaphor. Characteristically,many of the prominent studies have come from disciplines outside of literary criticism such as philosophy, psychology, linguistics, which are usually more oriented toward rational theoreticalanalysis. However, many of these theoretical writings are interested primarilyin a definition,in explaining what "metaphor" is, rather than in developing tools for description and research of actual metaphorical texts. With a phenomenon as omnipresentas metaphor (especially metaphor in poetry), a definition will merely provide a label rather than enhance observation or illuminate the differences between various poets and poems.
* The study underlyingthis paper was conducted at the National Humanities Center, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, where I spent a fruitful year in 1981-1982. I audiences at the Universities of Yale, Harvard, and North presentedthe paper to attentive Carolina and at the PorterInstitute forPoeticsand Semioticsand have benefitted fromtheir comments and criticism. Poetics Today,Vol. 5:1 (1984) 5-43

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Furthermore,it is not at all clear that "metaphor" (or "literature" itself) is a well-definedclass sui generis, with properties all its own. Analogy, similarity, comparison, interaction, etc., appear in metaphors (perhaps not in all of them) and appear elsewhere too. Arguments about their possible inclusion in a definitionof metaphor are less crucial than the question of what formssuch relationsmay take if and wheneverthey appear. Secondly, many theories of metaphor are based on simple examples, often domesticated in language (e.g., Max Black's "man is a wolf" or John Searle's "Sally is a block of ice," which, of course, serve their own purposes well). It is not clear that such observations are transferableto more extensive and obscure instances of creative metaphors,eitherin poetry or in journalism and everydayspeech. In the following pages, I shall try to approach the problem of metaphor from a differentangle. Anyone who has dealt with this subject will understand why I have decided to forego a preliminary discussion of existing theories: a carefulanalysis of the major contributions alone would require a whole book, as has been shown so admirably by Paul Ricoeur.' I shall analyze some cases of extended metaphors in Modernist poetry and then observe similarphenomena in non-poetic texts. Rather than isolating the category of metaphor as an independent unit of language, I shall deal with it in the framework of a more general theoryof literarytexts and text semantics. 2 To begin, we must eliminate a number of preconceived notions which are still implicit in various definitionsof metaphor. Metaphor cannot be limited to: - one word, which has changed its meaning or a name transferred to a foreignobject; - the boundaries of a sentence, which has a metaphorical "focus" withina "frame" (in Max Black's terms); - a discrete, static, prefabricated "unit" with limited boundaries, like a morpheme or a word; - the level of "language" or "meaning units" as separate fromthe level of "represented objects" and the "World" of a poem (in the sense of Ingarden's separate strata). As we shall see in the following examples, metaphors may be any of these but are not exclusively so. If a metaphor is a two-term
in 1. Though I shall not discuss other theoriesof metaphorhere, many of the writings of thispaper. In 1964, at the HebrewUniversity, the fieldare in the background Jerusalem, in scope whichis quite similar of metaphor, I edited an in-house anthologyof major theories in Ricoeur's book. to the studiessurveyed

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relation, any of its terms may cover much more than a word in a text. It is often an open-ended relation rather than a fixed unit. A whole sentence may be literal when read independentlyand become metaphorical in its wider context. A metaphor in poetry may begin with a connotation of a word and grow into a central object in the fictional situation of a poem; i.e., it may hover between the "style" and the "World" of a poem. The point is that metaphor is not a linguistic unit but a textsemantic pattern, and semantic patternsin texts cannot be identified with units of syntax (as I have argued elsewhere, 1982a, 1982b). Isolating metaphor as a linguistic unit would mean separating the processing of language from a reader's processing of texts,including the construction of fictional (or "intentional") characters, settings and "worlds," as projected in works of literature.It would also mean isolating the theoryof metaphor fromthe problems of contemporary theories of literary texts, their interpretations,constructions, and deconstructions. In short, we must observe metaphors in literaturenot as static, discrete units, but as dynamic patterns, changing in the text continuum,context-sensitive, relatingto specific (fictionalor real) frames The study of metaof reference and dependent on interpretations. of or Rhetoric and located in the is thus lifted out Stylistics phor study of what I would propose to call "Integrational Semantics""2 (which occupies part of the traditionalbroad field of "Pragmatics"). 3 Let us firstobserve a rathersimple example. In his book, A Study of Metaphor, J. J. A. Mooij quotes a passage fromW. H. Auden's poem on the Portuguese colony "Macao":
(16) A weed fromCatholic Europe, it took root Between the yellow mountainsand the sea, And bore thesegay stone houses like a fruit, And grewon China imperceptibly. The scholar underlines his metaphors and observes: As to (16), the metaphoricalcharacterof "weed" and "took root" is conit was not withoutsome siderablyclearerthan that of "grewon" - therefore hesitationthatI italicized"grewon" (Mooij 1976:2, 6). This hesitation can be cleared up if we approach metaphor from a different perspective. A metaphor exists only if two domains exist
2. For an outline of my ideas on "IntegrationalSemantics: An Understander's Theory of Meaning in Context, see Hrushovski(1982a) (althoughin that version,some of the see Hrushovski symbolshave been changed). For a corrected version, (1982b).

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. taking root.177. two frames of referenceare established: one is the Catholic city of Macao with its stone houses growingon the side of continental China. unlike diachronically metaphorical words (such as "window" originatingfrom the equivalent of "wind's eye"). It is not even referredto directly. stubbornly spreading "between the yellow mountains and the sea.. moreover: it develops the weed image in additional directions. Indeed. "bore a child" or "bore fruit"). the weed. And grew.. . as so many "dead metaphors" codified in language. And bore ... "dead metaphors" are still livingin the language as dead metaphors and can be revived. The words "bore" and "grew on" may not be metaphors at all.218.g.. etc. The first frame of reference (frl) is enriched presented as existing in the world of the poem (it is further from what we know about the external world indicated by the real geographical names). however.24 on Sun. it is presented to the imaginaThe text tion of the reader for the sake of metaphorical transfers.. "bore a grudge" or "bore a burden" vs. And bore thesegay stone houses. merely provided with scattered semantic material.. for several a of reference of frame the possible plant (fr2) exploits connotations.. in Auden's poem. from Catholic This content downloaded from 194. The reason is that the same words preservetheirconcrete ("literal") meaning in another context in the same synchronicstage of the language (e. imperceptibly. "a gray life" or "a warm person"). it took root Betweenthe yellow mountains and the sea. The second frame of reference(fr2). These include the "fruit" (not essential to a weed) as well as aspects not mentioned directly." We could filterout the two framesof referencein the language of this text in the followingmanner: fr2 A weed . bearing fruit. growing. such as the continuity of an enormous growth. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . took root fri A. They are rather semes of polysemic words.. . the other is a weed. a fruit Between the yellow mountains and the sea. the metaphorical expressions belong literallyto one and metaphorically to the other. which have one seme for the designation of a concrete object and another for some abstract relations or psychological state (often considered "metaphorical. However. such a context must be provided. (x) . Europe.. In order to deautomatize the dead metaphor. And grewon China imperceptibly.8 BENJAMINHRUSHOVSKI vividly in a text.g. in which metaphor was merely the process by which a new word was created.. As such. is introduced as non-existing in the fictional world of the poem." e.

like Macao clinging to the shore of China. there is a textual interpretation between fri (Macao) and fr2 (plant). when a critic feels that the sibilants in Shakespeare's sonnet ("When to the sessions of sweet silent thought / I summon up remembrance of things past.218. and it clashes with the positive connotations of "fruit" and the perhaps naive illusion of the internalpoint of view of returnand suffusewith it the meaning of the whole strophe. E." he is transferring in "sweet silent to the meaning sound-pattern.: Macao is like a weed.g. far fromits source and also enormous and vital. it is metaphorical forfr.177. in turn. it reinforcesthe descriptionof the city. we observe a two-way process: the image of the weed is colored by the description (and geography) of Macao and then." Why should we separate the several language metaphors in this strophe. a "weed" has negative connotations. it is part of a concrete image for the reader to visualize. Such relations may involve either a whole fr or its parts or aspects. Thus. "a fruit" is related directly only to the houses. This content downloaded from 194. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . transfer The juxtaposition of the two frs may serve not only for similarity transfersbut for any other relations between the thematics and the language representingeither. two independent framesof referenceare developed.24 on Sun. "gay" stone houses. and how can we disregardtheir continuity (including the simile "like a fruit")? "Grew on" becomes metaphorical in relation to Macao precisely because it is related literally to the weed. in either direction. enteringmutual relationships in several forms: an identitymetaphor (Macao = "weed"). but fr2 is reinforcedin the imagination from the descriptionof fr.then uses thought" this sound such. because it is literal in fr2. without change. though it is open for a metaphorical to the whole colony and its culture.) a connotation of the express a "hushing quality. a considerable part of the language may be applied. Under the circumstances. In this poem. Not only is fr1 described in terms of fr2. In other words. e. reinforce it." "grew").there should be no hesitation as to the metaphoricity of "grew on. revived linguisticdead metaphors ("took root." "bore. as colored by such a meaning-tone. but it is a stranded weed. representingthe point of view of China.POETIC METAPHOR 9 As we see. a simile ("like a fruit")." etc. In other words. representing A shift of point of view within what may be called one metaphor (akin to Picasso's wish to see the feminineface from two perspectives) is not uncommon in metaphorical patterns. This is precisely the process observed elsewhere (Hrushovski 1980) in sound-meaning interactions: sounds obtain their meaning-tone from some of the co-textual semantics in order then to imbue the text with this tone. As we see here...

serve in one lexical capacity in fri and in another in fr2.24 on Sun. forming parameter This content downloaded from 194. 4 Since metaphors involve relations of meaning . when surprisedby the simile "like a fruit" (the firstseme cannot be "like" a fruitat all).which display a literal-metaphorictension in their polysemic structure. for example. with a classification of metaphors by parts of speech. "bore" shiftsmetaphorically froma seme meaning carrying.177.3 Neither can a theory of metaphor be based on syntax. Such a classification of Metaphor.218.10 BENJAMIN HRUSHOVSKI weed (likeMacao) Macao (likea "Macao-like" weed) SS S S S S 2 1 "when to the sessions Figure 1 of sweet silentthought" The diagramaticstructureis the same (Figure 1)." "grew on" .though theirimport is not of meaning alone . We cannot be satisfied. A sentence is not the actual semantic "frame" to which the metaphorical "focus" was proposedby Brooke-Rosein herGrammar 3. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .a book which does show the relevanceof grammatical full of excellentobservations." "bore. As a matter of fact.bearing a burden in the beginningof the line ("and bore these gay stone houses") to a seme implyingfruit-bearing. in this text. categoriesas one important metaphor.theirunderstandingmust rely on a theory of meaning as established in texts. The interpenetration of the two domains is reinforced by the interchangeabilityof words: the verbs "took root.

the second on the sentence. the alignment of semes on both sides of a metaphor is not necessarily bound to syntacticforms." They serve. is the first. we speak with "world-experience" rather than with codified words of a limited language. out it. using "reality-like" models. Frames of reference. a sentence is not a sign (since a sign requires such a hierarchical relation) (see Ricoeur 1977:68). 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . A sentence. the firstbased on the word as a sign. in a Field of Reference (FR) (which. which are linked to each other by some kind of a flexible but necessary "semantic syntax. thematic bodies of communication. providing the base for a third.too. for the transition from the lower." functions). can be integratedon a higher level: in higherfrs and. By means of frs.linear level of linking signs into a text and.218. we send the reader to an ever-changing." says Benveniste (as quoted by Ricoeur 1977:68).177. The network of frs presents what the text is about. whereas an fr is a construct based on discontinuous elements in a text. for that. as such. but they cannot be integrated in a higher level. in turn. individually contextualized.POETIC METAPHOR 11 Both the sentence and the fr combine words in a text. as it were. "The sentence is the unit of discourse. But text formationis not equivalent with text integration. For this reason. "sign. whereas sentences have fixed forms. A sentence is a linear unit occupying a stretchof the text. relates (as proposed in Max Black's landmark paper. both fr and FR are flexible units.24 on Sun. Paul Ricoeur has argued for the preservation of two complementary theories of metaphor.e. theory of metaphor.A stringof sentences forms a text. Granted. though containing signs." i. too: the frame of reference (fr). on the other hand.. 1962). is indispensable for text formation. ultimately. however." as phonemes or morphemes are. using the distinction between "semiotics" and "semantics" as defined by Emile Benveniste." According to Benveniste. but thefr goes off. I would suggest that there is another unit of discourse. on a tangent: it selects some parts of a sentence and adds them to (parts of) other sentences. can be integrated in the "World" and serve so-called "symbolic" or "modelling. formalized levels of language to the open. they allow for a freeplay of constructs (within the limits provided by the text). complementary and encompassing. no text coherence can be understood with- This content downloaded from 194. we may add. "propositions can be set one after the other in a consecutive relationship. the formerpreserve sign characteristics. Though not recognized by linguists (because it has no grammatically formalized properties). They provide the bridge between words of a natural language and the representation of the ever-changing "World.

the conceptsof "frameof reference" fictionin termsof "possible worlds. no matterwhetherand how it exists. or projected uniquely in a given text. Therefore. ratherthan convey all we want to say merelyby the words used. a person. We may also refer to frs which we cannot observe directly. It may referring indicate an object.implying. provided they are accepted by the decisive. a state of affairs. hypothetical.Thus. merely a frame of referenceto which we can refer. a known or an unknown fr..or evoking. a love story.12 BENJAMIN HRUSHOVSKI open Network of Information and manipulate his knowledge of it." This content downloaded from 194. a mental state. alternatively. the state of the economy. pictures. a history. It may be given in reality or in the reader's network of knowledge. a city.177."I prefer (fr)and "Field of Reference" (FR) because they do not implyany stabilityof rules in a possible statesof such worlds). or experiences.218. may tell differentand contradictorythings about the same fr without changingthe "possible world. etc. sound patterns. all may signal a metaphor or provide it with additional formal parameters. Before attending to concrete analyses of poetic metaphors. or texts) as a frame of reference: a pillow. of which the hearermay have no previous knowledge. inventedby the speaker. neologisms.24 on Sun. This theory. a house.We may distinguishbetween a present and an absent fr. material objects or scenes in fiction. a philosophy.a theory. an existing or fictional (imaginary) fr. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." 5 The basic unit of semantic integrationis not a sentence but a frame of reference (fr).I shall characterize in Chapter 5 the general traitsof the main concept I use to describe them: "frames of reference. as well as characters. or fictional.ideas. Its ontological status is immaterial to semantics: it is anythingwe can talk about. it may be real. a theory of metaphor would benefit from being based on frames of referenceas the real units of a semantically integrated we may preservewhatevercontributions text. a scene. morphological tropes. a situation. do is clearly similarto theoriesdescribing 4. in which we can indicate specific referents. An fr is any continuum of two or more referents to which parts of a text or its interpretationsmay relate: either directly or simplymentioning.4 We may use any object that we know about (from direct experience or mediated via models.though developed independently. The amount of informationabout an fr given in a text or available outside of the text may be detailed or partial or spotty: it is not a complete object. to metaphor are made on the lower levels: syntactic deviance.two characters constantchangesof alternate world (or. not directly present in the speech situation. Withinthis framework. the haze in autumn trees. semantic factor.

Here.POETIC METAPHOR 13 not have to be defined or presented in full in a text."linking two discontinuous words by means of a common a text or in an interpretation . referredto. For example. For example.provoked by the structureof the text or the demands of a reading . Only some of those indeterminaciesbecome gaps . such gap-filling encourages reconsideration or enables the formulation of several competing solutions as the text unfolds or as reading historydevelops. developed fromIngarden. b) on the speakers and positions ("Points of View") through which informationabout the fr was presented in the text.5 When an fr is established . and the houses become "red-brick housing. when one sentence has "new red houses" and another. 6. changingor semantic constructs("readings" and "interpretations")." they are linked by a hypothetical fr .on the contrary . and c) on readers' temporaryor conclusive. 1982b). the brightness brightness of red bricks. hinted at. recurring Semantic elements in discourse are linked to each other by means of syntax as well as by various devices described in theories of discourse. Such an integration may fill in complementary details.6 5. they may simply be named.177. create mutually specified and individualized properties.create tensions and contradictions between mutually exclusive be filledin by the reader." a social concept much wider than the separate adjectives may suggest (see my analysis of Joyce's "Eveline" in Hrushovski 1982a."room" . depending: a) on possible knowledge about them from outside of the given text. spots not specified in the much as if they were linked by syntax. integrated with each other.may be familiar to the Western readerfrom the work of Wolfgang Iser. If one sentence has a door opened and the next talks about clothing "strewn about.The concept of fr widens this relation: co-relatedness in one fr (co-fr) is a major tool for integrating discourse.semantic elements relating to it will be brought together. Within any possible fr there must be indeterminacies(Ingarden). a Freudian hypothesis on a character's (or his author's) Oedipus complex.later sentence has "bright brick houses. many of which remain indeterminate: no piece of "reality" can be representedin language in all its detail.24 on Sun. their details or forms questionable. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1982b). or evoked throughsome of their details." the redness becomes redness of bricks. or .and below. This integrationworks on all levels. Naturally. Their existence in the "real" world or in the "world" of a poem or a novel may not be certain at all. One of these is "coreferentiality. even if never mentioned in the text. These concepts. The theoryof gap-filling (as distinctfrom"indeterminacies") This content downloaded from 194. will select and relate such elements of the text which may support this hypothesis. I refer to examplesanalyzedin Hrushovski briefly (1982a.218.

Joseph Haephrati. in a written interpretation).g. True. etc. there is also material for the potential construction of other. Two continuous frs (e. or approximations in various degrees to.On the other hand. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but also people each of whom may become an fr in his or her own right. Any subsequent material related to an established fr must be constrained by the individual features(and. Or a newspaper passage referringto a blast in Beirut may be supplemented. a hospital. modified. a fully integrated meaning-complex of a text. in any segment of a text constituted by one fr. Thus.14 BENJAMIN HRUSHOVSKI An actual reading does not usually exhaust the establishment of all possible relationships in a text or the integrationof all elements which may be brought together in one fr. An fr is not identical with a segment of a text.Meir Sternberg. or contradicted by previous.constrainor revise them). Actual readings are selections from. in turn. in the and myself. may be constructed and deconstructed as a reading unfolds.In the early 1960s by Menakhem Perry. paranoia) and simultaneously individualized. view of works of studies of that school. a portrait of a character. a segment may often be constituted by one fr (a description of a room. a room. provided with atypical referents.24 on Sun. or in consecutive readings. An important guide is the global semantic organization of a text. a description of a party includes not only topics of discourse.. a passage describinga character or an event may be supplemented or contradicted in later passages of the text. or outside information.. they depend on any possible way of organizing the "World" of comprehension. The boundaries of frs are not fixed. later.. The theory of "motifs" as the smallest thematic segments was independently developed in Israel.g.g. therewas no naive objectivismor single-meaning in studies were foreshadowed On the contrary.subsequently unfolded in other parts of the text.177. manyviewsof Deconstructionism gap-filling showingmultipleand contradictory (notably in Perryand Sternberg1968) as what seemsto be its well as "InvertedPoems. frs are built of two strains: they are modeled upon typical "frames" external to the text (e. specific to a given fr (including proper names).)." where the continuationof a poem subverts and Haephrati1963).. literature. intersecting frs. Readers may be encouraged in their semantic integration by various devices of the text or by traditions of reading and genre or by the nature of a referred-to known fr or by the need to explain or to justify intuitions (e. But the same fr may receive additional material in other segmentsor outside the text.218. frs. initialmessage(as in an earlystudyby Perry This content downloaded from 194.g. in the so-calledTel Aviv School of Poetics. a person and a street) may merge into one or be separated for separate attention. or informationobtaining in them. historiosophical considerations. E.

And they may include a "dynamic" aspect. each of those elements.7 To sum up. but ratherdepend on the individual features of a specific fr and its possible gap-filling. within this fr or outside it. a religion.177. in metaphor as in any other respect. can have autonomous relations of their own to theirimmediate or wider context. Their ontology is irrelevant to their textual (and experiential) existence.24 on Sun. Here.Since frs are presented to us in a text not as discrete objects but as patterns of language. we do not limit metaphor to relations between real objects.semantic. syntactic.218. though it may at the same time referto External FRs as well. or any combination of them. 1979) and especiallymy forthcoming paper on "Fictionality. Eliot opened his firstcollection of poems with an "image" (as the New Critics called it) that was still sufficiently shocking in 1939 for Cleanth Brooks to include it in his defense of Modernist poetry 7. one must stress the crucial role played by the textual mediation of frames of reference. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and also any other kind of patterning: of stylistic. usually linking a number of elements (words or sentences or subpatterns).Moreover. SynopsisIV conference This content downloaded from idea. Such relations may include metaphorical transfers as well as other kinds of semantic and non-semantic interactions. or its readers may relate to."based on a Harvard lectureand the international symposium at Tel Aviv. A number of frs are related to each other in a largerwhole: a Field of Reference (FR). but use the same terminologyif one (or both) term(s) of the metaphor is (are) a state of affairs. 6 T.May 1982. a hypothetical. discontinuous universe (such as the USA. World War abstract concept ("love"). frs are not necessarily full-fledged "represented objects" (Ingarden's "Gegenstandlichkeiten") but frames that the text. a mood. however. A literary text creates an Internal Field of Reference (IFR). morphological. Philosophy). Reference and Re-Presentation. we are not bound by the stability of "objects" or their "associated commonplaces" (Black). containing a set of referents exclusive to this text (the so-called "fictional world" of the novel). Therefore there may be simultaneously a global relation between two frs (two characters or two terms of a metaphor) as well as local relations between their parts. its voices.POETIC METAPHOR 15 of a text (and Barthes's structuralist "functions" and "indices") collapsed and confused the two. S. Using this concept for the description of metaphors. They are not stable. employing the sequential nature of a text for the sake of changing relations (and changing the reader's experience). For a more detailed discussion see Hrushovski(1976. or sound aspects of the language used.

The metaphorical transfers. more precisely: a relation with a metaphoricalfunction." We are encouraged to construct a hypothetical scene (fr2) of a patient in a hospital waiting for an often in Modernistpoetry . the trait of being spread out is in itself neither central to the meaning of the poem nor important for the perception of the evening or the speaker. Indeed. In other cases. (The Love Song of J. When the evening is spread out against the sky Like a patient etherised upon a table. however. here the simile becomes a channel formetaphorical transfers. The simile links the basic situation of the poem (frl) with the "image" of a patient (fr2). Black's alternative pair." is formulated in syntactic This content downloaded from 194. a patterningdevice.a simile.however. in the compared clause. "vehicle" and "tenor. the additional specifications ("patient" ratherthan man.24 on Sun. I suggest abandoning Richards's pair of terms. "upon a table" rather than floor) require naturalization. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "focus" and "frame. both domains (frs) may be present in the text.218. Since the compared scene is denied existence in the fictional situation of the poem." because it implies a limitation of metaphor to a one-directional substitution theory. it is structurallya metaphor indeed. Brooks 1965). it can only be integrated through metaThus. linkingthe two objects through one common property: the tertiumcomparationis of "spread out.177. text theory. or functional integrationin the basic situation of the poem. and see this whole scene in a metaphorical relation to the basic frame of referenceof the co-text or the BASE. or of Integrational Semantics. rather than a formal metaphor. though most of its Modernist at all. A man lying on the floor would be enough to illustrate the idea of being "spread out". however. It seems to assume that the "vehicle" stands for some "tenor" and that the "tenor" is absent from the text.syntacticallyand rhetorically . we have here . it became a marker of "Modernism" for the whole poem. The simile." As any interpretationwill show. is . Here a terminological remark is due. you and I. however." cf. redundant information. language was not as strikingly Let us go then.16 BENJAMINHRUSHOVSKI ("Metaphor and the Tradition. Instead of metaphor being a channel for similarity relationships. Alfred Prufrock) As often in Modernist poetry. do not simply metaphorize individual words: it would be stretchingthe meaning of the poem to see the evening as someone's patient or to identifyin the realistic city scene the equivalents of "ether" or "table. There is.a mere excuse. This may be true for "A weed from Catholic Europe" in the Auden poem. from the point of view of a reader-oriented phorical transfers. "etherised" rather than lying.

We may still keep Black's term.POETIC METAPHOR 17 terms. the evening is compared to "what it feels like" to be a patient etherised upon a table. I would like to keep the termBASE for the sake of a specific metaphor. Thus the metaphor does not simply activate connotations of given words. biography. "translated" into its language. which can be reconstructedonly fromthe poem as a whole. and the person speaking) attains such qualities as: helpless. better. as a "focus. any metaphor. always clear for a particular metaphorical transfer: semantic material from one ("secondary") fr must be naturalized in another (its BASE). whereupon the relations may be reversed and the BASE may become a secondary fr to its counterpartor to yet another fr. In my view. just three words map a new fr and open a store of information (hospital. Eliot's attitudes. To returnto our example: the word "hospital" does not appear in the text. or the ideas and attitudes of the period. however. and the first"what it feels like" is furtherinfluenced by who it is that feels. and the other one a secondary fr. perhaps with additional clues from the outside. The fr to which the transfer called BASE." for that specific part of the BASE to which a part of the secondaryfr.) Therefore.24 on Sun. operation) available for metaphorical transfer. writings. hovering between life and death (of the day? of the person? of his certainties?of love?). depends on this need to circumscribe a situation or. Thus. (As we shall see later. As we shall see later. from T. but also gaps in a constructedfr. the neologism. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as distinguished from the "basic fr" of a poem. Thus the "table" becomes an operating table (the only seme of this polysemic word that makes sense with "ether"). the hesitant discrete meanings that are transferred of our as of most interpretationsof the language interpretation. in this metaphor. it is merely the best hypothetical frameof referencewhich would make sense of all words in line 3 and specify (or "disambiguate") them. it is. poem. requires a metaphorical transfer is made may be from one fr to another. passive.that is compared to what it feels like to be etherised upon a table. S. whether presented formally as such or not.but "what it feels like" to be in such an evening." is related. refreshes the whole scene. and adds to the shock value. as most interpreters queried.177. In other words. its metonymies: the city. "frame. it is not the eveningitself. This content downloaded from 194. "etherised" for "anesthetized.218." makes the smell concrete. semiconscious. it is not always clear which is the BASE and which is the secondary fr in a poem. we transfer propertiesof gaps in fr2 ("hospital") not given directlyin words of the text. or of its part (if thereis one). limited to a sentence.When we claim that the evening (and further. one cannot really speak about precise and specific.

218. quite unlike direct statements or explicit lexical (or transferred) meanings.something radically undecidable. denied existence in the Field of Reference of the poem.inexhaustible. words send the reader to recover such world-cognitionsin order to turn them into "world-language" (e. Metaphors are also "concrete be filled fromour world-experience).18 BENJAMINHRUSHOVSKI to name the mutual filtering and mutual fermenting of two unrelated situations.used for the perception of a city scene). with "world-knowledge" rather than with ready-madesigns.accompanied by a profusion of words and circumscriptions (though often suggested in a tentativemanner).177. It is one of the praised qualities of poetry that it creates something unavailable in.." in that they present concrete." using fragments of world-experience to convey other experiences. What is certain here is not the solution to a relationship but the relationship itself between several frames of reference (as open constructs. The secondary fr of a metaphor.g. where all solutions are guesses which have to be suggested and taken back at the same time because they were not really expressed "in so many words" and because contradictory solutions hover simultaneously and contributeto the rich. solutions. This presentation is extremely abbreviated: no direct description of a hospital scene would be acceptable in three words.This imprecise. in the tension perceived. is due to the fact that they interpretnot words but readers' reconstructed though diffuseempathies with situations (frs). Abbreviation works in metaphor as it does in flashes of recollection This content downloaded from 194. at least. and irreducible to. Metaphor is one of various modes of speaking about the world not by means of natural language but by using the language of the "World. the "language" of an operating room . usually sensuous elements which represent something beyond them. seemingly inexhaustible quality of poetic fiction. In metaphor. does not state a belief but sets the reader's imagination in a new situation. as Heidegger described it). This vagueness or freedomand imprecisionin the language of interpretations. it is a language unlimited in scope. codified language (a poem is like a new "word. full of potential because it is speaking with actualizations and rich in reverberations.24 on Sun. situations not with concepts. either in metaphoric transfers tions or." revealing an insight which has no name in natural language. demanding quality of unresolved poetic tensions has a powerful impact on the trained reader. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Furthermore. as well as the possibilities for several specific. the material presented to the reader's imagination.breakingthe continuityof a plausible representation and forcing on him some kind of accommodation and semantic resolubetween the two. though undecided.

precisely because these details are taken out of a continuous. the heritage of New Criticism. in turn. as some theories seem to suggest. and excludes or suppresses others. is one of the major. the poem strikesthe reader with concrete. In a standard hospital scene. plausible.illuminatesthe first. A less functionalist (or a less semantic) view would merely accept the clash. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . functions of metaphor. sensuous details in a secondary domain. which.218. made explicit in various interpretations. The clash between two frs and their respective language elements. white sheets. as well as the order of all elements. and the various effects this may have on readers. metaphors are one form of diverted concreteness: instead of giving the reader concrete details of what it means to feel in an eveninglike that. Furthermore.even more so.the corridors. the specifics of transferred meanings are still unclear. However.This interdependence of two open frs activates the reader's sensibilities and the interpreters' dialectical negotiating. and Deconstruction. surgical instruments). their purpose unrevealed. appearing before any such semantic naturalization is possible . it would be wrong to limit metaphor to its contribution to meaning alone. nonsemantic. are functional to its meaning. Hermeneutics. nurses. as rhetoricalor poetic effect. there are many aspects irrelevantto a possible transferto the city evening (doctors. even in the frameworkof such a "maximal meaning" hypothesis.24 on Sun. Indeed.has sharper impact on the reader. Such activated gap-fillings(or connotations of a scene) become non-verbalmetaphors forfrl.POETIC METAPHOR 19 or stream of consciousness . famous.It is. Furthermore. the Naturally. a two-wayinteraction of the type discussed above: the basic scene influences our reading of the secondary situation. reality-like context and are not automatized as details of a continuous descriptionmay be.the semantic unit is not closed in lines 2-3 (though the simile is). Now. only the clash is available. included in the two frs. This clash quality rather than the specific semantic transfers. because of the two-wayinteraction. metaphorical transferdescribed here works only in a certain cultural tradition of "close reading" of poetry which assumes that all elements in a text. an attitude shared by traditional Bible-exegesis.while isolating the simile proper (lines 2-3). what made the poem and Modernist.all are formsof secondaryfrs. even those that we activates or encourages certain gap-fillings would not have thought of when firstmentioninga hospital scene. frz ("hospital") This content downloaded from 194. striking. Structuralism.177.Thus it is the basic fr1 which in fr2. the metaphorization itself may have been enhanced by the drastic clash between thematically and historically strange materials. Their concreteness is effective. In our case. or the juxtaposition.

or even humanity or the "world" as a whole. this image of the eveningas a concrete spatial body. since it receives no further semantic stuffin the immediate continuation: no additional words qualify the hospital scene. "the twilightworld becomes also the world of twilightin another way." "It is a world of neither night nor day.changes its form as the text unfolds. as Brooks points out. easily becomes a metonymy for its inhabitants. The interpretation as a whole. Furthermore.20 BENJAMINHRUSHOVSKI seems to be exhausted in line 3. semantic integration requires metaphorization of "spread out" or concretization of the abstract notion "evening" and counter-intuitive limitation of its scope. spread out against the sky (i. Let us observe: the language of the two frs is not separated. Modernistpoets introduce "the unpleasant and the obscure" (Brooks 1965:3. S. 4). clearly. Indeed. Subsequently. do not hesitate to read the evening metonymically and speak of an "evening world. the realm between life and death."the evening" .177. close to earth).218.based on a reading of the poem poetry). in order to accept this metaphorical predicate." Here. But the BASE of the metaphor. the evening must become a concrete body occupying only part of visible space (rather than a relational time concept or a quality describing the whole space).24 on Sun. in their influential textbook UnderstandingPoetry. the city.e. "Spread out" is language from the secondary fr (hospital) which penetrated the first (evening): only metaphorically can an evening be said to be "spread out" like a patient.. it is still much like a Romantic image of the dying day compared to a human situation. though the second termof the relation This content downloaded from 194. encourages the metonymic transferfrom the evening to the evening city. Cleanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren. The point is that. which is furtherunderlined by its separation from the sky.fr2 . as in Wordsworth's image "The holy time is quiet as a Nun/Breathless with adoration" (quoted by Cleanth Brooks for the purpose of contrast). Twilight is the atmosphere of the poem" (where. rather. In lines 2-3.the atmospheric expressions are meant symbolically). Eliot's is. "the notion of a sick world" enters the poem (Brooks and Warren1960:391)." which "becomes more and more important as the poem proceeds. The image in lines 2-3 can hardly justify such generalizations (which typically represent contemporary reception of T. though. With the image of the patient in line 3. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in the context of the period in which the poem was published. for urban society. A metonymic chain is constructed: the "world" is like humanityis like the people in this city is like the evening city is like the evening is like (by metaphor) an etherisedpatient. it is easier to relate sickness to the city ratherthan to the eveningper se. Thus.

as in Romantic nature imagery. Was it a projection.. The question is to what extent "Prufrock's world" (a further metonymic chain) is analogous to the slum scene or is its opposite . to generalizations about the poem as a whole or some of its framesof This content downloaded from 194. Interpretersfelt that it was a "sick world. It also evokes new candidates for the sickness image. i.through certain streets. among them the city and Prufrock. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Here.. though not a part of the "image" proper. open for possible reunderstanding. The personificationleads to an [inverted] metaphor.In lines 2-3.Both are developed and changingthroughoutthe poem and therefore leave the hospital scene. such as "the Modern world"). which presents the city as not only metonymic but also metaphoric to (possibly) his mind: thatfollow likea tedious Streets argument Of insidious intent To leadyou to an overwhelming question.both relations can be found in the text. a fourth fr is introduced: the lyrical narrator.) When Brooks and Warren say that "twilightis the atmosphere of the poem. And both.218.smelling." thus relating the metaphor furtheraway from its immediate BASE. however. in the tradition of Romantic poetry. an externalized emotion? Is he himself like a patient? Does he feel "etherised"? Line 1. the following lines make us reunderstandthe eveningas a metonymy for the evening city (fr3): half-deserted Let us go. the man and the city. it presents a stronger candidate for metonymic transfer: the person walking through this evening (fr4).177. the BASE of the metaphor . is crucial for our perception. it may still be an evening in nature. in the countryside. This possibility is resumed in the immediate constantly shifting. is the streets are personified. bi-directional: (The metaphor again hence like are see men as being like these we to men.. encouraged streets that are like men. It was from his point of view that the evening was seen as an etherised patient.the first term . and so playfullyunpoetic. may be read as representing"a world" (in the sense of the ethos of humanity in a certain period.24 on Sun." do they mean the city or the narrator or both? The metaphor of the patient may easily be transferredthrough the evening to its extensions (metonymies). too.e. drugged. etc.POETIC METAPHOR 21 was given in full in these lines. The muttering retreats in one-night Ofrestless nights cheaphotels Andsawdust restaurants withoyster-shells: This description of the street scene may reinforcesuch additional connotations of the hospital scene as: dim light.

the world of an etherdream.. represents: [2] patient [5] the slum inhabitants .. to belong to the same worldand to sharethe same disease.... 8.. 396).Humanity). metaphorical transfers. 1960:392..] " (Brooks and Warren This content downloaded from 194.24 on Sun.... often contradictory. metonymicallyrelated to each other. ...) The whole poem is a chain of intertwined frames of reference.. which encourage the establishor symbolizament of parallels.. The firstmetaphor looms as an undigested menace over it all. be (The chain Figure may represented schematically [1] evening [3] city [4] Prufrock." world .. the bored women in the drawing room..m .218. He is merelya symbol for a generaldisease in the end.thereforeopen to constructionsand deconstructions.. To what extent the metaphoric BASE moves.dots . Metaphoric transfersare part of this network.] he speaks to the you of the poem .metaphorical transfer.... so the poem. tion..'the overwhelming question..peaceful twilight the 'crisis..but constantlyenhanced by personifieddescriptions of nature and leaps from generalizations to concrete details.. fr2 (m) ----fr1 fr3 Figure 2 5 frs...and it is set world of half-lights meaningless in anotherworld....177." he takes the "[..of loss of faithin the meaningof life . from descriptions to reflections.... 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . It is the disease of loss of conviction.. [.. Lines represent metonymical transfers.. transfers The chain of linkings which enables such interpretative in as shown 2. much is made [in the end of the poem] of Prufrock's and shadows.from dialogues to allusions..8 fr4 -- fr6. ..the defeatedworld of the slum. in the eyes of some readers. oppositions... Prufrock.[6] the salon women.and enquotes from Understanding compasses ever wider ranges can be seen fromsome further : Poetry "After a brief digression(lines 70-74) we returnto the drawingroom and the to force does not have the strength world in which Prufrock etherized. The relations are mostly tacit..the reader onlybecause readerto be damnedtoo. is not about poor Prufrock.. not clearly related to specific characters.. the citizens.. which make almost everythingseem representativeof or opposite to everything else..further unfolding.22 BENJAMIN HRUSHOVSKI reference (the is a "Further..

abandoned) Figure 4 here and below are mine. disconsolate.24 on Sun. abandoned".the common property or featureof the two terms(tertium common denominator or similarity be a not singlepropertyat all but just a verbal comparationis) may connective.a bridge is "Marseillaise. while the sunset sky is red in color. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." the first made throughthe crossed-outpart of a polysemic structure. The word." the link is through the polysemy of the word. whereas the grayness of the stone is a direct descriptionof color (and. namelessdomains]9 grayas a milestonemarking [The blind man. red sky 1." and perhaps also "colorless." the second seme is excluded (crossed out). old.intendedto be a rendition 9. Since the link is estabfrom the secondary lished. the original blind man This content downloaded from 194. however. "gray. old 3. radical (in politics) Figure 3 --. color 2.POETIC METAPHOR 23 7 The word linking two sides of a simile . when it is said of the seme is immaterial. (meaningless. of colorless vacuity.177.Here.218. standing on the bridge. however. at the same time. der auf der Briicke steht. Der blinde Mann. The literaltranslations as close to as possible. "red". furtherfeatures are transferred gray stone 1. Thus when Mayakovsky writes: "the sky is red like the Marseillaise. Figure 4). color 2." when used for a person means "gray-haired. When "red" is connected to "the sky. disconsolate.Marseillaise A similar connection througha polysemic word appears in Rilke's "Pont du Carrousel": wieeinMarkstein namenloser grau Reiche. the revolutionarysong is red only metaphorically (Figure 3).

The blind man becomes the significant. the stillcenterof the galaxies. in viele wirreWegehingestellt. grauwie ein Markstein er ist vielleichtdas Ding. For the sake of simile.24 BENJAMIN HRUSHOVSKI image (fr2) to the blind man (fr1). they present an fr ("nameless domains") with no existential status in the IFR of the poem and hence require a metaphorical transfer. um das von ferndie Sternenstunde geht. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . He is the unmoving Justone.the blind man on the bridge is unfolded through the whole poem and endowed with additional metaphors. becomes its point of orientation. the relationship is reversed.but lonely as a stone. which eventually reverse the meanings attributed to the blind man. the compared term (fr2) was completed in the second line. we have to reunderstandthe metaphor. Now.218. paradoxically. The graynessof the simile is exposed as a mere linkingexcuse for a rich metaphorical operation. by the named bridge: Pont du Carrousel). the darkentranceto the Underworld fora shallowrace. and he is like a milestone lost in vast nameless spaces. For everything around him wandersand flowsand shines. rather than being gray and lost in space.fromafar.] In this poem.Thus the blind man is not merely gray. The word. around which. the eversteady thing he is perhapsthe thing. und der Gestirnestiller Mittelpunkt. His blindness underscores the faceless anonymity of the passers-by (contrasted. Der blindeMann." meaning simply "milestone" is etymologized (as so often in Rilke). the additional words provide redundant semantic material. when we read the whole poem. Denn alles um ihn irrt Er ist der unbewegliche Gerechte. "gray as a stone" would be enough.the lucky starturns. und rinntund prunkt. set on manywaywardpaths. namenloserReiche. shallow race.177.24 on Sun. der auf der Briickesteht. der dunkle Eingangin die Unterwelt Geschlechte. the function of "marking" becomes prominent. bei einem oberflfichlichen (Rilke 1:393) on the bridge [The blind man standing grayas a milestoneof namelessdomains. "Markstein.faceless (to him). but the basic term (fr1) . The stone. too. das immergleiche.permanent center of an ever-moving. This content downloaded from 194. perhaps (by metonymy) nameless and anonymous himself.

POETIC METAPHOR 25 Thus. and fellasleep. that all secondary terms of these metaphors join in building up one fr. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a formal analysis would find in every line a separate metaphor. Eliot's "Prufrock": The yellow fog thatrubs its back upon the window-panes.177. even though the This content downloaded from 194. with the rubbing of a muzzle underliningthe wet proximity of the fog. perhaps. revealing a parallel structureto fr2. Furthermore. made a sudden leap. S. whereas the second term. Curled once about the house. The first term of the metaphor encompasses the whole poem. AlfredPrufrock") As in the Auden poem ("Macao"). Slipped by the terrace. due to the interaction with the dynamic firstterm. changes radically as the text unfolds. In the first lines. If a "back" may still be a mere metaphorical transferof one word. S. may representedas follows: : blind man frl fr2: graymarkingstone fr3: ever steady thing fr4: silent center : one frs unmovingJust fr6: dark entrance to Hades bridge nameless domains lucky star turning galaxies wayward paths shallow race 8 Much more complex are poems building up the secondary fr as a discontinuous pattern throughout a part of the poem. the additional metaphorical images. Licked its tongueinto the cornersof the evening. this is the untransferable detail of a more generalized comparison. a metaphoric relationship is given in the very opening of the poem. Lingeredupon the pools thatstandin drains. Let fallupon its back the soot thatfallsfromchimneys. ("The Love Song ofJ. fog = animal. its understanding.218.24 on Sun. Eliot himself emphasizes the near-identity of the first two lines through their anaphoric and parallel structure("fog" and "smoke" are synonymous in the London context. though isolated in one clause. changes its meaning as we read on. The yellow smoke thatrubs its muzzle on thewindow-panes. It is clear. argue that there is a mere metaphorical usage of certain words. however. one could. reinforce this change of concretization and in both parts of the relationship. T. hence "back" and "muzzle" fulfilla synonymous function). rubbing its back is certainly an action of an animal.however. A rather simple example may be seen in another part of T. And seeingthatit was a softOctober night. Schematicreate a transformation chain be the cally. But a fog can hardly have the form of a muzzle.

appears as such in firl. the two "realities" are not continuous with each other in the fictionalworld of the poem.a logical continuation of fr2 . The animal descriptions are continuous with each other." the two frs eventually collapse into one: the cat . And here a typical transformation occurs. And it." It may. it could stillbe a pig). etc. it does not exist as animal in the IFR of the poem. entirelydisregardingthe realistic possibilities of a fog. the parallel lines meet "irrationally. however.24 on Sun. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .218.depending on the poem) is due to an ontological shift. but through gap-fillingof a metaphor)." 9 in the "real" world of poetic fictionis a -referents Placing metaphoric central device of Modernist poetry. At firstthefr2 = animal served merely as a store of metaphors for frl = fog. however. .breaking the boundaries between "reality" and "imagination. absurd. we may representthis strophe as is done in Figure 5. the fog becomes a cat (a humanized creature at that) and the cat as such appears on the scene. The Russian Formalists called this phenomenon "realization of metaphor. once presented to the reader's consciousness (not even in words. is enabled by the fact that the metaphor is not presented in one point but rather as a pattern in which each element may relate to its counterpart in a different way. Through the use of the text-continuum (the dynamic principle). In this poem. It may occur in the form of This content downloaded from 194. The principle of metaphor requires two frs related like parallel lines that never meet. Graphically.177. defiance of realism. becomes "real. appear in a greatvarietyof forms. While the animal is a metaphor.not only as metaphor. Thus an image (animal). becomes real. however. Toward the end." enters the fictionalworld of the text. until the unspecified animal becomes a cat. more and more animal features are amassed. Metaphors or metaphorical transfersmay use all features and connotations of a secondary fr except for one: the propertyof its existence. in turn.26 BENJAMINIHRUSHOVSKI fr2 (cat) mI fr (fog) m2 m3 m4 m5 event (6-8) figurative Figure5 animal was not named (here. The clash (and its functions: irony. the leaping cat is a logical extension of fr2.

He should merely circleoverhis limitless numbers. the striking out.they indicate: a) the heaviness of the massive cathedrals and b) the weightwith which the people want to keep God down to earth.vor seinerStimmebang. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .POETIC METAPHOR 27 realized metaphors.218. but are figurative A more strikingexample of this kind may be found in Rilke's "God in the Middle Ages": Gott im Mittelalter Und sie hattenIhn in sich erspart und sie wollten. marktheirdeeds and dailywork.however. "Gewichte" (line 3) are weights.we can detect its earlierelements. realized similes.] A secondary image of a clock (fr2) is constructedthroughoutthe poem." The two latter kinds are said to occur really in the world of the poem in relation to a realisticnorm.dass er sei und richte und sie hiingten schlie~lichwie Gewichte seine Himmelfahrt) (zu verhindern an ihn ihrer grossenKathedralen Last und Masse.alarmedby his voice.177. mechanism on. und die Leute der entsetzten Stadt liessenihn. and finallytheyhungon him like weights his ascendance to heaven) (to prevent the burdenand the massivebody of theirbig Cathedrals. realized idioms. On second reading. Und er solltenur Zahlen seine grenzenlosen fiber zeigendkreisenund wie eine Uhr Zeichen geben ihremTun und Tagwerk. and the people of the flabbergasted city lefthim. running hanging and fledfromhis (figure-)dial.24 on Sun. or what I suggest we call "figurativeevents" and "figurativesituations. (Rilke 1:502) [And theysaved him up insidethemselves and theywantedhim to be and to judge. It appears explicitly at firstin line 8 as a simile. Aber plitzlich kam er ganz in Gang. mitausgehiingtem weitergehn Schlagwerk und entflohn vor seinemZifferblatt. and like a clock pointingand showing. But suddenlyall of him going. they may also connote c) the "weights" This content downloaded from 194.

28 BENJAMIN HRUSHOVSKI set on the scales of justice. in the sequel. when combined with other words in the text. "Zahlen" (numbers) is patterned with its synonym.the mechanism Gewichte cathedral judgment- a. Now the clock. however. (scale) --- a. Indeed. In the second strophe.and as such. an object in the fictional world." in line 14 (in the word "Zifferblatt. "weights of a clock. however. when we reach the simile.circling." must be excluded in the context of the firststrophe.both "pointer" and "hand of a clock. circling over his (limitless) numbers indicates an enormous dial. heaviness b." especially of a big hanging clock. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . this is at most a dormant connotation reviewed.24 on Sun. hviss b. eart ound c. Thus a "dead" connotation. enhanced by the rhyme." . (clock) clock This content downloaded from 194. lives on in the poem as a dead connotation and is revived in the sequel (Figure 6)." "Gewichte" in plural. (s aie) d. we already have several referentsof the fr "clock": weights. the continuation of the sentence (lines 8-9) explains the pointing as giving signs "like a clock.218." Thus."Gewichte. When additional aspects are revealed . We may schematically represent it as follows (in English): a) weights+ burden and massive body of cathedrals= heaviness b) weights of cathedrals + preventingGod's ascendance to heaven = earthbound c) weights + to judge + pointing and showing + mark their daily work = judgment and regulation d) weights + numbers + clock + strikingmechanism + dial clock The last sense of the word. non-existentin the fictional world of the poem ." In its immediate context. activating four differentmeanings. then througha simile .177. creates four differentpatterns."richte" .but is revivedby the patternof the clock. "Zeiger. "Ziffer. earthbound c. firstcrossed out.> ck) Figure 6 d. one word. pointing. Thus. numbers. hands. may also mean d) "weights. The word "zeigend" (pointing) evokes the cognate. thus joining the patternof measurement and right judgment."dial). introduced at firstthrough crossed-out connotations of words.becomes real.

medieval city line 3: Gewichte . is God himselfwho became such a clock. Furthermore. metaphorical pattern and then landing it in the primary fr. etc. i.218. fr3 . with the basic reality. as an unfolding of the fr2 = clock. they clash.e. This is even furthercomplicated by the introduction of this realized simile (God = clock) into the medieval city (fr3) from which God was observed. (God) conn r' r" r"' simile (externalP of V) i P of V) (internal (10-14) fr3 (city) Figure7 frl .24 on Sun.177. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .crossed-outconnotation line 7: Zahlen . creating the terrifyingfigurative event.possible referent of fr2 (r') line 8: kreisen . his voice. We may summarize this patterning in Figure 7. reveals its irrationalimpact to the people of the Middle Ages. mechanism.hand of clock") line 8: wie eine Uhr .clock..simile lines 10-14: direct descriptions (action. The effect of this image is achieved again throughbuilding up a secondary. sound.cognate of referent("Zeiger" ."numbers" .collapsing the mere image with the real.POETIC METAPHOR 29 the figure-dial.the medieval conception of God. underlined by the Gender-change from the feminine clock (eine Uhr) to the masculine pronouns: he became all movement."to circle" . line 3 fr2(clock) 7 8 8 8 fr.functionof fr2 (r") line 8: zeigend . suspending the conditional existence of metaphor. built up for the rational orderingof life. fr2 .they are perfectlylogical hanging out and striking. The enormous clock (with cathedrals as pendulae now the crossed-out connotation [a] is revived). dial) (rW"') This content downloaded from 194.

We may say that.the dynamic aspect of an unfolding poetic text. and figurative events.30 BENJAMIN HRUSHOVSKI As we see. 10 Rilke makes extensive use of such realizations of figures. words and their meanings.177.24 on Sun. shiftingand even underminingthe relation established in the beginning. The realization of the simile (in lines 10-14) is accomplished by collapsing its two terms. Are we still dealing with metaphor? Yes. In the firstfour instances. Rilke's poetics of shiftingfrom language to world is much wider than the phenomenon of metaphor. the pattern of the clock shifts from being merely hinted in subtle connotations of words to becoming a central object in the World of the poem. once introduced in a text (literally or through a simile or a figure). 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . from an external point of view.both for the medieval builders of the clock-image and for the modem reader. The imaginaryclock has landed in the real world. accomplishing transitions from rhetorical figures and verbal forms to the fictional world of the poem.and exemplifies . concrete objects in space. not all relations between the two patterns are metaphors.This is enhanced by a change of point of view: in the eyes of the medieval people. since the image of the clock is metaphorical to those spiritual aspects of the medieval attitude to God and the order of the universe as conceived in the poem. Rilke used the irrational logic of metaphor to make his point. It created a strikingeffect. various possible aspects of the metaphorical relationshipare activated throughout the poem. however. through different semes of the same polysemic root). and then by making it a direct referentwithinfrs. the city. thus contradictingIngarden's separation of levels in the literarytext. Thus the metaphor uses . we have shared referents:words that may belong to each of the two frs (often. In addition.figurative = fr2. he turnsthe tables on them. instead of using logical argumentto prove his thesis about the irrational and terrifying. In other words." beings in a fictional world.often crypticalformin his later poetry.may become "existents. being figurativein comparison with a realistic norm. We may call it a figurative event. It is a typical metaphorical relationship based not on a transfer of meaning in one word but on an interaction between two (or more) patterns. looming behind the ordered world of medieval religious belief. This tendency is especially strongin "Neue Gedichte" and in abbreviated. God is like a clock in the sense of giving order to their lives. for him.the image is not a discrete static unit. The fifthinstance is a simile. taking on various forms in the various linking points.218. Furthermore. A key device is the normaliza- This content downloaded from 194.

10. noch einmalWelt. III.provided with some concrete events. decay.24 on Sun." Sonnets to itself Orpheus." a metonymy for the psyche. A striking is provided in thefirst of Rilke's Sonnets which to Orpheus. receive spatial dimensions (the famous "Weltinnenraum. etc. The treeturnsout to be "a high tree in the ear. where emotions and the world itself are banned. The transitionfromsuch spatialization of concepts to the creation of Rilke's mythopoetic space and its imaginary objects is natural. with the literalstatement:"Da stiegein Baum" ("A treegrewhere").) The "heart." for which Orpheus eventuallycreates a "temple inside hearing" ("Tempel im Geh6r"). I would merely like to place in this perspective another. The poem "Der Einsame" ("The Lonely Man") opens thus: Nein: ein Turm soll sein aus meinemHerzen und ich selbstan seinenRand gestellt: wo sonstnichtsmehrist. which can then be furnished. weifS.hell und heiiB ihrrunderTanz sich zuckend auszubreiten.g. As all Rilke readers know. separated from its owner.. (Rilke 1:636) [No.nach allen Seiten -: beginntim Kreis zuckende Zungen streckt naherBeschauerhastig. unexpected extensions are developed: a whole forestwith "animals of silence. E. The autonomous unfoldingof the "tree" fr is similarto Mayakovsky'sfirebelow." a complexmetaphorforthe growth of internal music. and it is a paradoxical space.POETIC METAPHOR 31 tion of adjectives and verbs and the subsequent spatialization. the BASE is turnedinto a secondary fr. the heart. where impenetrability becomes a penetrable space. But as soon as an fr of a treeis introduced.H. becomes a concrete object in space. rather straightforward example of a dynamic use of realization. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .not even pain and the unsayable. writingabout mirrors: "Und der Luster geht wie ein Sechzehn-Ender / durch eure Unbetretbarkeit" ("and the chandelier goes like a polygon through your impenetrability.not even world. eh es zur Flamme kommt. Spanische Tiinzerin Wie in der Hand ein Schwefelziindholz. starts example This content downloaded from 194.B.] (italics mine .177. part 2. Rilke [1955:752] ).218. moved by figurative I shall not discuss the range of Rilke's poetics here. thoughwith a mythopoeic ratherthana grotesquefunction. enabling figurativeevents to take place within the space of such concepts. music. my heartshould be a tower and I myselfset on its ledge: wherenothingmore exists.Thus.noch einmalSchmerzen und Unsaiglichkeit.0o details." the internal space as an externalized world).

ganz und frightened serpents. And suddenlyit is all flame. concrete description of what it is not yet. white beforeit leaps into flame. fromwhich. Mit einem Blick entziindetsie ihrHaar und drehtauf einmal mitgewagter Kunst ihrganzes Kleid in diese Feuersbrunst. Withone glance. sehrherrisch.wie Schlangendie erschrecken. nimmt sie es ganz zusamm und wirft es ab Und dann: als wiirdeihrdas Feuer knapp. white (by metonymy: like her hand holding it). Within the simile. mithochmiitiger Gebiirde und schaut: da liegtes rasendauf der Erde und flammt noch immerund ergiebtsich nicht-. widens flickering. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .in all directions stretching flickering tongues.218. (Rilke 1:531) [The Spanish Dancer Like a matchin her hand.alertand clattering. And then: as if the firewere tight it up and hurlsit away she gathers withan arrogant gesture imperiously. Doch sieghaft. her naked arms.177. Even within the simile. stretch out. stillflaming.she liftsher face and stampsit out withtinyfirm feet. die nacktenArmewach und begins.she ignitesher hair and in her daringart. bright herround dance. But triumphantly.32 BENJAMINHRUSHOVSKI Und pl6tzlichist er Flamme. 2) through an etymological morpheme within the German word for "matches" This content downloaded from 194. sicherund miteinem siiifen griiiendenLicheln hebt sie ihrGesicht und stampft es aus mit kleinenfestenFiifien.turnsall-at-once her whole dressinto thisblazingfire.24 on Sun. welcomingsmile.] The fire image is introduced at firstwithin a the narrow circleof spectators. and hot. it is a mere extension of a potential "fire" fr: a match. aus welchersich. connotations of the words contribute to building up the fire semantics: 1) through a vivid. of a potential flame (lines 2-3). however. on her. witha sweet confident. still without fire. on the ground and looks: here it lies raging stillunyielding.

hastig . The dance is not fire.Zungen . the dancer separates the firefromher body.holz .and stomps out the fire. whichhe spews fromhis scorching mouth. "A Cloud in Trousers. My tear-filled eyes I'll roll out like barrels.Schematically: 1.24 on Sun.oratorical tone. the dancer goes up in the flames. Hand . And then. as well as fromher dance . Tell his sisters. even a joke.) Hello! Who is it? Mamma? Mamma! Your son is splendidly ill! Mamma! His heartcaughtfire. The dance extinguishesthe fire 11 A more sophisticated use of a realized fire imagery appears in a fragment of Mayakovsky's long poem. The dance is fire 3. The two frs collapse: the dance is a fire. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . People sniff a smellof roasting! Some men are rushedin. Suddenly. The literal translationdoes not convey Mayakovsky's powerful rhythm. Shining! In helmets! Please." (Though built on a tragic-heroic conception of love and language and the individual's fate in history. Lyuda and Olya. but may serve our purpose here.zuckend. This content downloaded from 194.177. and inventive rhyme-effects.onomatopoeic alliterations (ziind zuckende .POETIC METAPHOR 33 in line 1 ("ziind-" = ignite).but the fireexists independently 4.218. Everyword. no boots! Tell the firemen: On a burning heartone climbsin caresses.hell . The dance is like (a match before becoming) fire 2. it may have grotesque overtones in the eyes of a contemporary reader.he has no place to hide. twitching). the simile turns into an existent: what was like a match that may produce fire becomes real fire. Let me. leaps like a naked whore out of a burning brothel. 3) through the repetitionof "zuckend" (which may be flickeringas well as jerky.and 4) through a nervous series of flickering.heiiB). again.

9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "burning love. Mamma! I cannot sing. a wee cinderkissrisesto spring. You can't jump out of your own heart! On a smoldering face. Furthermore. "fire. they climb upon ladders on the burningbuilding. By shifting. thus the metaphor of fireis crossed with another stock image: love as an illness of the heart. My last screamat least you wail into the centuries: I'm on fire! The fragmentopens with the Russian word. In the heart'schapel. Further branching out occurs when this image is crossed with other Mayakovskian images: additional frs are drawn in. the syntactic form of "his heart caught fire" (literally: "he has fire of the heart") is parallel to expressions for heart diseases. fire. scorched figuresjump out of the flaming house. A fire in a city brings a noisy brigade of firemen. however. which may be carried in several directions. This is obviously a fresh way of using the conventional stock metaphor. lifted the burning armsof the Lusitania. a fresh. they are rather extensions of a specific description. I'll jump out! I'll jump out! I'll jump out! I'll jump out! They've collapsed. the choirloftcatches fire! of wordsand numbers Scorched figures fromthe skull. "pozhar. in turn." or with the general object. To people trembling in apartment's calm a hundred-eyed blaze burstsfromthe docks." througha realization of the semidead metaphor of fire. catchingat the sky.they.177. All these have nothing to do with intensional properties of the concept.have brighthelmets and dirtyboots. the full This content downloaded from chosen and unfolded by the author." to a burninghouse.34 BENJAMINHRUSHOVSKI Let me lean on my ribs. "burning love" or "fire of love.individualized fr is opened up. from the trite (and dead) metaphor. fromthe crackof the lips. Thus fear. The poet is ill: he has "fire of the heart" (more correctly: "buildings' fire"). froma burning like children building. and its connotations. etc.24 on Sun." meaning specifically a fire of burninghouses or of a city.

but then Mayakovsky hits the reader with the truth on the BASE level: you cannot leap out of your own heart! Unlike Eliot's cat or Rilke's "Spanish Dancer. Mayakovsky foregrounds it through a furtherextension: if a real heart really burns. there must be a smell of burning flesh and people in the street sniff it. except for one. but a cat can be accommodated in the This content downloaded from 194. in a chest those are his ribs .hence his heart is a burning brothel. "my heart is on fire. On the other hand. In the basic fr. a poet is a source of words.177." Mayakovsky makes the reader realize the consequences of such a realization of metaphor. autonomous sub-scenes are created. the secondary fr is coherent and consistentlydeveloped. tragic. but not quite a consistent equivalent of a series of moves in the emotional domain. the poet on fire creates a dawn-like torch.absurd.and this evokes the image of useless grasping at the sky by the burning and drowning ship Lusitania.POETIC METAPHOR 35 understanding of which requires furtherknowledge about them. not necessarily concatenated in a logical or narrative structure (except for the logic of the realized fr of "fire"). blazing into the centuries (alluding to Mayakovsky's prophetic or Christ-like self-image. the individual transfersbetween the two basic frs are enhanced and branched out into a number of additional frs representing the poet's aesthetics and ideology. Perhaps a fog cannot be reduced to the form of a cat. The bourgeois language is trite. while the basic fr rambles from one aspect to another: we can imagine the fire developing to its end.24 on Sun.218. and have specific effectsthere. he asserts the consistency of metaphoric poetic language over any coherence or plausibility of representation. love story." one may transferany property or connotation of fire to the "heart" (which is a metonymy for the domain of feelingsand emotions). Thus Mayakovsky confronts the reader with the results of a collapse of the two disjointed frs. the existence property: the heart is not really burning. a master of the naked word . Normally. it is precisely this property which is transferred:the real heart of flesh and blood (rather than its metonymic domain) is burning. finally. In a similar way. his words are like children in fear trying to grasp at somethinghigh. words are worn out like prostitutes. a person climbing out of a burninghouse must lean on some remaining beams. And.) In this case. In a realization of the metaphor. provided in Mayakovsky's poems and Futurist manifestoes. representing the autonomous "bricks" of rhymed language which Mayakovsky has later described in his essay. "How to Make Verse. On the other hand." The Modernist poetic impact . or grotesque occurs when events of fr2 ("fire") are said to take place in fr. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in the metaphor.

the metaphorical function (the m-sign) can be taken out of the brackets: if "e" is an event. The unrealistic events do not create rules fora new. now turns into a relation between the IFR and an External Field of Reference.218. some predications of existence of referentsin fr2 obtain . "unrealistic.177.they do not involve the totalityof fr. Metafromthe language of the poem to its fictional phoricity is transferred vividness of this new clash is underlinedby the fact The reality-key. E. possible reality. and "me" a metaphorical event.once introduced as a relation between frames of reference within the Internal Field of Reference. it exists in the basic reality of the poem. Rilke's dance becomes a real fire.24 on Sun.writes.. Thus.e. then: m (el + e2 + e3) me1 + me2 + me3 That is.g. : The poet still lives. we do not smell her flesh. When a chain of metaphors is repeated throughouta text. but the merger is not complete. metaphoricity. We can describe this phenomenon in another way: the fireis not metaphorical but literal. the events are real.. the real world. but still the dancer does not actually burn. the unrealisticclashes are merelyindividual figurative frl. In other words.Hence. However. referents both the IFR and the ExFR (Figure 8). screams.Lyuda and Olya. The Futurist Mayakovsky provokes by challengingthis existentialseparation. by foregroundingthe absurd. the strangeevents remain figurative ratherthan tragic. i.36 BENJAMINHRUSHOVSKI corner of a house. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but they occur in a reality (a "possible world") which is itselfmetaphorical. that the hero of the poem is Mayakovsky himself addressing his shared by real-lifemother and sisters. but not the whole body." contradictingour sense of what is possible in a real world. even with him. the heart burns.counterrealistically . (fr2) el e2 e3 m mm 11 f )realization = (frl + fr2 IFR) IFR ) (frl ExFR Figure8 This content downloaded from 194.

and we must disregardthe simile -marker. but then. interesting in its use of the spoken language. and a head withoutany apparentsize." Is the street only "like" a nightin that it is dark and She turnsme on There are veryhuge stars. "like"? After all.218. old friend Liz And she opens the door of her cadillac. the streetlike a night. thereshe is. any night. but merely observe one simile: "the street like a night. man. This poem. and we're gone. I go fasterthantheyknow Out the door.24 on Sun. Here is a poem by Robert Creeley: A Wicker Basket Comes the timewhen it's later and onto your table the headwaiter puts the bill. but two eyes nothing So that'syou. was said to be the firstAmerican poem on the experience of using marijuana. And while certainly theyare laughingat me.177. I make it in my wickerbasket. stressinghis isolation or abandonment by those "cats" laughing at him? Or is it actually night.well. or me. I shall not analyze it in detail. he left the cafi when the time came and it was "later. I pick up. and all aroundis racket of thesecats not makingit. I make it as I can. and a face like a barndoor's. and fromsomewhere veryfaroffsomeone hands me a slice of apple pie.hands like a walrus. witha gob of white. and I eat it Slowly. I step in back. in the sky.whiteice creamon top of it. and not one in sight. and verysoon after ringsout the sound of livelylaughter Pickingup change. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .POETIC METAPHOR 37 12 The ontological status of a secondary fr in the Internal Field of Reference of a poem is not always unambiguous or clear." Such questions cannot possibly be decided in an This content downloaded from 194.

In one case. He is on a high. This content downloaded from 194. or allude to baby Moses in the Bible. he sees stars . Whether he was really treated to the sweet things or not. they work as metaphors. its connotations and emotional impact are clear though its reference to the fictionalworld is blurred.177. they serve as metonymies: the scene includes a night and huge stars. the two lines. too.24 on Sun. "night. Liz's car. or rhymes. whether it is like a night or it is a night is undecided in the text. frl has intruded into the language of fr2 : the bough is black and wet like a station aftera rain. Furthermore. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the transferred meaningsare similarin both cases. "pie in the sky. "night. metaphors." is continuous or merely metaphorical with the basic fr of the poem. forces us to turn one of the lines into a metaphor." and think:"Petals. ." is realized: he sees huge stars in the sky and actually gets apple pie with ice cream. 13 In Ezra Pound's famous "In a Station of the Metro. as if with We could read the poem without integrating the instructions: Think: "The apparitionof thesefaces. The same holds for the "wicker basket": it may representa baby's cradle. Petals on a wet." are transferredto the speaker's mood. The idiom. Two frs are simply placed next to each other: The apparitionof thesefaces in the crowd. they are figments of his imagination or straightforwardmetaphors of substitution. the night is unfolded and used in several ways in the sequel." thereis neither a formal metaphor nor an overt bough. however. in order to project it upon the other fr. it could easily be the opposite: a poem about petals like faces. then the night is separated from the street by an observer." The wish (and convention) for integrationof a text.In the other case. In short. . But it does not really matter. in either case a number of referentsfrom the fr.. representing the sweetness of "grass" and perhaps suggesting erotic imagery ("I make it"). Whether the fr. This undecided ontological state is justified by the presentation of all information through the speaker's point of view and colorful language.juxtaposed to it as an independent fr and opened up for metaphorical transfers.real or metaphorical: the effectis the same. The title decides which is the basic fr. Note that here.38 BENJAMIN HRUSHOVSKI interpretationbased on the given text..218. via idioms.

"The one-image poem is a form of super-position. Either the sand cooled because a man lying there died or because the sun has set (a third independent fr). and the rose was earth. to get rid of the burdenof time.A = B)." represented in bees and wasps. It is easier to lifta stone than to repeatyour name! I have one concernleftin the world. parts of the same surreal landscape. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Time has been plowed up. "names" objects. A golden goal. either the sunset is a metaphor of the dying man or the opposite. Indeed. many clauses in the poem are direct descriptions (though sometimes using metaphors to support the description). In order to integrate "a man dies" and "warmed sand cools. however. transfers the Futurist metaphoric principle from the level of poetic language to the level of composition: the separate descriptions open up many disconnected frs.177. discovers the identity of A = A (as opposed to the metaphorical principle of the Futurists. the basic fr? Is it about "heaviness and tenderness. or vice versa? And what is the poem "about. The Acmeists. Mandelshtam. or vice versa? Is it about the sweet and stinging principles of death and love and time? Or are the earlier frs later turned into metaphors for a poem about a man's death or about This content downloaded from 194." we must link them metonymically or metaphorically or both: they are not connected syntacticallyor logically in the text. warmedsand cools And yesterday'ssun is carriedoffon a black stretcher. heavyhoneycombsand tendernets. as Mandelshtam put it." This technique of simply juxtaposing discontinuous frs (even conjoined in one sentence) and forcing metaphorical transferson the reader is beautifullyemployed by Osip Mandelshtam: . Like darkwaterI drinkthe muddied air. Sisters. like the English Imagists." what is its basic situation.heavinessand tenderness Bees and wasps suck a heavyrose. turns out to be quite metaphorical.your signsare the same. it is one idea set on top of another. exemplified by the second.218. As Pound himself observed. The same holds for "Sisters . the Chinese-inspired idiogram. Oh. In a slow whirlpoolheavy tenderroses.POETIC METAPHOR 39 The famous "thinginess" of the imagists. calls a spade a spade.that is to say. Roses Heavinessand Tendernessshe wove into double wreathes! Mandelshtam was a Russian "Acmeist" poet. or. or they are all metonymic to each other.24 on Sun. extolled poetry that presents the thing itself. A man dies.heaviness and tenderness" in relation to "bees and wasps": is the firstthe basic fr.

Night And day forgets. Possibly. An achievement. completely Nobodyhadever Evennowmyheart Makesonlya bareliving With itsdailylove.Stumps An awful midnight. poem) are reversible. outside the words of the poem. Another alternativewould leave the segments side by side. havelookeda longtime which Myeyes." After all. it is only from the position of an associative speaker that such a series of images can be sustained in one short frame. of theminer Theweariness of thequarry The emptiness In one body. Winds continually oftalkafter fate. My parentsin theirmigration. all of the hierarchical relationdisconnected frs (and "themes" of the ships between the different. As thebowlafter in me.218. hasnotyetcalmed Andmyparents' migration overstones.40 BENJAMIN HRUSHOVSKI suicide (Ophelia?) or a poem about love (for which all the preceding frs representthe heightened emotions)? As the reader advances. I am forever where On thecrossroads orphaned. as a surrealistdream. reminds a retreat. calmed. representingthe speaker's "mood. Area little Thelawsofpainandweight. hasnotyetcalmed Andmyparents' migration And frombitterpeoples I learnedbitterlanguages For my silence among the houses This content downloaded from 194. In any case. he is repeatedly invited to performtransformations of the fr base. Yehuda Amichai: My Parents'Migration inme. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . explained. suggestivelyunconnected.24 on Sun. but even then they must all be projected on a basic fr. Museums inme. too old to play. Earth forgets intoa vastdesert. Archaeologyof the future. ofwhatis stillto happen. Mybloodgoeson shaking it is setdown. the footstepsof those who walk. metaphorical relations between the segments must be constructed in order to project the disparate frs upon the assumed basic situation and make sense of this symphonic poem. Too young to die. hasnotyetcalmed Andmyparents' migration at thewalls. ofa game Therules One woman. 14 of use different A somewhat frs can be seen in the poem interacting of the Israeli poet.177.

15 We used examples from Modernist poetry to make a clear case for metaphors that result from the interaction of semantic patterns unfolded in a text. (italicsmine) This content downloaded from 194. "winds continually over stones") which is.which often may be taken as a literal sentence . presumably by sea.g.218. internalized in the poet.the morning afterwill be long and painful. "has not yet calmed in me" is revived into an image of water "shaking at its walls. by Assia Gutman) (translation His mode is direct if he were furnishing the described world . and three. theyhave boughttwo cheap oil. becomes a metaphor forhis being.but has to be integrated metaphorically in the basic fr. the Carteradministration's energyprogramproclaimeda single message: the price is wrong. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .my own death And an end to my parents'migration. gas and electricity.e. "The rules of a game nobody had ever completely explained" has nothing metaphorical but must be projected upon the poet's life and necessarily metaphorized. thereforemultirelated. All otherfrs (mostly descriptions) are projected upon this fr of migration (e.24 on Sun. with his own veins as a tangle of ropes.177. i. Hence. Americansare energyalcoholics.exhortations and numbingcomplexity.changing.and is rapidly becoming dearerstill. Finally. they have generated a whole subindustry to tantalize them with electric carvingknives. are internalized in the poet's self (fr. If the revel continues. Not content with toasters.)." reconstructedas a ship that has not calmed.theyhave reveledon Not contentwithone car. in turn.indeed. Of special interest is the internalized frame: the images of the parents' migration (fr2) tendons Are a tangleof ropes I will neverundo. But energyis worth more than Americanspay for it .Natural gas is a premiumhome-heating fuel in limitedsupply.omissions.tables. cookie shooters.they use it to heat commercial boilers that could readily employ coal instead. For half a century. Here is a passsage from an editorial in The New York Times (1977): The RightPrice of Energy For all its length. The same principles are used profusely in journalism as well as in narrativefiction.crepe pans.POETIC METAPHOR Whichare always Like ships. 41 Alreadymyveins.and employing constructed frs rather than mere denotations and connotations of words.

" The "morning after" is an unexpected twist similar to the behavior of Rilke's clock. "a slice of the defense budget." as the psychologists found out). 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The question is to what extent the same approach may work for metaphors with a brief.syntactic. This content downloaded from 194. though." soldier films struck in the face by a lemon meringue slapstick ("a so and embarrassed by his comrades' laughter becomes pie angry that he becomes incapable of functioning. etc. but rather tapping the semantic resources of two parallel frs.24 on Sun." or elements of idiomatic expressions. is often not individualized.218. War and Sweets This metaphorical relationship is developed throughoutthe whole article." It is not an allegory with an independent story about a pie. I have discussed primarilymetaphors of the "extended" type. "alcoholics. and even "a cake just like mother used to make. 16 Russell Baker is a master of such metaphorical interactions of frs.lexical. as in "burninglove. 17 In this paper.) Another point worth stressing is that the "existence" of the secondary fr does not necessarily have to be negated by the BASE. (In many cases. but depend on a pattern established in line 4: fir2. its features are even less detailed than in the above examples. too. Two years ago we warned PresidentReagan thatadvancesin pie-throwing technologyalready made it possible to hurl a lemon meringue pie withsuch accuracy that it could hit an enemy in the face at a distance of two miles fromthe launchingsite. It would require another study to show the operations of other parameters. we have conventionalized connotations. requiringeven strongeractivation of gaps fromthe BASE.177. however. I would remark that here. employing a series of unexpected extensions and allusions: to the military-industrial complex. one-word focus. the secondary fr. 1983: by Russell Baker Disclosure that the Russian armyis alreadyequipped withan accuratepiedeliverysystemis no surpriseto those of us in the military-pastry complex.within these examples. an element of a foreignfr is projected on a BASE. . Here is an opening of an article in The New York Times of March 23. resuming an frestablished twelve lines earlier.42 BENJAMINHRUSHOVSKI The specific meanings of "revel" in the last sentence and "the morning after" are clearly not isolated metaphors." as a metaphor for "energy users. Without prejudgingsuch a study.

Contemporary Perceptionsof Dimensions (= GURT 1982) (Washington. Metaphorand Thought(New York: Cambridge UP). ErsterBand (Frankfurt: Rilke.POETIC METAPHOR 43 are isolated. Figurative Language in Literature: and Academon). A Grammar Brooke-Rose.C.1979.J.Max. The Sign in Music and Literature. 1977.177.: Paperson Poeticsand Semiotics. Poetry."in: ModernPoetryand the Tradition(New York: OxfordUP). Benjamin. two sub-frs the case in nature poetry: a person is presented as part of a nature scene.218. Forthcoming NorthHolland). "Metaphorand the Tradition. (In Hebrew.Cleanth and RobertPenn Warren." Ha-Sifrut Perry. Mooij. thus we have a metonymicrelationshipbetween the two are encouraged: his mood is like aspects and metaphorical transfers of nature and nature is perceived in human terms. 1960.1964-65. but his psyche is also perceived as separate from the nature description. of Metaphor(London: Seckerand Warburg). A Study of Metaphor(Amsterdam: Ortony. ErnstZinn. Siimtliche Werke. Rainer Maria. Brooks. 1979 "The Structureof Semiotic Objects: A Three-Dimensional Model. "Metaphor.. 1965 (1939). HebrewUniversity graphy(Jerusalem: and Motivationin the Text Continuumof Literary Prose (Tel Aviv 1976 Segmentation Univ. (New York: and Winston). 1980 "The Meaning of Sound Patternsin Poetry: An InteractionTheory.: GeorgeLanguage: Interdisciplinary town UP). 363-376 (also in: Steiner. 1981). Cleanth.) Ricoeur.Englishtranslation forthcoming. A. 9 Mar 2014 10:52:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."in: Models and Metaphors(Ithaca: CornellUP)..Menakhemand Meir Sternberg. Insel). 1962." Poetics Today 5. "The King ThroughIronic Eyes. ed. 5). Christine."Poetics Today 3:4.ed. The Rule of Metaphor(Toronto: TorontoUP). 1:263. D.. Andrew. 1968. 39-56. 1958. 1982a "IntegrationalSemantics. Reference and Re-Presentation.J." Poetics Today 1:1-2.24 on Sun." Poetics Today 2:la.3rd ed. "Fictionality.Wendy. 1976. REFERENCES Black. 1955. Holt. as is often It is sufficientthat within one fr.Paul. Texas UP. This content downloaded from 194.No. Rinehart A Reader and a BiblioHrushovski." in: Heidi Byrnes. Understanding Brooks. 1982b "An Outlineof Integrational Semantics:An Understander's Theoryof Meaningin Context.ed.