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Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P.

Wachsmann Author(s): Erich M. von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs Source: The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 14 (Mar., 1961), pp. 3-29 Published by: Galpin Society Stable URL: . Accessed: 01/04/2014 13:16
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Classification of






The revival of a learnedtreatiseabout half a century after its first appearance is an unusual event, and there must be cogent reasons for taking such a step. In the presentcase the reasonsare not hard to state. No other system of classification is more frequently quoted, nor has any later system been able to supplant it. On these grounds alone it would be difficultto write it off as being out-of-date. Apart from the arguments of the system itself, the biting comments on curators and collectors, and on the waywardnessof their cataloguing, are as relevanttoday as they were fifty years ago. Reed instrumentsare still apt to be labelledas trumpetsif the bell is flared-there is a dismal case of this in one of our great museumsat present-and the terminology is still at times as muddled as it was in the many instancesof which Hornbostel and Sachs complained; while as for anthropologists,their publicationsdo not invariably give proof that all have read their Zeitschriftfiir Ethnologie. It is true that criticismshave been made, and modifications demandedhere and there; even the authorsdid not subsequentlyfeel themselvesrigidly bound to what they had first stated in 1914, when they also tried to anticipatethose points over which need for revisionwas most likely to arise.A good account of these criticismshas been given in Jaap Kunst'sEthnomusicology (3rd edn., The Hague, 1959). None of the critics, however, could persuadethe presenttranslators that a returnto the original text might involve the undesirable resurrection of some best-forgotten error. On the contrary, the discussionsof the system'smeritsor demeritshave convinced them thatit is necessaryfor students to have easy access to the source itself. This is not meant to imply that the Hornbostel-Sachstables are in all circumstanceseasily applied; one need but think of some of the many varieties of stamping tubes, e.g. of the slender 'stampingtubes' of the Shambalaof East Africa, who 'make slits [in the tubes] and wave them backwardsand forwards while dancing, so that the tongues are caused to vibrate by atmosphericpressure' (Hornbostel, 1933, p. 296), or

* ErichM. von Hornbostel und Curt Sachs,'Systematik der Musikinstrumente.EinVersuch', Heft 1914. 4 u. 5. (Berlin, Ethnologie, Jahrg. Zeitschriftjiir are grateful to Professor 1914.)The translators GeorgEckert,Editorof the for his assent to the work'srepublication. Zeitschrift,

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It is in this spirit that the English translationis published. who cover the end of the tube that hits the ground with a membrane. the second a plosive aerophone (413). The objects to be classified are This content downloaded from 200. VI (London. the third a percussion idiophone (111. being written in German. The material to be classified. ethnologists. and Sachsin The Historyof MusicalInstruments 'Terminology'. These considerations bring specialdifficulties his aim mustbe to developand challenge: thoughalso an attractive refinehis conceptsso thatthey betterand betterfit the realityof his and enablehim to place a specific his perception.and the translators' lators' terminology in the tables takes due account of English terms used by the authorsin theirvariouslaterpublications--asHornbostelin 'The Ethnology of African Sound-Instruments'. vol. to ProfessorCurt Sachs. 4 value. and and are static demarcations dependupon sharply-drawn systems categories. Footnotes are original unless stated. pp. the Pare.who died in 1959.The transbracketsare the authors'if German. Many of their English terms have come into wide use. glossary. Thus there is a clear case for now offering an To do so at this moment will servealso as a fitting memorial Englishtranslation. 1913). 303-II. came into existence without any such system. were not numbered in the original. and grows and changes without reference to any conceptual scheme.while to sharp demarcation aliveanddynamic. Words in square The text paragraphs if otherwise. or of the stampingtubes of their next-door neighbours. of MusicalInstruments Classification REATISES on systems of classification areby andlargeof uncertain indifferent andsetform. while also. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Are these cases of Kontamination (see below.236. or is the first a type of free aerophone (41 in the tables).154 on Tue. Posterity can pay no higher tribute to a scholarthan to returnto his and his collaborator's work and put it into the hands of a wider public than knew it before. and the fourth a membranophone(zI) of sorts? The original text did not reacha large musicalpublic since it appearedin the comparativeobscurity of an ethnologicaljournal.Africa.3. (New York. material. 1940). whatever it may be.of the bamboo tubes which they strike againstthe ground or drum upon with twigs. to the classifier. firts concerns for musical instruments 3. pp. sharpen casein the schemequicklyandsecurely.Most of the more obscure instrumentscited in the tables are describedby Sachs in his Real-Lexikon(Berlin. A systematic arrangement collecof ethnological and curators of all musicologists. and have been kept save in a few cases where a change (even in one case to French) seemed to the translatorsunavoidable or greatly preferable.2).it did not become as widely known in the English-speakingworld as it might have done otherwise. 2. 1933). paragraph14) of a basic type 'stamping tube'. 454-67.

stoneharmonicas and marble shawms and trumpets flutes.the mostsenseless termsmay be perpetuated on report the labels. and shouldthe oboe have a brass bell one may be certain of the label'trumpet' has theoretical as well as 4. He who refers material.even when stillin the possession of the find. practice Sound-instruments are dividedinto threemajorcategories: stringed wind instruments. Our own present-day doesnot amountto much more. proclaims arenotedas flutes.-a condition ledge of the most essential will show. 5 This content downloaded from 200.where the field-collector's hasthe lastsay. andgongs. One will which. for instance. tromp a trumpet. mungiga Geige[fiddle]. gourd. a plucked lamella. arecorrect whentheycallthissameinstruonly theRussians term vargan(from ment. or at best as clarinets. tion on material. Herein will alwaysbe found the leadingtest of the validityof the criteria uponwhichthe systemis hardlyevermet.hide and silk. Ethnological terms for instruments. Homonymsare no less dangerous the word marimba. The difficulties which an acceptable must 5.Thusthe AncientChinese basedtheirclassificabetweeninstruments made of stone. distinguishing metal. will causemoreconfusion thanif he hadleft it altogether unnoticed.sincethatwhichsuitsone eraor nationmay be unsuitable as a foundationfor the instrumental armouryof all nationsandall times. guitar.but elsewhere it denotesa xyloliterature teamswith ambiguous or misleading phone. or banjo. A systemof classification advantages uses. which otherwise to be quiteunrelated practical Objects appear to eachothermay now a visit to a museum that oboes.Correctdescription andnomenclature dependuponknowcriteria for the varioustypes. and in museums. to them.wood. eachbelongedtogether. for instance. denotesin the Congo the synonyms: set of lamellaeusuallycalledsansa. systemof classification surmount arevery great. In commonspeechtechnical terms are greatly muddled. ology urgently only butalsofor theirstudy andin its when the same instrument be indismay calleda lute. 6.Nicknames and criminately also mislead the uninitiated: the German Maulpopularetymology is not a drum.154 on the uncommitted Greek'opycvov. by anynameor description being unaware of the pointswhichmatter. consequently.nor the EnglishJew's (properly trommel jaw's) harpa nor the Swedish a nor the Flemish harp. doublereedwhich unmistakably them for what they are.tionsandthoseof cultural andterminhistory. than 'instrument').Systematic arrangement are not for collections of needed. to a musical instrument he pleases.mandoline.bamboo. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and percussioninstruments.3. clappers.This instruments. new geneticand revealing culturallinks.236. however.

of the membranes. and that in any case many 'woodwind instruments'are optionally or invariablymade of metal. idiophones.cannot be defended even on the grounds that it satisfiesday-to-day requirements. catalogues have latterly in general adopted a system which Victor Mahillon has used since 1888 for his comprehensive catalogue of the Museum of the BrusselsConservatoire. the current classificationis not only inadequate.154 on Tue. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as a percussion instrument.A large number of instrumentscannot be fitted into any of the three groups without placing them in an unnaturalposition. and thus distinguishes material is sufficientlyrigid and at the same time sufficientlyelasticto undergo periodic vibration. like the pianoforte. 7. an unjustifiablepredominance and flagrantly disregarding the fact that many 'brass' instruments are or were once made of wood.3. As a remedy one introduces a fourth group under the disconcerting heading 'miscellaneous'-in any systematic grouping an admission of defeat. prefer p.tritonicons. namely. sarrusophones. as flutes. and named by him 'self-soundinginstruments' (instruments [2] in which sound-waves are excited autophones*). stringed. The objections which can be raised against the crudity of the customary divisions are now familiar to organology [Instrumentenkunde]. [3] in which tightly-stretched agency through a column of air vibrates. Thus in which and vibrate. which. Wind instrumentsare divided into woodwind and brass. like cornetts.membraneinstruments.Besides the uniformity of its principle * Forreasons derMusikinstruin his Reallexikont has explained which Sachs we the term 1913. material. is brought into close proximity to drums and so on. (Berlin. lastly [4] strings he distinguishesfour categories:self-sounders. like the Aeolian harp. Mahillon takes the nature of the vibrating body as his first prinbetween instruments [i] whose ciple of division. but also illogical. follow two different principles. saxophones. I95a). stringedinstrumentsbeing distinguishedby the nature of the vibrating substancebut wind and percussionby the mode of sound-excitationignoring the fact that there are stringedinstrumentswhich are blown. serpentsand bass horns. Our customary divisions. The customary subdivisions are no better. clarinets. 8. mnente 6 This content downloaded from 200.Leaving aside classifications which have owed their structureto the peculiaritiesof this or that collection. Moreover. The first requirement of a classificatorysystem is surely that the principle of demarcation remains the same throughout for the main categories. etc.236. and in recent decades scholars have made more than one attempt to attain something more satisfactory. however. like the celesta. thus giving a subordinatecriterion of differentiation. or struck. and wind instruments.

i 1. Consider too the drums. since a wide range of transitional sounds occurs between pure noises and noise-free tones.(3) polyphone instruanche]. he explored over years of relentlesseffort the limitless field of Europeanand exotic organology. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Inevitably a newly-acquired specimen would now and then fail to fit into the system. there are no sound-producersthat can truly be said to yield either pure noise or pure tones.3. save for a few laboratory instruments. it is not so far removed from previously-used divisions as to offend well-establishedcustom.g.Mahillon was right to subdividethe four main classes into 'branches'differentiated by playing action. to juxtapose categories which did not logically build a uniform concept. Then. Yet for stringedinstruments it was a dubious procedure. the sounds of all the usual musical instrumentsbeing more or less wrapped in noise. Moreover. a violin remains a violin whether 7 This content downloaded from 200. that the four-classsystem standsin pressing need of development in fresh directions. which he grouped as frame drums. indeed. and double-skin drums. Mahillon had indeed been led for the sake of the European instruments.154 on Tue.and kettle drumsand likewise the autophones-into instruments of untuned pitch and those of tuned pitch (a intonation (instruments bruyants) diterminees).with which. as an instrumentmanufacturerand musician.of division.236. not only does it meet the demandsof logic. (2) mouth-hole [instruments ments with air reservoir. those of keyboard and mechanicalinstruments-assumed an unwarrantablyprominent place. In general. he consequently divided the skin drums correspondingto our side. however. European and extra-Europeaninstruments. but also it provides those who use it with a tool which is simple and proof against subjectivepreferences. (i) reed instruments [instruments ta a bouche]. 9. Mahillon later seems to have sensed this when he contrasted noiseinstruments with those a intonation nettement or intentionellement but the criterion is subjective and as a rule incapable of determine'e. proof. as the collections of the Brusselsmuseum grew under his direction. vessel drums. This is an awkward distinction. Mahillon startedon the basisof the instrumentsof the modern orchestra. It has seemed to us. Io.and (4) cup-mouthpieceinstruments [instrumentsa embouchure]. Thus he divided the wind instruments into four branches. while certain subdivisionswhich figure importantlyamong Europeaninstrumentse. and it was these which gave him the initial challenge to work out his system. Mahillon's system of four classesdeservesthe highest praise. the system has the great advantagein that it is capable of absorbing almost the whole range of ancient and modem. he was in closest contact.

psalteries. playsit pizzicato with bows it with a bow.but the transition between this and the pronouncedly tubulardrum occurswithout a break. It would thus way constantly seem impossibleto plan a system today which would not require futuredevelopment and amendment.To suchdifficulties of instruments.we acceptthe physicalcharacteristics asthe mostimportant of at this but even division.separate the when the playerusesbeaters. afterall. whichis turnedinto a dulcimer[Hackbrett] same. gongs. designedto be bowed. production principle difficulties are met sinceacoustic has point considerable physics so far covered but the smallestfractionof the preliminary investigations.especially of a consistent classification will arise.pluckeddrums.often makingit impossibleto decide on the basis of shape whethera specimen belongsto the one kindor to the other. Thiswas the case. sincethe violin is.3. American'ribbon-reeds'. difficulties knowledge.and wind instruments mustbe addedothersarising fromthe fingerholes. kettlewith free reeds and drums. althoughthe instrument itselfremains just the Then thereis the psaltery.undoubtedly not to be disregarded in any classificatory system. example. The problemof defining the term'frame morphology drum'(tamburin) for example. otherwise from into two each other. of sound13. shouldone.for with the ancient Celtic can which be provedto have crowd. But there are other instances. We were fortunatein as a ready-made basethe largeandextensively havingat our disposal described collections of the Brussels museumout of whichMahillon's scarcely of satisfactory solucapable the typicalframedrumrepresents a conciseconcept tion. the vibrationeventsin bells.but whichcameto be bowedin the therefore deal High MiddleAges: shouldthe historyof instruments with it half in a chapteron pluckedstringed and half in instruments one on bowed.236. indistinguishable thatin one countryof originit was customary groupson the grounds to pluckit but in another to beatite ShouldI placethe clavichord and the pianoforte sideby sidebut housethe harpsichord with the guitars becauseits stringsare plucked? 12. One couldcite instruments whoseplayingactionhaschanged in the course of time but whoseformhasremained unaltered. 8 This content downloaded from 200. in a collection.or strikes it col legno.At the sametimewe areawarethatwith increasing of extra-European in the forms.154 on Tue.Perhaps this seemsa lopsidedargument. beenpluckedin the earliest times. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Thus inadequate research has yet been undertaken on the soundthe vibratorymannerin north-west productionof the bull-roarer. All theseconsiderations have persuaded us to undertake afresh the attemptto classifymusicalinstruments.

We have purposely not divided the differentmain groups accordingto one uniform principle.But where the adulteration has led to an enduring morphological entity-as when kettledrum and musical bow combine in a spike lute-it must have a place of its own within the system. like Mahillon. though one could. We therefore propose that the general typological headings be restrictedto the topmost main groups. variant. will doubtless repeat the lines of thought which are not set out here. branche. to other characteristics should not be omitted. as especially in zoology and botany with expressionslike class.and the next (four-unit) as sub-orders. In classificationsit is often customary to indicate the ranking of divisions within the system by means of specific headings. In museums and cataloguesthese caseswill be but cross-references arrangedaccordingto the dominant characteristic.Moreover. Thus terms like 'species' may refer in one case to a very general concept but in another to a highly specialized one.236.Mahillon himself felt this need and met it by introducing the terms classe. in any system one must leave room for further division to meet special cases.sous-section. species. term 'family' on account of its widely-known use for instrumentsof like design but of differentsizes and pitches. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Whosoever will check these critically. so that ranksof a given position within a group may not always correspondbetween one group and another. speak of the four main groups as classes. among instruments of every class one may find rattling devices which belong to the inventory of idiophones-a featurewhich cannot be taken into account when placing the instrumentin the classification. We must refrain from arguing our subdivisions in detail. 15. We consider it inadvisable to maintain consistent headings throughout all rubricsfor the following reasons.14. with the result that the number of subdivisions could for ever increase. on Gevaert's advice he refrained from using the section. Other obstacles in the path of the classifier are instruments The fact of showing adulterationsbetween types [Kontaminationen]. 16.3. the next (three-unit)as orders. 17. adulterationshould be accounted for by placing such instrumentsin two (or more) groups. genus.* * Translators' note:Itisnot clear whether theauthors hererefer to Mahillon's or to theirown numerical further on. or test them in practice. family. order. Thus. letter-symbols codingdescribed 9 This content downloaded from 200.but have let the principle of division be dictated by the nature of the group concerned. In the study of instruments. with minor variationsof his own.154 on Tue.The number of subdivisions is too big to manage without bringing in a petty superfluity of headings.of the next divisions (with a two-unit symbol [zweiziffrig]) as sub-classes.

the zero before the decimal point being always will become possible to find out at first glance whether a given type of instrumentis represented in the collection.236.18. IO0 This content downloaded from 200.only the more general aspects of their classificationcan be outlined in the scheme.but also directly to recognize from the position of its last figure the ranking of a given term with the system.generaltreatisesand smallercollecto its last in cases where a composite type may be assumedto have had a precursorin a simplertype now extinct.and is anyhow as inadequateas can be.154 on Tue. Say. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .3. Thus it can be assumedfrom analogy with numerous types that Man rubbed a solid. as in the friction block of New Ireland. while tions may not requireto follow our classification museums and of catalogues large may well wish specialistmonographs to extend it in further detail. and these will certainly requirefurther elaboration. for example. It is also feasiblein a row of numbersto divide off any set of figures which by points.Again. Here one has had to consider the needs not only of museum curatorsbut also of field workers and ethnologists. though the plan of the whole classificationmakes possible its applicationto the materialeither summarily or in great detail as desired. These are so used that every further subdivision is indicated by adding a new figure to the righthand end of the row. replacing the more usual conglomeration of numbers. where the wealth of forms is exceptionally vast. 20. In general we have tried to base our subdivisionsonly on those features which can be identified from the visible form of the instrument. The applicationof our findings in describingand cataloguing is substantiallyfacilitated by use of the Dewey numerical system. smooth block of wood with the moist hand before he ever carved a series of differently-pitchedtongues by cutting notches into the block. letters and double letters by decimal fractions. 19. as with rattles. The ingenuity of Dewey's idea lies in the exclusive use of figures. we have plannedour own numericalorderindependently.* If those in charge of large collections who issue catalogues in the future decide to accept our numerical arrangement. We have carried the subdivisions as far as seemed important for the observationof culturalhistory and detail. avoiding subjective preferences and leaving the instrument itself unmeddled with. that it is a bell chime [Glockenspiel] * Since the numerical arrangementfor the Bibliographie Internationaleof Musical Instrumentsapplies only to Europeaninstruments. 21. We have refrainedfrom providing a subdivisioncontaining no known existing representative. Thus it becomes possible not only to pursue specification to whatever limits one desiresand with never any trouble in the manipulation of the numbers.

Furtherspecificationleads to 11124 (percussion vessels).e. reed instrument with flexible air reservoirwhose pipes are exclusively clarinets. i. 4 the hammer playing-action.22-62. composed of instrument]. Thus in the example of bagpipes.11124222 (setsof hanging bells).154 on Tue. for 422. 1112422 (setsof bells). Further addition of relevant code-figuresproduces the ranking III since it is struck directly. clarinets. easily be elevated and treated as a higher rank in the classification. the code-number would read i. 2=set of reedpipes * Polyorganic means composed of several single instrumentalunits. Instead of the unmanageable number now arrivedat. and then. Thus.and 111242222 with internal (ditto strikers) switching the positions of could write 422-62:22. while the second and third together imply that we are dealing with bells. in order to bring closer together groups which are separatedin the system. we write 111. and with chordophones the playing method-may be noted with the aid of figures appended to the essential code-number by a hyphen: the pianoforte would be entered as to be coded and placed in the system. it is possible to turn a main criterionof division into a subordinate one without destroying the system: one simply replacesthe first relevant figure by a point (. might be preferableto write 422-62 : . it earns a fourth figure.) and then adds it after a square bracket ] at the end of the number. Since the instrumentis struck it belongs to the first subclass. one wished to especially distinguish these [chanterand drone] features. instead of 422-62:22=reed instrument [Schalmeienwith flexible air reservoir. polyorganic. in this case 2 (1112=percussion idiophones). 24. 111242 (bells). because 8 representsthe keyboard. and 6 the plectrum playing-action.222. as a struck-upon [percussion]idiophone. a set of clarinets with flexibleair reservoir. But if. II This content downloaded from 200. with membranophonesthe method of fixing the skin. Conversely. both instrumentshaving the same main number indicating board zitherswith resonatorbox. if desired.g. the classto which the initial code-figure I is allotted. instance in a monograph on bagpipes. Any of the subordinate criteria of division may. everyone must decide for himself how far to go in a given case. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In the context of the system we are dealing with an idiophone. it might be important to specify these instrumentsas always polyorganic* but with components which are sometimes clarinetsand sometimes oboes.e. 23. The first cluster shows that we are dealing with an idiophone that is struckdirectly.242. for a bagpipe in which chanter and drone are both of the clarinettype. and so another I is added (struck idiophones=II).236.122-6-8. Common considerationsamong all instrumentsof a class-e.122-4-8 and the harpsichord 314.

Other specificationsapplying to a subordinategroup are suffixed to the code-figures of the latter.but also to incorporate into the higher ranks of the classificationsome criterion which has purposely not so far been used.. In certain circumstancesit may be necessary not only to rearrangethe rankings of the concepts and create new subdivisions. at the same time showing how we envisage the development of our system for special purposes. and then to [Schalmeienspiel] differentiatefurther by writing 422-62:.154 on Tue. There is nothing to prevent this being done. . of a figureis preceded to the omission division by a square answering This content downloaded from 200. 422-62:.The rules is nevertheless but tion Bibliographique Decimale. but as 4232. exclude sounding bodies of metal..2=sets of struck idiophones [Aufschlagspiele].with flexible air reservoir=bagpipe.g.24).2]2=bagpipe of clarinets. etc. e. however. and must therefore create a subdivision according to material which the system does not alreadyprovide. 1112. 27. sub12 bracket. but the (111. thus: .22+423. One then avoids repetitionof a number common to both suchparts. but 422-6 : 2=422. or 422--62 : .21 =xylophone metal . thus: struck sticks (III.23). ..2-6=oboe with air reservoir). if desired. writing this number once and following it with a point: a modem trombone with slide and valve would then appearnot as 423. 2]1I=bagpipe of oboes. beyond these are preceded by a colon (thus 422-62=reed instrument with flexible air reservoir. 2]212=a bagpipe of clarinetswith cylindricalbore and fingerholes. shape of the sounding bodies is here of little relevance-the transition from sticksto plaquesbeing quitefluid-and so the fifth figure may be removed. Xylophones could fall into any of the first three.Let us imagine the case of a monograph on the xylophone.. stone.62 : . These innumerablecasesin which an instrumentis composed of parts which in themselves belong to different groups of the system could be indicated by linking appropriatefigures by a plus sign. and similarly bagpipes composed partly of clarinets and partly of oboes as cited above. .2+3. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .22=metallophone . The system divides struck idiophones (I 11.22). 11I2.2) by the shape of the struck bodies..21).23. 26.: ] is slightly withinits spirit.* 25.2]I +2. struck tubes (111. added as ]2 at the end.236. glass. . and. . and we should like to illustrateit by a final example. if the description is to concern only multi-tone instruments.3. with the appended are:the hyphenis employedonly in connection figures subdivisions listedin the tables[atthe end of eachof the fourmainsections]. We must. sounding bodies of wood . giving 1112.. For the sixth figure we insert 2.. would become 422. and struck vessels struck plaques (111. * Thisuseof the symbols fromthatof the Classificadifferent .

. .14 (Bedded) trough xylophone The soundingbodies lie across the edgesof a trough-or box-shaped vessel Japan III12.236.154 on Tue. by a memwith 242 (vesselkazoos)...Java * To be further subdivided thus: I Withoutresonators 2 With resonators 21 With resonators suspended singly 22 With resonators stuckinto a commonplatform.. gourds. andW. 1112. .23=lithophone stone . . The systematicsurvey of musicalinstrumentswhich now follows in tabularform is meant equally to serve the purposesof identification.21.24=crystallophone .21. .12 Frame xylophone The bearers bars 1112.122* 29.21. .21. Africa edges of two boards 1112.21.21. .. glass. . 13 This content downloaded from 200. of the xylophone would make 28.Africa is borneon a trestle Table xylophone The frame Senegambia 1112.121* Rail xylophone The frame hangs from the player's neck S.21 (Free)suspensionxylophone Withoutcase Cochin China 1112..I logs. One can. .21. in mostcases oftenhaveholessealed NE The resonators.. .2 Suspension xylophone The soundingbodieslie on two cordswithoutanyotherfoundation 1112.21. Furtherstagesin this classification use of morphological criteria significant from an ethnological point of view: Classification 1112. on a sling and is kept clear of his body by a curved rail .1 Bedded xylophone The sounding bodiesreston an elastic foundation consists of separate 1112. Hence the descriptionsof characteristics are here and there expandedto include warnings against likely misunderstandingsand confusion. .or over a cone-shaped frame)will demand another subdivision.dispense with adding another number sinceframexylophones withoutresonators areunknown. .3. Africa arejoinedby crossrodsor 1112.E.21.13 Sledge xylophone The soundingbodies lie acrossthe C. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .E.21. .. . . Log xylophone The foundation a shallowpit in the groundbeneath NE Thereis generally the soundingbodies Oceania.Possiblythe method brane. E.however.showingadulteration of mountingthe membranes (directly. . 1112.. Indonesia.. 1112. andW.22 (Suspension) trough xylophone With trough-shaped box Burma.

or strings membranes stretched is madeto vibrate by beingstruck II Struckidiophones The instrument upon the moveIII Idiophones struck directly The playerhimselfexecutes ment of striking.2 Percussionidiophones The instrument sonorousobject (hand.nor the latter as notes on the history of cultures. 111.222 Sets of percussionplaques andmost metallophones Lithophone (China).beaters. is devices. Also. while the layman will be able to find his bearings with the aid of a visit to a museum.Explanationsand examples are kept to a minimum.23 111..221 (Individual)percussion plaques In theoriental 111. 111.I Concussionidiophones or clappers Two or morecomplementary arestruck sonorous eachother against parts Is. the former are not intended as descriptions.154 on Tue.etc.236. Balkans. components sounding twodifferent planes [nicht biplan] 111.stick.211 (Individual) percussionsticks Percussion tubes 14 This content downloaded from 200.owing to its withoutrequiring solidityandelasticity. striker)or againsta nonsonorous body. it is definitive thatthe player canapplyclearly immaterial. II or Concussion China.the ground) object(human 11. of different Several sticks sticks Sets of percussion III.12 Burma 111.4 Concussionvesselsor vessel clappers Evena slight of a board countsasa vessel surface or artificially hollowed eithernatural.141 Castanets Vesselclappers. clappers Annam. Japan. strokes itselfis definedindividual and thatthe instrument for thiskindof percussion equipped I II. or Marshall sticks stick Concussion India. India plaque clappers plaques III.142 alsothetriangle Annam. Classification of the instrument I IDIOPHONES The substance itself.21 Percussion sticks 111.13 Concussiontroughs or trough clappers hollow in the 111I. III. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .212 percussion to forma singleinstrument pitcharecombined arenotin as longas their All xylophones.The expert will know what we are driving at.whether by mechanical intermediate or by pullingropes. visual study of specimens far outvalues pages of written description.22 Percussionplaques Church Christian 111.3. yieldsthe sounds. out with evertedrim Cymbals Vesselclappers is struck either with a non111.keyboards.

I metal or rather drums. Asia. tubular xylophone Tubaphon. both.122 Sliding rattles Non-sonorous slideto andfro in the slots objects of the sonorous is madeto vibrate.1 (Individual)Bells 11II.12 Frame rattles Rattling objectsare attached whichtheystrike 112.242 Bells The vibration on Tue.242.are knottedinto a net slipped over the outersurface. (recent) in a vesselstrikeagainst z112.12 111.242.therebeinga separate is attached insidethe bell 111. theso-called includin•g kettle-gongs S.241.242.insteadof being enclosed. andE.11 Suspensionrattles Perforated are mountedtogether.112 Stick rattles Rattling on a bar arestrung objects (orring) Sistrum withrings to a carrieragainst 112.The intention of the instrument is to yield clusters of soundsor strokes be perceived noises.236. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .242.II Resting bells The cup is placedon the palm of the hand or on a cushion.2 Sets of gongs [gong chimes] is weakestnearthe vertex 111. Percussion vessels III.232 Sets of percussiontubes tubular bell Slitdrum. countas a varietyof vesselrattle 15 This content downloaded from 200. objectso thatthe latter or sonorous slide to and in fro the slotsof a nonobjects sonorous object.13 Vessel rattles Rattlingobjectsenclosed each other or againstthe walls of the vessel.231 (Individual)percussiontubes II111.241.242.24 111.122 Clapperbells A striker (clapper) as 111.percussion resultsindirectly throughsomeothermovement by the player.121 Pendant rattles Rattlingobjectsarehung from a frame shield withrattling rings Dancing be setin vibration by the impacts withrods sistrum Anklung.Indo-China.111 rattles in rowson a cord are Strung Rattling objects strung Necklaces withrows of shells 112.121 beater attached insidethe bell.111. Asia II111.E. Japan Suspended bells The bell is suspendedfrom the apex Suspended bells struck from the outside.1) (subdivided 111. idiophones andshaken to strikeagainst eachother 112.or usually in with handle.NB The Benuegourdrattles against which the rattlingobjects. II 1.andnot to let individual 112.242. No striker is (Individual)gongs S. its mouth faces upwards China.241 Gongs The vibrationis strongestnear the vertex III.2 Sets of bells [chimes] himself doesnot go through 112 Indirectlystruckidiophones Theplayer the movementof striking.2 Shakenidiophonesor rattles Theplayer a shaking motion executes 112.

Fruitshellswithseeds.11 Without resonator 122. India be alternately liftedoff the teethandflickedagainst them.are plaques.2 Scraped idiophones The player causes a scrapingmovement or indirectly: a non-sonorous directly objectmovesalong the notchedsurface of a sonorous object. elastic fixedat one end. (qalsik). Asia (tiger) sticks resonator Usumbara.222 Sets of heteroglot guimbardes Several heteroglotguimbardes of different to form a singleinstrupitchesarecombined Aura ment 122 In board. i.22 Heteroglot guimbardes A lamella is attached to a frame China India.23 Scrapedvessels The corrugated S.Malacca. Indonesia.the tonguestrikes India teethof the wheelone afteranother Europe.12 With resonator All sansas witha boxorbowl theboard below 16 This content downloaded from 200. Europe.236.its Idioglot guimbardes The lamella I21. America.24 Scrapedwheels or cog rattles A cog wheel. loose bells'enclosing percussion 'pellet pellets 112.1 With laced-on lamellae All sansas on a plainboard 122.21 with a littlestick stickis scraped Scrapedsticks A notched sticks without resonator 112.whoseaxleserves the handle.or an elastic sonorous nonmoves the surface of a notched object along sonorous This to cause a series of group object impacts. 112.e.2 Guimbardes (Jews'harps) The lamellais mountedin a rod.or frameand depends on the player'smouth plaque-shaped cavityfor resonance is carved in the frameitself. 121. Scraped S.tojingleor vibrate Balkans China Persia (huan t'u).154 on Tue.which servesas resonator 121. 12 Plucked idiophones Lamellae. America. mustnot be confused with thatof friction idiophones 112.212 with E. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .3 Split idiophones Instruments nectedat one end andtouchingat the other:the armsare forcedapart on recoil by a littlestick.3.when whirled.1 Clack idiophones (cricri) The lamella is carvedin the surface Melanesia fruit shell.22 Scrapedtubes surface of a vesselis scraped 112. India(notched Congo bow).221 (Single)heteroglot guimbardes 121. anda tonguefixedin a framewhichis freeto the turnon the handle. arms in theshape conof two springy 112. I21.or comb-form The lamellae aretiedto a boardor cut out froma board likethe teethof a comb 122.211 Scraped musical S. to return to theirposition of rest flexedandthenreleased 121 In the form of a frame The lamella vibrates withina frameorhoop of a 121. region Congo as 112.21 to frame baseremaining the joined Melanesia India.

2 17 This content downloaded from 200..Asian 211. drumsthatareshaken keyboards.2 Sets of friction plaques [livika] 133 Friction vessels Brazil(tortoise 133.22 With indirectfriction Thesticks are rubbedand. Stockspiele areconnected with others which 131. nailpiano.II (Separate) European timpani Sets of kettle drums W.2 Sets of blown plaques Suffixes for usewith anydivision of thisclass(idiophones): -8 with keyboard -9 mechanicallydriven 2 MEMBRANOPHONES The soundis excitedby tightly-stretched membranes 21 Struckdrums The membranes arestruck 211 Drums struckdirectly The player himself executes the movement of thisincludes intermediate devices.or dish-shaped kettle drums 21I.2 With cut-out lamellae (musical boxes) Pinson a cylinder pluckthe lamellae Europe is madeto vibrate friction 13 Friction Idiophones The instrument by 131 Friction sticks friction sticks 131.1 (Individual)friction vessels shell) Verillon 133.12 drums permanently joined pairs ofkettle drums The is tubular Tubular body 2II. excluded 211.1 (Individual) Unknown 131.154 on Tue. striking.1 Kettle drums (timpani) The bodyis bowl. striking by any suchas beaters.2 Sets of blown sticks 142 Blown plaques Unknown 142.122.2 Sets of friction vessels harmonica) (glass is madeto vibrate 14 Blown idiophones The instrument by beingblown upon 141 Blown sticks Unknown 141.21 With direct friction The sticks Nailfiddle. by transmitting theirlongitudinal vibratransverse vibration in the former tion.2 Sets of friction sticks themselves arerubbed 131. stimulate Chladni's euphon 132 Friction plaques friction plaques Unknown 132. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .1 (Individual)blown plaques Piano chanteur (Individual) NewIreland 132. are etc.1 (Individual)blown sticks Aeolsklavier 141.

212.21.percussion * To be sub-divided like 211.23 at the ends.2 Sets of cylindrical drums 211.312 Double-skin frame drums to the framein line 211. side-drum. notablyin a development drumandhenceis not included drical amongframedrums drums Frame 211.21 211. Africa thanat the ends Asia.2 Closed cylindrical drums The end oppositefrom the membraneis closed West Indies immaterial Single-skin cylindrical drums The drumhas only one usable membrane. is smaller at the middle 211. banya. 211.and hencedoesnot countasa membrane in the present sense Open cylindrical drums The end opposite from the membrane is open Malacca zII.I This content downloaded from 200.I 211.the body is rectilinear with angular profile India pakhavaja) (mrdanga. Double-conical drums The diameter is larger at the middlethan 211. and a slenderstem.211 is the sameat the middleand Cylindrical drums The diameter the ends.the body is curvilinear Ancient Mexico Asia.zlI. borderline casesof this basicdesignlike those occurring so do not affectthe identification.3.32 Frame drum with handle A stickis attached with its diameter Eskimo 211.24* Hourglass-shapeddrum The diameter E. Africa 211.212 Double-skin cylindrical drums The drum has two usable membranes (Individual)cylindrical drums (side drum) Europe 2II.31 (without handle) Tambourine 211.21I) The is by impactof pendantor drum is shaken.321 Single-skinframe drumswith handle Tibet 211.whether or not the endstaperor haveprojecting disks.25* Conical drums The diameters minor departures from conicity.236.Africa.Melanesia. fromthe long cylinmostshallowform.212.26* Goblet-shapeddrums Thebodyconsists of a mainsection is either cup-shaped or cylindrical.22* is largerat the middlethan Barrel-shapeddrums The diameter at the ends.311 Single-skin frame drums N.3 Framedrums The depthof the body doesnot exceedthe radius even in its NB The European the membrane. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .211. In some Africandrumsa secondskin forms partof the lacingdeviceandis not usedfor beating.inevitably met.154 on Tue. at the ends differconsiderably. are disIndia here regarded which 211.zII. formis not in factreached Darabuka long asa cylindrical of 211.322 Double-skin frame drums with handle 212 Rattle drums (sub-divisions as for drumsstruckdirectly. 18 zlI.

the 231. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . E. speaking singing a noteof its own butmerelymodifies thevoice W. attachedto the membrane.Africa Europe.1 Stationaryfriction drum with cord The drumis held stationary Europe. enclosed pellets. withoutthewind first 241 Free kazoos The membrane passing througha chamber Comb-and-paper is placed a tubeor box inside 242 Tube. Africa) India.11 Single-skin stationarydrums with friction-cord 232.236.or similar objects 22 Plucked drums A string is knotted of themembrane.3. is madeto vibrate 23 Friction drums The membrane by friction is 231 Friction drums with stick A stickin contactwith the membrane eitheritselfrubbed. is inciteddirectly. Asian a with lateral hole sealed also. or is employed to rubthe membrane With inserted stick The stickpasses 231.2 Frictiondrum with whirling stick Thedrum whichrubson a [resined[ notchin the holdingstick.1 througha hole in the membrane Friction drums with fixed stick The stickcannot be moved. is rubbed 233 Hand friction drums The membrane by the hand is madeto vibrateby 24 Singing membranes (Kazoos) The membrane or into the membrane doesnot yield it.Tibet India. its vibrations to whenthe string aretransmitted the membrane India anandalahari) (gopi yantra.2 upright position Europe is 232 Friction drum with cord A cord. rubbed 232.I2 Friction drums with semi-fixed stick The stickis movable sufficient extent to rub the membrane when it is itself rubbed by the hand Africa 231.or vessel-kazoos Themembrane while E.154 on Tue. Africa 232. belowthe centre is plucked.12 Double-skin stationarydrums with friction-cord is whirled on a cord 232.13 Friction drums with free stick The stickcan be movedfreely. it is not itselfrubbed. butisemployed to rubthemembrane Venezuela With tied stick The is stick tied to the in membrane an 231. flutes bya exhibit an adulteration with tube the the principle of inmembrane.11 stickaloneis subjected to friction by rubbing Africa to a 231. Africa. Waldteufel [cardboard buzzer] (Europe. kazoo Suffixes for usewith any division of thisclass(membranophones): -6 with membraneglued to drum -7 with membranenailed to drum -8 with membranelaced to drum -8i Cord-(ribbon-)bracing The cordsarestretched frommembrane to 19 This content downloaded from 200.

string the without destroying and can be detached not integral apparatus sound-producing it maybe a boardplaced is bar-shaped.3. withoutemdescribed below ployinganyof the devices Everywhere -811 Without specialdevices for stretching -812 With tension ligature Crossribbonsor cordsare tied round the middleof the lacingto increase its tension Ceylon -813 With tension loops The cordsarelacedin a zigzag. 311 Bar zithers The stringbearer edgewise is flexible(andcurved) bearer 311.).111 Mono-idiochord musical bows The bow has one idiochord string only 20 New Guinea(SepikR.remaining 311. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .236.everypairof is caughttogether with a smallringor loop India strings betweenthe wall of the -814 With wedge-bracing Wedgesareinserted the position drumandthecordsof thelacing. adjusting of the wedgesit is possible to controlthetension Indonesia. Togo This content downloaded from 200.1 Musicalbows The string 311.membrane or arranged in the formof a net. Africa -82 Cord-and-hidebracing The cordsarelacedat the lower end to a non-sonorous Africa pieceof hide board -83 Cord-and-boardbracing The cordsarelacedto an auxiliary Sumatra at the lowerend -84 Cord-and-flangebracing The cordsarelacedat the lower end to a fromthe solid Africa flangecarved -85 Cord-and-beltbracing The cordsarelacedat the lowerendto a belt India of different material -86 Cord-and-pegbracing The cordsarelacedat the lowerend to pegs stuckinto the wallof the drum Africa NB -82 to -86 aresub-divided as-81 above -9 With membrane lapped on A ring is slippedover the edge of the membrane -91 With membranelapped on by ring of cord Africa -92 With membranelapped on by a hoop drum -921 Without mechanism European -922 With mechanism Machine -9221 Without pedal timpani Pedal -9222 With pedals timpani One or more stringsare stretchedbetween 3 CHORDOPHONES fixedpoints consists 31 Simple chordophonesor zithers The instrument solelyof a whichis with a resonator bearer or of a string bearer.11 Idiochord musical bows The stringis cut from the barkof the attached at eachend cane.154 on Tue.

222 With several resonatorgourds (vina) 312 Tube zithers The string beareris a vaulted surface 312. Africa.21 311. The human mouth is not to be taken into account as a resonator Without tuning noose Africa(ganza.154 on Tue.21.21 Idiochord half-tube zithers 21 This content downloaded from 200.1 Whole-tube zithers The string carrieris a complete tube 312. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .122 With extra resonator An internode lengthof bamboois placed insidea palmleaftiedin theshape of a bowl Timor arestretched the convex surface 312.12 used.I121.I22.1 Without resonator NB If a separate.121.Poly-idiochord musical bows or harp-bows The bow has severalidiochord stringswhich passover a toothedstick or bridge W.112 311. bobre) 311.thomo) With tuning noose S.I2 Heterochord (true)tube zithers S.samuius.21 Musical bow cum stick The stringbearerhas one flexible.12. (suleppe) India 311.E. however.122 Poly-heterochord musical bows The bow has several heterochord strings Without Oceania(kalove) 311. tubularcavity is employedas a true resonator.221 With one resonatorgourd (tuila).1 tuning noose With Oceania(pagolo) tuning noose 311.121 Mono-heterochord musical bows The bow has one heterochordstringonly unattached resonator is 311.121. 311.togo.Madagascar (gubo.222 liketheBasuto asmusical bows India bow.I2 the bearer 311.221 311.236.121. hungo. uta) 311. curved end. 312. arecounted whichhappen to be hollow 311.2 311. NBStickzitherswith bothendsflexibleand curved.22 (True)stick zithers NB Round sticks do not belongon thisaccount to thetubezithers. dividingit into two sections South-equatorial Africa(n'kungo.1I 311.3.121.valiha) Without tuning noose S.Asia (alligator) 312.122.2 Stick zithers The string carrieris rigid 311.12I Without extra resonator 312.11 Idiochord (true) tube zithers AfricaandIndonesia (gonra.Africa (Fan) musical is Heterochord bows The of material from string separate 31I. the specimen belongs to 311. like the modern Mexicanharpa.1.121.121. to) With tuning noose A fibre noose is passedround the string.22 With resonator With independent resonator With resonator attached Borneo (busoi) 311.2 Half-tube zithers The strings along of a gutter Flores 312.2 311. Africa(hade. aretubezithers India Celebes 311.121. by chance butareround-bar instruments in whicha zithers.

1 True board zithers The planeof the strings the stringbearer 314.11 Without resonator Borneo 314.21 Groundzithers The groundis the stringbearer. wambi) (akam.2 With resonator Thetrough objectattached to it an openframe across arestretched 316 Framezithers The strings medieval resonator Without 316. artificially equivalent Nyasaregion is madefrom 314.2 Yoke lutes or lyres The strings of two and consists in the sameplaneas the sound-table armsanda cross-bar asthe resonator bowl serves or carved-out 321.1 psalteries amongst Perhaps theKru(kani) W.the groundtoo is to be 314 Board zithers The stringbearer countedas such is parallel with thatof 314.154 on Tue. asthe resonator woodenbox serves 321.g. Asia(k'in. 313.there are several Borneo anda notchedbridge strings arestretched across the mouthof a trough 315 Trough zithers Thestrings Tanganyika 315.21 Bowl lyres A natural E. Madagascar string 314.1 Bow lutes [pluriarc]Eachstringhasits own flexiblecarrier kalangu. Congo Upper N.121 With resonator bowl The resonator or an carved object.E.Subsidiary necks. is a plainhandle. 321. as e. Malacca.236. Africa to a yoke whichlies areattached 321. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . African lyre Lyra.1 Without resonator hasa gourdor a similar 315.22 Box lyres A built-up crwth Cithara.22 Harp zithers A boardservesas stringbearer. Nyasaregion 22 This content downloaded from 200. Hackbrett.3.2 With resonator amongst areorganianda resonator 32 Composite chordophones A stringbearer the withoutdestroying be separated andcannot callyunited instrument with the sound-table runsparallel 321 Lutes The planeof the strings 321.12 With resonator is a fruit shell or similar 314. pianoforte is at right angles 314.3 Handle lutes The stringbearer as are vinaare disregarded. 312. 316.122 With resonatorbox (box zither) The resonator slats Zither.Africa.2 Heterochordraft zithers is a board.22 Heterochord half-tube zithers koto) is composed of canestied togetherin 313 Raft zithers The stringbearer the manner of a raft Central Guinea.2 Board zither variations The planeof the strings to the stringbearer thereis only one 314. in the Indian prasarini over several alsoluteswith stringsdistributed necks.1 Idiochordraft zithers India.

311 Spikebowllutes Theresonator bowl Indonesia Persia.22 With tuning action The strings by mechanical action 322. is builtup from 321.the harpolyre. etc. 322 Harps The planeof the strings a linejoining the lower endsof the stringswould point towards the neck 322.1 Open harps Theharphasno pillar 322. in whichthe yoke is merelyornamental the resonator 321.313 throughthe wallsof a tube Indochina China.12 Angularharps Theneckmakes angle Ancient Ancient Korea Assyria.212 Chromaticframe harps chromatic 322.236.211 Diatonic frame harps 322. viol. 321. Egypt.221 With manual action The tuningcanbe altered by hand-levers Hookharp.a linejoiningthelowerendsof the strings to the neck.3.31 Spike lutes The handle passes diametrically through of anatural consists orcarved-out 321.222 With pedal action Thetuningcanbe altered by pedals lies at rightanglesto the sound323 Harp lutes The planeof the strings wouldbe table.212.guitar lies at rightanglesto the sound-table.2 With the strings in two planes crossing one another TheLyon chromatic harp canbe shortened 322.212. likea neck balalaika Mandoline. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 321. Africa (kasso. 322.11 Archedharps Theneckcurves awayfromthe resonator Burma and Africa a sharp with the resonator 322.Notchedbridge perpendicular W. dital harp.1 With the stringsin one plane Most of theolder harps 322.154 on Tue. harpinella 322.321 Necked bowl lutes theorbo.21 Without tuning action harps 322.312 Spike box lutes or spike guitars The resonator wood Egypt (rebab) tube lutes The handlepassesdiametrically Spike 321. andthoselike the Lyre-guitars.322 Necked box lutes or necked guitars NBLuteswhose body is builtup in the shape of a bowl areclassified asbowllutes Violin. is attached to or carved fromthe resona321.32 Necked lutes Thehandle tor. India.2 Frameharps Theharphasa pillar All medieval 322.) Suffixes for usewith anydivision of thisclass(chordophones): -4 sounded by hammers or beaters -5 sounded with the bare fingers -6 sounded by plectrum -7 sounded by bowing -71 with a bow 23 This content downloaded from 200.

a periodic according displacement airoccurs to alternate flanks of theedge Whip. a tube in which the air vibrates not producing thesound sense. disc.22 Whirling aerophones The interruptive agentturnson its axis Bull-roarer.21 Rotating aerophones The interruptive agentrotatesin its own Sirens plane 412. is directedagainstthe edge of a 412.II A split cally duringtheirvibration grass-blade strikes a frame 412.i.121 Individual percussion reeds Theearlier reed 412. belong reedswith a 'cover'. whirring ventilating fan 413 Plosive aerophones The air is madeto vibrateby a singledensity stimulus shock condensation Pop guns 24 This content downloaded from 200. sword-blade is interrupted 412 Interruptivefree aerophones The air-stream periodically is 4I2. mouthorgan.In eithercase.131 (Individual)free reeds Single-note like the Chinese the 412. The acoustics of thisprocess stretched has Brit.236. by generallyrecognizable by the absence of fingerholes reed Organ stops makea gapwhichclosesperiodireeds Two lamellae Concussion 412.Columbia not yet beenstudied 412.settingit in periodicvibration to interrupt the stream In this group also intermittently.12 Percussionreeds A singlelamella against Brit.13 Free reeds Thelamella through motor horn 412. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . onlyin a secondary butsimplyadding roundness andtimbre to thesound made the reed's vibration.132 Sets of free reeds NB In instruments sheng do not serve to modify the pitch and are fmgerholes not equivalent to thefingerholes of otherpipes therefore Reed accordion organ.14 Ribbon reeds The air-stream bandor ribbon.e.-72 -73 -8 -9 by a wheel by a ribbon [Band] with keyboard with mechanicaldrive in the primary sense 4 AEROPHONES The airitselfis the vibrator airis not confined 41 Free aerophones The vibrating by the instrument meetsa sharpedge. to morerecent of views.154 on Tue.Columbia 412. 411 Displacement free aerophones The air-stream or a sharpedge is movedthroughthe air.1 Idiophonic interruptive aerophones or reeds The air-stream directed againsta lamella.2 Non-idiophonic interruptiveinstruments Theinterruptive agent is not a reed 412.3.122 Sets of percussionreeds stops oforgans vibrates a closely-fitting slot 412.

21 ofa key With New fingerholes 421.112 Sets of end-blown flutes or panpipes Several of different to forma singleinstrument pitcharecombined 421.22 Especially Guinea end-blown flutes 421.112.III.I21.122.III.112.3 421.2 Partly-stoppedside-blown flutes The lowerend of the tube is a natural node of the pipepierced by a smallhole N.2 Stopped panpipes Europe.1 Flutes without duct The playerhimselfcreatesa ribbon-shaped stream of airwith hislips the sharprim at the The playerblows against End-blown flutes 4zI.2 is closed Without Thebore fingerholes 421. America 421. S. Bengal. W.Borneo side-blown flutes Stopped 42I.III. or theyaremadeby drilling tubesin a board China bundle The are tied 421. Timor 421.154 on Tue.11 upper openendof a tube 42I. Is. E.122 Sets of side-blown flutes Chamber 421.121.112.111I (Single) end-blown flutes Open single end-blown flutes The lower end of the fluteis 421.I Sets of open side-blown flutes fluteorum 25 This content downloaded from 200.312 (piston flutes) NewGuinea Malacca.II Without fingerholes Almost world-wide 421.12 With fingerholes Stopped single end-blown flutes The lowerend of the flute 421. America 421.121..3.2 Open (pan-) pipes pipes togetherin a roundbundle Solomon NewIreland.III.112 Open panpipes in the form 421.II Open (raft)panpipes The pipesaretiedtogether of a board.I open Bengal 42I.I21.III. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Admiralty S.1 Open side-blown flutes S.121.112. Malacca 421.II Without fingerholes European 421. NewBritain.III.32 With fingerholes 421.121 (Single) side-blown flutes 421.121.121.3 Mixed open and stopped panpipes 421..236.311 With fixed stopped lower end Apparently With lower end adjustable stopped 421.I2 With fingerholes flute 421. Is.42 Wind instruments proper The vibratingair is confinedwithin the instrument itself stream of airis directed 421 Edge instrumentsor flutes A narrow against an edge 421. Solomon Is.12 Side-blown flutes The playerblows againstthe sharprim of a hole in the sideof the tube 421. W.121.31 Without fingerholes non-existent 421.I21.

2 Partly-stoppedflute with internal duct India 421.31 Without fingerholes whistle European signalling 421.221.222.21 in flutes with the ductchamfered flute.3 Sets of flutes with external duct 421.11I Without fingerholes 421.2.221.1 Open flutes with internal duct whistle European 421.221.42 421.4 Vessel flutes with duct 421. block of resin)and an exterior tied-on cover (cane.211.221.22 Tibet Flutes with internal duct The duct is inside the tube.221 (Single) flutes with internal duct 421.12 With fingerholes 421.222.211.I12 421.41 Without fingerholes whistles Asia) (Europe.311 With fixed stopped lower end lower end With adjustablestopped 421. Zoomorphic pottery Ocarina With fingerholes 421.211.222.2 Sets of partly-stoppedflutes with internal duct Rohrfldte stops of theorgan 421.12 fingerholes andIndonesia 421.3 Stopped flutes with internal duct 421.221.11 Without fingerholes signalli•ng Recorder With 421.221. wood. Sets of flutes with internal duct 421.2 Partly-stopped flutes with external duct 421. Sets of stopped side-blown flutes theSiusi) N.122.1 Sets of open flutes with internal duct flue stops oftheorgan Open 421. Indonesia Malacca 421.3 Sets of stopped flutes with internal duct of theorgan Stopped flue stops 26 This content downloaded from 200.11 Without fingerholes Double With flageolet fingerholes 421.221.221. This group includes flutes with the duct formed by an internal baffle (naturalnode.2 Flutes with duct or duct flutes A narrowduct directsthe airstream the sharp orifice against edgeof a lateral is the wall of the Flutes with external duct The duct outside 421.222.thisgroupincludes the wallundera ring-like sleeveandothersimilar arrangements (Single) flutes with external duct Open flutes with external duct 421.421. Brazil(among flutes Vessel distinct The of the beak) (without body pipeis not 421.211 Stopped flutes with external duct 421.212 Borneo China.211.I 421. tubular but vessel-shaped Lower Brazil(Karaja).154 on Tue.3. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Congo (Bafiote) 421. hide) 421. W.312 Piston pipes[swannee whistle] 421.

112 With conical bore oboe European 422.1 Without mouthpiece India 423.121 With cylindricalbore aulos 422.III. 422.12I.II access to the air columnwhich is to gainingintermittant be madeto vibrate Natural to alterpitch trumpets Withoutextradevices 423.There must be fingerholes.211.E.22 Sets of clarinets Egypt (zummara) 422.11III With cylindricalbore 422.2 End-blown horns The tubeis curvedor folded Asia 423.211.II Without mouthpiece alphorns world-wide Almost 423.236. otherwisethe instrument belongsto the freereeds412.121.11.32 Double pipes with free reeds theplayer's 423 Trumpets The air-stream passes through vibrating lips.3.122 With conical bore India of a percussion 422. crumhorn 422.II (Single) oboes 422.III End-blown 423.22 With mouthpiece Lurs 422. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .I End-blown straighttrumpets The tubeis neither folded Some 423.212 With conical bore Saxophone 422.Columbia With fingerholes Aulos.111I.means of two lamellae 422 Reedpipes The air-stream has.121 End-blown grumpets The mouth-holefaces the axis of the trumpet curvednor 423.112 Side-blown Oceania 423.31 Single pipes with free reed 422.I21.12 Sets of oboes Double 422.121.1 Oboes The pipehasa [double] (usually a flattened stem) Without fingerholes Brit.2I Without mouthpiece 423.2 clarinet European 422.I2 With mouthpiece 423.21 (Single) clarinets With cylindricalbore 422.2 27 This content downloaded from 200.through placed at the head of the instrument.154 on Tue. 422.211 Withoutfingerholes Brit.121.13 S.2 Clarinets The pipe has a [single]'reed'consisting lamella 422.12 Tubulartrumpets 423.I Conches A conch shell serves as trumpet 423.Asia 422.121. intermittent accessto the columnof airwhichis to be madeto vibrate reedof concussion lamellae 422.3 Reedpipeswith free reeds Thereedvibrates through[at]a closelyfitted frame.111.2 With mouthpiece Japan (rappakai) 423.I Columbia With fingerholes 422.

3.Kl'ppelglocken Clapper . drums. SchalenZylindertrommeln Cylindrical Box zither.23 Trumpets with valves The tube is lengthened by or disconnecting connecting auxiliary lengthsof tube Europe 423. America 423.flutes with internal duct.Fasstrommeln Doubleconical.236. Schneckentrompeten Concussion. InnenConches.233 Valve trumpets The tubeis predominantly cylindrical Suffixes for usewith anydivision of thisclass(aerophones): -6 with air reservoir -6i -62 -7 -71 -72 -8 -9 with flexible air reservoir with fingerhole stopping with keys rollor ribbonl with Bandmechanik a perforated [presumably with keyboard with mechanicaldrive with rigid air reservoir TRANSLATORS' GLOSSARY SHOWING THEIR CERTAIN EQUIVALENTS TERMS IN EMPLOYED THE AND ORIGINAL Conicaldrums.122 Side-blown trumpets The embouchure S.Kastenzither Dish-shaped. Sachs's Cricri saerophone holz].Displacement aerophone.231 Valve bugles The tubeis conical throughout conical 423.DoppelkonusBarrel-shaped 'Cover' (in interruptive Beater.122. AblenkungClackidiophone[cf.21 Trumpets with fingerholes keybugles 423.flutes with external duct. Arched Konustrommeln Bogenharfen harps. Schlagel Bow-lutes. AussenKlappern Clappers. [Ratchet Cog spaltfl•ten . 423. spaltfliten Gegenschlag28 This content downloaded from 200.1). 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 412. Ratschen rattles rattles].2 Chromatictrumpets With extradevices Cornetti. aerophones. 'Ausfatz' Bogenlauten drums.1 Side-blown straight trumpets 423. Kernspalte bells.22 Slide trumpets The tube can be lengthenedby extending a trombone sectionof the instrument European telescopic or shortened 423.Schalenformig Knack. Bowl-.2 Side-blown horns Africa to modifythe pitch 423.154 on Tue.122. Duct.232 Valve horns The tubeis predominantly in the sideof the tube 423.

Schiittel-Idiophone Side-blown (in conch). ungsaerophone Straight trumpets: Langstuben Kazoos. Singingmembrane.Hdngeglocken Hanging Harp-bow. Stdbe Stickzithers. Zunge.Slit drums. Reib-.Plosive aerophones.GefdssPlatten Whole-tube(in zithers).Kesselgongs . Reedpipes. Holztrommeln .side-blown. selbstiindige Stopped Interruptive aerophone.horns.Rassel standigen .Plucked. Bandzungen Free-reedpipes.Unterbrech. Quertuben Lamella Lamella. internal striker (in bells). Schnur. DurchschlagzungenSet of. Musikstdbe bells. Explosiv-aeroEdge instruments.M.Kloppel stdbe Struck idiophones.Signalhdrner Openharps. Musical-bow-cum-stick.Reibung Friction drums with fixed stick. mit seitenFriction. Restingbells. Reiss-Idiophone Ground Erdzithern stehende zithers.v.twirling stick. ZupfMundloch Rattle.Lochsirene.Stempelfliten Vessel.flutes. Kerb-Musik. 1 Apr 2014 13:16:04 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Hornbostel et C. Reihenrasseln bogen Troughzithers. Schnur-Reibtrommeln Wellensirene Siren. -spiele Schalmeien Shaken idiophones. Maultrommel Guimbarde. Biigelharfen Pelletbells. mit end. Schnurrasseln Notched musicalbow.Mirlitons Kettlegongs. Vollriihren For French terminology see Andr6 Schaeffner's section Adaptation de franpaise des Professeurs la classification E.Sachs in Encyclop6die Vol. 1935.236.StimnmschlingeStrungrattles.Durchschlagzungen Ribbonreeds.Suspension rattles. Franqaise 29 This content downloaded from 200. Trompeten Percussion. pp.Stiellauten Sticks.trumpets. Spike Spiesslauten BecherGoblet-shaped. gedackt lower end (in flutes).tubular trumpets.StabHandle lutes.Schellen .Querfldten .3. String Saitentriger Noose:tuningnoose.Schalenzithern Valvebugles. Striker.Scheitel AufschlagPistonflutes. Pendelrasseln rattles. Musikbogen.flutes. Mundloch stdndigen Fesselstab-Reibtrommeln .Halslauten bearer. Schlag-Idiophone Neckedlutes.Standglocken Laiingstrompeten Freereeds. Harfebogen Stopped(in flutes). Schneideninstrumente phone End-blown (in conches).Halbfreistab-Reibtr. Schalmeien Lingsflidten .xvi. Stick. lutes.Geschwungene Reibtr. 16'36-I5/16. Stationary (infriction drums). Ansingtrommeln . Vertex.MiinIndividual.154 on Tue.cord.Waldhirner Pendant .semifixed stick. Plaques.dungsboden end-blown. Splitidiophones.