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Why Do Volcanoes Erupt?

Topic 1: Our changing world
Key language
change shape erosion erupt volcano sand vent lava
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What you need
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Rocks, stones and sand from your local area. Any of the above from other areas. Pictures showing erosion or interesting rock formations in your region or country. A picture of a volcano. A globe or map of the world. A copy of worksheet ‘Our changing world 1’, preferably photocopied onto thin card, for every child. Additional activity: A copy of worksheet ‘Our changing world 2’ for every child.

volcanic eruption

continent

First ideas
See Introduction for suggestions on how to introduce the Factbook for the first time.

Mixed ability teaching
See Introduction for suggestions on how to use the activities identified by the and icons.

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Before reading
Here are examples of how you might introduce some of the key language, writing new vocabulary on the board throughout: Show the children the picture of the volcano and ask the children Do you know what is special about this mountain? It’s called a volcano. Is it quiet? No, there is a volcanic eruption. Look at all the steam and this red liquid is called lava. Is it hot or cold? Yes, it is very, very hot. It is so hot that the rock melts. Check also that the children have the vocabulary to describe your rocks, stones and sand.
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Reading
Read pages 4 and 6, Why do volcanoes erupt? on page 7, The Himalayas on page 8, Sand from rocks on page 9, Pangaea on page 10 and One big continent: Alfred Wegener on page 13 of the Factbook, pausing to discuss and clarify the concepts, for example, by rubbing two soft rocks together to demonstrate how sand is formed. Alternatively, play the CD (tracks 27, 28, 29, 30 and 31) instead of reading, pausing where necessary. The children could then reread the sections to themselves or in small groups. Ask some of the more confident children to read a short section aloud to the class.

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After reading
Talk about your local region / country with the children: Do you know how it has changed over millions of years? What continent are you on? Look at your globe or world map and ask Can you imagine your continent attached to others? Look at the illustration on page 13 of the Factbook and ask: Where is your continent/ region? This discussion could develop into a local geology project where you gather information about how the landscape in your region/country was formed. They could consider: Is erosion an issue locally? Is land being lost to the sea, or soil being blown away?

Worksheet: ur changing world 1
The children cut out the continents and see how they fit together, looking at page 13 in the Factbook for help. Encourage them to move them together and apart again.

Additional activities Simplified questions and answers (page 64): See Introduction for suggestions
on how to use these.

Worksheet: ur changing world 2 A. Ask the children to look at the gapped text in pairs and to try and predict/
remember what the missing words might be with Factbooks closed. Then tell them to listen and fill in the gaps. Play the CD (track 27) or read the text on page 4 of the Factbook more than once. Write the first and last letters of each word in the gaps before photocopying. White out one or two more words from each text. Ask the children to compare in pairs before getting them to check in the Factbook and/or giving them the answers.

Answers:
A. water, rocks, wind, waves, big B. continent, million, seven

B. Repeat the same procedure, this time with the Pangaea text on page 10 of the
Factbook (track 30).

Classroom display: Use your examples to start a classroom display of interesting rocks. Write labels for your examples, stating where they came from and what they are, if known. Invite children to bring in specimens from home, with their parents’ permission, and help them to write appropriate labels. Useful links
For a fun activity making a home-made ‘volcano’ go to: http://www.planet-science.com/outthere/index.html?page=/outthere/earth/ volcano.html

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© Cambridge University Press 2010 PHOTOCOPIABLE

Cut out the continents and see how they fit together. Look at page 13 in the Factbook to help you.

Name

Worksheet: Our changing world 1

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Name

Worksheet: Our changing world 2
Look at the gaps. Talk to your partner. What are the missing words? Now listen and write the words.

A: Why do rocks change shape?
and ice change the shape of . The Wind, can make holes in rocks and the of the sea can make cliffs on the coastline. This process is called erosion, but it takes millions of years to make changes.

B: Pangaea
A very long time ago, Earth was one huge started breaking up about 220 continents. that we now call Pangaea. Pangaea years ago and now there are

© Cambridge University Press 2010 PHOTOCOPIABLE

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Topic 2: Fossils
Key language
impression fossil

What you need
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Optional: Some fossils. Modelling clay. Model dinosaurs. Plant materials.

First ideas
See Introduction for suggestions on how to introduce the Factbook for the first time.

Mixed ability teaching
See Introduction for suggestions on how to use the activities identified by the and icons.

Before reading
Here is an example of how you might introduce the key language, writing new vocabulary on the board throughout: Show the children your model dinosaurs and ask What are these? Ask volunteers to make impressions of the dinosaurs’ feet in your modelling clay. Tell the children how dinosaurs and other plants and animals that lived a very long time ago sometimes made impressions like this in soft earth. Then sometimes the soft earth became hard rock. Ask the children what you get then and elicit or teach the word fossil. Show the children your fossils if you have some. Ask them if they have ever found a fossil, or seen one before, perhaps in a museum.

Reading
Read page 5 of the Factbook, pausing to discuss and clarify the concepts, for example, by contrasting the softness of the modelling material with the hardness of the rock containing your fossils. Alternatively, play the CD (track 28) instead of reading, pausing where necessary. The children could then reread the section to themselves or in small groups. Ask some of the more confident children to read a short section aloud to the class.

After reading
Put the children into pairs and give out the modelling clay and plant materials. The children take it in turns to make fossil-like impressions. Circulate and talk to the children, recycling vocabulary from the Factbook.

Additional activities Simplified questions and answers (page 64): See Introduction for suggestions
on how to use these.

Useful links
For a fun internet game ‘building’ fossil bones into creatures go to: http://www.bbc.co.uk/sn/prehistoric_life/games/skeleton_jigsaw/

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Topic 3: Under the earth
Key language
coal metal iron ore sapphire gold silver copper stalagmites mineral
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What you need
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A picture of miners or a mine. A piece of coal or a picture of coal or a coal fire. Pictures of or things made out of gold, silver and copper. Pictures of gemstones that come from under the earth, including sapphires. A jug of water and bowl. Material to protect furniture and mop up spills. Extra board pens. A copy of the worksheet ‘How many things can you find that come from under the ground?’ for every child. Additional activity: A notice board and materials for making pictures and/or posters.

stalactites

First ideas
See Introduction for suggestions on how to introduce the Factbook for the first time.

n

Mixed ability teaching
See Introduction for suggestions on how to use the activities identified by the and icons.

n

Before reading
Here are examples of how you might introduce some of the key language, writing new vocabulary on the board throughout: Show the children your picture of a mine or miners and ask What do people look for and dig out from under the earth? Accept answers in L1 if necessary, and if possible relate these to your pictures and teach the words in English. Tell the children they are going to read about some things that are found under the earth.

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Reading
Read What are minerals and metals? on page 7, Sapphire on page 8 and Stalactites and stalagmites on page 9 of the Factbook, pausing to discuss and clarify the concepts, for example, by dripping water very slowly from your jug. Alternatively, play the CD (tracks 28 and 29) instead of reading, pausing where necessary. The children could then reread the sections to themselves or in small groups. Ask some of the more confident children to read a short section aloud to the class.

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After reading
Put the children into pairs and give them a copy of the worksheet. Go through the instructions with them, writing one or two examples on the board. Include an example of something you wouldn’t expect the children to know in English and do a little drawing instead. Give them five minutes to go round the classroom and/or playground, recording in words and drawings all the things they can find that have come from under the earth or are made from things that have come from under the earth, for example, metal objects. Then gather the children round the board and get them to write or draw all the things they have found. When they have finished (and of course there will be duplications), talk about what is on the board, correcting any misspellings and supplying any English words that you think would be useful for them at this stage. The children add any items they didn’t find or think of at the bottom of their worksheets. Finally, rub out all the duplications and, with the class, count how many items you found. The children write the number on their worksheets.

Additional activities Simplified questions and answers (page 64): See Introduction for suggestions
on how to use these.

Poster making / artwork: Prepare an empty notice board with the heading Under the Earth. Tell the children you want them to produce pictures and/or posters to fill the notice board. Make one or two suggestions and write them on the board, for example, pictures of metal machines, designs for amazing gold, copper and sapphire jewellery, paintings of a coal fire on black paper, or an underground scene with stalactites and stalagmites. Get the children to compare ideas in small groups before telling you what they want to do. They could look in the Factbook for further ideas.

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Name

Worksheet: How many things can you
find that come from under the ground?

How many things can you find that: come from under the ground? or are made from things that come from under the ground? Write or draw the things you find here.

Write and draw the things other people found here.

The class found

things.

© Cambridge University Press 2010 PHOTOCOPIABLE

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Simplified questions and answers
Q: Why do rocks change shape? A: Wind, water and ice change the shape of rocks. This process is called erosion.

Q: What is a fossil?

A: A fossil is the impression in rock of something that lived a very long time ago.

Q: How are mountains made?

A: When two pieces of rock move and collide, they make mountains.

Q: Why do volcanoes erupt?

A: Deep inside the Earth it is very hot – so hot that rocks melt to become a liquid called lava. When the lava breaks through a vent, this is a volcanic eruption.

Q: What are minerals?

A: Minerals are compounds that are formed by rocks that are very hot or heavy.

Q: What are stalactites and stalagmites made of?

A: They are made of minerals from dripping water.

Q: Where does sand come from?

A: Sand comes from rocks. The wind and sea throw the small rocks about and they become sand.

© Cambridge University Press 2010 PHOTOCOPIABLE

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It’s quiz time! ideas and answers
You will find a quiz on pages 14 and 15 of the Factbook. Here are some ways you could use the quiz: n Do each activity in turn, with the children working in pairs or threes, checking the answers as a class before going on to the next activity either immediately or in a future lesson. n The children work in small mixed ability teams to complete as many of the answers in the entire quiz as they can before checking the answers as a class and seeing which team has won – keeping this as light-hearted as possible, of course! n The children work in pairs or threes to complete as many of the answers in the entire quiz as they can before checking the answers as a class. n n The children work individually on the entire quiz and then compare their answers in pairs or threes before checking them as a class. Exploit the quiz as extension activities for your fast finishers.

Answer key Activity 1
1. Coal. Because all the others are metals. 2. Tree. Because you find all the others in caves. 3. Dinosaur. Because the others are all types of rocks. 4. Coal. Because the others are all things that cause erosion.

Activity 2
2 c) 3 b) 4 a)

Activity 3
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Activity 4
Pupils’ own ideas, for example, fossils, coal, iron, gold, silver, copper, lava, sapphire, stalactites, stalagmites 65