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4, 2 2012, 65-70

**Numerical Simulation of Friction Stir Welding on Aluminum Alloy 2024-T351 Plates
**

M. Mijajlovi´ c, D. Milˇ ci´ c, V. Nikoli´ c-Stanojevi´ c, M. Milˇ ci´ c

Abstract: Friction stir welding is a solid-state welding technique that utilizes thermo-mechanical inﬂuence of the rotating welding tool on parent material resulting with monolith joint - weld. On the contact of welding tool and parent material, signiﬁcant stirring and deformation of parent material appears, and during this process mechanical energy is partially transformed into heat. Generated heat affects the temperature of the welding tool and parent material so proposed analytical model for estimation of the amount of generated heat can be veriﬁed by temperature: analytically determined heat is used for numerical estimation of the parent material’s temperature and this temperature is compared to the experimentally determined temperature. Numerical solution for analytical estimation of welding plates temperature is estimated using ﬁnite difference method - explicit scheme with adaptive grid, considering inﬂuence of temperature on material’s conductivity, contact conditions between welding tool and parent material, material ﬂow around welding tool etc. Keywords: riction Stir Welding, Numerical Simulation, 2024-T351, Finite Difference Method

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Introduction

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process predominantly used for welding of aluminium, aluminium alloys and other soft metals/alloys. This welding technique requires usage of specialized, cylindrical – shouldered tool, with a proﬁled threaded/unthreaded probe (Figure 1). Welding tool is rotated at a constant speed and fed at a constant traverse speed into the joint line between two welding plates (workpieces), which are butted together. The parts are clamped rigidly onto a backing plate (anvil) in a manner that prevents the abutting joint faces from being forced apart. The length of the probe is slightly less than the weld depth required and the tool shoulder should have contact with the work surface. The probe is moved against the weld – joint line, or vice versa. While traveling, welding tool stirs, deforms and mixes the material of the workpieces into the monolith mixture that represents the weld.

Manuscript received March 14, 2012 ; accepted may 23, 2012. M. Mijajlovi´ c, D. Milˇ ci´ c, M. Milˇ ci´ c are with the University of Niˇ s, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Niˇ s, Serbia; V. Nikoli´ c-Stanojevi´ c is with the State University of Novi Pazar, Novi Pazar, Serbia.

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1. welding tool and active surfaces of the welding tool As a solid state welding procedure. Mijajlovi´ c.66 M. 7. as a result of any kind of energy transformation. direct or indirect product of energy use is transformation of input energy into heat. This is a phenomenon that appears during the FSW process as well: mechanical energy given to the welding tool is dominantly used for deformation and mixing of the particles chopped from workpieces during contact of the welding tool and workpieces. However. light. FSW uses pure mechanical energy as welding process activation energy and distributes it from the welding machine to the base material (workpieces) over the welding tool. All of them differently approach to the heat generation in FSW. Milˇ ci´ c. tribology. partially or almost completely. M. radiation etc. experience and engineering practice have shown that. only one part of the mechanical energy is used directly as a mechanical energy while the rest of it is transformed in other types of energy: into heat. This layer represents primary heat generation sources. Researches. Primary transformation of the mechanical power into heat happens on the intimate contact of the welding tool and workpieces or in a thin layer of the softer material (in this case it is the material of workpieces) near the welding tool (Figure 2). Secondary transformation of power into heat happens in the volume of deformed material of workpieces and moving particles of workpieces’ material represent secondary heat generation sources. This happened 11 years after invention of the FSW. Nikoli´ c-Stanojevi´ c. electricity. Until present days. Milˇ ci´ c Fig. V. all of them consider heat generation in FSW as a process tightly connected with the contact mechanics. plastic deforming . however. 2 Analytical model for estimation of amount of generated during FSW Heat generation process at FSW has been partially investigated at the beginning of 2002 for the ﬁrst time [3]. there are three (four) published analytical models for estimation and assessment of amount of heat generated during FSW [3. rinciple of the FSW. D. the rest of energy is transforming into heat and some of it is transformed in other types of energy (Figure 1). 8].

6]. Due to the numerous parameters involving transformation of mechanical energy into heat. as well as the fact that heat generation in FSW is highly process-realization dependent phenomena. 2. In order to estimate maximal possible amount of generated heat during FSW (for certain technological parameters of the process). complex mutual dependences between these parameters. this model takes into consideration inﬂuence of the welding tool to the process of welding. These models show that 60% to 100% of the mechanical power transform into heat during FSW. temperature . pace discretization. In reality.node substitution and replacement during FSW and thermodynamics of deformable bodies. Analytical model developed at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nis is the fourth published model for estimation of amount of heat generated during FSW [4. tribological parameters. one part of mechanical energy is used for other processes that appear during welding what gives that at most the rest of the mechanical energy can be transformed into heat. As well as ﬁrst three models. heat generation and material ﬂow pattern . it relies on the conservation of mechanical energy postulate and starts from the assumption that in theory complete amount of mechanical energy delivered to the welding tool transforms into heat. 3 Numerical simulation of FSW Estimation of the amount of generated heat during FSW is basing on analytical expressions that give the amount of heat generated on active surfaces of the welding tool. For example. heat generation mechanisms etc. material ﬂow around the welding tool. analytical estimation of amount of heat generated during FSW is iterative and discrete process.Numerical Simulation of Friction Stir Welding on Aluminum Alloy 2024-T351 Plates 67 Fig. temperature of workpieces. 5. loads.

All these procedures are numerical and when implemented in analytical model for heat estimation they are part of the numerical simulation of FSW that has a goal estimate amount of heat generated during FSW. technological parameters of the FSW. however. 10]. Procedure is called . 8. technological parameters of welding process and material properties etc. The main goal of the procedure was to improve accuracy of the numerical simulation. Heat equation is differential equation that has algebraic solutions for limited cases and usually is solved numerically. and then to connect heat transfer with mass transfer. As process-realization dependent phenomena. geometry of the FSW tool etc. V. D. Present works on FSW either neglect the inﬂuence of material ﬂow or simplify the material ﬂow patterns considering it purely rotational around the welding tool. Milˇ ci´ c of workpieces is important for the FSW process and estimation of temperature requires solving heat equation. to estimate material ﬂow pattern around the FSW tool. dependences between welding tool. Numerical simulation of the FSW . probabilistic theory. M. there is no adequate mathematical model capable to fully describe it. Nikoli´ c-Stanojevi´ c. Milˇ ci´ c. Table 1 shows some important parameters necessary for the numerical simulation. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Nis has proposed a new numerical procedure for implementation of material ﬂow pattern into numerical simulations of FSW. Even more complex challenge is estimation of heat transfer thru the workpieces initiated with the material ﬂow around the welding tool: it is necessary to recognize material ﬂow patterns. heat generation during FSW inﬂuences analytical model for amount of generated heat estimation to use experimental data of FSW for proper precision (Figure 3). 9. Fig. Material ﬂow in FSW was explained by many [1.node substitution and replacement [6] and uses experimental results. Mijajlovi´ c.68 M. 2. 3.

94%.167 λ pt · ∆t /(ρ pt ·c pt · ∆z2 min )=0. 1. and pulling out 52. cwt = 500 J/(kgK) S335 EN 10025.18 Convection coefﬁcient Nominal TP* of welding plates: Nominal TP of welding tool: Material and diameter of bolts: Nominal TP of bolts: Important dimensions and material of anvil: Nominal TP of anvil: Minimal discretization dimensions / time step: Adaptive discretization parameters: Convergence of FDM**: 149 310 204 138 260 62 316 41 371 28 400 21 379 / 0.30GHz) *TP – thermomechanical properties. **FDM . dz =10 mm λbt = 43 W/(mK). cbt = 420 J/(kgK) La =220 mm. 2. 5/3.10%.ﬁnite difference method 4 Discussion and conclusions Analytical model for the estimation of amount of heat generated during FSW has shown that 60-100% of mechanical power delivered to the welding tool transform into heat.node substitution and .5 mm. ∆zmin = 1. welding 90. Numerical simulation of FSW included well known ﬁnite difference method for numerical estimation of temperatures in discrete nodes of workpieces and accuracy of the simulation is improved by the innovative numerical method for material ﬂow deﬁnition . X5CrNi18-10 λa = 18 W/(mK). ε ). Ba = 148 mm.75 34 / 1.25%. ﬁrst dwelling 90. 345 331 [N/mm2] / no plastic strain σyield (T. 483 455 / [N/mm2] / / 0. ca = 500 J/(kgK) ∆xmin = 3 mm. S IMULATION PARAMETERS 69 T. 2 )=0.58% (during plunging phase 79.122¡1/6=0.167 nnod =14160 / niter =28528 tcalc = 1283760 s (14 d 20 h 36 min) (processor: 2×2.0055 s εx =-1. αaprox =1500 W/(m2 K) λ pt = 121 W/(mK).03¡1/6=0.5 mm.23 76 / 0. ρ pt = 2780 kg/m3 .00 Number of nodes/iterations: Approximate calculation time α = 10W/(m2 K). εy = -4/3. Median value of heat transformation is 86. ∆ymin = 1. c pt = 875 J/(kgK) λwt = 38 W/(mK). 20/3.16 plastic strain ε 0.Numerical Simulation of Friction Stir Welding on Aluminum Alloy 2024-T351 Plates Table 1.27%. 16/3. ρbt = 7850 kg/m3 . 7/2. 5/3.122¡1/6=0. 10/3. ρwt = 7840 kg/m3 . ∆t = 0. εz =-1.55 52 / 0. 1.11 186 / 0.92%).167 λ pt · ∆t /(ρ pt ·c pt · ∆xmin λ pt · ∆t /(ρ pt ·c pt · ∆y2 min )=0. Ha =16 mm. ρa = 8030 kg/m3 . [ ˚ C] 24 100 σyield (T). 1. second dwelling 90.00 25 / 1.

. et all. 43.H.(2003). on Friction Stir Welding. 2012. Part 2. NANDAN. et all. D JURDJANOVI C ogy in Industry Journal. University of Nis. 3. Vol. M. Proposed analytical/numerical model for temperature estimation gave numerically estimated temperature that varies up to 11% from experimentally estimated temperature (that is about 15 ˚ C as absolute error). PhD thesis. et all. M IJAJLOVI C amount of heat generated during FSW. Vol. Dynamic material deformation during friction stir welding aluminium. 51-63. No 2. Mater. (2007). Three-dimensional modeling of the friction stir-welding process. ´ . M. H ATTEL .(2002).A. 3-Dimensional CDF modelling of ﬂow round a threated friction stir welding tool proﬁle. Thermal modeling of friction stir welding in a moving coordinate [3] M. (2011).. et all. No. Tech. 1549-1557. (2009). Journal of Balkan Tribological Association. Int. ´ . M IJAJLOVI C During Friction Stir Welding. C OLLIGAN . M IJAJLOVI C During Friction Stir Welding. [2] P. Milˇ ci´ c. Modeling Simul. Mathematical Model for Analytical Estimation of Generated Heat [4] M. ˇ ´ . U LYSSE. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nis. 17. 1. J. Heat Generation During Friction Stir Welding Process. (2002). Maximal temperature of the welding tool was experimentally measured Tmax = 464 ˚ C. An analytical model for the heat generation in Friction Stir Welding. 1st Int. 11. Three-dimensional heat and material ﬂow during friction stir welding of mild steel. S CHMIDT. . Tribol[11] M. Sci. [7] H. 8-14. Part 1. 320-327. 1. Milˇ ci´ c replacements. ´ . Eng. Proc. v. J.143-157. Investigation and development of analytical model for estimation of [6] M. Mater. 361-370. 31. Mijajlovi´ c. (2005).70 M. 883-895. Vol 42. R S HERCLIF. Mathematical Model for Analytical Estimation of Generated Heat [5] M. 17. USA 1999. [8] R. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. Journal of Balkan Tribological Association. R. Maximal temperature on welding plates was numerically estimated Tmax = 393. C OLEGROVE . Vol 12. 605-615. Mach. Nikoli´ c-Stanojevi´ c. KOVA C system and its validation. ˇ EVI C ´ . J. Manu. Vol.. Vol 55. (2011). D. Material Flow and Microstructure in the Friction Stir Butt [9] J. KOVA CEVI V Welds of the Same and Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys.169. [10] P. ASM International. Int. References [1] K. Thousand Oaks. Acta Materialia. Vol. what is about 80% of Al 2024 T351 melting point. R. Symp. V. of Machine Tools & Manufacture. Vol. (2004). S ONG . J. Tool. J. 179-191. ´ .O UYANG .538 ˚ C. Process. W ERT. . H.

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