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Fourth LACCEI International Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology (LACCET’2006) !

rea"ing Frontier# and !arrier# in Engineering$ Education% &e#earch and 'ractice( 2)*2+ ,un 2006% -ayag.e/% 'uerto &ico0

Application of Rapid Prototyping Technology to Earmold Production
Zbigniew J. Czaj iewicz! Ph" Professor, Robert Morris University, Moon Township, Pennsylvania, USA, czajkiewicz@rm !e"

The small man fact rin# company specializes in man fact rin# of ear mol"s for hearin# ai"s! $ach ear mol" is c stom ma"e for every in"ivi" al patient! To"ay the man fact rin# process is %&&' man al an" re( ires very skille" labor! To improve this process an" intro" ce mo"ern technolo#y the )ompany contacte" )enter for Applie" Research in $n#ineerin# an" Science at Robert Morris University *RMU+ )AR$S, to assist in the improvement of the man fact rin# process by tilizin# mo"ern rapi" prototypin# technolo#y! - rin# this project, . "ifferent commercial rapi" prototypin# technolo#ies, /% companies an" 0% machines were eval ate" in or"er to achieve the optim m RP system that b il"s parts sin# plastic+ like materials! RMU+)AR$S was also involve" in the eval ation of vario s materials that co l" be se" with "iverse rapi" prototypin# systems to better accommo"ate any client1s nee"s!

Rapi" prototypin#, stereolitho#raphy, ear mol"s

%. &ntroduction
Robert Morris University 2 )enter for Applie" Research in $n#ineerin# an" Science *)AR$S, provi"es cons ltancy service for local man fact rin# companies! 3ne of the clients is man fact rin# c stom+ma"e earmol"s for hearin# ai" "evices! 1ee Figure )0 The p rpose of this research is fin"in# an optim m rapi" prototypin# systems for hearin# ai" in" stry! Rapi" prototypin# is a technolo#y that takes three "imensional comp ter mo"els an" b il"s three+"imensional parts typically by b il"in# layers pon layer of material! 4 il"in# spee" an" its cost is mo"est comparin# the ol" prototypin# metho"s! Therefore, new rapi" prototypin# technolo#ies allow "esi#ners to "emonstrate, test, an" confirm their "esi#ns early an" fre( ently in the process! The )ompany is ni( e an" its stren#th is in man fact rin# earmol"s for hearin# ai"s base" on the ear imprint taken by a "octor! An earmol" is a part of behin"+the+ear hearin# ai" "evice, which con" cts so n" into the canal! The reason of c stom man fact rin# is to provi"e the most effective hearin# ai" for each patient! A #oo" aco stic seal of an earmol" prevents fee"backs to increase aco stic ( ality! 5owever, the shape of every in"ivi" al pinna *e6ternally visible part of the ear, is ni( e like a fin#erprint, hence7 an earmol" m st be c stom+ma"e to fit perfectly in the patient8s ear! To"ay the man fact rin# process is %&&' man al an" re( ires very skille" labor! 9t takes the company at least si6 months to train new employee to be proficient in this process! Th s, the company contracte" RMU+)AR$S to assist in the improvement of the man fact rin# process by tilizin# mo"ern rapi"

.S<ST$MS =9P$R 5A S:A =9P$R S:A S:A >&&& S:A ?&&& AUT3STRA-$ $+-ARTS )M$T RAP9.&% :S. which is not possible with man al process! RMU+)AR$S was involve" in the eval ation of vario s materials that co l" be se" with "iverse rapi" prototypin# systems to better accommo"ate any client1s nee"s! The primary foc s of this project is on RP systems that b il" parts sin# plastic+like materials! .rin# this project..right-. "ifferent commercial rapi" prototypin# technolo#ies.S)5EARF$ DS+R$A:9F$R S:T A$GT DA)T3R< -9H9TA:EAG &%& S3A< S)S+@&&&I@&&&S)S+.%&&I. S:A .left.8 C75PA/8 57"E1 S:..& $3S9AT P ?&& .%&&S)S+J&&&IJ&&&UA9RAP9SP+%>&/ URM+5P.MAST$R ./0 '"1! u#er /ordelch June 2334 3ne of the major #oals of this project was to prove that technolo#y an" the process can be implemente" in re# lar pro" ction to save cost. . Copyright# . /% companies an" 0% machines were eval ate" in or"er to achieve the optim m RP system an" the material! 1ee table )0 Table %( Rapid Prototyping 5achine 5anufacturer# by Technologie# TEC6/717.MAST$R @&&& -$AB$A S3:9-C$T SC+/&&P D3)B$ UA.&&& RAP9.S<T$MS S9AT$RSTAT93A 59K S9AT$RSTAT93A PR3 $3S $3S9AT P .and earmold .prototypin# technolo#y! Rapi" prototypin# permits b il"in# n mero s c stom "esi#ne" earmol"s for "ifferent patients at a time! 'igure %( )ehind*the*ear hearing aid de+ice . S:S . improve ( ality an" consistency of the pro" ction! 9t can also ass re repeatability of the process.

%& F>%& F. 4ST SST PR3-9H< =AATAH$ iISIS$ T9TAA MAGUM 9A=9S93A :-+.left-. Regular #tyle earmold with tubing .D-M SP$$.+. an" a har" pinna re( ires vice versa The part is trimme"...PR9AT9AH -:P P3:<C$T MCM S3:9-9M$AS93A F+)3RP $A=9S93AT$) STRATAS<SI34C$T .&& F.%& P$RDA)T3R< $-$A /@& $-$A ."esi#n software the part is then "esi#ne" an" eval ate" on the comp ter ..&5 BS)+>&A P:T+A0 S.+..9A=9S93A SR+.:3M+%&%> :3M+/. T5$RM3C$T 9A=9S93A 5R+..PART -9M$AS93A STRATAS<S S5$$T :AM9AAT93A .right2.PART RP. "e#cription of the /ew Proce##    9mprint of patient ear is taken by a "octor an" sent to the earmol" man fact rer $n#ineer scans the imprint sin# ..S<ST$MS )U49) B9RA)3RP . Proce## "e#cription# 2.S<ST$MS SP$$. "e#cription of the Current Proce##    9mprint of patient ear is taken by a "octor an" sent to the earmol" man fact rer :aboratory technicians prepare a mol" sin# the patient8s imprint The part is pro" ce" by the soli"ification of li( i" acrylic or silicone po re" into the mol"! The material is selecte" in accor"ance with the pinna8s softness! Henerally.2. cleane" an" rea"y for se  Figure 2( Regular #tyle occluding earmold .%.scanner Usin# special . a soft pinna re( ires a ri#i" earmol".- 2.

.Mo"elin#. :i#htscape Mechanical -esktop. bei#e material "oes not match most of the people8s skin color! Therefore. Soli"-esi#n.9. $n#lan". states. 9nventor. 9:.. Rapid prototyping machine -esi#ne" mo"els will be converte" first typically to ST: format *!stl e6tension. an" Ei"e6 *:on# 9slan". there is a #oo" f t re for the c rin# systemN *Binca"e /&&>.  After "esi#n is complete". Concern# for Rapid Prototyping 0tilization in the Proce## Utilization of rapi" prototypin# in hearin# ai" in" stry is a new approach! A small n mber of companies se this technolo#y for earmol" man fact rin#! Terry Eohlers.! 3n the other han". AC. the pro" ct m st be biocompatible! . they are trimme". an" then will be e6porte" to the RP machine! >&+?& "ifferent earmol"s can be b ilt at a time in between .9. Phonak *Earrenville.9. so that the capt re" "ata is converte" typically into a )A-I)AM file! 2. software allows "esi#ners to create or improve an e6istin# mo"el in three "imensions! The followin# software is the most commonly se" in three+"imensional mo"elin#L Alibre. skin color earmol"s are preferable! 5owever. 9ron)A-. Rapid Prototyping Tool# To )e 0#ed &n The 5anufacturing Proce## 2. Soli"$"#e.%..2. A to)A-. Uni#raphics 2.! The client has concerns in re#ar" to appearance an" ( ality of earmol"s ma"e with both laser sinterin# an" stereolitho#raphy! 9t has been observe" that the pro" cts ma"e with stereolitho#raphy may be brittle for finishin# an" lon#+term se! Another observe" problem is that the stereolitho#raphy material a#es an" chan#es its color over time! Aeil 5opkinson.St "io Ma6. in"icates. Rhinoceros .. 9*" :canner A three "imensional scanner is se" to "i#itize the imprint. to . cleane". it "rove the research into plastics an" plastic+like RP materials! .. Mc re" resins ten" to c re over time. they are not clear! The client oppose" the i"ea of pro" cin# non+aesthetical earmol"s! 9n fact. pro" cts ma"e with laser sinterin# "o not have a#in# problem. after the parts are complete". set of earmol"s file is "ownloa"e" to the rapi" prototypin# machine where it is pro" ce" + a#ain eliminatin# the man al process! Dinally. Think. at :o #hboro #h University *:eicestershire. an" rea"y for se! 2. Pro$. many en"+ sers have aesthetical concerns an" they "o not want to e6pose their hearin# problems7 hence. clear materials are in hi#h "eman" an" se" in earmol"s pro" ction! $n#ineers of the client emphasize" that the pro" ct has to keep its clear an" colorless state over time re#ar"less of the type of e6pos re e!#! s n! The last important iss e abo t material is that most RP materials are skin+irritant or aller#enic! 5owever. ho rs accor"in# to the machine8s technolo#y an" type! 9. so the mechanical properties can chan#e! 9f that can be overcome.. MPeople who are hearin#+impaire" also benefit from rapi" man fact rin#! )ompanies incl "in# Siemens *Piscataway. in+the+ear hearin# ai"s! Siemens an" Phonak are sin# laser sinterin#. a lect rer in the Rapi" Man fact rin# Research Hro p *RMRH.9.. . :cope of the Re#earch The initial research con" cte" " rin# this project was to "etermine all e6istin# commercial RP technolo#ies! The necessity of pro" ct clearness eliminate" at once systems that b il" metal parts only7 hence. nevertheless. 9+-eas. A<. are sin# RP systems to man fact re c stom+fit. who is an in" stry analyst an" p blisher of the Eohlers Report. )A-Bey. Soli"Eorks. Archi)A-. while Ei"e6 is sin# stereolitho#raphyN *Eohlers /&&.. 9*" "e#ign :oftware )A-I)AM *)omp ter+Ai"e"+-esi#n an" )omp ter+Ai"e"+Man fact rin#.9.

polycarbonate . nylon."ata onto the s rface of a container of li( i" photopolymer! Stereolitho#raphy ses materials that soli"ify very ( ickly7 therefore.:1! :1AT5-( Stereolitho#raphy pro" ces three "imensional parts one layer at a time sin# a laser to har"en U=+c rable resin! The laser beam traces cross sectional slice information of the .%..)A.%. it soli"ifies ( ickly at contact with previo s layer! 1ee Figure 30 MaterialsL Plastics 2 A4S. layer+by+layer.. #lass+fille" nylon 'igure . 'u#ed "epo#ition 5odeling( . 1a#er #intering( .%. or plastic pow"ers! The pow"er in the b il" chamber is se" as a s pport for part " rin# the process! 1ee Figure 20 MaterialsL Pow"ere" materials 2 polycarbonate. :tereolithography . Copyright# 2334 5ateriali#e Technologielaan .%. a secon" layer can be b ilt onto the first layer! 1ee Figure +0 Materials se"L :i( i" photo reactive U=+ c rable resin + epo6ies.( 1a#er :intering..1:! :1:T5:aser Sinterin# is creatin# objects..2.'"5T5This process ses molten plastics to b il" a three "imensional part! A nozzle traces the parts cross sectional #eometry layer+by+layer! The material is heate" p to only one "e#ree below the meltin# point! 3nce the material is e6tr "e". metal. Copyright# 2334 5ateriali#e Technologielaan .9.%. acrylates! 'igure 9 :tereolithography. by sin# heat of a )3 / laser to sinter or f se ceramic. Po##ible RP Technologie# and 5aterial# ...

= 5ilwau ee :chool of Engineering .+. cyanacrylate an" epo6y are se" after the part is printe"! .mo"el is pro" ce"! 1ee Figure 60 MaterialsL Special paper or plastic sheets an" toner + ri#i" polyvinyl chlori"e compo n" *Soli"imension..printin# is similar to the S:S metho" e6cept instea" of sin# a laser to sinter material to#ether. a print hea" "ispenses a sol tion to bin" the pow"er to#ether! 1ee Figure 40 MaterialsL Plaster or starch! 9nfiltrants s ch as wa6.'igure 4( 'u#ed "epo#ition 5odeling .4. Three "imen#ional Printing . 1aminated 7bject 5anufacturing .. 'igure <( :heet 1amination....175T5-! or :heet lamination The process ses a )3/ laser to create cross+section of a three "imensional object from layers of a special paper! A heate" roller is se" to melt the coatin# on the paper layer to a"here to the previo s layer! The )3/ laser c ts the o tline of the cross+sectional pattern as each new layer is create" an" bon"s layer by layer ntil a .%.%.

! MaterialsL :i( i" photopolymer sensitive to visible li#ht + 5ybri" acrylate. PolyJet .%. e6po6y"es. "igital 1ight Proce##ing( This metho" of creatin# soli" parts has similarities with stereolitho#rapy! 5owever. sin# -:P TM *-i#ital :i#ht Processin#. Copyright = 233< Cyon Re#earch Corporation . an" jette" o t small "roplets onto the b il" tray in a semi+visco s state! 3nce it is jette". Technolo#y 1ee Figure 50 provi"e" by Te6as 9nstr ments as a so rce of li#ht * Figure 6. this new photopolymerization process is base" on layer+by+layer Mask Projection.. is heate" p.%.. nanoparticle fille" materials an" compo n"s 'igure ?( "igital 1ight Proce##ing. Copyright 2334 CR"5 0$ 'igure @( "1P! light #ource Copyright 233< TeAa# &n#trument# . instea" of laser *like the stereolitho#raphy.'igure >( Three "imen#ional Printing. methacrylates. which is in soli" state * nlike the li( i" S: material.<..>. it is c re" by U= li#hts an" t rns into a soli" layer! 1ee Figure )00 MaterialsL Soli" Acrylate+base" photopolymer resin! .PJET-( The technolo#y has si#nificant similarities with stereolitho#raphy! The "ifference is that photosensitive material.

Po##ible RP 5aterial# RMU+)AR$S foc se" on clear RP materials! 9nitially.eometrie# 1td . 5ulti*Jet 5odeling .. Copyright 233< Cyon Re#earch Corporation . sheet lamination an" three+"imensional printin# technolo#ies "o not c rrently have clearItransparent object creatin# capability! Some stereolitho#raphy resins an" some other plastic+like RP materials have met the criteria! . b il"in# layer pon layer of material that soli"ifies into the physical prototype! 1ee Figure ))0 MaterialsL Acrylic photopolymer 'igure %%( 5ulti*Jet 5odeling. which co l" be se" in these ei#ht RP technolo#ies.%.'igure %3( PolyJet( Copyright 2334 7bject .?. all possible clear materials.2..5J5-( The process ses a print hea" that consists of linear arran#e" jets! The jets "ispense thermopolymer material on the b il" tray with each pass alon# an G+a6is. were i"entifie"! The research showe" that laser sinterin#.

hi#h costs of research activities for both machine an" material man fact rers. PolyCet an" -:P were consi"ere" as tar#et technolo#ies! A""itionally. e6treme yellow tint "i" not pass the client8s ( ality e6pectations! . in"icates..Hro p which is a member of Stratasys 9nc!.. an" Polycarbonate.2. an" Acrylic Photopolymer respectively! Sample ST: files of earmol"s were sent to machine man fact rers to make sample parts to compare parts8 acc racy. clear A4S materials are available in this fiel"! Attractive system prices in comparison to other technolo#ies ca se" )AR$S to investi#ate possible se of clear A4S materials in D-M technolo#y! The i"ea was that fine+t nin# the material8s compo n"s an" a""itional machine set ps co l" make possible the se of D-M in or"er to b il" clear A4S parts! 5owever.! 9n fact.. Perfactory co l" not be an option for the client! .9. an" M lti Cet Mo"elin#TM *MCM.Therefore. an" limite" market "eman" for clear parts r le" o t this option! )AR$S receive" sample parts from Stratasys with two "ifferent materialsL A4S an" polycarbonate *P)...2.&' of the stren#th of injection mol"e" A4S! 3ther properties.&.&&& respectively! The A4S.. b bbles were observe" in the parts! 9n concl sion. PolyJet 3bjet Heometries of 9srael patente" its PolyCet TM in /&&&! 3bjet8s PolyCet systems are e6cl sively "istrib te" by STRATAS<S 9nc! in Aorth America! 5i#h acc racy an" #oo" finish was observe" in sample parts ma"e with $"en /@& sin# D ll) re ?/& material! The transparency of parts was satisfactory7 nevertheless.2.2. provi"es the cheapest RP system in Aorth America! 4oth 4ST an" SST systems se D-M technolo#y an" have price ta#s n"er O/>. also approach or e( al those of injection mol"e" parts! This makes A4S a wi"ely se" material for f nctional applicationsN *Hrimm /&&. s ch as thermal an" chemical resistance. D se" -eposition Mo"elin#TM *D-M.2. 5J5 Parts ma"e with =isiCet SR+/&& in .! The A4S parts were far from bein# transl cent! 9t was notice" that they are opa( e white! The P) parts provi"e" very low transl cency with #littery white color! S bse( ently. their stron# bei#e tint was a ne#ative aspect! 4esi"es.Systems8 9nvision SR+.. the Stratasys en#ineers informe" )AR$S that it ha" been teste" before an" notice" that the temperat re at e6tr sion point ma"e the material lose its clearness! Theoretically. it is possible to pro" ce clear parts in this system sin# clear A4S.%..&&& an" O. stereolitho#raphy. MUsers report that the A4S prototypes "emonstrate @&2. En+i#ion Tech * "1PT5 -i#ital :i#ht Process -:PQ technolo#y of Te6as 9nstr ments has been se" principally in T=s an" projectors! $nvision Tech implemente" -:P to its PerfactoryQ rapi" prototypin# machine as a so rce of li#ht instea" of laser! Perfactory RP machine has recently fo n" tilization amon# the hearin# ai" in" stry with its si#nificant low investment cost comparin# to other stereolitho#raphy systems! The material se" by Perfactory was acryl R+>! The sample parts met the transparency e6pectations! 5owever..machine "i" not meet the transparency e6pectations! The parts were transl cent rather than bein# transparent! . it was "eci"e" to eliminate the D-M technolo#y from f rther consi"eration " e to nsatisfactory clearness of the sample parts! . which is se" in D-M systems. a rapi" prototypin# e6pert an" presi"ent of T!A! Hrimm P Associates. nevertheless. '"5 4oth Stratasys an" -imension have s ccessf l rapi" prototypin# machines employin# D-M technolo#y! The machines are s itable for b il"in# acc rate an" " rable parts! Their simplicity of se an" affor"able prices wo l" have positione" them above all if they were able to create clear objects! -imension . has remarkable resemblances with those se" in plastic injection mol"in# machines! To"" Hrimm. clearness an" any possible tint! All companies were aske" to b il" these parts sin# their most clear material! $armol" samples were eval ate" in or"er to "etermine most promisin# systems an" materials! . systems can also b il" transl cent parts sin# plastics s ch as A4S *Acrylonitrile 4 ta"iene Styrene.

5 ntsman A"vance" Materials Americas 9nc is a part of 5 ntsman )orporation that is a #lobal man fact rer an" marketer of vario s chemical pro" cts! The company recommen"e" ::S+?%@/& stereolitho#raphy material! Accor"in# to the information provi"e" by the company.4. b t it is sensitive to atmospheric moist re an" li( i" water! This sensitivity can be somewhat re" ce" by increasin# the e6pos re.. The )ana"ian company man fact res stereolitho#raphy resins with "ifferent specifications! The company recommen"e" their H+0 T 6e"o resin in"icatin# that it will meet the client8s e6pectations! 5owever. 6unt#man Ad+anced 5aterial# America#! &nc. has been man fact rin# earmol" materials since %J@>! The company la nche" its first stereolitho#raphy resin Dototec S: in /&&. %??/& comes in black color only " e to market "eman"! 5owever. a s btle yellow tint was observe" in the sample parts! 4.2.. )AR$S was informe" by S3M3S en#ineers that clear type of the material was s ccessf lly se" in early sta#es of the "evelopment phase! ..%. for earmol" man fact rin#! Dototec S: pro" ct ran#e has vario s colors incl "in# clearItransparent! The material is optimize" to se with . it co l" "ama#e the client8s e6cellent rep tation in the marketplace! Therefore. b t the parts may then look a little yellow! Aevertheless.2 "re+e 7topla#ti .mb6 -reve *Hermany.4. the sample earmol"s ha" yellowIbei#e tint an" less transparency in comparison to Somos! The tint co l" have been "efinitely acceptable for those who have white skin color! Aevertheless.. it is possible to re" ce the #reen tint in %%%/& by fine+t nin# the machine8s set ps! As it is mentione" in the "escription of the c rrent process. :tereolithography Altho #h there are several stereolitho#raphy machine man fact rers in the worl".2. every sin#le technolo#y. -SM Somos Senior Acco nt Mana#er state" that the %&%/& resin "oes not have the #reen tint. -reve was eliminate" by the client! . -reve is more specialize" an" e6perience" in earmol" material man fact rin#! 5owever.. ":5 B :omo# -SM 2 Somos is a part of -SM #ro p *Aetherlan"s.Systems =iper series! Upon ..4..Systems8 s ##estion. American "ye :ource! &nc..4..4.9. )AR$S aske" -reve to b il" sample parts! The res lts were ( ite s rprisin#! 9t was e6pecte" to see better parts in clearness than Somos beca se.2. )AR$S ha" to consi"er their technical s pport ability in the US! 4eca se of the #oo" s pport capabilities. machine an" material type was eval ate" thro #h cons ltation with the client8s e6perience" en#ineers! 9n concl sion. it was observe" that the sample parts have li#ht yellow color! The company8s en#ineers informe" )AR$S that they "o not have colorless stereolitho#raphy resins for the moment! . so )AR$S contacte" the company an" aske" for sample earmol"s! 9t was notice" that there is a sli#ht #reen tint in %%%/& an" "eci"e" to foc s on %&%/&! 5owever.. har" pinna re( ires soft earmol"! -SM 2 Somos has a promisin# pro" ct for this p rpose! The company la nche" the first fle6ibleIelastic stereolitho#raphy material U:M %??/& in /&&@! ) rrently. only Sony an" .2. "espite its prominence. the material is s itable for me"ical se! The transparency of sample parts was satisfactory! Aevertheless. :election and Conclu#ion )AR$S was aware that wron# recommen"ation of the RP system an" material type co l" ca se the client to lose a serio s amo nt of money an" val able time! D rthermore.Systems were consi"ere" f rther! The followin# companies s pply stereolitho#raphy resinsL .. vario s . stereolitho#raphy was selecte" as technolo#y " e to its ability to b il" clear parts an" hi#h acc racy! A""itionally.! -SM 2 Somos has been man fact rin# stereolitho#raphy resins since %JJ/! The company has %% "ifferent S: resin types in its pro" ct ran#e for "iverse stereolitho#raphy applications! The e6cellent clearness of Eater)lear %&%/& an" EaterShe" %%%/& ca #ht )AR$S8 attention imme"iately.2.

=iper has an a"vanta#e with " al vat system that makes possible to pro" ce parts with "ifferent materials! .types of materials with "iverse feat res an" rapi" "evelopments in this fiel" ha" major infl ence on this "ecision! -SM 2 Somos was selecte" as material man fact rer " e to its EaterShe" %%%/&8s s perior ( ality feat res in comparison to other man fact rers! Another reason for this choice was the company8s U:M %??/& fle6ible material! D t re se of the clear type of this material co l" be possible in earmol" man fact rin#! There were two alternatives amon# stereolitho#raphy machines to choose from7 Sony S)S+@&&& an" .. Terry */&&. knowin# that elastic materials can be se" in near f t re! <. 3ctober /&&..! MEor"s of Eis"omL Rapi" man fact rin# on the horizonN! 'la#tic# -achinery 9 Au:iliarie#.! MD se" -eposition Mo"elin#L A Technolo#y $val ationN! Time Com7re##ion* Technologie# April /&&.. Reference# =at System! 4oth machines provi"e hi#h acc racy in part b il"in#! Aevertheless.. To"" */&&. /&&> Eohlers.! MRapi" prototypin# evolves into c stom man fact rin#N! La#er Focu# 8orld May. %%I/ Binca"e.! Authorization and "i#claimer A thors a thorize :A))$9 to p blish the papers in the conference procee"in#s! Aeither :A))$9 nor the e"itors are responsible either for the content or for the implications of what is e6presse" in the paper! . Bathy */&&>.al vat system cannot be i#nore".Systems =iper 5A S:A .