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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

AQA GCSE Biology
New Unit 1
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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

Summary Notes

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

B1.1 Keeping Healthy B1.1.1 Diet and Exercise Summary A combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise is needed to help eep the body healthy! Healthy Diet • A healthy diet contains the right balance of the different foods you need and the right amount of energy! • "hese foods should pro#ide the follo$ing nutrient groups% o Carbohydrates for energy and to ma e cell structures o &at for energy and insulation and cell structures o 'rotein to control cell reactions (as en)ymes* and to build cell structures o +itamins and minerals to help our bodies function $ell! Malnourishment • A person is malnourished if their diet is not balanced! • "his may lead to a person being o#er$eight or under$eight! • An unbalanced diet may also lead to diseases! • ,ac of essential nutrients in the diet can lead to deficiency diseases! • Excess inta e of high energy foods can lead to type - diabetes! o "his is a disease $here the person is unable to control the le#els of sugar in their blood! o "his is #ery dangerous. and the person must carefully control their diet and monitor their blood sugar le#els regularly! Slimming programmes • A person gains mass $hen the energy content of the food ta en in is more than the amount of energy expended by the body! • A person loses mass $hen the energy content of the food ta en in is less than the amount of energy expended by the body! • An effecti#e slimming programme ad#ises people to reduce the energy content of their food. and to increase the amount they exercise! • Some slimming programmes encourage people to consume a lo$ proportion of one of the nutrient groups in their diet! "his may enable them to lose $eight. but it $ill not necessarily be a sensible. healthy diet! Exercise • Exercise increases the amount of energy expended by the body! • 'eople $ho exercise regularly are usually healthier than people $ho ta e little exercise! • "hey expend more energy and their circulatory system becomes more efficient! • "hey are li ely to ha#e lo$er blood pressure. and less li ely to be o#er$eight! Metabolic rate • "his is the rate at $hich all the chemical reactions in the cells of the body are carried out! • /ne ma0or set of metabolic reactions is respiration! • "he rate of these reactions #ary $ith the amount of acti#ity you do! Page 3

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

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"he more acti#ity. the more energy is re1uired by the body! 2etabolic rate also #aries $ith respect to the proportion of muscle to fat in your body! "he higher the proportion of muscle to fat. the higher the metabolic rate! Exercise increases the proportion of muscle to fat!

Inheritance • 3nherited factors can influence our health! • 4e can inherit genes from our parents $hich can influence our metabolic rate! • 4e can also inherit genes $hich influence our cholesterol le#el! • Cholesterol is a substance that our body creates from fat that $e consume in our diet! • Cholesterol is needed to ma e cell membranes! • 5o$e#er. too much cholesterol can increase the chance of cardio6#ascular diseases. such as stro es. heart attac s and thrombosis!

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

B 1.1.2 In ectious Disease Summary /ur bodies pro#ide an excellent en#ironment for many microbes $hich can ma e us ill once they are inside us! /ur bodies need to stop most microbes getting in and deal $ith any microbes $hich do get in! +accination can be used to pre#ent infection! !athogens • 2icroorganisms that cause infectious disease are called pathogens! • 7isease occurs $hen large numbers of pathogenic micro6organisms enter the body! Bacteria • 8ot all bacteria are pathogens! • 'athogenic bacteria reproduce rapidly inside the body and may produce poisons (toxins* $hich ma e us feel ill! • Example% E.coli produces toxins that cause fe#er symptoms $hen $e ha#e food poisoning! "iruses • +iruses are much smaller than bacteria! • All #iruses are pathogens! • +iruses also produce toxins and they damage the cells in $hich they reproduce. leading to illness! • +iruses replicate by in#ading cells. reproducing inside them and bursting them! • "his causes damage to tissues. leading to illness!

Examples% o 53+ damages $hite blood cells. reducing immunity and leading to A37S! o 3nfluen)a #irus released toxins $hich cause aches and fe#er symptoms! Page 5

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

#he immune system • "he body has different $ays of protecting itself against pathogens! • 4hite blood cells defend our internal en#ironment from pathogens • "hese form part of our immune system! • "here are #arious types of $hite blood cells% • Cells that ingest and destroy microorganisms

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Cells that produce antitoxins that destroy toxins released by pathogens Cells that produce antibodies that destroy specific pathogens% o "hey produce specific antibodies to ill a particular pathogen! o "his leads to immunity from that pathogen! o "he body is able to rapidly produce large numbers of the specific antibodies if it is exposed to the same pathogen in the future! o 3n some cases. dead or inacti#ated pathogens stimulate antibody production! o "his also leads to immunity!

!re$enting transmission • 3n the 19:;s Semmel$eiss recognised the importance of hand6$ashing in the pre#ention of spreading some infectious diseases! Page 6

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

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5e insisted that medical students $ashed their hands before deli#ering babies! "his resulted in doctors $ashing their hands before and after examining patients! "his greatly reduced the number of deaths from infectious diseases in his hospital! "his idea $as not readily accepted – people $ere not a$are of microorganisms! 8o$adays. it is standard practice for people to $ash hands after treating patients. to pre#ent disease being transmitted to other patients!

%sing drugs to treat disease • Some medicines. including pain illers. help to relie#e the symptoms of infectious disease. but do not ill the pathogens! • Antibiotics are medicines that help to cure bacterial disease by illing infecti#e bacteria inside the body! Eg penicillin • Antibiotics cannot be used to ill #iral pathogens. $hich li#e and reproduce inside cells! • 3t is difficult to de#elop drugs $hich ill #iruses $ithout also damaging the body<s tissues! • 3t is important that specific bacteria should be treated by specific antibiotics! • Antibiotics ill bacteria inside the body! • "he use of antibiotics has greatly reduced deaths from infectious bacterial diseases! &ntibiotic resistance • /#eruse and inappropriate use of antibiotics has increased the rate of de#elopment of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria! • 'athogenic bacteria mutate. producing resistant strains! • Antibiotics ill indi#idual pathogens of the non6resistant strain! • 3ndi#idual resistant pathogens sur#i#e and reproduce. so the population of the resistant strain increases! • Antibiotics and #accinations may no longer be effecti#e against a ne$ resistant strain of the pathogen! • "he ne$ strain $ill then spread rapidly because people are not immune to it and there is no effecti#e treatment! • 2any strains of bacteria. including 2=SA. ha#e de#eloped resistance to antibiotics as a result of natural selection! • "hese bacteria can enter the body through $ounds and cuts! • 5ealthy people<s $hite blood cells $ould 1uic ly destroy these bacteria! • 'eople $ho are ill in hospital are li ely to ha#e reduced immunity to bacterial disease. and become infected more easily!

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

'hat can be done( • 7octor<s should only prescribe antibiotics $hen necessary – and not for #iruses! • 3t is important that if you are prescribed antibiotics you ta e the $hole course! o A lot of people $ill stop ta ing the antibiotic $hen they feel better! o 3f you do this. you lea#e a fe$ bacteria inside your body! o "hese $ill reproduce. increasing the chance of some de#eloping resistance! • Scientists are trying to de#elop ne$ #ersions of the antibiotics! • Some antibiotics are de#eloped but not used – 0ust in case! Epidemics and !andemics • Epidemics – diseases that spread $idely through one country! • 'andemics – diseases that spread through se#eral countries! Eg 3nfluen)a • A #iral disease! • 2ost people reco#er in a $ee ! • 'eople $ho are old or #ery young or already ill can die! • 7ifferent strains of influen)a affect other animals! • "hese rarely affect humans. because humans need to directly contact an infected animal! • 5umans that are infected may be more li ely to die than if they had human influen)a! • 2ost of these #iruses cannot be transmitted from human to human! • 5o$e#er. there are concerns that the #iruses could mutate and become able to be transmitted bet$een humans! • 3f it does this. it $ill start off by causing an epidemic. $hich may spread to become a pandemic! • 2any people could die. particularly #ery old people. #ery young people. and people $ho are already ill! Immunisation Page 8

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

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3f a large proportion of the population is immune to a pathogen. the spread of the pathogen is #ery much reduced! Eg small pox $as completely eradicated by the 1>?;s! 'eople can be immunised against a disease by introducing small 1uantities of dead or inacti#e forms of the pathogen into the body (#accination*! +accines stimulate the $hite blood cells to produce antibodies that destroy the pathogens! "his ma es the person immune to future infections by the microorganism! "he body can respond by rapidly ma ing the correct antibody. in the same $ay as if the person had pre#iously had the disease! An example is the 22= #accine used to protect children against measles. mumps and rubella!

)ro*ing Microoganisms • 2icroorganisms @ organisms that can only be #ie$ed $ith a microscope! • Eg bacteria. #iruses and fungi! • Uncontaminated cultures of microorganisms are re1uired for in#estigating the action of disinfectants and antibiotics! • 3t is important that the culture is not contaminated $ith other microorganisms that may compete for nutrients or produce toxins! • Careful procedures are re1uired to pre#ent potentially pathogenic microorganisms being released into the en#ironment! +ulturing microorganisms • "o study microorganisms. they need to be cultured! • "hey need to be pro#ided $ith the conditions they need to reproduce 1uic ly% o 8utrients o 4armth o 2oisture • Bacteria and fungi can be gro$n in special media called agar! • "his pro#ides them $ith% o Carbohydrate o 'rotein or amino acids o 4ater • 4hen agar is heated up it is li1uid! • 3t can be poured into a 'etri dish! o A circular plastic or glass dish $ith a lid%

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

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"he agar solidifies $hen left to cool! 'etri dishes and culture media must be sterilised before use to ill un$anted microorganisms • 3noculating loops are used to transfer microorganisms to the media! • "hese must be sterilised by passing them through a flame%

"he lid of the 'etri dish should be secured tape to pre#ent microorganisms from the air contaminating the culture!

$ith adhesi#e

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3n school and college laboratories. cultures should be incubated at a maximum temperature of -:oC! "his greatly reduces the li elihood of gro$th of pathogens that might be harmful to humans! 3n industrial conditions higher temperatures can produce more rapid gro$th!

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

B1.2 ,er$es and Hormones Summary "he ner#ous system and hormones enable us to respond to external changes! "hey also help us to control conditions inside our bodies! 5ormones are used in some forms of contraception and in fertility treatments! 'lants also produce hormones and respond to external stimuli! #he ner$ous system • "he ner#ous system enables humans to react to their surroundings and coordinate their beha#iour! • Central ner#ous system @ brain plus spinal cord! • Stimuli @ changes in the en#ironment! • =eceptors @ cells that detect stimuli • 8er#e impulse @ electrical message that passes along a neurone! • 8eurones @ ner#e cells!

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8eurones are highly specialised cells% o +ery long so ner#e impulses can tra#el 1uic ly to different parts of the body! o Branched ends to form connections $ith many other neurones! o 3nsulating sheath to maintain the ner#e impulse! 8er#e @ a bundle of neurones connected to brain or spinal cord! Sensory neurone @ ner#e cell that transmits ner#e impulse from a receptor to the central ner#ous system! =elay neurone @ neurone in the central ner#ous system! 2otor neurone @ ner#e cell that transmits ner#e impulse from the central ner#ous system to an effector! Effector @ a structure that the ner#ous system causes to respond – a muscle or gland!

Synapses • Synapses @ 0unctions bet$een ner#e cells! • 4hen a ner#e impulse arri#es at the end of a neurone. chemicals are released! Page 11

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

"hese diffuse across the synapse. and cause a ne$ ner#e impulse in the next neurone!

-eceptors • =eceptors and the stimuli they detect include% o receptors in the eyes that are sensiti#e to light o receptors in the ears that are sensiti#e to sound o receptors in the ears that are sensiti#e to changes in position and enable us to eep our balance o receptors on the tongue and in the nose that are sensiti#e to chemicals and enable us to taste and to smell o receptors in the s in that are sensiti#e to touch. pressure. pain and to temperature changes! • .ight receptor cells. li e most animal cells. ha#e a nucleus. cytoplasm and cell membrane!

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

3nformation from receptors passes along neurones in ner#es to the spinal cord and the brain! • "he brain coordinates the response! -e lex actions • =eflex actions are automatic and rapid! • "hey are simple responses to stimuli that often protect the body from harm! • "hey often in#ol#e sensory. relay and motor neurones! • "he path$ay starting $ith a stimulus and resulting in a response does not re1uire conscious control by the brain! • 3n a simple reflex action% o 3mpulses from a receptor pass long a sensory neurone to the central ner#ous system o "here is a synapse bet$een a sensory neurone and a relay neurone in the central ner#ous system o A chemical is released at the synapse bet$een the sensory neurone and a relay neurone! o "his causes an impulse to be sent along the relay neurone o A chemical is then released at the synapse bet$een a relay neurone and motor neurone in the central ner#ous system o "his causes impulses to be sent along a motor neurone to the effector o "his is either a muscle or a gland o A muscle responds by contracting o A gland responds by releasing (secreting* chemical substances eg sali#ary gland releases sali#a!

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

+ontrol in the human body • 3nternal conditions that are controlled include% o "he $ater content of the body%  4ater lea#es the body% • #ia the lungs $hen $e breathe out • #ia the s in $hen $e s$eat to cool us do$n!  Excess $ater is lost #ia the idneys in the urine o "he ion content of the body%  3ons are lost #ia the s in $hen $e s$eat  Excess ions are lost #ia the idneys in the urine o "emperature%  "o maintain the temperature at $hich en)ymes $or best!  En)ymes are protein molecules that control reactions inside and outside cells!  "hey are sensiti#e to changes in temperature and $or best at body temperature – A?oC! o Blood sugar le#els%  "o pro#ide the cells $ith a constant supply of energy!  4e ta e in sugars as carbohydrate in our food! Hormones • 2any processes $ithin the body are coordinated by chemical substances called hormones! • 5ormones are secreted by glands! • "hey are transported to their target organs by the bloodstream! • 5ormones regulate the functions of many organs and cells! Menstrual cycle • "he monthly release of an egg from a $oman<s o#aries • "he changes in the thic ness of the lining of her $omb • "hese are controlled by hormones secreted by the pituitary gland and by the o#aries! • "hey are in#ol#ed in promoting the release of an egg! • &ollicle stimulating hormone (&S5*% o Secreted by the pituitary gland o Causes eggs to mature in the o#aries! o 3t also stimulates the o#aries to produce hormones including oestrogen! • /estrogen% o Secreted by the o#aries! o 3nhibits the further production of &S5! o Brings about the release of ,5! • ,uteinising hormone (,5*% o Stimulates the release of eggs from the o#ary

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

4. Oestrogen inhibits production of FSH

1. FSH released from pituitary

5. Oestrogen causes release of LH from pituitary

Oestrogen

FSH

LH

2. Causes egg to mature n o!ary ". Causes release of oestrogen by o!ary

#. LH causes release of an egg from the o!ary

#he use o arti icial ertility controlling hormones • 5ormones can be synthesised artificially! • "hese are #ery similar to human hormones. and can be used to affect the $ay the body $or s! • Some people are concerned about the use of hormones that control fertility! /ral contracepti$es0 • /ral contracepti#es contain hormones to inhibit &S5 production so that no eggs mature! • /ral contracepti#es may contain oestrogen and progesterone to inhibit egg maturation! • "he first birth6control pills contained large amounts of oestrogen! • "hese resulted in $omen suffering significant side effects Page 15

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

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'rogesterone6only pills lead to fe$er side effects! Birth6control pills no$ contain a much lo$er dose of oestrogen. or are progesterone only! Some religions do not encourage the use of hormones that pre#ent conception!

1ertility drugs • &ertility drugs can be gi#en to $omen $hose o$n le#el of &S5 is too lo$ to stimulate eggs to mature! • "hey contain &S5 and ,5! • "his stimulates eggs to mature! • "his increases the chances of getting pregnant! • "hese drugs are also used in in6#itro fertilisation (3+&* treatment! • 3+& in#ol#es gi#ing a mother &S5 and ,5 to stimulate the maturation of se#eral eggs! • "he eggs are collected from the mother and fertilised by sperm from the father! • "he fertilised eggs de#elop into embryos! • At the stage $hen they are tiny balls of cells. one or t$o embryos are inserted into the mother<s uterus ($omb*! • Some people belie#e that the human population is gro$ing too 1uic ly any$ay! • &ertility drugs can result in multiple pregnancies. $hich can be dangerous to the mother! • Excess embryos may be used for embryo research. and many people disagree $ith this. because embryos ha#e the potential to become a li#ing human!

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

+ontrol in plants • 'lants are sensiti#e to light. moisture and gra#ity% • "heir shoots gro$% o to$ards light o against the force of gra#ity • "heir roots gro$% o to$ards moisture o in the direction of the force of gra#ity! • 'lants produce hormones to coordinate and control gro$th! • Auxin controls phototropism and gra#itropism (also called geotropism*! • "he responses of plant roots and shoots to light. gra#ity and moisture are the result of une1ual distribution of hormones. causing une1ual gro$th rates!

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"he auxin diffuses a$ay from the stimulus! 3t affects the gro$th of cells in different $ays! 3n the shoots% o 3t causes increased cell gro$th o "his causes the shoot to cur#e to$ards the stimulus!

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

3n the roots% o 3t inhibits cell gro$th! o "his causes the root to cur#e a$ay from the stimulus!

#he use o arti icial plant hormones • 'lant gro$th hormones are used in agriculture and horticulture! • Agriculture @ large scale business in#ol#ing culti#ating of soil. to produce crops. and raise li#estoc ! • 5orticulture @ small scale culti#ation of fruits. #egetables. flo$ers. or ornamental plants typically in a garden! • Chemicals are synthesised that are similar to plant hormones! • Some people are concerned about these chemicals entering the food chain and causing toxic effects! 'eed 2illers • Chemicals that are used that are specific to the $eeds eg dandelions! • "hey cause the $eed to gro$ #ery 1uic ly! • "he $eed cannot sustain this rate of gro$th and dies! • "his also ills other $ild plant species that are not $eeds! -ooting hormones • Cuttings are ta en from a plant! • "he cutting is dipped into rooting po$ders! • "he hormone causes cells in the cutting to de#elop into roots!

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

B1.3 #he %se and &buse o Drugs Summary 7rugs affect our body chemistry! 2edical drugs are de#eloped and tested before being used to relie#e illness or disease! 7rugs may also be used recreationally as people li e the effect on the body! Some drugs are addicti#e! Some athletes ta e drugs to impro#e performance! 'eople cannot ma e sensible decisions about drugs unless they no$ their full effects! #ypes o drugs • 2edical drugs% o 'rescribed – a doctor must pro#ide a prescription for these to be obtained!  Eg antibiotics and strong pain illers such as morphine! o 8on6prescribed – these can be bought in a chemist $ithout a prescription!  Eg pain illers such as aspirin and paracetomol. and cough medicine! • =ecreational drugs% o ,egal – eg alcohol. caffeine. nicotine o 3llegal – eg ecstasy. cannabis and heroin Drug trials • Scientists are continually de#eloping ne$ drugs! • 4hen ne$ medical drugs are de#ised. they ha#e to be extensi#ely tested and trialled before being used! • 7rugs are tested in a series of stages to find out if they are safe and effecti#e! • 8e$ drugs are extensi#ely tested for toxicity. efficacy and dose% o in the laboratory. using cells. tissues and li#e animals o in clinical trials in#ol#ing healthy #olunteers and patients!  +ery lo$ doses of the drug are gi#en at the start of the clinical trial!  3f the drug is found to be safe. further clinical trials are carried out to find the optimum dose for the drug!  3n some double blind trials. some patients are gi#en a placebo. $hich does not contain the drug!  8either the doctors nor the patients no$ $ho has recei#ed a placebo and $ho has recei#ed the drug until the trial is complete! #halidomide • "halidomide is a drug that $as de#eloped as a sleeping pill! • 3t $as also found to be effecti#e in relie#ing morning sic ness in pregnant $omen! • "halidomide had not been tested for this use! • Unfortunately. many babies born to mothers $ho too the drug $ere born $ith se#ere limb abnormalities! • "he drug $as then banned! • As a result. drug testing has become much more rigorous! • 2ore recently. thalidomide has been used successfully in the treatment of leprosy and other diseases! Statins • Statins are a relati#ely ne$ group of drugs used to lo$er blood cholesterol le#els! • A high cholesterol le#el increases a personBs ris of ha#ing a heart attac or stro e! Page 19

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"he long6term use of statins reduces the ris of such an e#ent and can increase the life expectancy of people $ith a history of heart disease! 'eople are concerned that these drugs could encourage people to lead an unhealthy lifestyle in the belief that they can reduce their cholesterol le#els!

Drug &buse • Some people use drugs recreationally! • Some of these recreational drugs are more harmful than others! • Some of these drugs are legal. such as alcohol and nicotine! • Some of these drugs are illegal such as ecstasy. cannabis and heroine! • Some of these drugs are prescribed but are not ta en sensibly. such as sleeping tablets. antidepressants and strong pain illers such as morphine! • "he o#erall impact of legal drugs on health is much greater than the impact of illegal drugs. because far more people use them! &ddiction and 'ithdra*al • 7rugs change the chemical processes in people<s bodies! • 7rugs $or by affecting synapses! • Some drugs ma e them $or faster (eg. caffeine*! • Some drugs ma e them $or slo$er (eg! cannabis*! • 7rug abusers may become dependent or addicted to the drugs! • "hey may suffer $ithdra$al symptoms $ithout them! • 5eroin and cocaine are #ery addicti#e! • "here are concerns about the possible progression from people ta ing non6addicti#e recreational drugs to addiction to hard drugs! • &or example. cannabis is referred to as a gate$ay drugC it is thought that it leads to people ta ing cocaine or heroin! E ects o drugs • Alcohol affects the ner#ous system by slo$ing do$n reactions! o 3t helps people relax! o "oo much may lead to lac of self6control. unconsciousness or e#en coma! o ,ong term abuse e#entually damages the li#er and brain! • 8icotine is the addicti#e substance in tobacco smo e! o "his ma es it difficult for people to stop smo ing! o 8icotine patches and nicotine che$ing gum can be used to help people stop smo ing! • "obacco smo e contains carcinogens. $hich are chemicals that cause cancer% o "he lin bet$een smo ing tobacco and lung cancer has been no$n about for about 1;; years! o 5o$e#er. this $as only gradually accepted! • "obacco smo e also contains carbon monoxide $hich reduces the oxygen6carrying capacity of the blood! o 3n pregnant $omen this can depri#e a fetus of oxygen and lead to a lo$ birth mass! • Ecstasy. cannabis and heroin may ha#e ad#erse effects on the heart and circulatory system! • Cannabis smo e contains chemicals $hich may cause mental illness in some people! Page 20

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

Drugs in sport • "here are se#eral types of drug that an athlete can use to enhance performance! • Some of these drugs are banned by la$ and some are legally a#ailable on prescription! • All are prohibited by sporting regulations! • Examples include% o Stimulants that boost bodily functions such as heart rateC o Anabolic steroids $hich stimulate muscle gro$th! • Athletes in ma0or sporting e#ents ha#e to be $illing to gi#e a blood or urine sample so that they can be tested for these drugs! • Some scientists $or to de#elop drugs that cannot be detected by these tests!

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

B1.4 Interdependence and &daptation Summary /rganisms are $ell adapted to sur#i#e in their normal en#ironment! 'opulation si)e depends on a #ariety of factors including competition. predation. disease and human influences! Changes in the en#ironment may affect the distribution and beha#iour of organisms! Sur$i$al • "o sur#i#e. organisms re1uire a supply of materials from their surroundings and from the other li#ing organisms there! • /rganisms li#e. gro$ and reproduce in places $here. and at times $hen. conditions are suitable! +ompetition Animals often compete $ith each other for% • &ood • 2ates • "erritory 'lants often compete $ith each other for% • ,ight • 4ater from the soil • 8utrients from the soil &daptation • /rganisms ha#e features (adaptations* $hich enable them to sur#i#e in the conditions in $hich they normally li#e • "he organisms that are best adapted to ma e use of their resources in a habitat are more li ely to sur#i#e and increase in numbers • &or example% o "o be able to obtain a certain food better! o "o ma e it more difficult for predators to catch them! o "o sur#i#e in extreme climates. eg arctic or deserts  'lants lose $ater #apour from the surface of their lea#es!  3t is essential that they ha#e adaptations $hich minimise this! Extreme adaptations0 • Extremophiles are organisms that li#e in extreme en#ironments! • Some may be tolerant to high le#els of salt. high temperatures or high pressures! • Animals and plants may be adapted to cope $ith specific features of their en#ironment eg thorns. poisons and $arning colours to deter predators! Extreme &nimals • Animals may be adapted for sur#i#al in dry and arctic en#ironments by means of% o changes to surface area o thic ness of insulating coat o amount of body fat o camouflage! Page 22

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

Examples0 o +amel  "he camel can go $ithout food and $ater for A to D days!  &at stored in their humps pro#ides long term food reser#e. and a supply of metabolic $ater!  "he fat is not distributed around the bodyC this reduces insulation. allo$ing more heat loss!  "hey are tall and thin. increasing their surface area to #olume ration. increasing heat loss by radiation!

o !olar Bear  'olar bear has thic fur and fat beneath its s in to insulate it!  "heir large. furry feet help to distribute their $eight as they $al on a thin ice!  "hey are $hite $hich camouflages them against the sno$! "his helps them to hunt!  "hey are compact in shape. reducing their surface area to #olume ratioC this reduces heat loss by radiation!

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

Extreme !lants • 'lants may be adapted to sur#i#e in dry en#ironments by means of% o changes to surface area. particularly of the lea#es o $ater6storage tissues o extensi#e root systems! • Desert plants • Eg the cactus. re1uire #ery little $ater to sur#i#e • ,ea#es are spines! • Spines guard against most bro$sing herbi#orous animals! • Spines also reduce their surface area. reducing $ater loss by e#aporation • A thic $axy coating surrounds the plant to reduce e#aporation! • &e$er BstomataB. reducing $ater loss • =oots tend to spread side$ays to catch rain $ater!

&rctic plants • 2any of the plants are small. gro$ing close to the ground and #ery close together to a#oid the $ind and conser#e heat! • Some possess a light. fu))y co#ering to insulate the buds so they can gro$! • 2any are dar colors of blue and purple to absorb the heat from the sunlight e#en during the $inter months! • Because of the cold and short gro$ing seasons. arctic plants gro$ #ery slo$ly! • Some gro$ for ten years before they produce any buds for reproduction!

Microorganisms • 2icroorganisms ha#e adaptations that enable them to sur#i#e in different en#ironments! • Slime capsule around some bacterial cell $all stic s them to surfaces and pre#ents them drying out! • Some ha#e the ability to form spores to sur#i#e $hen conditions are harsh! • Some microorganisms ha#e flagella $hich enable them to mo#e around 1uic ly! Page 24

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

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Bacteria undergo rapid reproduction $hen conditions are fa#ourable! Some bacteria can sur#i#e extreme conditions% o "emperatures as little as 61:EC to as high as 1-1EC o p5 #alues ;!; to 1-!9 o 5igh le#els of pressure deep in the oceans o 5igh salt concentrations o +ery dry conditions!

En$ironmental change • Changes in the en#ironment affect the distribution of li#ing organisms! • &or example. the changing distribution of some bird species and the disappearance of pollinating insects including bees! • Animals and plants are sub0ected to en#ironmental changes! • Such changes may be caused by li#ing or non6li#ing factors! 8on6li#ing (abiotic* factors% • ,ight • /xygen • 4ater • "emperature ,i#ing (biotic* factors% • &ood • 'redation • Gra)ing • 7isease • Competition – for% food. light. $ater. space! .i$ing organisms can be used as indicators o pollution0 • .ichens are symbiotic associations of algae and fungi species that attach to tree trun s and roc ! • "hey are sensiti#e to changes in air 1uality! • "hey are #ery sensiti#e to sulphur dioxide (S/-* pollution in the air! • "his is released from industry and burning fossil fuels. especially coal! • ,ichens absorb sulphur dioxide dissol#ed in $ater! • 3t destroys the chlorophyll in the algae pre#enting it from photosynthesising and illing the lichen! • Some species only gro$ in non6polluted air! • Some species gro$ in polluted air! • "hese lichens can be used as air pollution indicators! • • • • • 3n#ertebrate animals are sensiti#e to changes in the concentration of dissol#ed oxygen in $ater! /xygen concentrations decrease $hen pollutants are released into ri#ers and la es! Some in#ertebrates sur#i#e in lo$6oxygen concentrations! Some in#ertebrates can only sur#i#e in higher oxygen concentrations! "hese in#ertebrate animals can be used as $ater pollution indicators! Page 25

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

,on5li$ing indicators. • En#ironmental changes can be measured using non6li#ing indicators! • &or example! oxygen le#els. temperature and rainfall! • Scientists continually monitor these factors to sho$ trends in en#ironmental changes

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

B1.6 Energy and biomass in ood chains Summary By obser#ing the numbers and si)es of the organisms in food chains $e can find out $hat happens to energy and biomass as it passes along the food chain! Energy trans er • =adiation from the Sun is the source of energy for most communities of li#ing organisms! • Green plants and algae capture a small part of the solar energy $hich reaches them! • "his energy is stored in the substances $hich ma e up the cells of the plants! • 1ood chain @ diagram to represent feeding relationships bet$een organisms. sho$ing direction of energy flo$! • At each stage in a food chain. less material and less energy are contained in the biomass of the organisms! • "he amounts of material and energy contained in the biomass of organisms is reduced at each successi#e stage in a food chain because% – some materials and energy are al$ays lost in the organisms< $aste materials – respiration supplies all the energy needs for li#ing processes. including mo#ement! • 2uch of this energy is e#entually lost as heat to the surroundings !yramids o biomass • "he biomass at each stage can be dra$n to scale and sho$n as a pyramid of biomass! • Biomass @ mass of li#ing material

• •

All pyramids of biomass are pyramid shaped "he mass of li#ing material (biomass* at each stage in a food chain is less than it $as at the pre#ious stage!

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

B1.7 'aste materials rom plants and animals Summary 2any trees shed their lea#es each year and most animals produce droppings at least once a day! All plants and animals e#entually die! 2icroorganisms play an important part in decomposing this material so that it can be used again by plants! "he same material is recycled o#er and o#er again and can lead to stable communities! -ecycling in ecosystems • ,i#ing things remo#e materials from the en#ironment for gro$th and other processes! • "hese materials are returned to the en#ironment either in $aste materials or $hen li#ing things die and decay! • 2aterials decay because they are bro en do$n (digested* by microorganisms (decomposers*! • 2icroorganisms digest materials faster in $arm. moist conditions! • 2any microorganisms are also more acti#e $hen there is plenty of oxygen – aerobic conditions! • "he decay process releases substances $hich plants need to gro$! • 3n a stable community. the processes $hich remo#e materials are balanced by processes $hich return materials! • "he materials are constantly cycled! +arbon +ycle • "he constant cycling of carbon in ecosystems!

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

• • • • • • • • •

Carbon dioxide is remo#ed from the en#ironment by green plants and algae for photosynthesis! "he carbon from the carbon dioxide is used to ma e carbohydrates. fats and proteins $hich ma e up the body of plants and algae! Some of the carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere $hen green plants and algae respire! 4hen green plants and algae are eaten by animals and these animals are eaten by other animals. some of the carbon becomes part of the fats and proteins $hich ma e up their bodies! 4hen animals respire some of this carbon becomes carbon dioxide and is released into the atmosphere! 4hen plants. algae and animals die. some animals (detritus feeders* and microorganisms (decomposers* feed on their bodies! Carbon is released into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide $hen these organisms respire! By the time the microorganisms and detritus feeders ha#e bro en do$n the $aste products and dead bodies of organisms in ecosystems and cycled the materials as plant nutrients. all the energy originally captured by green plants has been transferred! Combustion of $ood and fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere!

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

B1.8 )enetic "ariation and Its +ontrol Summary "here are not only differences bet$een different species of plants and animals but also bet$een indi#iduals of the same species! "hese differences are due partly to the information in the cells they ha#e inherited from their parents and partly to the different en#ironments in $hich the indi#iduals li#e and gro$! Asexual reproduction can be used to produce indi#iduals that are genetically identical to their parent! Scientists can no$ add. remo#e or change genes to produce the plants and animals they $ant! )enetic material • A cell is the basic unit of lifeC all organisms are made up of cells! • "he nucleus is a large organelle found in all cells. that contains the genetic information! (E#en red blood cells once had a nucleus*! • +hromosomes are thread6li e structures made of 78A found in the nucleus • )enes are small sections of a chromosome that control the characteristics of an organism! • "hese are passed on from parent to offspring. resulting in offspring of plants and animals ha#ing similar characteristics to their parents! Eg hair colour and petal colour • 7ifferent genes control the de#elopment of different characteristics of an organism! Sexual reproduction • 3n#ol#es t$o parents! • "hey produce male and female sex cells (gametes*! • 3n humans these are sperm and eggs! • &ertilisation occurs 6 the 0oining (fusion* of male and female gametes! • "he mixture of the genetic information from t$o parents leads to #ariety in the offspring! • Genes are passed on in the gametes. from $hich the offspring de#elop!

&sexual reproduction • 3n#ol#es only one indi#idual as a parent! • "here is no fusion of gametes! • "here is no mixing of genetic information and so no #ariation in the offspring! • "hese genetically identical indi#iduals are no$n as clones! • Examples% • Bacteria or yeast cells use binary fission Page 30

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

• 'lants can use runners. bulbs or #egetati#e propagation! • Some in#ertebrate animals li e starfish and hydra can produce asexual offspring! #he causes o $ariation • 7ifferences in the characteristics of different indi#iduals of the same ind may be due to differences in% • the genes they ha#e inherited (genetic causes* • the conditions in $hich they ha#e de#eloped (en#ironmental causes* • or a combination of both! )enetic actors • Sexual reproduction 6 leads to genetic #ariety in the offspring! o All offspring (except for identical t$ins* inherit different characteristics! • Asexual reproduction – no genetic #ariation in the offspring (unless mutations occur* En$ironmental actors • 8utrition • "emperature • ,ight • 'hysical forces +loning • 5umans can carry out #arious procedures to create clones of plants and animals! • "hese ne$ indi#iduals are genetically identical to the parents! • 8e$ plants can be produced 1uic ly and cheaply by ta ing cuttings from older plants! 2odern cloning techni1ues include% #issue culture • "his uses small groups of cells from part of a plant to gro$ ne$ plants! Embryo transplants • "his in#ol#es splitting apart cells from a de#eloping animal embryo before they become specialised! • "he identical embryos are then implanted into the $ombs of host mothers

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

&d$antages0 • "his techni1ue could be used to ma e many copies of co$s that ha#e a high mil yield! • 3t $ould produce a herd of co$s much faster than if the original co$ $as used for breeding in the normal $ay! +oncerns0 • 'eople do not $ant this procedure to be used in humans! • 3t could be used to pro#ide more embryos for scientific testing! &dult cell cloning • "he nucleus is remo#ed from an unfertili)ed egg cell! • "his is replaced $ith the nucleus of an adult cell (eg s in cell*! • An electric shoc is used to start the cell di#iding to form embryo cells! • "hese embryo cells contain the same genetic information as the adult s in cell! • 4hen the embryo has de#eloped into a ball of cells. it is inserted into the $omb of an adult female to continue its de#elopment!

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

&d$antages0 • "his could be used to clone animals $ith desired characteristics. eg farm animals! • 3t could possibly be used to sa#e animals from extinction! +oncerns0 • 'eople do not $ant human babies to be cloned! • 3f this is used in farming. it produces lots of genetically identical indi#idualsC • 3f there is a change in the en#ironment. they may all struggle to sur#i#e!

)enetic engineering • Genes from the chromosomes of humans and other organisms can be cut out using en)ymes and transferred to cells of other organisms! Examples o uses in medicine0 • +accine production • 'roduction of insulin for diabetics! #he process0 • Cut out the insulin gene from the 78A of a human cell using an en)yme! • =emo#e a ring of 78A from a bacterium and open it up using the same en)yme! • 3nsert the insulin gene into the plasmid using another en)yme! • Enable a bacterium to ta e up the altered 78A! • 'ut the bacterium in a fermenter. and it multiplies many times! • Each ne$ bacterium contains the insulin gene! Page 33

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

"he bacteria produce insulin $hich can be extracted!

/ther uses o genetic engineering • Genes can also be transferred to the cells of animals or plants at an early stage in their de#elopment so that they de#elop $ith desired characteristics! • "his could be used to insert Fhealthy< genes into an embryo that has a genetic disease! • 8e$ genes can also be transferred to crop plants • Crops that ha#e had their genes modified in this $ay are called genetically modified crops (G2 crops*! • Examples of genetically modified crops include ones that are resistant to insect attac or to herbicides! • G2 crops generally sho$ increased yields! +oncerns0 • ,ong6term. unpredicted effects of consuming G2 plants on human health! Page 34

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

• •

Genes for pesticide resistance may spread from G2 plants to their $ild relati#es. creating pesticide resistant $eeds! 'eople may $ant to manipulate the genes of their future children!

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

B1.9 E$olution Summary 'articular genes or accidental changes in the genes of plants or animals may gi#e them characteristics $hich enable them to sur#i#e better! /#er time this may result in entirely ne$ species! "here are different theories of e#olution! 7ar$in<s theory is the most $idely accepted! Dar*in • 7ar$in<s theory of e#olution by natural selection states that all species of li#ing things ha#e e#ol#ed from simple life forms that first de#eloped more than three billion years ago! • "hese first organisms $ere #ery simple single6celled organisms. similar to bacteria! • "he theory of e#olution by natural selection $as only gradually accepted because% o the theory challenged the idea that God made all the animals and plants that li#e on Earth o there $as insufficient e#idence at the time the theory $as published to con#ince many scientists o the mechanism of inheritance and #ariation $as not no$n until :; years after the theory $as published! +on licting theories on e$olution • Scientists may produce different hypotheses to explain similar obser#ations! • Before 7ar$in. ,amarc used a different theory!

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

• • • • • •

5e proposed a theory of ac:uired characteristics. 5e argued that an indi#idual<s characteristics $ill change o#er its lifetime due to amount of use! Eg! Giraffes nec s get longer due to stretching for lea#es! "hen he suggested that these characteristics could be inherited! 4e no$ no$ that in the #ast ma0ority of cases this type of reproduction cannot occur! Changes in the body do not change the genes!

+lassi ication • Studying the similarities and differences bet$een organisms allo$s us to classify li#ing organisms into animals. plants and microorganisms! • "his helps us to understand e#olutionary and ecological relationships! • 2odels allo$ us to suggest relationships bet$een organisms! • E#olutionary trees (models* are used to represent the relationships bet$een organisms! • "his tree indicates ho$ long ago the ancestors of ape species di#erged from each other! • 3t indicates that humans share a common ancestor $ith chimpan)ees more recently than $ith any other ape species!

Dar*in;s theory o natural selection • /rganisms produce large numbers of offspring • 3ndi#idual organisms $ithin a particular species may sho$ a $ide range of #ariation because of differences in their genes

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

"here is a struggle for all organisms to exist (eg! 'redation*

3ndi#iduals $ith characteristics most suited to the en#ironment are more li ely to sur#i#e to breed successfully

"he genes $hich ha#e enabled these indi#iduals to sur#i#e are then passed on to the next generation!

Gradually. this can result in changes in the characteristics of a species!

Mutations • Ho* do mutations occur( • Errors occur $hen the 78A is replicated prior to cell di#ision! • Errors may occur $hen chromosomes are separated during cell di#ision! 'hat do mutations do( • Genes control the synthesis of proteins! • "herefore a change in a gene or a ne$ se1uence of genes can result in different proteins being synthesised! • "his can change a characteristic! Page 38

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

• • •

2ost mutations are harmful or fatal! /ccasionally. some mutations are useful! 4hen ne$ forms of a gene result from mutation. and they gi#e rise to useful characteristics. there may be more rapid change in a species if the en#ironment changes!

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