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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

AQA GCSE Biology
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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

Summary Notes

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

B2.1 Cells and Cell Structures Summary All living things are made up of cells. he structures of different types of cells are related to their functions. o get into or out of cells! dissolved su"stances have to cross the cell mem"ranes. Cells • Cells are the smallest unit of life. • All living things are made of cells. • #ost human cells! li$e most other animal cells! have the follo%ing parts& o nucleus o cytoplasm o cell mem"rane o mitochondria o ri"osomes • 'lant and algal cells also have& o cell %all o chloroplasts o permanent vacuole

What do these structures do? • (ucleus – controls the activities of the cell. • Cytoplasm – %here most of the chemical reactions ta$e place. Page 3

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

• • • • • •

Cell mem"rane ) controls the passage of su"stances in and out of the cell. #itochondria ) %here most energy is released in respiration. *i"osomes ) %here protein synthesis occurs. Cell %all – made of cellulose and strengthens plant cells. Chloroplasts ) a"sor" light energy to ma$e food in plant cells. 'ermanent vacuole ) filled %ith cell sap in plant cells.

Yeast • +east is a single)celled organism. • he cells have a nucleus! cytoplasm and a mem"rane surrounded "y a cell %all.

Bacteria • Bacterium is a single)celled organism. • A "acterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a mem"rane surrounded "y a cell %all. • he genes are not in a distinct nucleus.

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

Cells may "e specialised to carry out a particular function.

E,amples&

Movement into and out of cells • • • • • o get into or out of cells! dissolved su"stances have to cross the cell mem"ranes. Solutes - particles in solution eg glucose! sodium ions! chloride ions. Solvent - li.uid in %hich the particles are dissolved eg %ater. Solute and solvent molecules move around randomly. Solutes can move into and out of cells "y diffusion. Page 5

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

Diffusion • /iffusion is the spreading of the particles of a gas! or of any su"stance in solution! resulting in a net movement from a region %here they are of a higher concentration. • 0,ygen re.uired for respiration passes through cell mem"ranes "y diffusion. • he greater the difference in concentration! the faster the rate of diffusion.

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

B2.1 Tissues,

r!ans and

r!an Systems

Summary he cells of multicellular organisms may differentiate and "ecome adapted for specific functions. issues are aggregations of similar cells1 organs are aggregations of tissues performing specific physiological functions. 0rgans are organised into organ systems! %hich %or$ together to form organisms. Multicellular or!anisms • 2arge multicellular organisms develop systems for e,changing materials. • /uring the development of a multicellular organism! cells differentiate so that they can perform different functions. • A tissue is a group of cells %ith similar structure and function. • 0rgans are made of tissues. • 0ne organ may contain several tissues. • 0rgan systems are groups of organs that perform a particular function. "nimal or!ans E,amples of animal tissues include& • muscular tissue! %hich can contract to "ring a"out movement • • glandular tissue! %hich can produce su"stances such as en3ymes and hormones epithelial tissue! %hich covers some parts of the "ody.

he stomach is an organ that contains& • muscular tissue! to churn the contents • • glandular tissue! to produce digestive 4uices epithelial tissue! to cover the outside and the inside of the stomach.

he digestive system is one e,ample of a system in %hich humans and other mammals e,change su"stances %ith the environment. he digestive system includes& • glands! such as the pancreas and salivary glands! %hich produce digestive 4uices • • • • the stomach and small intestine! %here digestion occurs the liver! %hich produces "ile the small intestine! %here the a"sorption of solu"le food occurs the large intestine! %here %ater is a"sor"ed from the undigested food! producing faeces.

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

#lant or!ans 'lant organs include stems! roots and leaves. E,amples of plant tissues include& • epidermal tissues! %hich cover the plant • mesophyll! %hich carries out photosynthesis • ,ylem and phloem! %hich transport su"stances around the plant.

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

B2.$ #hotosynthesis Summary Green plants and algae use light energy to ma$e their o%n food. hey o"tain the ra% materials they need to ma$e this food from the air and the soil. he conditions in %hich plants are gro%n can "e changed to promote gro%th. #hotosynthesis • 'hoto - light • Synthesis - ma$ing of 5glucose6 • 'hotosynthesis - ma$ing glucose using light /uring photosynthesis& • light energy is a"sor"ed "y a green su"stance called chlorophyll! %hich is found in chloroplasts in some plant cells and algae. • his energy is used "y converting car"on dio,ide 5from the air6 and %ater 5from the soil6 into sugar 5glucose6. • 0,ygen is released as a "y)product. 'hotosynthesis is summarised "y the e.uation& light energy car"on dio,ide 7 %ater

glucose 7 o,ygen

Where does %hotosynthesis ha%%en? • 2eaves are the main site of photosynthesis. • 'hotosynthesis mainly in occurs in the mesophyll cells. • hese cells contain lots of chloroplasts. • Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll. " %alisade meso%hyll cell&

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

'actors that limit the rate of %hotosynthesis 1( Tem%erature A lo% temperature %ill limit the rate as the molecules %ill move less and therefore the reaction happens slo%er 2( Car)on dio*ide A shortage of C08 %ill limit the rate as fe%er molecules %ill "e availa"le for the reaction. $( +i!ht intensity A shortage of light means there is less energy to po%er the reaction. +imitin! factors e*%lained& • 2ight! temperature and the availa"ility of car"on dio,ide interact and in practice any one of them may "e the factor that limits photosynthesis. • 9f one of these factors is closest to its minimum value it %ill limit the rate. • 9ncreasing this factor %ill increase the rate. • he rate %ill continue to increase until another factor "ecomes limiting. • Any further increase in the original factor %ill no% not increase the rate. • :ith no limiting factors! increasing a factor a"ove a certain level %ill not increase the rate. All chlorophyll molecules are "eing used. 'armin! %ractices • ;armers artificially manipulate the environment in %hich they gro% plants. • hey gro% plants in greenhouses or in polythene tunnels. • hey can control the temperature in greenhouses using heaters and ventilation. • hey can artificially increase the car"on dio,ide levels. • hey can control the light using fluorescent lamps. • By doing all of this! their plants gro% faster and certain plants can "e gro%n in this country out of their natural gro%th season. Eg tomatoes can "e gro%n all year round. • herefore! they increase their profits. ,o- do %lants and al!ae use !lucose? • • • he glucose produced in photosynthesis may "e converted into insolu"le starch for storage 'lant cells use some of the glucose produced during photosynthesis for respiration. Some glucose in plants and algae is used& • • • to produce fat or oil for storage to produce cellulose! %hich strengthens the cell %all to produce proteins& o o produce proteins! plants also use nitrate ions that are a"sor"ed from the soil.

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

B2..

r!anisms and their environment

Summary 2iving organisms form communities! and %e need to understand the relationships %ithin and "et%een these communities. hese relationships are affected "y e,ternal influences. #hysical factors 'hysical factors that may affect organisms are& • emperature& o emperature affects the rate of an organism<s meta"olism. o Some organisms cannot maintain a constant high "ody temperature. o hey cannot tolerate e,treme temperatures. o 0rganisms that can maintain a constant high "ody temperature may also struggle to survive in e,treme temperatures. • availa"ility of nutrients& o (utrients such as nitrates are essential for the gro%th of plants and microorganisms. o 9f there is a lo% concentration of these nutrients! these organisms struggle to gro% and survive. • amount of light& o 'lants re.uire light as an energy source for photosynthesis. o 9n lo% light intensities plants gro% very slo%ly. • availa"ility of %ater& o All organisms re.uire %ater. o 9t is essential "ecause chemical reactions that occur inside and outside cells occur in solution in %ater. o 9n the a"sence of %ater! cells! and therefore organisms! die availa"ility of o,ygen& o 0,ygen is essential for aero"ic respiration. o 9t can "ecome limited in the soil! so plant roots cannot gro% and a"sor" mineral ions and %ater. o 9t can also "ecome limited in %ater! so a.uatic organisms struggle to respire and survive. availa"ility of car"on dio,ide& o Car"on dio,ide is essential for photosynthesis. o his can "ecome limited in an environment %here there are many plants. o his %ill reduce the rate of gro%th of plants.

Collection of /uantitative data Sam%lin!& • o study the distri"ution of a species you need to find out& o he si3e of the area "eing studied. o he num"er of organisms living there. Page 11

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

• • • • • •

o :here those organisms live. =o%ever! it %ould "e very time consuming to count every individual organism& o hey may move o here may "e too many. herefore! a sample of the organisms is counted. he techni.ues chosen should ena"le this sample to "e representative of the %hole area. 9t should provide valid data. he sample can "e used to estimate the total population. he techni.ue should "e reproduci"le1 if it is carried out again the estimated population should "e the same si3e.

0uadrats • hese are s.uare frames! used to mar$ off specific areas of ground. • ypically >.?m @ >.?m %ith a grid of 1>cm @ 1> cm • hey can "e used to survey& o %hich species are present! o num"ers of each species! or o percentage cover of a species. 1andom Sam%lin!& • Construct a regular grid using tape across the area. • Generate random num"ers using a calculator or computer. • Use these to determine coordinates. • his ensures that there is no "ias "y the investigator. • 9t ensures the results are valid. • 9nvestigate the population of the species in the .uadrat. • *epeat many times. Transects Use %hen& • here are changes in the distri"ution of a population of an organism. • here are t%o neigh"ouring ha"itat • eg grassland to %oodland • 0r! if a particular factor leads to 3onation • Eg the effect of the tide and coverage "y %ater on a roc$y seashore. #ethod i6 ii6 iii6 iv6 v6 vi6 Choose the start and end positions of the transect. /etermine the direction and length of the transect. 2ay do%n a tape or string to mar$ out transect. Sample the organisms along the line. 'erform further parallel transects to ensure results are relia"le. a$e recording of the factors that could "e influencing the distri"ution along the transect.

Aarious types of transect& 1. *ecord each organism! %hich is touching the line at suita"le! regular intervals. Page 12

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

2. 'lace a .uadrat at the start position and record its contents. 'lace the su"se.uent .uadrats immediately touching the previous ones along the transect. 3. 9f the transect is very long! place the .uadrats at suita"le! regular intervals along the transect.

"nalysis of data Mean& he average value1 calculated "y adding all the o"servations and dividing "y the num"er of o"servations. E,ample 1 8? .uadrats %ere placed. 18? dandelions %here found in total. #ean num"er of daisies per .uadrat - 18? 8? -? E,ample 8 ? .uadrats %ere placed. 'ercentage cover of grass in each %as& B>C! ?>C! D>C! E>C! F>C #ean percentage cover - B> 7 ?> 7 D> 7 E> 7 F> ? - B>C Median& he middle value of a list. Example: he num"er of slugs found under discarded "ric$s %ere& ?!F!F!D!E!F!G!E Arrange the data in order& G!?!E!E!D!F!F!F he median is the middle num"er! or the mean of the middle t%o num"ers. he median num"er of slugs per "ric$ - E 7 D - B slugs per "ric$ 8 Mode& he most common value in a list. 9n the case of the slugs this %ould "e F slugs per "ric$

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

B2.2 #roteins Summary 'roteins have many functions! "oth inside and outside the cells of living organisms. 'roteins! as en3ymes! are no% used %idely in the home and in industry. #rotein structure 'rotein molecules are made up of long chains of amino acids.

hese long chains are folded to produce a specific shape that ena"les other molecules to fit into the protein. 'roteins act as& • Structural components of tissues such as muscles& o #uscle cells contain interlin$ing protein fi"res. o hese interact %hen the muscle contract.

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

=ormones& o Some hormones are proteins. o E,ample& insulin o =ormones are released into the "lood from glands. o hey have specific shapes! and attach to molecules on the cell mem"rane of specific target cells. o Eg %hen the "lood sugar levels increase! insulin is released from the pancreas. 9t attaches to the cell mem"rane of cells in the liver! and this causes them to increase rate of glucose upta$e.

Anti"odies& o Anti"odies are made of proteins. o hey are released "y %hite "lood cells. o hey have a specific shape that attaches to antigens. Page 15

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

o Antigens are chemicals that pathogens carry or release. o he anti"ody prevents the pathogens from damaging our o%n cells.

Catalysts& o 'roteins act as "iological catalysts called en3ymes. o hese control and se.uence all of the reactions that occur inside and outside cells in all living organisms.

3n4ymes structure and function • En3ymes are "iological catalysts. • Catalysts increase the rate of chemical reactions. • En3ymes are protein molecules made up of long chains of amino acids. • hese long chains are folded to produce a special shape %hich ena"les other molecules to fit into the en3yme. • his shape is vital for the en3ymes function. • (ormally only one type of molecule 5the su"strate6 %ill fit into the en3yme. • he active site is the part of the en3yme %hich the su"strate fits into.

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

"ctivation 3ner!y • 9n order for a chemical reaction to ta$e place! energy is re.uired. • his is called the activation energy. • En3ymes reduce the activation energy of a reaction. 3ffect of tem%erature on en4ymes • 2i$e most chemical reactions! the rate of en3yme)controlled reactions increases as the temperature increases. • he en3yme and su"strates move around faster so they collide more often. • he temperature %hen the en3yme is %or$ing fastest is called the optimum. • his is true up to appro,imately H>IC! higher than this and the structure of the en3yme changes. • As a result! the active site "ecomes a different shape and the su"strate no longer fits. • 9t is then descri"ed as denatured.

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

The effect of %, on en4ymes • p= can also affect the shape of the active site. • 9t does this "y affecting the forces that hold the en3yme molecule together. • A change in p= denature the en3yme. • /ifferent en3ymes %or$ "est at different p= values. • Eg. Stomach en3ymes %or$ "est in acidic conditions. • #outh en3ymes %or$ "est in neutral conditions.

Di!estion • Some en3ymes %or$ outside the "ody cells. • hese are called e,tracellular en3ymes. • he digestive en3ymes are produced "y specialised cells in glands and in the lining of the gut. • he en3ymes then pass out of the cells into the gut %here they come into contact %ith food molecules. • hey catalyse the "rea$do%n of large molecules into smaller molecules. • /igestion is the process %here food is "ro$en do%n into su"stances the "ody can a"sor". • (utrition is the process of ta$ing in and using food. The ,uman Di!estive System Page 18

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

Di!estion in the mouth • ;ood is che%ed to create a larger surface area for the action of en3ymes. • Saliva is released %hich contains amylase. • Amylase digests starch into smaller sugars 5maltose6. • ;urther che%ing ena"les s%allo%ing. • he food enters the oesophagus. Di!estion in the stomach • ;ood enters the stomach from the oesophagus. • he %alls of our stomach produce 4uice. • his 4uice contains& o A protease en3yme 5called pepsin6.  his digests proteins into amino acids. o =ydrochloric acid – this $ills "acteria in our food. 9t creates p=G. o #ucus – this protects the %all of our stomach from acid and pepsin. • he %all of our stomach is muscular! and churns our food. • he food remains in our stomach for a fe% hours. he proteins are digested. • ;ood leaves our stomach in small s.uirts into the small intestine. Di!estion and a)sor%tion in the small intestine he small intestine has 8 main 4o"s& • o complete the digestion of the food • o a"sor" the solu"le products of digestion into the "lood. Di!estion in the small intestine G 4uices are released& 1. Bile • 'roduced "y the liver. • Stored in the gall "ladder. • *eleased into the small intestine. • 8 main things in "ile& o Al$ali to neutralise the stomach acid o Bile salts %hich convert large fat droplets to small fat droplets – for a large surface area for the en3ymes to act on. o There are no en4ymes in )ile. 2. #ancreatic 5uice and $. 6ntestinal 5uice • Both are released into the small intestine. • Both contain G main en3ymes& o Amylase to complete the digestion of starch into sugars. o 'rotease to complete the digestion of proteins into amino acids. o 2ipase to "rea$ do%n fats into fatty acids and glycerol.

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

Ma7in! use of en4ymes • • • Some microorganisms produce en3ymes %hich pass out of the cells. hese en3ymes have many uses in the home and in industry. 9n the home! "iological detergents may contain protein)digesting and fat)digesting en3ymes 5proteases and lipases6. Disadvanta!es 9f the clothes are not fully rinsed! protease en3ymes may remain in the clothes! %hich digests protein in the s$in. his can lead to irritation! allergies and dermatitis.

"dvanta!es hese are more efficient at removing stains from clothes. 2o%er %ashing temperatures can "e used %hich saves energy. •

9n industry& o 'roteases are used to pre)digest the protein in some "a"y foods.  his reduces ho% much the "a"y needs to digest the food. o Car"ohydrases are used to convert starch into sugar syrup.  his is cheaper than e,tracting sugar from sugar cane. o 9somerase is used to convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup&  his is much s%eeter  9t therefore can "e used in smaller .uantities in slimming foods. Disadvanta!es En3ymes are sensitive to temperature and p= changes. emperature and p= need to "e carefully monitored and controlled! %hich can "e e,pensive.

"dvanta!es En3ymes ena"le industrial reactions to ta$e place at lo%er temperatures. Supplying heat is e,pensive. :hen en3ymes are used! industrial processes can "e cheaper.

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

B2.8 1es%iration Summary *espiration in cells can ta$e place aero"ically or anaero"ically. he energy released is used in a variety of %ays. he human "ody needs to react to the increased demand for energy during e,ercise. 1es%iration • /efinition& he process of transferring energy from food molecules in every living cell. • Aero"ic respiration ) uses o,ygen • Anaero"ic respiration ) uses no o,ygen • All chemical reactions inside cells are controlled "y en3ymes. "ero)ic res%iration • Glucose reacts %ith o,ygen! producing car"on dio,ide and %ater as %aste products. • his ta$es place continuously in animals and plants. Word e/uation& Glucose 7 0,ygen Car"on dio,ide 7 :ater 7 Energy

Chemical e/uation 5do not need to learnJ6& CE=180E 7 E08 • • EC08 7 E=80

*espiration actually involves a series of many small reactions. Each reaction is controlled "y an en3yme.

Mitochondria • #ost of the reactions in respiration happen in the mitochondria. • he inner surface of the mitochondria is highly folded to increase the surface area for en3ymes.

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

3ner!y use he energy that is released during respiration is used& • o "uild up larger molecules using smaller ones. • 9n animals! to ena"le muscles to contract. • 9n mammals and "irds! to maintain a steady "ody temperature in colder surroundings. • 9n plants! to "uild up sugars! nitrates and other nutrients into amino acids %hich are then "uilt up into proteins. The role of res%iration durin! e*ercise • #uscles contract to move the "ones in our "odies. • *espiration releases energy! %hich is used to contract the muscles& • :hen %e e,ercise! our muscles contract more .uic$ly and %ith more force. • his re.uires more energy. • his re.uires more glucose and o,ygen. • Also! more car"on dio,ide is created %hich needs to "e removed. • he human "ody needs to react to the increased demand for energy during e,ercise. Chan!es durin! e*ercise • /uring e,ercise a num"er of changes ta$e place& o he rate and depth of "reathing increases.  his increases the rate of gaseous e,change.  #ore o,ygen is ta$en into the "lood.  #ore car"on dio,ide is removed from the "lood. o he heart rate increases.  his increases rate of "lood flo% to the muscles • All of these changes increase the "lood flo% to the muscles and so increase the supply of sugar and o,ygen and increase the rate of removal of car"on dio,ide. 9lyco!en • Glucose is stored as glycogen is in the muscles. • /uring e,ercise! glycogen is "ro$en do%n into glucose in the muscles. Page 22

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

his increases the amount of glucose that can "e respired.

"naero)ic res%iration • /uring e,ercise! if insufficient o,ygen is reaching the muscles they use anaero"ic respiration to o"tain energy. • Anaero"ic respiration is the incomplete "rea$do%n of glucose and produces lactic acid. • As the "rea$do%n of glucose is incomplete! much less energy is released than during aero"ic respiration. glucose • • • • • lactic acid 7 small amount of energy released

=o%ever! lactic acid is poisonous. :e can only tolerate small amounts in our "ody. 9f muscles are su"4ected to long periods of vigorous activity they "ecome fatigued! ie they stop contracting efficiently. 0ne cause of muscle fatigue is the "uild up of lactic acid in the muscles. Blood flo%ing through the muscles removes the lactic acid. /uring and after e,ercise! %e "reathe heavily to ta$e in e,tra o,ygen to o,idise the lactic acid& lactic acid 7 o,ygen car"on dio,ide 7 %ater

• • • • •

he e,tra o,ygen is called the o*y!en de)t. he heart continues to pump faster. he "reathing rate remains high. his delivers the e,tra o,ygen to the muscles. his pays "ac$ the o,ygen de"t.

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

B2.: Cell Division and inheritance Summary Characteristics are passed on from one generation to the ne,t in "oth plants and animals. Simple genetic diagrams can "e used to sho% this. here are ethical considerations in treating genetic disorders. 9enetic material • 9n the nucleus of a typical human "ody cell there are 8G pairs of chromosomes. • :e inherit one set of 8G chromosomes from each of our parents. • Chromosomes are made from a large molecule called D;" 5deo,yri"ose nucleic acid6. • /(A consists of t%o strands coiled into a dou"le heli, structure. • /(A has 8 main roles& 1. 9t can replicate prior to cell division 5mitosis or meiosis6. 2. 9ts code is used to synthesise proteins. • A !ene is a small section of /(A. • Each gene codes for a particular com"ination of amino acids %hich ma$e a specific %rotein. • hese proteins determine our characteristics. • Some characteristics are controlled "y a single gene.

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

Cell Division and 9ro-th • (e% "ody cells are produced& o :hen the animal is gro%ing. o o repair damaged tissues. o o replace %orn out tissues. • #itosis occurs& o All of the chromosomes are replicated. o he nucleus is divided in 8. • his results in t%o !enetically identical nuclei. • he cell divides in 8 to form 8 genetically identical cells. • Some cells undergo cell division again and again. • Some cells carry out their function then die.

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

"se*ual re%roduction • he cells of the offspring produced "y ase,ual reproduction are produced "y mitosis from the parental cells. • hey contain the same genes as the parents. Cell differentiation • /ifferentiation results %hen some genes are turned on! some are turned off. • 0nce the cells are specialised they carry out their role. • #ost types of animal cells differentiate at an early stage. • #any plant cells retain the a"ility to differentiate throughout life. • 9n mature animals! cell division is mainly restricted to repair and replacement. Stem cells • Stem cells can "e made to differentiate into many different types of cells e.g. nerve cells. • here are very fe% stem cells in an adult. • here is currently a lot of research involving the use of stem cells to treat various diseases and in4uries. • Cells can "e ta$en from human em"ryos! adult "one marro% and um"ilical cords. • reatment %ith these cells may help cure conditions such as paralysis. • =o%ever! many people are concerned a"out the use of human em"ryos to treat diseases. • hey feel that all em"ryos have got the potential to "ecome a "a"y! and that they should not "e used in this %ay. Se*ual re%roduction 9amete formation • Gametes are se, cells 5sperm and egg cells6. • Sperm formed in the testes. Page 26

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

• •

Egg cells are formed in the ovaries. A cell containing a full set of chromosomes 5chromosomes in pairs6 divides to form cells %ith half the num"er set of chromosomes 5a single set6& o #eiosis occurs&  Copies of the chromosomes are made.  he nucleus divides t%ice to form H nuclei. o hen the cell divides t%ice to form four gametes.  Each has a single set of chromosomes.

'ertilisation • :hen gametes 4oin at fertilisation! a single "ody cell %ith ne% pairs of chromosomes is formed. • A ne% individual then develops "y this cell repeatedly dividing "y mitosis. <ariation "se*ual re%roduction leads to very little variation& • 0rganisms that reproduce ase,ually create ne% individuals "y mitosis. • hey are genetically identical to the parent. • hey may develop differently due to differences in their environment. Se*ual re%roduction leads to much more variation& • #eiosis ensures that all gametes contain the same genes! "ut have a different selection of alleles. • Also! it is random %hich sperm fertilises %hich egg. Page 27

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

herefore all individuals 5e,cept for identical t%ins6 produced se,ually are genetically different.

Mendel=s discoveries • #endel %or$ed out the main principles of inheritance in the 1F th century. • =e studied inheritance in pea plants. • =e noticed that certain characteristics that %ere sho%n "y 8 pea plants %ere not al%ays sho%n in their offspring. • =o%ever! %hen he crossed these offspring together! the characteristics sometimes reappeared in the ne,t generation. • =e carried out thousands of crosses %ith pea plants! and he found that many characteristics %ere inherited in predicta"le patterns. • =e proposed the idea of separately inherited factors& o Each individual inherits a set of factors from each of their parents. o 9t is the com"ination of these characters that determines the characteristics of an individual. • #endel<s discoveries %ere not recognised until after his death – :hyK • =e pu"lished his %or$ in an o"scure 4ournal • /(A! chromosomes and genes %ere not yet discovered • 'eople could not accept the lin$ "et%een plants and humans. 6nheritance • Each gene may have different forms called alleles. • Eg. here is a gene for eye colour. Everyone has 8 copies of this gene. Alleles for eye colour may "e "lue! "ro%n! green etc. • herefore each person may have 8 different alleles for eye colour. • :hen %e are conceived! %e receive one copy of each gene from each parent. • herefore %e have t%o copies of every gene! "ut they may "e 8 different alleles. • /ifferent com"inations of alleles may lead to differences in the characteristic. • An allele! %hich controls the development of a characteristic %hen it is present on only one of the chromosomes! is a dominant allele. • An allele! %hich controls the development of characteristics only if the dominant allele is not present! is a recessive allele. • #henoty%e is a description of ho% a characteristic is e,pressed. his can "e influenced "y genetic or environmental factors. • 9enoty%e is a description of the alleles an individual possesses for a characteristic. • A homo4y!ous genotype has 8 identical alleles. • A hetero4y!ous genotype has t%o different alleles for a gene.

Eg tongue rolling • here is a gene that control our a"ility to roll our tongues. • here are 8 alleles for this gene& • he allele that allo%s us to roll our tongues is dominant 5*6 • he allele that prevents tongue rolling is recessive 5r6 #ossi)le %arent com)ination 1& Page 28

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

'arents< phenotypes& 'arents< genotypes& 'ossi"le alleles in gametes&

tongue roller ** * and *

@ @ @

non)tongue roller rr r and r

At fertilisation! possi"le offspring genotypes& * r *r * *r

r

*r

*r

5 his is called a 'unnett s.uare6 0ffspring phenotypes& allele6. #ossi)le %arent com)ination 2& 'arents< phenotypes& 'arents< genotypes& 'ossi"le alleles in gametes& tongue roller @ tongue roller 5"oth carrying the non)tongue rolling allele6 *r * and r @ @ *r * and r All tongue rollers 5that carry the non)tongue rolling

At fertilisation! possi"le offspring genotypes& * * ** r *r

r

*r

rr

0ffspring phenotypes& • • •

G tongue rollers & 1 non)tongue roller

hese are appro,imate ratios here is a B?C chance of a tongue roller "eing "orn in this family. here is a 8?C chance of a non)tongue roller "eing "orn in this family.

#ossi)le %arent com)ination $& 'arents< phenotypes& tongue roller Page 29 @ non)tongue roller

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

5carrying the non)tongue rolling allele6 'arents< genotypes& 'ossi"le alleles in gametes& *r * and r @ @ rr r and r

At fertilisation possi"le offspring genotypes& * r *r r rr

r

*r

rr

0ffspring phenotypes& • •

1 tongue roller & 1 non)tongue roller

here is a ?>C chance of a tongue roller "eing "orn in this family. here is a ?>C chance of a non)tongue roller "eing "orn in this family.

'amily Trees • he inheritance of traits in families can "e illustrated using a family tree • 9n this e,ample! the allele for attached earlo"es is recessive. • ; - allele for detached earlo"es • f - allele for attached earlo"es • ;; and ;f - genotypes for detached earlo"es • ff - genotype for attached earlo"es

6nherited Conditions in ,umans #olydactyly& • 'eople that inherit this condition have e,tra fingers or toes. • 9t is caused "y a dominant allele of a gene. • 9f someone inherits one copy of this allele! they %ill develop the disorder. Page 30

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

9t can therefore "e passed on "y only one parent %ho has the disorder.

Cystic fi)rosis • A disorder of cell mem"ranes. • 9t causes thic$! stic$y mucus to accumulate in the lungs and the digestive system. • his causes& o 2ung infections o 'ro"lems %ith "reathing o 'ro"lems %ith digestion and a"sorption. • 9t is caused "y a recessive allele of a gene. • he parents may "e carriers of the disorder %ithout actually having the disorder themselves. • 9t can therefore "e passed on "y parents! neither of %hom has the disorder. • o develop the disease! the allele must "e inherited from "oth parents. 3m)ryo screenin! • 'eople in families that have had certain genetic disorders can have a genetic test to see if they carry the allele for the disease. • 9f they do carry the allele! their em"ryos can "e screened to see if it is affected. • hey can then decide %hether to have an a"ortion. • his is very controversial. • Also! many people are concerned a"out this "ecause in the future it may ena"le people to choose other characteristics in their children. Se* determination • 9n human "ody cells! one of the 8G pairs of chromosomes carries the genes %hich determine se,. • 9n females the se, chromosomes are the same 5@@6. • 9n males the se, chromosomes are different 5@+6. 'arents se,& 'arents se, chromosomes& 'ossi"le chromosomes in gametes& At fertilisation& @ @ @@ + @+ male @+ @ and + @ @ @ female @@ @ and @

@

@@

@+

here is a ?>C possi"ility of "eing a girl or a "oy. • As a foetus! %e all start off %ith female characteristics. • 'resence of + chromosome causes male development. Page 31

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

• •

A"sence of + chromosome continues female development. he se, of the "a"y is determined "y the se, chromosome inherited from the father.

D;" 'in!er%rintin! • Each person 5apart from identical t%ins6 has uni.ue /(A. • Samples of /(A can "e found in "lood! semen and saliva. • Special techni.ues are used to cut the /(A and then separate them according to length across a gel. • Se.uences %ithin the /(A can "e identified. • Each individual<s /(A produces a specific pattern. • his can "e used& o o identify criminals o o decide %hether someone is the "iological father of a child.

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

B2.> S%eciation Summary Changes in the environment of plants and animals may cause them to die out. he fossil record sho%s that ne% organisms arise! flourish! and after a time "ecome e,tinct. he record also sho%s changes that lead to the formation of ne% species. • • • • ri!ins of life he first organisms %ere very simple single)celled organisms! similar to "acteria. =o%ever! these rarely survive as fossils. herefore! Scientists cannot "e certain a"out ho% life "egan on Earth. 9t is only possi"le to develop theoretical models that sho% ho% life may have started.

'ossils • :e can learn from fossils ho% much or ho% little different organisms have changed as life developed on Earth. • =o%ever! many early forms of life %ere soft)"odied! %hich means that they have left fe% traces "ehind. • :hat traces there %ere have "een mainly destroyed "y geological activity. • ;ossils may "e formed in various %ays& • • • • from the hard parts of animals that do not decay easily from parts of organisms that have not decayed "ecause one or more of the conditions needed for decay are a"sent %hen parts of the organism are replaced "y other materials as they decay as preserved traces of organisms! eg footprints! "urro%s and rootlet traces.

3*tinctions • Aarious events can ma$e it difficult for individuals to survive& o changes to the environment over geological time o ne% predators may arise o ne% diseases may arise o ne%! more successful! competitors may arise o a single catastrophic event! eg massive volcanic eruptions or collisions %ith asteroids. • 9f the organisms cannot evolve .uic$ enough to "ecome "etter adapted to the change they may "ecome e,tinct. • 9f they do evolve! they are li$ely to develop into ne% species. S%eciation • A species is defined as a group of organisms that are capa"le of "reeding together to produce fertile offspring. • (e% species arise as a result of& • 9solation – t%o populations of a species "ecome separated! eg geographically.

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

• •

Genetic variation – each population has a %ide range of alleles that control their characteristics. (atural selection ) 9n each population! the alleles that control the characteristics %hich help the organism to survive are selected& o he individuals %ith the most "eneficial alleles are more li$ely to survive. o hey are more li$ely to reproduce and pass on their genes. o herefore! the "eneficial alleles "ecome more common in future generations. 0ver a long period of time! the populations may "ecome so different that successful inter"reeding is no longer possi"le. hey have no "ecome separate species. Speciation has therefore occurred.

• • •

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 1 summary notes

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