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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 3 summary notes

AQA GCSE Biology
Unit 3
DR Page 1 4/8/2014

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 3 summary notes

Summary Notes
13.1 How do dissolved materials get into and out of animals and plants? Absorption of substances by cells • Dissolved substances move by diffusion, osmosis and active trans ort!

Diffusion "covered in more detail in unit #$% • &'e movement of articles in a li(uid or gas from an area )'ere t'ey are in 'ig'er concentration to an area )'ere t'ey are in lo)er concentration! • &'e greater t'e difference in concentration, t'e faster t'e rate of diffusion! • # e*am les of diffusion t'roug' t'e cell membrane% o +*ygen re(uired for res iration diffuses into cells! o Carbon dio*ide roduced by res iration diffuses out of cells! Membrane

Osmosis "covered in more detail in unit #$% • &'e diffusion of )ater from a dilute to a more concentrated solution t'roug' a artially ermeable membrane t'at allo)s t'e assage of )ater molecules! • # e*am les% o Absor tion of )ater by t'e root 'air cells in roots in lants! o Absor tion of )ater by e it'elial cells in t'e small intestine! Active Transport: DR Page 2 4/8/2014

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&'e rocess by )'ic' cells absorb substances against a concentration gradient! &'e substance being trans orted attac'es to large rotein molecules in t'e cell membrane! Energy released t'roug' res iration is used to c'ange t'e s'a e of t'e rotein! &'is releases t'e substance on t'e ot'er side of t'e membrane! &'is rocess enables cells to absorb substances from very dilute solutions! # e*am les% o Absor tion of mineral ions by t'e root 'air cells in roots in lants! o Absor tion of glucose by e it'elial cells in t'e small intestine! Membrane

protein

as !"c#ange in t#e lungs • • • &'e lungs are in t'e u er art of t'e body "t'ora*$! &'ey are rotected by t'e ribcage! &'ey are se arated from t'e lo)er art of t'e body "abdomen$ by t'e dia 'ragm!

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&'e breat'ing system ta,es air into and out of t'e body! +*ygen from t'e air diffuses into t'e bloodstream! Carbon dio*ide can diffuse out of t'e bloodstream into t'e air! Page 3 4/8/2014

AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 3 summary notes

&'e alveoli rovide a very large, moist surface, ric'ly su t'at gases can readily diffuse into and out of t'e blood!

lied )it' blood ca illaries so

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-any small s 'erical alveoli rovide a large surface area! &'e moist surface 'el s o*ygen to dissolve so t'at it can diffuse into t'e cells! &'e ca illaries are very close to t'e alveoli so t'at t'e gases 'ave a s'ort distance to diffuse! Concentration gradients are maintained by% o &'e blood removing o*ygen from and bringing carbon dio*ide to t'e lungs! o Breat'ing, )'ic' re lenis'es o*ygen and removes carbon dio*ide!  -uscles in t'e dia 'ragm and bet)een t'e ribs are used to increase and decrease t'e volume in t'e t'ora*!

Absorption of nutrients in t#e small intestine • .ood in t'e small intestine 'as been digested into% o Glucose o Amino acids o .atty acids o Glycerol &'ese nutrients need to be absorbed into t'e blood across t'e )all of t'e small intestine! &'ey are absorbed by diffusion and active trans ort! &'e )all of t'e small intestine is covered )it' finger/li,e e*tensions called villi!

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-any villi rovide a large surface area! &'e )all is only one cell t'ic, so t'e diffusion at')ay is s'ort! 0illi 'ave an e*tensive net)or, of ca illaries to absorb t'e roducts of digestion! Concentration gradients are maintained because t'e blood removes t'e absorbed nutrients!

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Absorption of water by roots • • • • &'e surface area of t'e roots is increased by root 'airs! -ost of t'e )ater and mineral ions are absorbed by root 'air cells! 1ater is absorbed by osmosis! -ost of t'e mineral ions are absorbed by active trans ort!

as !"c#ange in t#e leaf • &'e surface area of leaves is increased by t'e flattened s'a e and internal air s aces!

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-ost 'otosynt'esis ta,es lace in t'e alisade cells! Carbon dio*ide needs to reac' t'e alisade cells! 2lants 'ave stomata to obtain carbon dio*ide from t'e atmos 'ere! Page 6 4/8/2014

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&'is carbon dio*ide is used in 'otosynt'esis! &'e si3e of stomata is controlled by guard cells, )'ic' surround t'em! Stomata o en during daylig't 'ours, to enable carbon dio*ide to diffuse in!

Transpiration • • &'e rocess by )'ic' lants lose )ater va our from t'e surface of t'eir leaves! 4t eva orates into t'e air s aces in t'e leaf, and t'en diffuses out t'roug' t'e stomata!

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&rans o o o

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iration is more ra id in 'ot, dry and )indy conditions% 5eat causes t'e )ater to eva orate (uic,er! Dry conditions increases t'e )ater va our concentration gradient! 1ind moves t'e )ater va our a)ay from t'e leaf, maintaining t'e concentration gradient! -ost of t'e )ater lost by trans iration leaves t'roug' t'e stomata! Stomata close )'en it is dar,, )'en carbon dio*ide is not re(uired! &'is reduces t'e amount of )ater lost by t'e lant at a time )'en it is not needed for 'otosynt'esis! 4f lants lose )ater faster t'an it is re laced by t'e roots, t'e stomata can close to revent )ilting!

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13.$ How are dissolved materials transported around t#e body? • Substances are trans orted around t'e body by t'e circulation system% o &'e 'eart o &'e blood vessels o &'e blood &'ey are trans orted from )'ere t'ey are ta,en into t'e body to t'e cells, or from t'e cells to )'ere t'ey are removed from t'e body! Substances are ta,en in% o 4n t'e digestive system o 4n t'e lungs Substances are removed% o .rom t'e lungs o By t'e ,idneys

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T#e Heart • • • • • &'e 'eart um s blood around t'e body! 4ts )alls are mainly made of muscle! &'is muscle contracts to um blood t'roug' t'e circulation systems! 4t is a double um , because t'ere are t)o se arate circulation systems% o +ne to t'e lungs o +ne to all t'e ot'er organs of t'e body! &'e blood asses t'roug' t'e 'eart t)ice in order to ass round bot' of t'ese circulation systems!

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Blood is um ed to t'e lungs from t'e rig't ventricle t'roug' t'e ulmonary artery! &'e blood returns from t'e lungs to t'e left atrium t'roug' t'e ulmonary vein! Blood is um ed to t'e organs of t'e body from t'e left ventricle t'roug' t'e aorta! Blood returns to t'e 'eart from t'e organs into t'e rig't atrium t'roug' t'e vena cava!

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%lood vessels • Blood flo)s from t'e 'eart to t'e organs t'roug' arteries and returns t'roug' veins!

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4n t'e organs, blood flo)s t'roug' ca illaries! Substances needed by cells in t'e body tissues ass out of t'e blood, and substances roduced by t'e cells ass into t'e blood t'roug' t'e )alls of t'e ca illaries!

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Arteries Carry blood a)ay from t'e 'eart to t'e organs! 5ig' blood ressure! Elastic to )it'stand 'ig' blood ressure!

&apillaries Carry blood a)ay from arteries into organs t'en bac, into veins! Decreasing blood ressure!

'eins Carry blood a)ay from t'e organs bac, to t'e 'eart! 6o) blood ressure!

7o elastic tissue – )alls one 7ot elastic! cell t'ic,! 0ery little muscle!

-uscular )alls, to create a 7o muscle – )alls one cell ulse, to maintain blood t'ic,! ressure! 8arely contain valves! 7o valves!

Contain valves to control t'e direction of blood flo)!

%lood • Blood 'as t)o main com onents% o 2lasma o Cells

(lasma: • • &'e li(uid art of t'e blood! Blood lasma trans orts% o Carbon dio*ide from t'e organs to t'e lungs o Soluble roducts of digestion from t'e small intestine to ot'er organs% • Glucose • Amino acids o Urea from t'e liver to t'e ,idneys!

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1'ite blood cells – involved in t'e immune system "covered in Unit 9$! 2latelets – fragments of cells: involved in blood clotting! 8ed blood cells trans ort o*ygen from t'e lungs to t'e organs!

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8ed blood cells 'ave no nucleus! &'ey are ac,ed )it' a red igment called 'aemoglobin! 4n t'e lungs% o +*ygen diffuses into t'e red blood cells! o 5aemoglobin combines )it' o*ygen to form o*y'aemoglobin! 4n t'e ot'er organs% o +*y'aemoglobin s lits u into 'aemoglobin and o*ygen! o +*ygen diffuses out of t'e red blood cell! &'ey 'ave a biconcave s'a e! &'is increases t'eir surface area to increase rate of diffusion across t'e cell membrane!

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13.3 How does e"ercise affect t#e e"c#anges ta)ing place wit#in t#e body? T#e role of respiration during e"ercise • • -uscles contract to move t'e bones in our bodies! 8es iration releases energy, )'ic' is used to contract t'e muscles% "8efer to Unit # for more details on aerobic res iration!$ carbon dio*ide ; )ater ; energy released

glucose ; o*ygen • • • • •

1'en )e e*ercise, our muscles contract more (uic,ly and )it' more force! &'is re(uires more energy! &'is re(uires more glucose and o*ygen! Also, more carbon dio*ide is created )'ic' needs to be removed! &'e 'uman body needs to react to t'e increased demand for energy during e*ercise!

&#anges during e"ercise • During e*ercise a number of c'anges ta,e lace% o &'e rate and de t' of breat'ing increases!  &'is increases t'e rate of gaseous e*c'ange!  -ore o*ygen is ta,en into t'e blood!  -ore carbon dio*ide is removed from t'e blood! o &'e 'eart rate increases!  &'is increases rate of blood flo) to t'e muscles o &'e arteries su lying t'e muscles get )ider "t'ey dilate$!  &'is allo)s more blood to enter t'e ca illaries in t'e muscles! All of t'ese c'anges increase t'e su ly of sugar and o*ygen to t'e muscles and increase t'e rate of removal of carbon dio*ide from t'e muscles! lycogen • • • Glucose is stored as glycogen is in t'e muscles "refer to unit #$! During e*ercise, glycogen is bro,en do)n into glucose in t'e muscles! &'is increases t'e amount of glucose t'at can be res ired!

Anaerobic respiration • • • • 4f muscles are sub<ected to long eriods of vigorous activity t'ey become fatigued, o +*ygen su ly gets too lo)! o &'ey sto contracting efficiently! 4f insufficient o*ygen is reac'ing t'e muscles t'ey use anaerobic res iration to obtain energy! Anaerobic res iration is t'e incom lete brea,do)n of glucose and roduces lactic acid! As t'e brea,do)n of glucose is incom lete, muc' less energy is released t'an during aerobic res iration! glucose DR lactic acid ; small amount of energy released Page 14 4/8/2014

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5o)ever, lactic acid is oisonous! 1e can only tolerate small amounts in our body! During and after e*ercise, )e breat'e 'eavily to ta,e in e*tra o*ygen to o*idise t'e lactic acid! &'e e*tra o*ygen is called t'e o"ygen debt lactic acid ; o*ygen carbon dio*ide ; )ater

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&'e 'eart continues to um faster! &'e breat'ing rate remains 'ig'! &'is delivers t'e e*tra o*ygen to t'e muscles! &'is ays bac, t'e o*ygen debt!

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13.* How do e"c#anges in t#e )idney #elp us to maintain t#e internal environment in mammals and #ow #as biology #elped us to treat )idney disease? • • • • • -ost 'umans 'ave t)o ,idneys! =idneys 'ave an im ortant role in 'omeostasis! "-ore detail on 'omeostasis in Unit 9 and #!$ &'ey control t'e )ater content of t'e blood! &'ey control t'e ion "salt$ content of t'e blood! &'ey remove t'e urea from t'e blood! o Urea is a to*in roduced )'en t'e liver brea,s do)n e*cess amino acids!

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Eac' ,idney receives blood from t'e aorta "via a renal artery$! &'e artery branc'es into millions of ca illaries inside eac' ,idney! Eac' ,idney also contains about one million microsco ic tubules, )'ic' are res onsible for forming urine!

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A 'ealt'y ,idney roduces urine by% 1. • • • • +iltering t#e blood Blood enters t'e ca illaries under 'ig' ressure! -ost of t'e li(uid leaves t'e blood and enters a tubule! &'e cells and large molecule remain in t'e blood! &'e blood becomes very concentrated!

2. ,eabsorbing all t#e sugar • All of t'e sugar is reabsorbed from t'e tubule, bac, into t'e blood by active trans ort! • 4t moves against a concentration gradient! 3. ,eabsorbing t#e dissolved ions needed by t#e body • Some of t'e ions are also reabsorbed bac, into t'e blood by active trans ort! • Some salt is left be'ind to balance )'at t'e body needs! 4. ,eabsorbing as muc# water as t#e body needs • 1ater is reabsorbed into t'e blood by osmosis! • &'is occurs because t'ere is a muc' 'ig'er solute concentration "lo)er )ater concentration$ in t'e blood t'an in t'e tubule! • &'e body balances 'o) muc' )ater it needs by c'anging 'o) muc' )ater is lost in t'e urine! 5. • • • ,eleasing urine Urine is released from t'e ,idney! 4t contains urea, e*cess ions and )ater! Urine is stored in t'e bladder, before being e* elled from t'e body!

Treating -idney +ailure

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2eo le )'ose ,idneys do not function ro erly can die because to*ic substances accumulate in t'eir blood! &'eir lives can be saved by using dialysis mac'ines or by 'aving a 'ealt'y ,idney trans lanted!

Dialysis • &'e blood vessels in t'e arm are connected to a dialysis mac'ine! • 4n t'e dialysis mac'ine a erson>s blood flo)s bet)een artially ermeable membranes! • &'e dialysis fluid contains t'e same concentration of useful substances as t'e blood! • &'is ensures t'at glucose and useful mineral ions are not lost! • &'ere is a 'ig' concentration of urea in t'e erson>s blood, and no urea in t'e dialysis fluid! • &'ere is a concentration gradient of urea bet)een t'e blood and t'e dialysis fluid! • Urea asses out from t'e blood into t'e dialysis fluid by diffusion! • &reatment by dialysis restores t'e concentrations of dissolved substances in t'e blood to normal levels! • 4t 'as to be carried out at regular intervals!

-idney transplants • A ,idney trans lant enables a diseased ,idney to be re laced )it' a 'ealt'y one from a donor! • 5o)ever, t'e donor ,idney may be re<ected by t'e immune system% o &'e antigens on t'e cells of t'e donated ,idney may be different to t'e reci ient>s antigens! o 5is )'ite blood cells )ill be stimulated and t'e immune system )ill attem t to destroy t'e ne) ,idney! • &o revent re<ection of t'e trans lanted ,idney% o A donor ,idney )it' a tissue/ty e similar to t'at of t'e reci ient is used! DR Page 18 4/8/2014

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o &'e reci ient is treated )it' drugs t'at su Dialysis Advantages 7o ma<or surgery needed! 7o )aiting lists – it revents eo le dying! 7o need for dialysis! &'e reci ient can lead a relatively normal life! Diet does not need to be controlled!

ress t'e immune system! Disadvantages Diet needs to be controlled carefully! 8estricts normal life – it ta,es about ? 'ours, several times a )ee,! -a<or surgery 'as many ris,s! 2ossibility of re<ection! 4mmunosu resant drugs need to be ta,en for life! &'e donated ,idney only lasts for about @ years!

=idney trans lant

Some religious grou s do not agree )it' organ donation! 13.. How are microorganisms used to ma)e food and drin)? %iogenesis • &'e acce ted scientific rinci le is t'at life can only be assed on by living t'ings! o Biogenesis is t'e rocess of life forms roducing ot'er life forms! • Until t'e 9@t' Century, eo le believed in s ontaneous generation "abiogenesis$% o &'at life can arise from non/living t'ings! o Eg t'e a earance of maggots or mould in food! • /pallan0i 1123.4: o Boiled flas,s of meat brot' to ,ill microorganisms! o &'e flas,s )ere sealed! o 7o microorganisms gre) in t'e brot'! o Scientists criticised 'is )or, – t'ey asserted t'at s ontaneous generation re(uired fres' air in t'e flas,! • /cw#ann 115334: o o o o o o • Used sul 'uric acid and 'eated glass tubes to sterilise air! 5e s'o)ed t'at t'e amount of o*ygen remained t'e same! &'is )as assed t'roug' boiled brot' in a flas,! 7o microorganisms gre) in t'e brot'! &'en, )'en e* osed to normal air, microorganisms gre)! Scientists criticised t'is )or, too – t'ey asserted t'at somet'ing 'ad been destroyed in t'e air t'at enabled life to form!

(asteur 1153*4: o Develo ed a s)an/nec, flas,! o Air could enter but microbes )ere tra

ed in curved nec, of t'e flas,! 4/8/2014

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o o 5e boiled t'e brot' inside t'e flas,! o &'e brot' remained clear!

o 1'en t'e nec, )as bro,en off, t'e brot' )ent cloudy!

o Scientists acce ted t'is as roof t'at s ontaneous generation does not occur!

6se of microorganisms to ma)e food and drin) • 2eo le from many different cultures 'ave ,no)n for t'ousands of years 'o) to use microorganisms to ma,e various ty es of food and drin,!

6se of bacteria: • 7og#urt production 1. &a,e mil, and standardise its fat content – mi* s,immed and full fat mil,! 2. 2asteurise t'e mil, / ,ills most contaminating microorganisms! 3. Add t'e bacterial starter culture! 4. 4ncubate at )arm tem erature! 5. &'e sugar lactose is converted into lactic acid! 6. &'is causes t'e mil, to clot and solidify into yog'urt! • &#eese production 1. Standardise t'e fat content of t'e mil,! 2. 2asteurise t'e mil,! 3. Add t'e bacterial starter culture! 4. &'is creates lactic acid! 5. Add an en3yme t'at se arates t'e curds "solid$ from t'e )'ey "li(uid$! 6. 8emove solid curds, s(uas' t'em and allo) t'e c'eese to ri en!

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Aeast is a single/celled organism! &'e cells 'ave a nucleus, cyto lasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell )all!

Anaerobic respiration in yeast: • Aeast can res ire )it'out o*ygen! • &'is roduces carbon dio*ide and et'anol "alco'ol$! • &'is is called fermentation! Aerobic respiration in yeast: • 4n t'e resence of o*ygen yeast carries out aerobic res iration and roduces carbon dio*ide and )ater! • Aerobic res iration rovides more energy and is necessary for t'e yeast to gro) and re roduce! Alco#olic drin)s • 4n bre)ing beer and )ine/ma,ing, carbo'ydrates are used as an energy source for yeast to res ire! • %rewing beer: o -alting%  &'e barley grains are soa,ed in )arm )ater!  &'ey start to germinate!  En3ymes in barley grains brea, do)n starc' into a sugary solution "maltose$!  &'is sugary solution is e*tracted! o .ermention%  Aeast and t'e sugar are mi*ed in a fermenter!  4t is ,e t )arm!  An air loc, revents o*ygen getting in, ensuring anaerobic res iration!  Alco'ol is roduced! o .lavour develo ment%  5o s are t'en added to give t'e beer flavour!  &'e beer is left for a )'ile for t'e flavour to develo !  &'e yeast settles to t'e bottom!  &'e beer is bottled or ut into barrels! Page 21 4/8/2014

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8a)ing wine: o 2ressing%  &'e gra es are ressed to release t'eir <uice! o .ermentation:  &'e <uice is mi*ed )it' yeast and )ater in a fermenter!  &'e yeast uses t'e natural sugars in t'e gra es as its energy source!  An air loc, is used to ensure anaerobic res iration!  Alco'ol is roduced!  &'e yeast settles to t'e bottom! o -aturing!  &'e )ine is ut into bottles!  4t is stored for t'e )ine to mature!

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13.3 9#at ot#er useful substances can we ma)e using microorganisms? +ermenters • -icroorganisms can be gro)n in large vessels called fermenters to roduce useful roducts suc' as antibiotics! • 4ndustrial fermenters usually 'ave% o An air su ly / to rovide o*ygen for res iration of t'e microorganisms o A stirrer / to ,ee t'e microorganisms in sus ension and maintain an even tem erature! o A )ater/cooled <ac,et / to remove 'eat roduced by t'e res iring microorganisms! o 4nstruments to monitor factors suc' as 5 and tem erature!

Antibiotic production • • &'e antibiotic, enicillin, is made by gro)ing t'e mould Penicillium in a fermenter! &'e medium contains% o Sugar o +t'er nutrients eg a source of nitrogen! Page 23 4/8/2014

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&'e Penicillium only starts to ma,e enicillin after using u most of t'e nutrients for gro)t'%

8ycoprotein production • • • • &'e fungus Fusarium is used to ma,e myco rotein "Quorn$! &'is is a rotein/ric' food suitable for vegetarians! &'e fungus is gro)n on starc' in aerobic conditions! &'e biomass is 'arvested and urified!

+uel production • • .uels can be made from natural roducts by fermentation! %iogas% o 2roduced by anaerobic fermentation of a )ide range of lant roducts or )aste material containing carbo'ydrates! o 4t is mainly met'ane! o +n a large scale industrial )aste can be used%  .rom sugar factories!  .rom se)age )or,s! o +n a small scale, biogas generators can be used to su ly t'e energy needs of individual families or farms! o +rganic )aste can be used%  2lant )aste from cro s!  Animal faeces and urine! o -any different microorganisms are involved in t'e brea,do)n of materials in biogas roduction! o &'ere are many environmental and economic advantages%  4t is a useful )ay to recycle )aste material!  4nitial set u costs are e* ensive, but t'e ra) materials for biogas roduction are very c'ea "or free$!  &'e fuel is readily available! Page 24 4/8/2014

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 &'is is articularly useful in develo ing countries!  1aste roducts from t'e rocess can be used as fertilisers!  4t reduces t'e use of fossil fuels! o &'ere are various different designs% +loating dome design

Advantages .loating dome stabilises t'e gas ressure Straig'tfor)ard to use! +i"ed dome design

Disadvantages -etal construction% E* ensive to set u 8usts easily

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.e)er metal arts% 6ess e* ensive to set u Does not rust •

Gas ressure fluctuates! 6ess straig'tfor)ard to control! Gas lea,age is more li,ely

Et'anol/based fuels% o 2roduced by t'e anaerobic fermentation of%  Sugar cane <uices, or  Glucose derived from mai3e starc'! • &'e starc' is bro,en do)n using carbo'ydrase en3ymes! o &'e sugars are fermented using yeast! o &'e et'anol is distilled from t'e roducts of t'e fermentation! o &'is can be used in motor ve'icle fuels! o 4t can also be mi*ed )it' etrol to ma,e gaso'ol! Disadvantages 6arge (uantities of lant material is re(uired! &'is uses a lot of land to gro) t'e cro s! +nly certain countries 'ave t'e climate and t'e land available to gro) t'em eg Bra3il! 7ot all of t'e lant material can be used! &'ere are large amounts of lant )aste roduced!

Advantages 6ess fossil fuels used! 4t is a rene)able su ly of energy!

7o to*ic gases roduced )it' combustion! Carbon neutral / &'e carbon dio*ide released is balanced by t'e carbon dio*ide removed from t'e atmos 'ere by t'e lant!

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 3 summary notes

13.2 How can we be sure we are using microorganisms safely? • • -icroorganisms are organisms t'at can only be seen )it' a microsco e! &'ey are mainly single/celled% o Bacteria o .ungi o 0iruses • -icroorganisms need to be 'andled safely in laboratories! • 4f t'ey are contaminated, t'e ot'er microorganisms t'at are resent may be at'ogens% o &'ey may roduce 'armful substances "to*ins$! o &'ey may cause disease! • So it is only safe to use microorganisms if )e 'ave a ure culture containing only one articular s ecies of microorganism! &ulturing microoganisms • • • &o study microoganisms, t'ey need to be cultured! &'is rovides t'em )it' t'e conditions t'ey need to re roduce (uic,ly! A ty ical culture medium contains% o Carbo'ydrates as an energy source! o -ineral ions! o 4n some cases su lementary rotein and vitamins! • &'ese nutrients are often contained in an agar medium – a ty e of <elly made from sea)eed! • 1'en agar is 'eated u it is li(uid! • 4t can be oured into a 2etri dis'! o A circular lastic or glass dis' )it' a lid%

&'e agar solidifies )'en left to cool! rowing pure cultures

2etri dis'es and culture media must be sterilised before use to ,ill un)anted microorganisms! o An autoclave is used! o &'is uses steam at 'ig' ressure to ,ill all microoganisms! • 4noculating loo s are used to transfer microorganisms to t'e media! o &'ese must be sterilised by assing t'em t'roug' a flame%

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AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 3 summary notes

&'e lid of t'e 2etri dis' s'ould be sealed )it' ad'esive ta e to revent microorganisms from t'e air contaminating t'e culture!

4t s'ould not be sealed all t'e )ay round t'e edge, as t'is )ould revent o*ygen getting in! • 4n sc'ool and college laboratories, cultures s'ould be incubated at a ma*imum tem erature of #B CC! o &'is greatly reduces t'e li,eli'ood of at'ogens gro)ing t'at mig't be 'armful to 'umans! o 4n industrial conditions 'ig'er tem eratures can roduce more ra id gro)t'!

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