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AC vs.

DC Distribution: A Loss Comparison
1 1,2

Michael Starke , Student Member, IEEE 2 , Leon M. Tolbert , Senior Member, IEEE, Burak Ozpineci , Senior Member, IEEE, 1 University of Tennessee, 2 Oak Ridge National aboratory

Abstract--Environmentally friendly technologies such as photovoltaics and fuel cells are DC sources. In the current power infrastructure, this necessitates converting the power supplied by these devices into AC for transmission and distribution which adds losses and complexity. he amount of DC loads in our buildings is ever-increasing with computers, monitors, and other electronics entering our wor!places and homes. his forces another conversion of the AC power to DC, adding further losses and complexity. his paper proposes the use of a DC distribution system. In this study, an e"uivalent AC and DC distribution system are compared in terms of efficiency. Index Terms-DC power systems, power system modeling, power distribution, losses . !T"OD#CT O! ncreasin$ %eman% an% environmental concerns have &orce% en$ineers to &ocus on %esi$nin$ po'er s(stems 'ith both hi$h e&&icienc( an% $reen technolo$ies. )reen technolo$ies are those that conserve natural resources such as &ossil &uels 'hile re%ucin$ the

human impact on the environment throu$h a re%uction in pollution *+,. The most 'ell-kno'n $reen technolo$ies inclu%e photovoltaics an% 'in% turbines. Althou$h &uel cells are not consi%ere% a $reen technolo$(, &uel cells have lo' emissions compare% to other &orms o& ener$( an% are %eeme% more environmentall( &rien%l(. #n&ortunatel(, the prevailin$ po'er s(stem in&rastructures are base% on alternatin$ current .AC/ 'hile t'o o& the lea%in$ environmentall( &rien%l( ener$ies, &uel cells an% photovoltaics, pro%uce %irect current .DC/. Currentl(, po'er s(stem in&rastructures that 'ish to incorporate &uel cells an% photovoltaics must &irst convert the DC po'er pro%uce% b( these ener$( sources to AC. This a%%s comple0it( an% re%uces e&&icienc( o& the po'er s(stem %ue to the nee% o& a po'er converter. 1urthermore, an ever increasin$ number o& DC consumin$ %evices such as computers, televisions, an% monitors are bein$ incorporate% into our buil%in$s. The po'er supplie% to these %evices must be converte% a$ain &rom AC back to DC a%%in$ &urther losses an% comple0it( to the po'er s(stem. nstea% o& usin$ multiple converters to convert DC to AC an% then AC to DC, the po'er s(stem coul% solel( be base% on DC. This 'oul% eliminate the nee% &or t'o sets o& converters &or

each DC loa%, re%ucin$ the cost, comple0it(, an% possibl( increasin$ the e&&icienc(. 2o'ever, a %e&initive anal(sis on a DC %istribution s(stem is nee%e% to %etermine

the net bene&its o& eliminatin$ the converters. n this paper, a lar$e stea%( state anal(sis o& an e0istin$ AC $ri% is constructe% alon$ 'ith a DC counterpart. These mo%els are compare% in terms o& e&&icienc(. . BAC3)"O# !D Since the %evelopment o& electricit(, AC has been %epicte% as the better choice &or po'er transmission an% %istribution. 2o'ever, Thomas 4%ison one o& the &oun%ers o& electricit( supporte% the use o& DC. !o metho% at that time e0iste% &or boostin$ an% controllin$ DC volta$e at the loa%, so that transmission o& DC po'er &rom $eneration to loa% resulte% in a lar$e amount o& losses an% volta$e variations at the %i&&erent loa% locations. To resolve this issue, 5estin$house propose% AC %istribution. !ikola Tesla ha% onl( recentl( at that time %evelope% the trans&ormer 'hich ha% the capabilit( o& boostin$ volta$e in AC. This allo'e% &or e&&icient transmission o& po'er &rom one location to another resultin$ in a complete trans&ormation o& the po'er s(stems to AC *6,. Althou$h man( thin$s have chan$e% since the invention o& electricit(, AC is still the &un%amental po'er t(pe o& our po'er in&rastructure. 2o'ever, %ue to the %evelopment o& po'er converters an% DC ener$( sources, interest in DC has returne%. Several stu%ies have investi$ate% the use o& a DC %istribution s(stem. n *7,, a smalllocalize% DC %istribution s(stem &or buil%in$ loa%s is investi$ate%. This po'er s(stem is supplie% b( a DC %istribute% ener$( source &or the DC loa%s an% has a separate AC $ri% connection &or the AC loa%s. The author relates that this metho%olo$( lea%s to a hi$her e&&icienc( compare% to a s(stem solel( base% on AC throu$h avoi%in$ the use o& the recti&ier. The author notes that po'er recti&iers have a relativel( lo' e&&icienc( compare% to inverters an% DC-DC converters. n *8,, a DC zonal %istribution s(stem &or a !av( ship is investi$ate% to provi%e electrical isolation, re%uce cost, an% increase stabilit(. 4ssentiall( each zone has a separate %istribution s(stem provi%in$ protection to the overall ship po'er s(stems 'hen an attack has occurre%. Due to the nee% o& multiple levels o& DC volta$e, a DC s(stem 'as %eeme% superior to a AC s(stem in terms o& e&&icienc( an%

=>6?.-+-8688-+9<8-7=<. 444 'hile a DC s(stem 'oul% onl( implement DC-DC converters. 9:. . The AC s(stem 'oul% nee% an inverter an% then DC-DC converter &or each DC bus volta$e level.cost.<< @6<<.

trans&ormer. the loa%s 'ere either assume% to be &ull( AC or DC. t'o mo%els 'ere create%. 2o'ever. current. The po'er s(stem is also a%Duste% &or partial loa%in$ o& AC an% DC components. The &ollo'in$ subsections %escribe the mo%el in more %etail. an% po'er levels at %i&&erent locations in the po'er s(stem. These components account &or more than 9<< components in the mo%el. . The total number o& buses in the mo%el 'ere %etermine% to be :+8. 'hich containe% multiple DC volta$es. the e&&icienc( o& po'er converters %urin$ partial loa%in$ is a concern an% can ultimatel( lea% to hi$her losses in DC. n all o& these cases. !" !# Model The components in the AC portion o& the mo%el that are implemente% in the loa% &lo' anal(sis are the %istribution line. an% capacitor &or Bar compensation as seen in 1i$. a DC %istribution s(stem 'as emplo(e% at s(stems belo' 'hat is %eeme% the po'er %istribution level o& the utilit(. AC components that are %eeme% applicable in DC po'er s(stems 'ere implemente% in the DC mo%el an% inclu%e the %istribution lines an% some &ault interruptin$ %evices. the author conclu%es that a hi$h volta$e . Buses are also necessar( &or anal(sis o& the %ata an% are place% in bet'een each loa% &lo' component. the author compares several AC an% DC s(stems &or %ata centers. Both o& these mo%els 'ere inserte% into the S3M po'er s(stem anal(sis so&t'are packa$e &or anal(sis. The DC mo%el Loa 9 % 7 6 + 8 + 8 : S 4 C 8+S8 : 8+18 : 8+8: <.. 1urthermore. This pro$ram is a use% e0tensivel( b( the Oak "i%$e !ational Laborator( .<< A"4 A . n *?.!evertheless. +. The $oal is to relate an AC po'er s(stem to DC in terms o& e&&icienc(. one implementin$ the actual AC %evices an% components o& the $ri% an% a Bus secon% mo%el implementin$ DC %evices. Base% on the results. AC loa%. the author observe% that the converter losses re%uce% the e&&icienc( to that belo' 'hat is &oun% in an eCuivalent AC s(stem. n this stu%(..2B/ DC %istribution s(stem is more e&&icient than AC. n *A. the utilit( level %istribution is consi%ere%. The authors note that althou$h con%uction losses in a DC s(stem appear to be lo'er. several investi$ations in DC have su$$este% that DC %istribution is not as e&&icient. the authors investi$ate DC %istribution &or a small-scale resi%ential s(stem. The characteristic %ata use% to %etermine the loa% &lo' an% To best represent the %i&&erences in AC an% DC po'er in&rastructures. The &ault interruption %evices in the mo%el 'ere i$nore% %ue to the ne$li$ible resistance these %evices a%% to the overall po'er s(stem. MOD4L implemente% in the DC mo%el.O"!L/ &or AC po'er s(stem po'er &lo' veri&ication. an% e&&iciencies o& the AC an% DC po'er s(stems are compare%. but no components nee% this hi$h volta$e. This so&t'are packa$e accepts the input %ata &rom the user an% implements several numerical anal(sis techniCues to %etermine the volta$e. coine% a h(bri% DC s(stem. The author constructe% another DC s(stem.

The AC mo%el is a representation o& a lar$e e0istin$ po'er %istribution s(stem 'ith thousan%s o& loa%s in a variet( o& 88 <. The avera$e an% ma0imum instantaneous po'er usa$e &or the entire %istribution s(stem &or the (ear are 7+. The AC %istribution po'er s(stem un%er investi$ation is %ivi%e% into three volta$e %ivisions. the %ail( avera$es 'ere avera$e% an% the ma0imum 'as &oun% &or the 'hole (ear. t'o me%ium volta$es. respectivel(. an% MB are +7. s(stem to a DC s(stem. The LB ma$nitu%e is %epen%ent on the buil%in$ loa%s. li$htin$. +.8kB.LB/. 978+8+-?+S4C <.. ?? A " 4 A com pute rs. an% other %evices. air sizes.MB/ an% a lo' volta$e. Due to the sheer number. a ma0imum an% an avera$e.9MBA=6:.<< A"4A con%itioners. At the en% o& the (ear. level. An( location 'here volta$e 'as increase% or %ecrease% 'ith a trans&ormer in AC. The loa%s ran$e in size &rom several 'atts to several hun%re% k5 an% come &rom in%ustrial motors.AMBA=7A.6M5. The DC mo%el 'as constructe% 'ith the AC mo%el in min%. The loa%s emplo(e% have t'o sets o& recor%e% %ata.kB an% 6.LOAD-8+-8: a%opts some o& the AC D F components alon$ 'ith 9 necessar( DC 7 components to represent a %irect 6 conversion &rom an AC ? 1 T E L ! 8 + 8 . 1or the AC po'er s(stem the 2B 1i$. %ail( ma0imum an% avera$e buil%in$ loa%s o& the po'er s(stem in Cuestion 'ere measure%.+M5 an% 86. Durin$ a one (ear span. the loa%s are not measure% &or each %evice 'ithin the buil%in$. This results in a po'er s(stem consistin$ o& 67? loa%s or buil%in$s. but instea% are measure% at the buil%in$ 8+-S?+ 8+-1?+ 8+-?+ Distrib ution Line LO AD8+?+ L O A D 8 + 8 . a DC=DC converter 'as . Fortio n o& AC %istrib ution s(ste m.

This %ata comes primaril( &rom manu&acturer-supplie% %ata 'ith missin$ in&ormation supplie% b( test %ata. T A B L 4 Distribution Line L oa % Trans&ormer G Fositive seCuence Capacitor Bank G impe%ance SeCuence Fo'er nput=Output Bolta$e G Fositive seCuence AC D ST" B#T O! SHST4M C2A"ACT4" S TC COMFO!4!T DATA .losses &or the %i&&erent components is %escribe% in Table .

or even shunt a%mittance &rom a capacitive source. The a%mittance matri0 represents the %i&&erent a%mittance values that interconnect the buses in the po'er s(stem. / ⎡ & I + & ⎡ metho%olo$( behin% ⎡ I + ( the S3M pro$ram is &6 ⎤ the use o& OhmKs la'.. The &ollo'in$ eCuation relates the real an% reactive po'er to current an% volta$e: ⎢ J ⎢ .$" !# Model E%uations Manipulation o& these eCuations into matri0 &orm results in the &ormation o& the a%mittance matri0 as sho'n belo' *:-. L *& . + L I i i ( i . J &s'* ⎣ ( I 7 &6 I &7 Since the volta$es an% current values are the unkno'n values in the s(stem. *( . These a%mittance values can come &rom a number o& sources. Consi%er the three bus e0ample provi%e% in 1i$. ( the volta$es. s' a The basic ? J J ⎤ . another eCuation must be a%opte% to resolve the eCuations. line impe%ance. n matri0 &orm this is: ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ) ⎢ 6 L ⎥ ⎢ J & s' I b & I+ & 7 J M ⎥( ⎢ 6⎥ *I . impe%ance 'ithin a trans&ormer.. 'here I represents the currents. 6. an% & the a%mittance matri0.

n either case. The three bus e0ample is compose% o& 7 lines that coul% be consi%ere% as either a %istribution line or a trans&ormer.. 1i$. ( M L BUS 2 B U S 3 associate% 'ith these lines. LINE 3 . J 1 i $ . a characteristic series impe%ance is . 7 sho's the a%mittance mo%el. BUS 1 C o m bi ni n$ eC ua ti on s + an % A re su lts in a no nl in ea r eC ua ti on as sh o ' n: ⎡ . 6 . S c h e m a t i c o & 7 b u s e 0 a m p l e . : / L I *& . *( .

Nl BL+ F$. Depen% in$ on the unkno' n an% kno'n variable s in this eCuatioJ BU SJ Y 2 n.J & / + R( + 6 6 O L volta$e an$le 7 Loa% Bus Bolta$e Control B AC B#S THF4S B V . The losses are then inclu%e% an% the volta$e %rop at each loa% an% bus is %etermine%.This eCuatio n contains the variable s o& real an% reactive po'er. This process is repeate% to a minimum error has been reache%. an% the current is %etermine% throu$h calculation &rom the loa% an% nominal volta$e values. . eCuations &or the inDecte% current at each bus can be constructe% in terms o& the volta$e an% series an% shunt a%mittance values.inclu%i n$ ma$nitu %e an% phasor an$le/.&s'b I &+ I &7 7 / R(6 I . 7. an iterative numerical techniCue must be implemente% to solve &or the solution. The numerical anal(sis metho% implemente% b( S3M has been coine% the P%ouble current inDectionQ metho%.J&+ / R 6 ( I . ) 6+ I ) 67 L . 7. N$. mpe%ance schematic o& 7 bus e0ample #sin$ 1i$. Fl. volta$e . F$ L real po'e r $ener ate% N$ L reacti ve po'e r $ener ate% Fl L real po'e r cons 8 / Since the base eCuation is nonlinear.pu L N$ L< F$.J&6 / R(+ I . an% the a%mitta nce. n this metho%. the names s'in$ bus.&s'* I &7 I &6 / R (7 / V 1 Y 2 3 B 3 U 1 S J J J . The &ollo'in$ eCuations represent the inDecte% current &or the three %i&&erent buses.J&7 / R(6 I .& 6 / I+7 & I &+6 / R ( s'a I .J&7 / R (7 ) 7+ I ) 76 L .J&+ / R(+ I . the losses are ori$inall( assume% to be zero. TABL4 S'in$ Bus Speci&ie% Fl. an% volta$e control bus are provi%e % as %escript ions o& the bus t(pe as sho'n in Table . loa% bus. B ume N a i ep % l L re ct v 1i$. ) I) L . Fl. The ne' volta$es lea% to a recalculation o& the current an% another iteration is be$un. 3 3V 23 .

#" . Since the DC. S . 8." + Table to 8 << 4 + 8 .<<< <9 < 9 convert the %ata %cB#Ssupplie% to a DC 8+-<67 resistance. the loa%s %cB#S-8+-mo%ele% in DC <+9 'ere o& the same real po'er ma$nitu%e.%cC 8 !B +. FOL 4 8+A The characteristic %cB % < %c .# Model The components o& the DC loa% mo%el implemente% in loa% &lo' inclu%e the %istribution line.?? mo%el resistance is A"4A base% on the rate% po'er. 6 < + + 1 7 . an% DC loa% as seen in 1i$. DC=DC converter.. 8 % %cCLD-8+-<<9 +c D S C ? + 18 +< + < 8+S8: 18+<<. ?/ Since no reactive po'er is pro%uce% or consume% in DC Load a DC po'er s(stem. This provi%es DC 'ith a positive.<< po'er value 'as A"4A %etermine% b( multipl(in$ the apparent po'er o& the AC loa% b( the po'er &actor. DC/DC Converter 8/ Since DC is onl( compose% o& t'o cables instea% o& the three use% in AC. %ata &or the DC c % #SC< mo%el involves B c 8+L < purel( resistive # C <6< Delements.DC converter <. This <.A + 8 < . neutral. % c C ! B % c C L D . This e0tra cable is to be applie% as a DC ne$ative. an% ne$ative thereb( %oublin$ the apparent volta$e *+<. an e0tra cable e0ists &or DC. S3M uses S B 8+ A the eCuations in 8 L .

1or this mo%el several assumptions ha% to be ma%e: +/ As 'ith AC. F o r t i o n o & D C % i s t r i b u t i o n s ( s t e m .the simula tion results must be veri&ie % to ensure that the actual e&&icie nc( input 'as actuall ( imple mente %. One curr ent pro ble m ' i t h D C D C c . 1 i $ . the &ault 6/ interruption %evices 'ere %eeme% ne$li$ible in terms o& losses an% 'ere T A B L 4 DC COMFO!4!T C2A"ACT4" ST C 4N#AT O!S i$n ore % in the mo %el. 8 .

70 Sin ge Co nv ert er & 1i$.DC converters to operate close to the ma0imum operatin$ e&&icienc( until as lo' as +<S o& operation D i s t r i b u t i o n L i n e L o a % D C D C C o n v e r t e r l T l e n $ t h o & c ab le in &t B T r at e % v o lt a $ e F T r at e % p o ' e r U rat e% e&& ici en c( r *able Rl ( 6 6 + as seen in 1i$.+ J U /+ The DC loa% &lo' calculations are similar to those o& the AC po'er s(stem 'ith a &e' %i&&erences. %escribes a %esi$n that allo's DC. E!!i"ien"# $%& '0 ( Converter) *0 (0 30 20 . the DC-DC converter e&&icienc( 'as assume% &i0e% &or all operatin$ con%itions. A parallelin$ topolo$( %iscusse% in *9. n the mo%el implemente%.# Model E%uatio ns 10 0 0 20 (0 '0 80 100 10 30 *0 70 90 C o n v er te r + at in g$ % . 100 90 ( . *( . 80 *I . ?.onverters is that the e&&icienc( ten%s to &all 'hen operate% belo' the ratin$. The DC po'er s(stem uses a con%uctance matri0 instea% o& an a%mittance matri0 since no reactance e0ists in DC: . ?. L *& . 4&&ic ienc ( curv es &or DCDC conv erter." .

This embo%ies the DC s(stem 'ith a much simpler overall eCuation an% characterization o& the buses. the DC s(stem onl( has 6 bus t(pes 'ith 6 unkno'n variables. 2 e n c e . Table B sho's the %istinct bus t(pes o& a DC t(pe. S'in$ Bus Loa% Bus Speci&ie% F l B L+ F$. Fl T A B L 4 B D C B # S T H F 4 S i n t h e D C m o % e l a r e t h e s a m e a s t h e A C m o % e l . #nlike the AC s(stem. S3M implements !e'ton "aphson to solve &or these variables. 7/ T h e % i s t r i b u t i o n l i n e s u s e % .

T h .t h e r e s i s t a n c e v a l u e s e m p l o ( e % c o m e & r o m t h e m a n u & a c t u r e r s p e c i & i c a t i o n s o & t h e A C % i s t r i b u t i o n l i n e s .

.e v a l u e s u s e % r e p r e s e n t t h e D C r e s i s t a n c e o & t h e c o n % u c t o r a t a t e m p e r a t u r e o & 6 ? o C .

particularl( in upper level po'er +no' have e&&icienc( up'ar%s o& 9.# n terms o& the basic po'er s(stem eCuations. inverters are necessar(. current in "MS. the po'er conversion %evices emplo(e% are trans&ormers.# L(RI #pon e0amination.ifferen*e in !# and . n DC. AC po'er s(stems use recti&iers that are much lo'er in e&&icienc(.E" .S. n AC. AC .. The po'er conversion %evices have a more si$ni&icant impact. su&&er &rom %ecrease% e&&icienc( 'hen operate% belo' ratin$ unless special implementation o& the converter is per&orme%. DC on the other han% emplo(s DC-DC converters 'ith overall e&&iciencies that ten% to be belo' 9?S an% as mentione%. These %evices 7 L V 7 R ( R M #n&ortunatel( to convert back to DC. these eCuations can have a substantial recti&iers are assume% to be 9<S e&&icient *7. an% W are the respective "MS "MS volta$e in "MS. s(stems. To convert back to AC. . n %i&&erence in po'er &lo'. n an AC s(stem. W / 'here B . Depen%in$ on the po'er &actor. the po'er &lo' is calculate% b(: + . AC an% DC po'er s(stems have Cuite a contrast. an% po'er &actor an$le. The e&&icienc( o& the trans&ormer over the (ears has improve% %ramaticall(. n this stu%( the R S I R M R S c o s . po'er &lo' is o&ten %etermine% b( the eCuation: percenta$e o& the s(stem losses.

B . The &ollo'in$ section relates the outcome o& the comparison o& the po'er s(stems. 'ith DC components. This result sho's that the DC current can be +. & 'e no' consi%er the %i&&erence in losses &or AC an% DC: Losses (kW) 'here the AC an% DC resistance values are assume% to be the same. A... Base% on the var(in$ e&&iciencies o& the po'er convertin$ technolo$ies.66 times lar$er than the AC (!# RMS . 9:S. nstea% a po'er s(stem must be anal(ze% to %etermine the s(stem that has the better results.00 . 9?S. an% .# DC converters 'ere assi$ne% to three %i&&erent e&&iciencies.+8/ are a%Duste% to overcome this %i&&erence.can have three times more po'er &lo' 'hen the same "MS volta$e an% current are implemente% in an AC an% DC s(stem as sho'n: +7V L + 7cos. the e&&icienc( ratin$ o& the DC- v a r i e % t o r e p r e s e n t t h e provi%e% in k5. an% the use o& multiple converters in each s(stem. an% DC loa%s base% on ma0imum operation is sho'n in 1i$.# The volta$e an% currents in the DC s(stem must be this stu%(. it is %i&&icult to %istin$uish one t(pe o& po'er over the other base% on a simple calculation.?S. The volta$es o& the DC s(stem 'ere c o an% i& 'e convert the volta$es &rom "MS to peak: ( !# *00.00 an% the eCuations .00 3000.00 0. an% 99. the inverters are assume% to have e&&iciencies o& 9:S.00 6 R + R V L R 6 ! # R M S + 6R . 3*00.00 I !# RMS I .W / .# L 6 7 current an% the s(stem 'ill have the same con%uction & a DC neutral is implemente% as 2*00. a noticeable $ain in DC can be seen.+</.9/. + 6" loss es an% the tota l loss es are X +.# L 1000.+? an% i& 'e 'ish the s(stems to have the same losses: . The %ata &or a po'er s(stem supplie% b( a DC source. " 4 S # L T S 1or the comparative stu%(.6 6( .

<< k5 o& losses. AC components. Table B sho's the results.W / 2 Voltage 1i$ A. DC po'er s(stem e&&icienc( operation.# 1( 18 22 cos. DC shoul% have a small a%vanta$e over AC in terms o& transmission losses 'hen implementin$ AC cables. an% AC loa%s resulte% in . the transmission losses ten% to onl( account &or a small The eCuivalent AC s(stem 'ith an AC source. !evertheless.12 1' 20 6( . &or ma0imum This illustrates that i& the same peak volta$es in both the AC an% DC s(stems are implemente%. Base% on a strai$ht comparison o& .

A better representation is sho'n in 1i$..k5 / 8+ 6 +A: 9 6. The eCuivalent AC s(stem avera$e s(stem losses 'ere %etermine% to be 8+6 k5 as sho'n in Table B .k5 / 9:+ +.. 7 6 9?S +DC 9:S DC 99. 6 +A? 7 DC.+ S + +7+ 7 +<< . 7<k B 67 ?8 +6 9A 6 A LOSS4S BAS4D O! MAE LOAD !) O1 F#"4 AC A!D DC FO54" SHST4MS LOSS4S BAS4D O! FA"T AL AC A!D DC LOAD !) O1 FO54" SHST4MS + + repre sents DCDC conve rter e&&ici enc( represents DC-DC converter e&&icienc( 6 repres ents ratio o& AC=D C loa%s 2*00.? + S +++ 9? .< -B < 777 6:9 6 9 66< +:+ 8 AA? ++6 + + 68k B 68 9A +8 6: 7 . DC %istribution actuall( has lo'er losses 'hen more than ?<S o& the loa%s are DC an% DC.k 5/ 99.k B . TABL4 B S(stem T(pe AC + Table : illustrates that 'hen ?<S o& the loa%s are AC an% ?<S o& the loa%s are DC. the %i&&erence in losses becomes relativel( close 'ith a 9?S DC-DC converter.?S+ DC S(stem Bolta$e +7.a +<<S AC s(stem an% a +<<S DC s(stem. TABL4 B Loa%s ACS=DC 6 S +<<=< 6 ?<=?< 6 <=+<< AC. 1i$.k +. the AC po'er s(stem a$ain ha% &e'er losses than the DC po'er s(stem. DC. : sho's the losses o& a +<<S DC s(stem. 5hen a%Duste% to the avera$e po'er. .DC converters 'ith e&&iciencies o& 9?S or hi$her are use%. AC 'oul% have &e'er losses.: 6 DC.00 2 3000 3*00 L 1 * 0 2*00 .k5 / 9?+ 67+ S : +9.

Losses (kW) 1000.00 * 0. 12 00 1' 20 2( 28 1( 18 22 2' 30 S y s t e m V o l t a g e ( k V ) 9 9 . DC po'er s(stem e&&icienc( &or avera$e operation.*% & 1i$ . 1000 2000 0 % 1*00 1 0 % 2 0 % *00 0 30% (0% *0% '0% 70% 80% 90% 100% % D C $9*%& DC Lo))e) $97%& DC Lo))e) $99. . * 0 % 9 7 % 9 * % 1i$ :. Fartial AC an% DC loa%in$ o& po'er s(stems.

another comparison is nee%e%.. One other possibilit( in increasin$ the s(stem bene&its is o&&erin$ t'o t(pes o& po'er &or ever( loa%. &urther losses can be e0pecte% resultin$ in &urther bene&its o& a DC %istribution s(stem. & the AC po'er s(stem is supplie% b( a DC source. As this stu%( sho's. a partial loa%in$ o& the %i&&erent loa% t(pes 'as e0amine% base% on the avera$e mo%el %ata. To &orm a realistic stu%(.9 + 6 +?< +66 <A7 77: < < 68k B +: +6 +< ?7 + 9 7<k B +A +8 9 : + 7 B. CO!CL#S O ! #n%er the current po'er s(stem in&rastructure.S(stem T(pe AC + 9?S +DC 9:S DC 99. AC an% DC. +. This met 'ith much better results in terms o& the application o& DC %istribution as sho'n in Table B . the mo%el o& the po'er s(stem shoul% be compose% o& partial loa%s o& both AC an% DC components. AC an% DC %istribution s(stems can have the same merit 'hen the loa%s are eCual in ratio. There&ore. kB an% the DC s(stem 'ith 7< kB. As sho'n each has a substantial bene&it in suppl(in$ their o'n loa%s an% this can result in a si$ni&icant re%uction in po'er s(stem losses. !evertheless.. DC sources that suppl( DC loa%s must implement t'o converters. 'here the AC s(stem is base% on +7.k B 8+ -B 6 6+. LOSS4S BAS4D O! AB) LOAD !) O1 F#"4 AC A!D DC FO54" SHST4MS + represents DC-DC converter e&&icienc( Althou$h this 'oul% seem %etrimental to the application o& a DC %istribution s(stem. This t(pe o& po'er s(stem can result in si$ni&icant losses. this stu%( assume% that AC po'er s(stem 'as supplie% b( a AC source an% DC throu$h a DC source. one that &irst converts the DC to AC an% then another to return the AC back to DC. .?S+ DC S(stem Bolta$e +7.k +. ?<S AC loa%s an% ?<S DC loa%s.

Cro'. !ilsson. Ashton. F. 5ikipe%ia. multilevel converters.Q IEEE Industrial Ele*troni*s #onferen*e. +998. 2. reactive po'er compensation. Department o& 4ner$( plants in Oak "i%$e. 2is research interests inclu%e alternative ener$ies. Tennessee. ".Q #S Fatent A +AA 978.'ikipe%ia. S'e%en. +?. *7. +999. )rain$er. Tennessee.Q IEEE Transa*tions on +o-er . M. )otebor$.utational Met'ods for Ele*tri* +o-er Systems. *8. an% po'er electronics inter&ace 'ith utilities. &eon #. Stevenson. 'here he is presentl( an associate pro&essor. in electrical en$ineerin$ &rom the #niversit( o& Tennessee. *:. *. pa$e. n +999.9 T M +99+ T SM +99. PDC Distribution S(stems. in 4lectrical 4n$ineerin$ &rom the )eor$ia nstitute o& Technolo$(. 2e is an a%Dunct participant at the Oak "i%$e !ational Laborator(. 6<<:. http:==en./ receive% the B.elivery. Chalmers #niversit( o& Technolo$(. pa$e. 3.S. )eneral Motors Corporation. )eor$ia. 4. *+<. Dissertation. http:==en. ". DKhulst. +o-er Systems !nalysis. PDc 4lectrical Distribution S(stems in Buil%in$s. %tar!e . Since +99+. B. B. he Doine% the Department o& 4lectrical an% Computer 4n$ineerin$ at the #niversit( o& Tennessee... a%vancements in DC-DC converter technolo$( are si$ni&icantl( nee%e%. Z Driesen.-6A76. Fon$. 6<<?. 6. Apr 6<<<.S. !ov. pa$e.S +9. . vol. h(bri% electric vehicles.#ltimatel(. 3no0ville.s/: AA?AA9. Z.Q International #onferen*e on +o-er Ele*troni*s Systems. 5. 6<<:. M. Atlanta.Q Fh.s/: ++?++9. 4n$elen. PSelection an% Stabilit( ssues Associate% 'ith a !av( Shipboar% DC Gonal 4lectric Distribution S(stem. an% M. To substantiate a DC %istribution s(stem. Zun. Z.'ikipe%ia. 6<<A. P2i$h e&&icienc( po'er s(stem 'ith plural parallel DC=DC converters.D. an% Fh. "414"4!C4 S *+. Far%on. "asmuseen. actual DC-DC converters rarel( meet 9?S e&&icienc(. 2e %oes research in the areas o& electric po'er conversion &or %istribute% ener$( sources.s/: 6A+. C"C Fress.D.4. no. Belmans. the %e&inin$ %evice in the possible application o& a DC %istribution s(stem is the DC-DC converter.S.or$='iki=4nvironmentalYtechnol o$(. 5ikipe%ia. Ciezki. Althou$h the %ata anal(ze% consi%ere% DC-DC converters 'ith e&&iciencies 'ith 9?S or hi$her. Department o& 4ner$( an% 4nvironment.4. PThe 1easibilit( o& Small-Scale "esi%ential DC Distribution S(stems. 7<.D. !ov 6<<A. B O)"AF 2 4S #ichael $. 4. !.. Lo. *?.or$='iki=ThomasY4%ison. he 'orke% on several electrical %istribution proDects at the three #. *A. stu%ent in electrical en$ineerin$ at The #niversit( o& Tennessee. po'er s(stems. D. Fan$. an% application o& SiC po'er electronics. . Berme(en. olbert . Mc)ra'-2ill. #om.4. ". Shun. *6. PAC an% DC Fo'er Distribution &or Data Centers. 6<<7 *9. 2e presentl( is a Fh..S 6<<8 T M 6<<A/ receive% the B. 3no0ville.Q AFC 5hite Faper [A7.

Man. multilevel inverters. an% 6<<? #T-Battelle . 1a(etteville. 3no0ville. Ankara. in +99. 2e is also an A%Dunct 1acult( Member o& the #niversit( o& Arkansas. 3no0ville. in 6<<+ an% became a 1ull-Time "esearch an% Development Sta&& Member in 6<<6. an% intelli$ent control applications to po'er converters.O"!L/ 4arl( Career A'ar% &or 4n$ineerin$ Accomplishment. 2e is currentl( %oin$ research on the s(stem-level impact o& SiC po'er %evices. 'ura! ()pineci . 6<<+ 444 nternational Con&erence on S(stems. an% Fh. T!. Oak "i%$e !ational Laborator( . 2e is the recipient o& a !ational Science 1oun%ation CA"44" A'ar% an% the 6<<+ 444 n%ustr( Applications Societ( Outstan%in$ Houn$ Member A'ar%. an% C(bernetics Best Stu%ent Faper A'ar%. %e$ree in electrical en$ineerin$ &rom the Mi%%le 4ast Technical #niversit(.Dr. Ozpineci 'as the Chair o& the 444 F4LS "ecti&iers an% nverters Technical Committee an% Transactions "evie' Chairman o& the 444 n%ustr( Applications Societ( n%ustrial Fo'er Converter Committee. 2e Doine% the Fost-Masters Fro$ram 'ith the Fo'er 4lectronics an% 4lectric Machiner( "esearch Center. po'er converters &or %istribute% ener$( resources. Dr. .S. %e$rees in electrical en$ineerin$ &rom the #niversit( o& Tennessee. an% 6<<6.S. in +998. respectivel(.O"!L/. 2e 'as the recipient o& the 6<<A 444 n%ustr( Applications Societ( Outstan%in$ Houn$ Member A'ar%. an% the M.D. Turke(. Tolbert is a re$istere% Fro&essional 4n$ineer in the state o& Tennessee.SK96TMK<6T SMK<?/ receive% the B.