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or steel piles may be assumed from recognized standards. Where tip movement is measureci,the failure load may be defined as the load corresponding to a pile tip movement of 0.15 inches plus one percent of the tip diarneter. The foregoing interpretation applies to compression tests in which the load increments are held for Dotlonger than one half hour. For which test loads are held for longer than oue half hour, the settlement at the end of one half hour at each increment, including a load of twice the design load, shall be used to determine the failure load as defined in this section. For piJes tested with lateralload, the allowable lateral load should not be greater than 1/3 of the failure loadoThe design .load should not produce a gross deflection at fue pite top in excess of the lateral deflection specified by the Engin~r and/or acceptance criteria. Where appropriate. the single pile test results should be adjusted by accepted relationships to account for pite group response and pite head restraint. Where uplift capacity is a design consideration, load testing sbould be conducted as appropriate. For piles tested under uplift or tensile loads, the allowable design load sbould not be greater than.50 percent of the failure uplift 10a<1. or 50 percent of that load which produces a deflection deemed appropriate by the Engineer. Under some conditions, the uplift design load for a single pite may be assumed to be 33 percent of the ultimate frictionalloaa capacity dete1111:1ed by compression testing of a comparable piJe, order todefinthe

Building Codes or ASCE 7- 95 should be used. To these service loads. the following loads should be added as applicabJe. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Hydrostatic uplift; negative friction; dead load of pites and pite caps; fill or other overburden or surcharge loads acting on the foundation; latera1loads resulting from wind, earth pressurc, water pressure, wave action, ice, or seisnric action; uplift loads from swelling or expanding soits; impact; seisnric loads; loads due to eccentricity; any other pertinent 10ads.

(f) (g) (h) (i) (j)

5.2 MaxUnum Combination 01 Loads. The Ep,gineer should consider allloads acting on the piles and sbould investigate the combinabon of loads that can act coneurrently in producing maximum loads. When extreme win<1. wave. or earthquake loads are considered. an increase in design stress is permissible for ;lowable stress design ooly. No sueh increase should be permitted for struetures whose design is controlJed by wind. seismic, or wave forces acting alone or in c:otnbiDaIioJt with dead load. 5.3 Ji.e_GI'O\I~m - --~-~ -------With respect to compressive loads, it is not necessary to coosider group efficiency except fora . group of fricUon piJes in cohesive soils or where fue pije spacing is less than 3 times the pile diameter in granular soils. In cohesive soils. the design load on a group of frietion pites should not exceed SOpercent of the ultimate load capacity determined by a (bJock) anaIysis summing the uJtiIDatebea.riQ capacity of the soils within the plan area of fue group and the uJtimate shearing resistance on fue peripheral surfaceinscrib.iQgthe group. However. the capacity of the group shouId not exceed fue sum of the capacities of the individual piles in the group. The settlement of the pile group should not exceed the tolerable settlement linrits of the structure. The allowabJe working uplift load for a pile group should be thelesserof (1) the individual piJe design uplift load times the number of piles in fue group, (2) 2/3 of the effective weigbt of the pile group and the soil contained within a block defined by the perimeter of the group and the length o the piles, or (3) 1/2 the effective weigbt of the pite

Ioadcarriedby shaft friction.


Design Loads

5.1 Loads To Be Used The loads contributing to pile design loads consist of the serviee dead and live loads. including live load reductions. and ~ Joads. Wben applicabJe. the loading provisions from current, legally adopted 8





group and soil contained within a block defined by the perimeter of the group and the pile length plus 1/2 the total shear on the peripheral surface of the block.

6.2 Timber PUes 6.1.1. Dimensions and stresses. Timber piles should be any species of wood for which clear wood strength values are given by ASTM 02555. Mnimum pile dimensions and other physical characteristics of timber piJes should be in accordance with ASTM 025. Allowable design stresses should not exceed those determined in aceordanee with ASTM 02899, Standard Method for Establishing Design Stresses for Round T1tDberPiJes, uoless substantiated by the requirements of Sec. 6.1.1. Determination of critieal scction for tapered piJes is required. 6.2.2 Preservadve treatmeftt. Preservative treatmtnt for timber piles and the treatment of piJe tops eut-off, should be as specified by American Wood PreserversAssociation Standard C-3, C-18, and M-4. Treatment should be specifically in accordance with the requirements for land or frcsh water use, for foundation pites entirely embedded in the ground, or for marine use. For marine construction, American Wood Prescrvers Association Standard C 18 should appIy. . 6.2.3 Untreated timber p~ Untreated timher pites should be used only if permanendy submerged and not subjcctcd to other detcriorating environments for the serviee life of the pites. 6.3 Concrete PUes 6.3.1 Reinforeed prtcast concrete pites. Conventionally reinforced precast eoncrete piJes should have-a mnimum dimensiorHmeasured through the center o the pile of 8 inehes (203 mm). The concrete should have a mnimum specified 28day compressive strength (f'.) of 4000 psi ('1:7.6 MPa). Reinforcing stccl should have a mnimum yield strengtb of 40.000 psi (275.8 MPa). The allowabledesign axial eompressive stress should not exceed 33perccnt of the specificd mnimum concrete strengtb and 40 percent of the specified mnimumyield strengtb of the reinforcement, uoless substantiated by the requirements of Seco6.1.1. The allowable steel design stress in axial compression should not exceed 30,000 psi (206.8 MPa). . 6.3.2 Prestressed precast concrete pUes. Prestressed precast concrete piJes should have a minimum dimension measurcd through the center of the pite of 8 inehes (203 mm). The concrete sbould have a mnimum specified 28-day compressive strength (f'.) of 4000 psi (27.6 MPa). The allowable design axial compressive stress applicd to the full cross-section should not exeeed 33 percent of the specified mnimum concrete strengtb mnus 27 percent of the effective prestress force, uoless sub9


Design Stresses

6.1 General Thc dcsign stresscs in axial compression in this Standatd apply onJy to tb~ struetural capacity of embcdded foundation pilcs tbat are laterally supportcd. Unsupported pile Icngtbs should be designcd in accordance witb Sec. 3.5. PUcs should be dcsigncd to resist all forces imposed upon thcm during manufacture. transport, instaUation, and scrvicc. 6.1.1 U~ 01 bigber aDowable stres8es. Allow;' ablc stresses rcatcr thm thosc specificd for each of the following piIc types shouldibe permitted when supportingoatifjiiStifjfg-iUCllligher streSScsare provided. Such S1JbFt--st1g data should nelude successfuI pile load tescing in accordancc with Sec. 4.5, and one or more of the following. (1) Documentabon of ~vious satisfactory performance; (2) a subsurface foundation investigation analy~ sis spccifieaUy addressing the site, piJe type, and 108dinSconditions anticipated; (3) an analysis by wave equation methods to
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investigatetbe drivingstressesindueeddur-

ing instaUation; (4) engineering surveillance of pile installation. including dynamic field measurements . when aoOiooriare. The design, analysis, load testing. and installation of the pile foundation uti1izingsuch higher allowable stresses should be under tbe direct supervision of a regi.stered professional engineer knowledgeable and experienccd in soil mechanics and the design and installation of pile foundations.