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Earth Systems

Atmosphere
atmosphere - a mixture of gases that forms a layer around Earth

Atmosphere
What makes up the atmosphere?
* contains a mixture of gases (nitrogen,oxygen) * most common gas is nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%) * trace gases are important (1%) - regulate Earth's temperature * contains water vapor (water as a gas) and dust

Atmosphere
Layers of the atmosphere
* what the layers are made of (composition) doesn't change * the temperature of layers does change * layers reflect or absorb the Sun's thermal energy * layers are separated by temperature changes * troposphere is lowest layer, where weather happens (gases swirl), where we live, gets colder as you go up (increase altitude)

Atmosphere
Layers of the atmosphere
* stratosphere is above troposphere, gases don't swirl * where the ozone layer (O3) is * protects Earth from Sun's radiation, acts like sunscreen by protecting the biosphere, absorbs Sun's thermal energy
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* gets warmer as you go up (increase altitude) * upper layers - mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere * outer space after last layer

Hydrosphere
hydrosphere - all of Earth's water

Oceans

Hydrosphere
reservoirs - natural area where water is stored on the Earth

* largest reservoir

Oceans

* all oceans are connected making one large ocean * 97% of Earth's water is in the ocean * salty because of dissolved minerals in rivers and groundwater * plants and animals on land can't use salt water

Hydrosphere
Freshwater

Hydrosphere
Lakes and Rivers
* 1% of freshwater is easily accessible * must meet needs of organisms that need it * rain and snow supply water to surface reservoirs * surface reservoirs - rivers and lakes * water moves through more quickly than frozen glaciers and ice caps

Hydrosphere
Groundwater

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Groundwater

* 20% of freshwater is under the ground * rain and snow soak into the ground, found in small cracks and open spaces
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* groundwater - water that is stored in cracks and open spaces underground


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* collects in layers, people drill wells to layers to get water

Cryosphere
cryosphere - the frozen part of water on the Earths surface

Cryosphere
What is it ?
* frozen freshwater * 79% of Earths freshwater is frozen * snow, glaciers, icebergs * water can be stored as ice for thousands of years before melting

Geosphere
geosphere - the solid part of Earth

Geosphere

Geosphere
Materials in the Geosphere

* made of rocks, soil, and metals -> made of minerals * minerals - the building blocks of rocks, dissolve easily in water * rocks are classified by how they are formed a.) sedimentary (sediment) b.) metamorphic (heat and pressure) c.) igneous (magma)

Biosphere
biosphere - contains all living things on Earth

Biosphere
Life on Earth

* living things are found in air, water, and soil * has no boundaries * found within other systems