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INTERNATIONAL WRONGFUL ACTS AND THE LEGAL REACTION THERETO State responsibility refers to the le al !onse"#en!

es of the international $ron f#l a!t of a State %the obli ations of the State that !o&&itte' the $ron f#l a!t an' the ri hts of the State affe!te' by the $ron () Traditional Law - *ri&arily !onsiste' of !#sto&ary r#les+ $hi!h $ere r#'i&entary in that they 'i' not spe!ify the ele&ents %ne li en!e or $illf#l a!ts et!)( of international $ron s+ nor 'i' they spe!ify the !onse"#en!es of s#!h $ron 'oin %not !lear $hat ,in' of reparation $as preferre' et!)() R#les on reparation pro-i'e' for !o&pensation+ satisfa!tion+ an' restit#tion in ,in'+ b#t 'i' not spe!ify $hen ea!h applies) Enfor!e&ent &eas#res $ere also #p to ea!h state) a( State responsibility tri ere' a bilateral relation bet$een the in.#re' State an' the 'elin"#ent state/ la!, of a 'isp#te settle&ent &e!hanis&+ #nless parties a ree' to one) b( 0ost international r#les pro-i'e' only for !olle!ti-e responsibility) In'i-i'#als $ere internationally liable only in -ery li&ite' !ir!#&stan!es1 pira!y+ an' sin!e the 23th !ent#ry+ $ar !ri&es %b#t liability applie' only to sol'iers an' lo$er offi!ers an' e4!l#'e' hi her offi!ers an' !o&&an'ers( !( The !#sto&ary r#les on le al !onse"#en!es of $ron f#l a!ts $ere nor&ally st#!, to ether $ith the s#bstanti-e r#les on State responsibility for the treat&ent of forei ners+ an' this $as be!a#se the latter !rystalli5e' as a res#lt of 'isp#tes re ar'in the treat&ent by non6in'#striali5e' states of the nationals of in'#striali5e' states) The Current Regulation of State Responsibility a( La$ on state responsibility has been separate' fro& la$ on the treat&ent of forei ners) To'ay+ there is a 'istin!tion bet$een 1 pri&ary r#les of international la$1 those !#sto& an' treaty r#les that lay 'o$n the s#bstanti-e obli ations of states % State i&&#nity+ 'iplo&ati! an' !ons#lar i&&#nities+ respe!t for territorial so-erei nty(/ an' se!on'ary r#les1 r#les establishin the !on'itions ne!essary for there to be a brea!h of a pri&ary r#le an' the !onse"#en!es of s#!h brea!h %!onstit#te the la$ on State responsibility(

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b( to'ay7s r#les on State responsibility are !learer an' &ore pre!ise as to the stan'ar' for fa#lt+ the nat#re of the 'a&a e re"#ire'+ the !ir!#&stan!es pre!l#'in $ron f#lness !( 'istin!tion bet$een or'inary responsibility %for or'inary brea!hes of international la$( an' a ra-ate' responsibility for -iolations of f#n'a&ental r#les that enshrine essential -al#es %pea!e+ h#&an ri hts+ self6'eter&ination( '( States no lon er ha-e free'o& as to the &eans they #se to settle their 'isp#te $ith the responsible State) Art) 88 of the UN Charter re"#ires states to settle their 'isp#tes thro# h pea!ef#l &eans before they are allo$e' to resort to possible !o#nter&eas#res) First+ States shall see, reparation+ if that re"#est fails+ they &#st atte&pt to settle their 'isp#te pea!ef#lly+ an' if all fails+ the a rie-e' %in.#re'( states %an' in !ases of a ra-ate' responsibility any other state( $ill be allo$e' to ta,e pea!ef#l !o#nter&eas#res) 2

e!ti-e responsibility re"#ires ho$e-er that the offi!ials ha-e a!te'+ at least+ apparently+ as !o&petent offi!ials or or ans+ or that in a!tin + they sho#l' ha-e #se' po$ers or &eas#res proper to their offi!ial !hara!ter) See also Youman 9 the a!t of 0e4i!an sol'iers $ho &#r'ere' so&e US nationals $ere i&p#te' to 0e4i!o e-en tho# h s#!h a!ts $ere !o&&itte' by the sol'iers in !ontra-ention of instr#!tions) b( A State $ill also in!#r liability for a!ts by in'i-i'#als+ $ho altho# h they are not State offi!ials+ e4er!ise a#thority an' po$er o-er senior State offi!ials) !( State is also liable for the a!ts of its de facto State organs 9 in'i-i'#als $ho 'o not ha-e the for&al stat#s of State offi!ials+ a!t on behalf of the State) This o!!#rs $hen these in'i-i'#als a!t as per the instr#!tions of the State+ or are #n'er the o-erall !ontrol of the State+ or in fa!t beha-e as State offi!ials) %A Fren!h Co#rt of Appeals r#le' that :a''afi7s !on'#!t shall be i&p#te' to Libya be!a#se he $as the 'e fa!to hea' of State of Libya+ 'espite the fa!t that he $as not so offi!ially #n'er the Libyan !onstit#tion+ be!a#se he is seen as s#!h by the entire international !o&&#nity an' he is the one representin Libya at international s#&&its() Test for 'eter&inin if an in'i-i'#al is a 'e fa!to State or an In Nicaragua the I)C).) !a&e #p $ith a test to 'eter&ine $hen the a!ts of in'i-i'#als !an be i&p#te' to the State to $hi!h they are nationals+ $hi!h test $as s#bstantially a'opte' by ILC+ Art) <) The "#estion is $hether they 2( a!t #n'er the instr#!tions fro& a State or =( a!t #n'er the 'ire!tion or !ontrol of a State+ in !arryin o#t the !on'#!t) Ho$e-er+ in Tadic the ICT> 'eparte' fro& Nicaragua in that in broa'ene' State responsibility by statin three alternative %&eetin one of these is eno# h( tests for establishin $hether an in'i-i'#al a!ts as a 'e fa!to State or an1 2( $hether the in'i-i'#al a!ts #n'er spe!ifi! instr#!tions or s#bse"#ent p#bli! appro-al by the State/ =( in the !ase of ar&e' ro#ps+ $hether the in'i-i'#als are #n'er the o-erall !ontrol of a State %no nee' for spe!ifi! instr#!tions(/ 8( $hether in'i-i'#als beha-e as State offi!ials $ithin the str#!t#re of a State) = . For there to be State responsibility the wrongful act must satisfy certain subjecti e and objecti e elements !. Subjecti e "lements 2) i&p#tability to a State of !on'#!t %a!t or o&ission( that is !ontrary to international la$ States a!t on the international le-el thro# h in'i-i'#als) For a State to be internationally liable+ the a!t of the in'i-i'#al &#st be one that !an be i&p#te' to the State) It &#st therefore be establishe' that the a!t is !o&&itte' by1 a( an in'i-i'#al that has the stat#s of a State offi!ial #n'er the national syste& of a parti!#lar state an' a!tin in his offi!ial !apa!ity %not in his pri-ate !apa!ity as an in'i-i'#al( in or'er for his a!t to be i&p#te' to the State) A $ron f#l a!t by a State offi!ial is i&p#te' to the State e-en if the offi!ial a!te' outside of his competence or contrary to his instructions+ as lon as he a!te' #sin the po$ers pertainin to his p#bli! f#n!tion) See Caire) This ob.e( In'i-i'#al !ri&inal liability has e4pan'e' 9 in'i-i'#als are no$ a!!o#ntable for serio#s brea!hes of international la$+ an'+ in a''ition to lo$er offi!ers+ !o&&an'ers an' hi her offi!er !an be hel' a!!o#ntable Ordinary State Responsibility A pre!on'ition for State responsibility is the !o&&ission of a $ron f#l a!t) I.

in steps to pre-ent atta!.e!ti-e attit#'e of the $ron 'oer) #. into the s#b.s+ failin to sear!h for an' '#ly p#nish the a#thors of s#!h a!t+ as $ell as pay !o&pensation to the -i!ti&) See US Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Teheran+ I)C).e le al 'e&ar!hes a ainst another State only if that State7s a!t has affe!te' their e!ono&i!+ !o&&er!ial+ politi!al or 'iplo&ati! interests) Therefore+ $e &ay !on!l#'e that or'inary State responsibility re"#ires the ob.#ry is s#ffi!ient an' s#!h in.in + international la$ 'oes not loo.eepin $ith international la$ an' $as a'opte' by se-eral other !o#rts s#bse"#ently) '( For in'i-i'#als that 'o not a!t as 'e fa!to State or ans+ a State !an still be liable for their !on'#!t+ b#t only if the State faile' to e4er!ise '#e 'ili en!e+ i)e) ta.in it &aterially i&possible for that State to !o&ply $ith its obli ations) 0ere har'ship is not eno# h to e4!#se the brea!h of an international obli ation) For!e &a.e#re 'oes not apply if the sit#ation !an be attrib#te' in $hole or in part+ to the !on'#!t of the State+ or if the State has ass#&e' the ris.#st physi!al inte rity+ a!!or'in to ILC+ b#t see Rainbow arrier( or that of other persons in his !are) Distress !annot be in-o. of the sit#ation o!!#rrin ) 6 Distress 9 the $ron 'oer ha' no other reasonable $ay+ in a sit#ation of 'istress+ of sa-in his life %not . Objecti e "lements 2) prohibition of !on'#!t #n'er international la$ For State responsibility to arise+ it is ne!essary that the !on'#!t is !ontrary to an international obli ation in for!e+ at the ti&e of the brea!h) The !on'#!t &ay be an a!tion or o&ission) The a!ts &ay be instantaneo#s or !ontin#in $ron s) =) 'a&a e to another international s#b.e!ti-e attit#'e of the $ron 'oer+ $hi!h !an !onsist in1 6 an intention to !a#se the e-en that res#lte' fro& the !on'#!t/ or 6 re!.en #n'er '#ress !reates a reater peril) E4a&ples of '#ress1 #na#thori5e' #se' of forei n airspa!e to sa-e the life of passen ers) 6 Necessity 9 in-ol-es a sit#ation of 'an er+ b#t not to the life of a State offi!ial an' those in his !are+ b#t rather+ 'an er to the whole State or its population) Ne!essity e4ists $hen perfor&in the a!t is the only &eans for the State to safe #ar' an essential interest a ainst a ra-e an' i&&inent peril AND the a!t 'oes not serio#sly i&pair an essential interest of the Sate or States to$ar's $hi!h the obli ation e4ists+ or of the international !o&&#nity as a $hole) Ne!essity !annot be in-o.The Tadic approa!h see&s to be &ore in .e!ti-e ele&ent of &aterial or &oral 'a&a e) 8) absen!e of !ir!#&stan!es pre!l#'in $ron f#lness 6 consent of the in.#ry is inherent in the brea!h of an international obli ation+ $ith the &oral or &aterial 'a&a e bein rele-ant only in 'eter&inin the &o'ality an' the a&o#nt of the reparation) Ho$e-er+ this -ie$ see&s to be -ali' only in the area of a ra-ate' responsibility $hi!h pertains to -iolation of obli ations erga omnes %e) ) -iolation by a !ontra!tin state of ILO !on-entions 'oes not brin abo#t a &aterial or &oral 'a&a e to non6!ontra!tin parties+ b#t they are still allo$e' to brin a !lai&() State pra!ti!e sho$s that States #n'erta.e' if the r#le that is brea!he' pre!l#'es the in-o!ation of ne!essity as an e4!#se to liability or if the State in brea!h has !ontrib#te' to !reate the sit#ation of ne!essity) See Neptune! Torrey Canyon and the Case Concerning the "abci#ovo$ Nagymaros %roject& 8 .e!t ILC has a'opte' the -ie$ that le al in.lessness 9 a$areness of the ris. b#t a!tin in total 'isre ar' of the !onse"#en!es Generally spea.#re' State to !arry o#t a!ti-ities that are other$ise prohibite' #n'er international la$ ren'ers s#!h a!ti-ities la$f#l %e) ) a State !onsentin to the re"#est of another State to sen' a ents to arrest s#spe!ts on its soil() Consent &#st be -ali' %it is not -ali' if !ontrary to jus cogens( 6 self6'efen!e an' !o#nter&eas#res 6 force majeure 9 o!!#rren!e of an irresistible an' #nforeseen e-ent that is beyon' the !ontrol of the State+ &a.e' if it is the res#lt of State !on'#!t or if the a!tion ta.)+ 23<?) =) Fa#lt Fa#lt refers to the s#b.

#re' State is any State that has s#ffere' a brea!h of its ri ht+ as $ell as &oral or &aterial 'a&a es+ '#e to the -iolation by another State of its obli ations) ILC+ altho# h it has re.#re' State &#st follo$ the follo$in steps1 i-e noti!e of its !lai& an' spe!ify $hat !on'#!t the responsible State sho#l' ta.e a!tion+ the in.e reparation+ it &#st &a. Rights( powers and obligations of the injured State 6 ri ht to !lai& !essation of the $ron f#l a!t 6 ri ht to as.in !o&plian!e $ith !o&&#nity obli ations) It !an be sai' that in s#!h !ases+ their national interests !oin!i'e $ith !o&&#nity interests as a $hole) B .#re' State as a State1 2( $hen brea!h is base' on re!ipro!ial obli ation+ it is the State hol'er of the ri ht !orrespon'in to the obli ation brea!he'/ =( $hen there is brea!h of a !o&&#nity obli ation+ the in.e!te' the re"#ire&ent for 'a&a e+ it has #phel' the notion of in.#ries s#ffere' If the responsible State ref#ses to &a.#re' State &#st see.e a bone fi'e atte&pt to pea!ef#lly settle the 'isp#te $ith the a rie-e' State) To'ay+ there is a hierar!hy bet$een the &o'es of reparation1 2( For &aterial 'a&a e+ the responsible State &#st pro-i'e restit#tion in . for ass#ran!es an' #arantees of non6repetition 6 ri ht to f#ll reparation The in.e f#ll reparation for in.#re' State is any state that has been affe!te' by the $ron f#l a!t/ 8( in !ase of brea!h of inte ral obli ations %obli ations that nor&ally 'eri-e fro& treaties an' are 'epen'ent on the perfor&an!e of the other parties) &) Obligations of the responsible State1 6 !ease the $ron 'oin 6 offer appropriate ass#ran!es an' #arantees of non6repetition+ if !ir!#&stan!es so re"#ire 6 &a.e) If the responsible State 'oes not ta.in' %re6establish the sit#ation as it e4iste' before the $ron f#l a!t+ pro-i'e' s#!h restit#tion is not &aterially i&possible an' 'oes not in-ol-e a b#r'en o#t of proportion to the benefit fro& restit#tion instea' of !o&pensation) =( If restit#tion is not possible+ the responsible State &#st pay !o&pensation) 8( A $ron that has !a#se' &oral 'a&a e !an be re'resse' only by satisfa!tion %a!.no$le' &ent of the brea!h+ an e4pression of re ret+ a for&al apolo y et!)() '.6 6 Cir!#&stan!es pre!l#'in $ron f#lness 'o not operate $hen the -iolation is one of jus cogens) ILC Draft Arti!les+ Art) =@) ILC Draft Art) =A%b( pro-i'es that the in-o!ation of !ir!#&stan!es pre!l#'in $ron f#lness is $itho#t pre. Conse$uences of the %rongful !ct An in.#'i!e %i)e) has not i&pa!t( to the "#estion of !o&pensation for any &aterial loss by the a!t in "#estion) C.e to !ease the $ron 'oin an' $hat for& reparation sho#l' ta. a pea!ef#l settle&ent of the 'isp#te) If ne otiations fail+ only then is the in.#re' State allo$e' to resort to !o#nter&eas#res) 'ut see Case Concerning the (ir Services (greement of =A 0ar!h 23B@) !ggra ated State Responsibility )eneral *otes on !ggra ated Responsibility+ 6 0ost States a ree that the prote!tion of so&e f#n'a&ental -al#es lai' 'o$n in le al obli ations re"#ires that the le al rea!tion to possible brea!hes of s#!h obli ations be 'ifferent that that for or'inary brea!hes) 6 S#!h rea!tion sho#l' be first 'e!i'e' by an' a ree' #pon $ithin international bo'ies+ s#!h as the SC or GA+ NATO+ or international h#&an ri hts bo'ies be!a#se !olle!ti-e a!tion is preferable for politi!al+ i'eolo i!al an' e!ono&i!al reasons) 6 In so&e instan!es+ States rea!t in their in'i-i'#al !apa!ity in see.

!on!l#'e' that Art) 2 %$hi!h obli es all parties to respe!t an' ens#re respe!t for the Con-entions in all !ir!#&stan!es( !o&&on to the B Gene-a Con-entions ha' be!o&e part of the eneral prin!iples of h#&anitarian la$) It follo$s that any State &ay re"#ire another State to !o&ply $ith the obli ations #n'er the Con-entions+ $ith the res#ltin ri ht to 'e&an' !essation of the $ron f#l !on'#!t in -iolation of the Con-entions or the eneral prin!iples of h#&anitarian la$) This re i&e has not been !onsistently #se'+ ho$e-er+ $ith -ery fe$ states &a.#'i!ial or "#asi6.ain Characteristics of !ggra ated Responsibility 6 A ra-ate' responsibility arises fro& the brea!h of a !o&&#nity obli ation %that is either a !#sto&ary obli ation erga omnes prote!tin s#!h f#n'a&ental -al#es as pea!e+ h#&an ri hts+ self6'eter&ination( or an obli ation erga omnes contractantes %res#ltin fro& a &#ltilateral treaty safe #ar'in those f#n'a&ental -al#es() 6 The &aterial or &oral 'a&a e is not an ele&ent of responsibility/ the brea!h is an infrin e&ent of the State7s ri ht to !o&plian!e by another State) Follo$in s#!h a brea!h+ a p#bli! relation !o&es into bein bet$een the 'elin"#ent State an' the other States) The p#bli! nat#re of the relation lies in that any other state %regarless of whether it has been damaged( !an in-o.6 The ne$ syste& of a ra-ate' responsibility %$hi!h+ alle e'ly+ is !#sto&ary in nat#re( e-ol-e' fro& treaties+ so is it bin'in on States that are not parties to s#!h treaties) .e -iolation by any other State of the pro-ision of the Co-enant) A ra-ate' Responsibility an' H#&anitarian La$ In Nicaragua+ the IC.e' pri-ately+ in !onfi'ential 'e&ar!hes) A ra-ate' Responsibility an' International Cri&inal La$ Stat#te establishin the ICT>) Art) =3 In 'las#ic the ICT> hel' that the Stat#e of the ICT> i&pose' on all States the obli ation to !o&ply $ith or'ers an' 'e!ision of the Trib#nal+ lai' 'o$n obli ations erga omnes partes an' posite' a !o&&#nity interest in its obser-an!e) In other $or's+ e-ery UN State has a le al interest in the f#lfill&ent of the obli ations of Art) =3) The !o#rt then state' that in a''ition to #nilateral a!tion+ a !olle!ti-e &eas#re &ay be en-isa e' as a response to the -iolation of Art) =3) Fe$ States ha-e #se' the le al re i&e en-isa e' by the ICT>) The !rgument that !ggra ated Responsibility -as !c$uired Customary Character 6 so&e treaty r#les ha-e !learly e-ol-e' into !#sto&ary r#les as $ell % art) =)B UNC+ Art) 2 of the B Gene-a Con-entions 6 so&e pro-isions 'ealin $ith the prote!tion of h#&an ri hts %e) ) eno!i'e+ tort#re+ serio#s ra!ial 'is!ri&ination+ !ri&es a ainst h#&anity( 6 there are instan!es+ $here States not affe!te' by the -iolation ha-e ta.e responsibility of the $ron 'oer an'+ in 'oin so+ that State is not pursing a personal or individual interest+ b#t rather a community interest) Cy !ontrast+ in !ases of ordinary responsibility+ it !an be sai' that the relation re&ains bilateral in nat#re an' a pri-ate &atter bet$een the $ron 'oer an' the a rie-e' States) 6 International pra!ti!e sho$s that States prefer to rea!t to serio#s -iolations of international f#n'a&ental -al#es thro# h instit#tional bo'ies) States ha-e not f#lly #tili5e' the enor&o#s le al potential pro-i'e' by the !on!ept of a ra-ate' responsibility in &atters of no 'ire!t interest or !on!ern to the&) A ra-ate' Responsibility an' H#&an Ri hts States ha-e set #p a n#&ber of spe!ial bo'ies an' instit#tions !har e' $ith ins#rin !o&plian!e $ith h#&an ri hts) E) UN H#&an Ri hts Co&&ission) There are also so&e .e the ECHR+ the Inter6A&eri!an Co&&ission an' Co#rt of H#&an Ri hts+ UN H#&an Ri hts Co&&ittee+ the UN Co&&ittee A ainst Tort#re) These treaties pro-i'e that the !olle!ti-e response to h#&an ri hts -iolations 'oes not !o-er only ross an' lar e s!ale -iolations or syste&ati! brea!hes+ b#t any !ontra-ention of the treaty) E) ) UN H#&an Ri hts Co&&ittee 9 any State party to the CC*R !an in-o.en steps to protest s#!h brea!hes E .in p#bli! in'i-i'#al 'e&ar!hes -is6D6-is States responsible for -iolations) In &ost !ases+ Art)2 has been in-o.#'i!ial bo'ies li.

amage1 In !ases of a ra-ate' responsibility+ 'a&a es are not an ele&ent li. of !o&&#nity or p#bli! -al#es() If those bo'ies ta.6 State pra!ti!e sho$s belief that there e4ist so&e #ni-ersal -al#es of !on!ern to all &e&bers of the international !o&&#nity an' that the serio#s brea!h of these -al#es affe!ts any &e&ber of the !o&&#nity re ar'less of in'i-i'#al 'a&a e+ an' any &e&ber of the !o&&#nity is a#thori5e' to ta.e!t to the !onsent of the -i!ti& State() All of the abo-e &eas#res 'o not pre.en a!tion to ter&inate the $ron 'oin or has not !o&plie' $ith the re"#est for reparation+ other States !an brin the &atter to the attention of the !o&petent international bo'ies %this !olle!ti-e a!tion res#lts fro& the -ery nat#re of this !lass of responsibility $hi!h arises of an atta!.e the a ra-ate' responsibility/ =( to 'e&an' !essation/ 8( to !lai& reparation/ B( if the responsible State has not ta.e no a!tion or their a!tion 'oes not brin res#lts+ E( all States are entitle' to brin pea!ef#l !o#nter&eas#res on an in'i-i'#al basis+ an' @( in !ases of ar&e' a ression+ States &ay resort to !olle!ti-e self6'efense %s#b.e they are in or'inary responsibility) Here a State is responsible si&ply for brea!hin an international obli ation) A ra-ate' responsibility !an be base' on the le al in.#ry to the ri ht of e-ery other State) 8) Fault1 The ra-ity of the brea!h an' the fa!t that the obli ation -iolate' is of f#n'a&ental i&portan!e for the !o&&#nity as a $hole entails a ra-ate' responsibility) Intent is al$ays inherent in this type of responsibility an' nee' not be pro-e' by the !lai&ant State %e4!eption1 eno!i'e+ an' &aybe a ression( Conse$uences of the wrongful act in cases of aggra ated responsibility 2) In !ases of a ra-ate' responsibility+ #n'er !#sto&ary la$+ the offen'in State has obli ations to$ar's all other States+ so all other States ha-e ri hts -is6D6-is the 'elin"#ent State) =) Obli ations in!#&bent #pon the 'elin"#ent State 9 the obli ations are o$e' not only to the 'a&a e' State+ b#t to all &e&bers of the international !o&&#nity) There is a !o&&#nity relation bet$een the $ron 'oer an' all the other States) 8) So&eti&es+ restit#tion+ !o&pensation an' satisfa!tion pro-e ina'e"#ate to repair 'a&a e !a#se' %e) ) in !ase of tort#re() B) Ri hts+ po$ers an' obli ations of other States 9 States are #n'er the obli ations 2( not to re!o ni5e as la$f#l a sit#ation that res#lts fro& the brea!h/ =( not to ren'er any ai' or assistan!e to the responsible State in &aintainin the sit#ation so !reate'/ 8( to !ooperate to brin an en' to the brea!h) States !an 2( in-o.#'i!e %'o not pre!l#'e( the possible operation of the UN se!#rity syste&) @ .e steps to 'e&an' !essation of the brea!h) The Legal Regulation of !ggra ated Responsibility The 'ifferen!es $ith or'inary responsibility lie in the nat#re an' ra-ity of the international obli ations brea!he'+ the 'a&a e+ an' the fa#lt) 2) Obligation #reached1 To i-e rise to a ra-ate' responsibility+ the obli ation brea!he' &#st be a community obligation) A !o&&#nity obli ation is one that1 6 !on!erns a f#n'a&ental -al#e 6 o$e' to other &e&bers of the international !o&&#nity 6 !orrespon'in to a !o&&#nity ri ht %i)e) a ri ht belon in to any other State( 6 this ri ht &ay be e4er!ise' by any other State+ $hether it has s#ffere' 'a&a e or not 6 the ri ht is e4er!ise' on behalf of the international !o&&#nity as a $hole an' not in the interest of the !lai&ant state 6 Note1 The brea!h of the !o&&#nity obli ation &#st be gross or systematic/ it &#st be serio#s or lar e s!ale) =) .

A .