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References Cited When information from your sources is used within the text, those sources need to be cited

parenthetically. If an article has three or more authors, the names of the authors following the first author can be abbreviated with “et al.” Example of how to cite a reference within the body of the text: Males of many species perform a courtship feeding ritual involving the presentation of nuptial gifts to females (Thornhill and Alcock 1983; Zeh et al. 1985; Peters 2006). Peters (2006) documented that nuptial gifts increased the time that female flies spent copulating with males. When multiple papers are cited parenthetically, they are listed in chronological order. List all the references cited in your paper in alphabetical order according to the first author’s last name. The order of the authors within a particular reference should be the same as the order of authors on the original paper you cited. For example, if the paper lists the authors as Zang, Goodman, Aaronson and Davis, in that order, they will remain in that order in the citation. Write the name of the paper in ‘sentence case’ (i.e., first word capitalized), and the journal title in ‘title case’ (i.e., capitalize most words other than if, or, and, etc.). Here are examples of how to format references. Journals Dana, T. F. 1975. Development of contemporary eastern Pacific coral reefs. Marine Biology 33: 355-374. [Example of journal citation with single author] Arnqvist, G. and L. Rowe. 1995. Sexual conflict and arms races between the sexes: A morphological adaptation for control of mating in a female insect. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London - Series B: Biological Sciences 261: 123-127. [Example of journal citation with two authors. They are listed in the same order as on the original article] Smith, J. W., C. W. Benkman, and K. Coffey. 1999. The use and misuse of public information by foraging red crossbills. Behavioral Ecology 10: 54-62. [Example of journal citation with more than two authors. Never use “et al.” in the “References Cited” section. Within the body of the text it will be cited as “Smith et al. 1999” (see above); all authors are listed in the “References Cited” as part of the full reference, no matter how many authors there are.] Edmunds, P. J. In press. The effects of temperature on the growth of juvenile scleractinian corals. Marine Biology doi: 10.1007/s00227-008-0910-6. [Example of an article that has been electronically published and is available on the web, but has not been formally published. These articles are assigned a “doi” or “digital object identifier” that should be used instead of the volume and page number. Do not put the web address. The doi is a permanent, succinct digital name.]

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B. Dana. Daley. Coffey.. Food Webs: Integration of Pattern and Dynamics. Control of interaction strength in marine benthic communities. T. They provide reference lists that you can use to find the original paper. A. editor. 1996. and P. and L. M. You may include books or book chapters.. and D. 1999. Edmunds. Pages 258-274 in K. The effects of temperature on the growth of juvenile scleractinian corals. the chapters are written by different authors. 1996. C. London. Hand. 1995.Series B: Biological Sciences 261: 123-127. Analysis of Repeated Measures. Winemiller). J. M. New York. A. editor. Analysis of Repeated Measures. NY. A. O. followed by the title of the book. Do not include unpublished material. but at least three of the papers you cite should be published in scientific journals. Behavioral Ecology 10: 54-62. 1990. Benkman. Page 2 of 2 . Chapman and Hall. K.. and D. New York. B. The book editor(s) is listed later (here. NY. London. [You should cite the original journal paper whenever possible. J.. Marine Biology 33: 355-374. J. A. Daley. Chapman and Hall. Rowe. G. Menge. Hand. The citation is under the authors of the chapter. P. Chapman and Hall. For example. Smith. A. O. Control of interaction strength in marine benthic communities. Here is a sample “References Cited” section: Arnqvist. use their reference section to find the original source. Winemiller. B. Chapman and Hall.. W. Do not cite Alcock or Townsend et al. J. 1990. B. Sexual conflict and arms races between the sexes: A morphological adaptation for control of mating in a female insect. W.1007/s00227-008-0910-6. Marine Biology doi: 10. if you read about a study in the book. J. Food Webs: Integration of Pattern and Dynamics. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London . followed by the year. lecture notes or wikipedia in your reference section. In press.Book Crowder. Crowder. [In edited books. A. Winemiller. and K. The use and misuse of public information by foraging red crossbills. F. Development of contemporary eastern Pacific coral reefs. O.] Edited Book Menge. Wheeler. and P. Pages 258-274 in K. 1975. J. Wheeler. the title of the chapter and the page numbers of the whole chapter.