You are on page 1of 18

1

Health and
safety at work
Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013
2
The prevention of work hazards
A work risk is any likelihood of injury to the worker when carrying out its
task.

The health and safety at work discipline seeks to promote the safety and
health of workers by:
> Identification, evaluation and control of hazards and risks associated
with a production process
>the development of activities and measures to prevent work-related
risks (eg lectures and training courses)

The law 31/1995 of 8th November about work risks prevention is
devoted to this topic and requires companies to manage risk, for
which they usually hire a qualified work risks technician.

Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013
3
Types of work hazards

Types:
• work hazards related to work organization.
– Order, place, duration, worker assignement of operations ...

• work hazards related to work environment.
– Light / Noise / Gas / liquid / solid / living ...

• work hazards arising from instruments, machines and tools.
- Moving parts / sharp edges / electricals / chemicals / heights...

• work hazards related to the operator
– Position / distraction / tiredness / training


Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013
4
combating work risks
What to do to reduce the risks and harms?

A. Before it occurs (PREVENTION).
– A.0 Health and safety department.
• Hiring work risks technicians services to make the work risks prevention
plan, including de formational and training plan.
– A.1 General measures (dedicated to all cases)
• Order, quietness, cleanliness and hygiene.
• Maintenance of equipment
• Signage, distances, obstacles ...
• Personal protective equipment (PPE)
– A.2 Specific measures for each case: Designed with a focus on integrated
security (all aspects covered)
• Measures in production organization.
• Measures in work environment and working conditions
• Measures in tools and machines
• Measures in human operators.

B. Just if an accident happened.
• First aid kits, mobile phones for calling emergence groups.
• toxic gases ventilation ...
• Fire protection: plan of evacuation routes and exits, emergency lighting, fire
extinguishers ...
• etc ...


Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013
5
A.0 Health and
safety deparmentL
Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013
6
º
We must engage the services of a technician in work risk prevention.
Currently the title is obtained by means of courses and masters that
are validated at official level.
In the future there will be the creation of an official title.


At our business we must create a work risks management system (WRMS)
which as any management system has the following parts:




Initial
assessment
Policy and
objectives
Execution
Checking and
correction
Evaluation of
results
Planning
• Initial risk analysis
•Written Risk prevention
Manual (for ever)
• Written Annual Plan
• written report
Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013
7
written documents of a WRMS



• DOC 1: WORK RISKS MANUAL: WRMS description.
– 1.0: Identification of risks and factors.
– 1.1: General policy: The organization defines its commitments and motives to
achieve about health and safety at work.
– 1.2: Objectives: We propose the goals to achieve.
– 1.3: General heads: It means a Health and safety committee.
– 1.4: Heads of checking and correction.
– 1.5: Heads of the final evaluation.

• DOC 2: ANNUAL PLAN:
– 2.1: Annual objectives: Specific objectives for the year.

• DOC 3: PROCEDURES
Specific procedures to achieve the objectives. (Eg Procedure for maintenance of the drill,
evacuation procedure in case of fire ...)
In each next points must be indicated:
• Goals of the procedure.
• Assignment of responsibility and procedure verification.
• Assignement of material resources
• Instructions of the procedure.

• DOC 4: ANNUAL
• Explanation of the final evaluation. Results. New goals for the coming year.

Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013
8
A.1 general measures
Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013
9
A.1.1 safety signs
Activity: write the meaning of these signals:
Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013
10
Activity: write the meaning of these signals:
Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013
11
Activity: Write the meaning of these signs:
Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013
12
Activity: write the meaning of these signals:
Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013
13
A.1.2 PPE Personal Protective Equipment


Activity: write the name of the PPE and wich hazard they protect from.
Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013
14
A.2 specific preventive measures
Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013
15
Activity: Here is an analysis of the risks from the use of machines and
tools. Read it and complete it if you think about something else.

• Risks arising from the energy source.
Electricity
• electrical current : work risk: through the body: burning, death.
• electrical current : Work risk: short circuits or overloads: overheating
and fire.
Liquid or gaseous fuels
• Work risk: Explosions/ Spill, leak / toxicity.
• Risks arising from moving parts.
– Work risk: entrapment (serious injury, loss of limbs)
– Work risk: breakage of parts and release (injury, death ...)
– Work risk: Vibration, noise, friction (psychological distress, stress…)
• Risks from needlestick parts.
– Work risk: punctures, cuts, wounds ...
• Risks arising from the weights or other objects or substances
– Work risk: falling (rush)
– Work risk: gas exhaust (explosions, toxicity ....)
• Risks arising from the volume and weight of the machine:
– Work risk: overturning (Crush)
• And so on..
Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013
16
Activity: Lists measures that you propose in your business against work
risks arising from the use of machines and tools.

Ensure to have an integrated safety approach that includes the following
sections:
> Measures about organizational: work organization.
> Measures about environment: environmental and working conditions
> Measures about human factors: in the workers
> Measures about material resources: objects, tools, machines, products
...

Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013
17
B. protective measures
Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013
18
Activity: Regarding the same issue (risks from the use of machines and
tools) and continuing with the previous activity ...

Add now the protective measures you would take just if the accident
would happen

Eg mobile crews and first aid
vent toxic gases ...

Luis García Molina. I.E.S Serra Perenxisa. Torrente (Valencia). 2013