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Political History of Pakistan

Independence of Pakistan On 14 and 15 August 1947, British India gave way to two new independent states, the Dominion of Pa istan and the !nion of India, "oth dominions whi#h $oined the British %ommonwea&th' (owever, the de#ision to divide Pun$a" and Benga&, two of the "iggest provin#es, "etween India and Pa istan had disastrous #onse)uen#es' *his division #reated inter+re&igious vio&en#e of su#h magnitude that e,#hange of popu&ation a&ong re&igious &ines "e#ame a ne#essity in these provin#es' -ore than two mi&&ion peop&e migrated a#ross the new "orders and more than one hundred thousand died in the spate of #ommuna& vio&en#e, that spread even "eyond these provin#es' *he independen#e a&so resu&ted in tensions over .ashmir &eading to the Indo+Pa istani /ar of 1947, whi#h #u&minated in an armisti#e, "ro ered "y the !nited 0ations, and a hitherto unreso&ved .ashmir dispute' *he post+independen#e po&iti#a& history of Pa istan has "een #hara#terised "y severa& periods of authoritarian mi&itary ru&e and #ontinuing territoria& disputes with India over the status of .ashmir' -odern day Pa istan First democratic era (1947–1958) In 1947, after esta"&ishing the 1tate of Pa istan, the 2ounding fathers of Pa istan appointed 3ya at A&i .han, a po&iti#a& theorist, as #ountry4s first Prime minister' *he founder of Pa istan, -uhammad A&i 5innah, was appointed as first 6overnor+6enera& and the first President+1pea er of the 1tate Par&iament' 71indh, Pun$a", Ba&o#histan, 0orth+/est 2rontier, and 8ast+Benga&9, and four administrative units 76i&git:Ba&tistan 7now a provin#e9,.ashmir 7a&so a provisiona& state9, *ri"a& "e&t and 3o#a& tri"a& "e&t9, with .ara#hi "eing its first #apita&' *he government of 3ya at A&i .han suffered many pro"&ems and set"a# s during the very first year of his government' In the west, territoria& pro"&ems arose with neigh"oring #ommunist states + Afghanistan and 1oviet !nion + "oth states "eing hosti&e towards Pa istan' /hi&e the independen#e and esta"&ishment of Pa istan was not great&y we&#omed "y the 1oviet !nion, the #ountries of Iran and Israe& 7a se#ret #ourier9 sent their dip&omati# missions to the new&y esta"&ished state' In 1947, Iran "e#ame the first #ountry to give re#ognition to Pa istan, whi&e Israe& was not given a #omp&ete response' *erritoria& pro"&ems es#a&ated with India, &ater "oth nations de#&aring fu&&+s#a&e war against ea#h other in 1947, whi#h "e#ame to nown as Indo+Pa istani war of 1947, this was fo&&owed "y 194; Ba&o#histan #onf&i#t' *he pro"&em of (a<ara was a "ig issue whi#h was reso&ved "y 5a&a& ud din han 5a&a& "a"a' (e "e#ame =2ateh >efrendum4 and &ater served as Interior -inister of Pa istan' In 194; at the par&iament, 6overnor+6enera& -uhammad A&i 5innah de#&ared that =!rdu wou&d "e the on&y state &anguage of Pa istan=' *his statement spar ed protests in 8ast Benga& 7&ater 8ast Pa istan9, where Benga&i was spo en "y most of the popu&ation' *he Benga&i 3anguage -ovement rea#hed its pea on ?1 2e"ruary 195?, when the po&i#e and so&diers opened fire on students near the Dha a -edi#a& %o&&ege protesting for Benga&i to re#eive e)ua& status with !rdu' 1evera& protesters were i&&ed, and the movement gained further support throughout 8ast Pa istan' 3ater, the 6overnment agreed to provide e)ua& status to Benga&i as a state &anguage of Pa istan, a right #odified in the 195@ #onstitution' In 195A at the instigation of re&igious parties, anti+Ahmadiyya riots erupted, i&&ing s#ores of non+Ahmadis and destroying their properties'B7;C *he riots were investigated "y a two+mem"er #ourt of in)uiry in 1954, B79C whi#h was #riti#ised "y the 5amaat+e+Is&ami, one of the parties a##used of in#iting the riots' B;DC *his event &ed to the first instan#e of martia& &aw in the #ountry and "egan the inroad of mi&itary intervention in the po&iti#s and #ivi&ian affairs of the #ountry, something that remains to this day' B;1C In 1954, the &egis&ative e&e#tions were he&d in Pa istan, the first &egis&ative e&e#tions he&d sin#e 1947' In 1955, Pa istan4s western states and 8ast Benga& were devo&ved into two sing&e states "y One !nit po&i#y of -ohammad A&i Bogra, esta"&ishing the states of /est Pa istan and 8ast Pa istan' *he 1954 e&e#tions showed a #&ear differen#es in ideo&ogy, when 8ast Pa istan fe&& under #ommunism "y the ne,us of %ommunist Party, /or ers+Peasant Party, a&&ying with Awami 3eague' >epu"&i#an Party gained ma$ority seats in /est + the Pa istan -us&im 3eague 7P-39 on&y se#ured 1D seats in 8ast and none in /est' Awami 3eague4s (useyn 1uhrawardy, one of the &eading founding fathers of Pa istan, "e#ame the prime minister with #ommunist+so#ia&ist a&&ian#e "a# ing his po&i#ies' /hi&e the One !nit programme was a #omp&ete su##ess in the 8ast, the po&i#y #omp&ete&y fai&ed in the /est, with nationa&ists in its provin#es and their peop&e for#efu&&y re$e#ting the programme' !nder pressure of protests, Prime minister 1uhrawardy de#ided to retain the mi&d status of the provin#es in 1955' After assuming the government, 1uhrawardy de#ided to "ui&d a massive mi&itary and &aun#hed the p&an of nu#&ear power in the /est to eep his mandate in /est Pa istan' 2o&&owing this, the PA8% was esta"&ished and the

and denoun#ed the !nited 1tates4 invo&vement' %ontroversia&&y. Prime -inister I'I' %hundrigar was dismissedE fo&&owed "y 1ir 2ero< 0oon.han as the %hief -artia& 3aw Administrator 7%-3A9 to enfor#e the martia& &aw' (owever. President -ir<a appointed Army #ommander 6enera& Ayu" . the pro"&ems "egan to mount "etween /est and 8ast Pa istan + /est de#ided to fo&&ow the /esterni<ed Par&iamentary form of the demo#ra#y whi&e 8ast #hose to "e#ome a so#ia&ist state' /ithin two month. and for esta"&ishing a nu#&ear .wor on esta"&ishing Pa istan as a nu#&ear power was initiated persona&&y "y 1uhrawardy' 1uhrawardy suffered interna& pro"&ems in /est when #apita&ist for#es + industria& monopo&ies. &eading president Is andar A&i -ir<a to initiate massive arrests of #ommunists and wor ers of Awami 3eague in 8ast Pa istan. whi&e the move was wide&y appre#iated and seen as positive in /est' *he 8ast+Pa istan Par&iament threatened to &eave the federation of Pa istan.isted from 19@? unti& 19@9 + when Ayu" . a #entra&ised government e#onomy' *he human deve&opment in 8ast got worsened and nationa& se#urity of Pa istan was put in great dou"t' 1uharwarthy "e#ame the first Prime minister of Pa istan to visit Peop&e4s >epu"&i# of %hina and attempted to improve re&ations with 1oviet !nion' (owever. whi#h threatened the power of President -ir<a' During this time of &ess than two years. with the &ast 6overnor+6enera&. who proved to "e an in#apa"&e prime minister' *he Pa istan -us&im 3eague 7P-39 "egan to rise after the 1954 e&e#tions.ut#h' A positive gain of the treaties was the re+strengthening of Pa istan4s #&ose histori#a& "onds with its western neigh"ors in Asia' In /est Pa istan a&one. and #apita& e#onomists + made their efforts to ha&t any po&i#y eva&uation pro#ess of e#onomy of Pa istan for initiating #omp&ete nationa&i<ation.han its president' During Ayu"4s ru&e. a pa#t for esta"&ishing #ountry4s first nu#&ear power p&ant was signed with 68 %anada. the e#onomy. despite his &eft+wing po&i#ies.ashmir and the >ann of . the !nited 1tates dismayed Pa istan "y adopting a po&i#y of denying mi&itary aid to "oth India and Pa istan during the Indo+Pa istani /ar of 19@5 over . edu#ationa& efforts.han "e#ame president and "egan a new system of government #a&&ed Basic Democracy with a new 19@? #onstitution. President -ir<a himse&f remained in offi#e on&y for two monthsE two wee after imposing the martia& &aw. after deve&oping serious differen#es with the Pa istan Armed 2or#es. Ayu" .Is andar -ir<a. President -ir<a e.DDD wou&d se&e#t the President + the #ountry "e#ame a presidentia& repu"&i# with Ayu" . two states had "een esta"&ished + the state of /est Pa istan 7#onsisting four provin#es9 and the state of 8ast Pa istan 7one sing&e state9' *he two states had one president and one prime minister. after suspending the #onstitutionF (aving suspended the #onstitution. Ira). 1uhrawardy formu&ated pro+Ameri#an po&i#ies' In 1954. to put Pa istan on the nu#&ear power road' In 19@5. the !nited 1tates government dispat#hed the -AA 6roup for Pa istan Armed 2or#es whi#h was met with great hosti&ity in 8ast Pa istan. 1uhrwardy resigned and withdrew his pu"&i# mandate and was su##eeded "y a #&ose friend I"rahim Ismai& %hundrigar as Prime minister' First military era (1958–1971) *he Dominion status of the #ountry was disso&ved on ?A -ar#h 195@ and Pa istan "e#ame an Is&ami# repu"&i#. the mi&itary wou&d ta e #ontro& of the nation' /ith the imposition of One !nit po&i#y. and disso&ving the so#ia&ist government in 8ast first and then the par&iamentary government in /est. human deve&opment and s#ientifi# resear#h rea#hed a new high &eve& during this time. re&ations with the !nited 1tates and other /estern nations grew stronger' Pa istan $oined two forma& mi&itary a&&ian#es G the Baghdad Pa#t 7&ater nown as the %entra& *reaty Organi<ation or %80*O9 whi#h in#&uded Iran.. after 1uhrawardy4s visit to !ntied 1tates. "y whi#h an e&e#tora& #o&&ege of . President -ir<a had dismissed four prime ministers + one from A3 and three from >epu"&i#an party + and fina&&y imposed the first martia& &aw in 195. whi#h damaged the image of /est Pa istan in the 8ast further' 8goisti# pro"&ems grew "etween the two Benga&i &eaders + President -ir<a and Prime minister 1uhrawardy + further damaging the unity of the #ountry' In 195@. gaining internationa& re#ognition for the #ountry' A"dus 1a&am and -unir Ahmad . "oth e. as the first president as we&& as first Benga&i &eader of the #ountry' 5ust two years &ater. prime minister 1uhrawardy gave se#ret and ver"a& authori<ation of &easing the se#ret I1I insta&&ation to Ameri#an %entra& Inte&&igen#e Agen#y 7%IA9. and *ur ey to ostensi"&y defend the -idd&e 8ast and Persian 6u&f against the 1oviet !nionE and the 1outheast Asia *reaty Organi<ation 718A*O9 whi#h #overed 1outh+8ast Asia against the #ommunist "&o# ' (owever.han se&f+ appointed himse&f to the ran of a five star 2ie&d -arsha& and named a new #ivi&+mi&itary government under him' Presidential repu lic (19!"–19!9) *his period e.D.erted a mounting pressure on 1uhrawardy to resign from the prime minister4s post' 1uhrawardy4s po&iti#a& might and #ontro& of Awami 3eague was a&so #ha&&enged "y -au&ana Bhashani and 1uhrawardy su"se)uent&y &ost support in his party' Iso&ated and disheartened. to #ondu#t inte&&igen#e operations in 1oviet !nion' Differen#es in 8ast Pa istan on the !nited 1tates4 operations further en#ouraged the Ba&o#h separatism.han in IA8A made tremendous effort with Hu&fi ar A&i Bhutto4s support.#&usive&y head)uartered in /est' After the 1954 e&e#tions.

Iahya . his martia& &aw in Pa istan wou&d remain from 19@9:71. = Food. under Bhutto4s pressure. Ayu" . Cloth. it was supervising sma&& a#ademi# resear#h in 8ast' 0o nu#&ear fa#i&ities were ever esta"&ished in 8ast Pa istan. whi#h ended mi&itari&y in a sta&emate.ara#hi' On 7 5une 19@1. ma$or industria& and &a"or stri es "egan to ta e p&a#e and within months Ayu" . who imposed martia& &aw and suspended the #onstitution. Bhutto #a&&ed for a pu"&i# meeting of so#ia&ists and &eft+wing inte&&e#tua&s in 3ahore and founded the &eading &eftist party. who promised to ho&d genera& e&e#tions at the end of 197D' (owever. thus disso&ving the presidentia& repu"&i#' #artial la$ in Pakistan (19!9–1971) After nationwide uprising in 19@9. even go hungry. nor any /estern interest was there to esta"&ished the nu#&ear fa#i&ities in 8ast' Amidst further a&&egations that e#onomi# deve&opment and hiring for government $o"s favoured /est Pa istan. disso&ving the One !nit status of /est Pa istan. President Ayu" . there was a rise in Benga&i nationa&ism during the 19@Ds and an independen#e movement "egan to gather ground in 8ast Pa istan' President Ayu" . territoria& pi#tures. "orders and geographi#a& positions of provin#es of Pa istan were retained. Rehbar-I was &aun#hed. a &ess+ nown in pu"&i# and heavy a&#oho& drin er. the spa#e &aun#hing #enterG 1onmiani *ermina& was "ui&t in . spontaneous mass demonstrations were he&d.5 seats. it "e#ame the ma$or party in the /est' In 197D. ma ing Pa istan the third #ountry in Asia and the tenth in the wor&d to #ondu#t su#h a &aun#hing' /hi&e in /est the PA8% was putting efforts for a massive s#ientifi# and te#hno&ogi#a& deve&opment.han refused to hand over power to 1hei h -u$i"ur >ahman' . won . after Pa istan went ahead with its strategi# air+"orne mission #ode named the Operation Gibraltar. Hu&fi ar A&i Bhutto resigned from his ministry' After news f&ooded in /est. "ut with no seats in /est Pa istan.han' After fa#ing the intense pu"&i# resentment and pressure of s#heming Bhutto.9C In 19@5.han &eft the offi#e in poor hea&th and surrendered powers to his army #ommander. in whi#h time on&y mi&itary government ru&ed with high+profi&e $oint mi&itary offi#ers o##upying government assignments' During this time.han had a&most &ost the #ontroversia& 19@5 presidentia& e&e#tions to 2atima 5innah'B.perien#ed "y affe#ted #iti<ens in rea#hing the voting sites.DDD peop&e' Despite the tragedy and the additiona& diffi#u&ty e.hy"er Pa htun hwa' *he provin#ia& assem"&ies and provin#ia& positions a&so were restored' *he state par&iament. India de#&ared a fu&&+s#a&e war on Pa istan' *he war. it had no effe#ts on 8ast' On the eve of the e&e#tions. 6enera& Iahya . Pa istan4s first ever demo#rati# e&e#tions were he&d' *he 8ast Pa istan Awami 3eague won the e&e#tions' *he resu&ts. who tapped a wave of anger against Ayu" .han had stepped down from offi#e. however. ma$or &and reforms were #arried out "y 6enera& Iahya . where the Pa istan Peop&es Party 7PPP9 &ed "y Hu&fi ar A&i Bhutto. 6enera& Iahya .imate&y 5DD. Hu&fi ar A&i Bhutto de&ivered a "&istering spee#hE with the atomi# s#ientist A<i< Ahmed present there for good measure. the Pa istan Peop&e4s Party 7PPP9' *he PPP at on#e gained popu&arity and wide s#a&e pu"&i# approva& of Bhutto. showed a #&ear division "etween 8ast and /est Pa istan' *he Awami 3eague. 2usion 2ast 3a"oratories a&& in /est Pa istan' As a spin off to the nu#&ear pro$e#ts.han and a series of geographi#a& and territoria& #hanges in /est a&one' 6enera& Iahya . a spa#e programme was a&so &aun#hed "y A"dus 1a&am with the he&p of !nited 1tates and Pa istan esta"&ished the authority 1pa#e >esear#h %ommission 71>%9 in 19@1' In 19@?. the *ash ent Agreement was signed "etween India and Pa istan under the auspi#es of 1oviet !nion' 3ater.ingdom and %8A of 2ran#e' During this period. the 32O Order 0o' 197D. handing over power to army #ommader 6enera& Iahya .han.8ast+Pa istan Army did not interfere in the #onf&i#t that "rought a great ire in /est against 8ast' 1u"se)uent&y. won a ma$ority with 1@7 of the 1@9 8ast Pa istani seats.han proposed to appoint 0uru& Amin + a Benga&i figure and #hairman of Pa istan -us&im 3eague + as the prime minister as we&& as #ountry4s first Ji#e President of Pa istan.han &ost #ontro& of /est' Ayu" . Bhutto made Pa istan4s intentions #&ear and &oud&y announ#ed thatF =If India "ui&ds the 7nu#&ear9 "om". "ut the former stru#ture of the four provin#es of Pa istan was restored + 1indhE Pun$a"E Ba&o#histanE 0/2P now renamed . "y simp&y adding Pa istanF the stru#ture. !nited 1tatesesta"&ished a nu#&ear fission rea#tor PARR-I and a nu#&ear fusion fa#i&ity. supreme #ourt and ma$or government and authoritarian institutions a&so regained their status' *his de#ree was on&y &imited to /est. none in 8ast Pa istan' %onse)uent&y. &ed "y 1hei h -u$i"ur >ahman. the rise of so#ia&ism "egan to ta e p&a#e with Pa istan Peop&e4s Party "eing the #entra& party' *he PPP4s so#ia&ist rationa&e. a #y#&one stru# 8ast Pa istan i&&ing appro.han4s popu&arity waned and his image was ma&igned "y the opposition' In 19@7. and Shelter and party4s manifesto )ui# &y popu&ari<ed the party and in a sma&& span of time. whi&e defending Pa istan4s position at the !0 6enera& Assem"&y in 19@5.han issued the presidentia& de#ree. whi&e appointing Bhutto as deputy prime minister and -u$i" as vi#e+prime ministerE this s#heme was for#efu&&y re$e#ted "y Bhutto' 8ventua&&y. a two+stage so&id fue& ro# et. "ut we wi&& get one of own ''' /e have no other #hoi#e=' Disagreeing with the signing of *ash ent agreement. we wi&& eat grass. was most&y fought in /est as on&y mi&d operations were #ondu#ted in 8ast "y India' %ontroversia&&y.han.pro#essing sites with B023 p&#' &td' of !nited .

nationa&i<ation of e#onomy. navy and the air for#e whi&e authori<ed home #onfinement orders for 6enera& Iahya . po&iti#ians. providing dire#t 4mi&itary assistan#e4'B9DCB91C On ?7 -ar#h 1971. however. depending on the sour#es' A&though the i&&ing of Benga&is was unsupported "y the peop&e of /est Pa istan. industria&i<ation and the e.orea. for the first time. on the other hand. a serious nationa&ist re"e&&ion a&so too p&a#e in Ba&o#histan provin#e and &ed to harsh suppression of Ba&o#h re"e&s with the 1hah of Iran purported&y assisting with air support in order to prevent the #onf&i#t from spi&&ing over into Iranian Ba&o#histan' *he #onf&i#t ended &ater after an amnesty and su"se)uent sta"i&i<ation "y the provin#ia& mi&itary ru&er >ahimuddin .DDD. open hosti&ities "ro e out "etween India and Pa istan on A De#em"er 1971' In Bang&adesh. -a$or Hiaur >ahman.hausted "y the -u ti Bahini4s guerri&&a warfare' Outf&an ed and overwhe&med. whi&e others f&ed to neigh"ouring India' 1hei h -u$i"ur >ahman was ta en to /est Pa istan' *he #ra# down widened and es#a&ated into a guerri&&a warfare "etween the Pa istan Armed 2or#es and the -u ti Bahini 7Benga&i =freedom fighters=9'B. it #ontinued for 9 months' Pa istan4s offi#ia& report. reha"i&itation. Bhutto &aun#hed a series of interna& inte&&igen#e operations to #ra# down on the fissiparous nationa&ist sentiments and movements in the provin#es' Pa istan Peop&e4s Party and Hu&fi ar Bhutto fa#ed serious #ha&&enges.DDD so&diers ta en as prisoners of war' *he resu&t was the defa#to emergen#e of the new nation of Bang&adesh. Bhutto. the Pa istan Armed 2or#es #ommen#ed Operation 1ear#h&ight 7as fo&&owed "y Operation Barisa& "yPa istan 0avy9. an organi<ed #ra# down on the 8ast Pa istani army. ended without a so&ution' 1oon thereafter. whi&e estimates range up to A mi&&ion' Dis#redited "y the defeat. a Benga&i war+veteran of the 8ast Benga& >egiment of the Pa istan Army.han and severa& of his #o&&a"orators' (e adopted the 8ast+Pa istan %ommission4s re#ommendations and authori<ed &arge+s#a&e #ourt+martia& of army offi#ers tainted for their ro&e in 8ast Pa istan' *o eep the #ountry united. and students in Dha a' 1hei h -u$i"ur >ahman and many other Awami 3eague &eaders were arrested. "y the (amood+ur+>ahman %ommission.han' In 197A. spe#ia& for#es and #hain of #ommands in the mi&itary' 1teps were ta en for demo#rati<ation of #ivi& "ureau#ra#y. starting first with the agri#u&ture. and 1hei h -u$i"ur >ahman was #onvened in Dha a. Par&iament approved a new #onstitution. had a&ready "een wea ened and e. reorgani<ation of the mi&itary. #ivi&ians. atomi# "om" pro$e#ts and &eft+ wing so#ia&ism' It is regarded as the period of re#onstru#tion. and Pa istan. de#&ared the independen#e of 8ast Pa istan as the new nation of Bang&adesh on "eha&f of -u$i"' 2o&&owing a period of #overt and overt intervention "y Indian for#es in the #onf&i#t. headed "y nu#&ear physi#ist A"dus 1a&am to deve&op nu#&ear devi#es' 1a&am &ater won the 0o"e& Pri<e for Physi#s for deve&oping the theory for unifi#ation of wea nu#&ear for#es and strong e&e#tromagneti# for#es'B9AC In 197A. Bhutto su##um"ed to in#reasing pressure from re&igious parties and he&ped Par&iament to de#&are the Ahmadiyya adherents as non+-us&ims' At foreign fronts.-eanwhi&e.han handed over the po&iti#a& power to Hu&fi ar A&i Bhutto and the Pa istan Peop&es Party' Bhutto dismissed #hiefs of army. when 6enera& Iahya . whi#h #ame to "e nown as =-u&tan meeting=. whi#h was strong&y supported "y the genera& popu&ation of 8ast Pa istan. the #ountry4s top inte&&igen#e servi#es &earned that =India was #&ose to deve&oping a nu#&ear weapon under its nu#&ear programme=' In response. 1hei h -u$i"ur >ahman initiated a #ivi& diso"edien#e movement. was de#&ared a Par&iamentary demo#ra#y' Bhutto and his government #arried out ma$or and serious reforms for esta"&ishment and deve&opment and re+designing of the #ountry4s infrastru#ture' B9?C 2irst and foremost. the re&ations with 1oviet !nion and 1oviet B&o# + 0orth . Pa istan was . aimed to ra&&y a#ademi# s#ientists to "ui&d the atomi# "om" for nationa& surviva&' *he atomi# "om" pro$e#t "rought together a team of prominent a#ademi# s#ientists and engineers. 6enera& Iahya . in#&uding most government wor ers' A round+ta"&e #onferen#e "etween Iahya. p&a#ed the figure at on&y ?@. "oth on interna& and foreign fronts' 2rom 1971 ti&& 1977 was a period of growth of nationa& spirit. the a&&ian#e with the !nited 1tates wea ened "ut. Bhutto supervised the su##essfu& promu&gation of 197A #onstitution that va&idated the par&iamentary demo#ra#y in the #ountry' *he esta"&ishment of 5oint %hiefs of 1taff %ommittee 7as we&& 5oint 1trategi# 2or#es %ommand9. B9C thus ending ?4 years of tur"u&ent union of the two wings' *he figures of the Benga&i #ivi&ian death to&& from the entire #ivi& war vary great&y. India4s Prime -inister announ#ed support for the Benga&is4 3i"eration /ar. %hina + and the Ara" wor&d improved and strengthened' In 1974. e&e#tion #ommission and the po&iti#a& stru#ture'B9?C *he government of Peop&e4s Party too ma$or steps for #ountry4s e#onomi# and human infrastru#ture growth.C -i&&ions of (indus and Benga&s f&ed to India' In -ar#h 1971. and government #ontro& 7nationa&i<ation9of ma$or private industries.pansion of the edu#ation system throughout the #ountry' B9?C In 1974. po&i#e. the Pa istan Armed 2or#es &ed "y 6enera& Amir 0ia<i and Admira& 1hariff.han resigned and Bhutto was inaugurated as president and #hief martia& &aw administrator on ?D De#em"er 1971' %econd democratic era (1971–1977) *he nation was demora&i<ed after the war and #a&&s for a #hange from the mi&itary ru&e "egan to rise' %ivi&ian ru&e and demo#ra#y returned. and re+esta"&ishment of the #ountry' B9?C In 197?. &and reforms. the Pa istan armed for#es in the eastern theatre surrendered on 1@ De#em"er 1971. with near&y 9D. Bhutto #a&&ed a se#ret meeting. whi#h.

t five years' (e then introdu#ed stri#t Is&ami# &aw in 197. supported "y #hief of nava& staff Admira& -ohammad 1hariff. summoning up to 4DD. too power in a "&ood&ess #oup 7see Operation Fair Play' 2o&&owing this. Bhutto too aggressive measures against India in the !nited 0ations and targeted its nu#&ear programme on mu&tip&e o##asions that pushed India on the defensive. #esessionist uprisings in Ba&o#histan were put down su##essfu&&y "y the provin#ia& governor. for#ing his &eft+wing a&&ies to form an a&&ian#e with right+wing #onservatives.han' In 19. with his s#ientist #o&&eague A<i< Ahmed. =If India "ui&ds the "om". prompting Pa istan to stri e "a# at India' *he Indian Army were pushed "a# "y Pa istan Army. #arried out a &arge num"er of terrorist operations against Pa istan. whi#h the Peop&es Party won "ut this was #ha&&enged "y the opposition. Pa istan re#eived su"stantia& aid from the !nited 1tates as it too in mi&&ions of Afghan 7most&y Pashtun9 refugees f&eeing the 1oviet o##upation' *he inf&u. when the desired &eve& of produ#tion of fissi&e #ore materia& was rea#hed as we&& as first design of physi#s pa# age' 7for more information and sour#esF see the operation #odenamed = Kirana-I= and the = est Kah!ta=9'B9?C After 1974. in a #ontroversia& 4:A sp&it de#ision "y the 1upreme %ourt'B9?C %econd military era (1977–1988) *his period of mi&itary ru&e. the Afghan se#ret po&i#e. Bhutto fa#ed an intense and heated dip&omati# war with the !nited 1tates and President5immy %arter. 6enera& >ahimuddin . of i&&ega& weapons and drugs from Afghanistan' Pro"&ems with India rose up when India atta# ed and too the 1ia#hen g&a#ier.4. 1oviet !nion intervened in Afghanistan' It he&ped Hia4s government to ma e an a&&ian#e against 1oviet !nion and #ommunism. and steps were ta en to deregu&ate the mar et+e#onomy of the #ountry' *he front formed against Hu&fi)uar A&i Bhutto sp&it. even go hungry' But we wi&& get one of our own. Bhutto and his #o&&eagues were dragged into a two+year &ong #ontroversia& tria& in 1upreme %ourt' Bhutto was &ater e. using Pa istan as a #onduit' As the front+&ine state in the anti+1oviet strugg&e. of so many refugees + the &argest refugee popu&ation in the wor&d B95C + had a heavy impa#t on Pa istan and its effe#ts #ontinue to this day' *he re&igious&y far+right parties + that remained at the 3o#a& government &eve& + were instrumenta& in sending young students of #&eri#a& s#hoo&s in their designated areas of responsi"i&ity and distri#ts to parti#ipate in 1oviet war in Afghanistan' In reta&iation.Ds. 6enera& Hia used . medi#a& resear#hers.issinger threatened Bhutto and his #o&&eague whi&e used an inhumane &anguage' B9?C After the meeting.. during a se#ret mission.a&armed "y the Indian nu#&ear test' Bhutto + as promised in 19@5. the so#ia&ist a&&ian#e of Bhutto #o&&apse. to #ha&&enge the power of Peop&es Party' 8&e#tions were he&d in 1977. Hia he&d a referendum as ing the #ivi& so#iety for the support of his re&igious programme that re#eived overwhe&ming support and e. we wi&& eat grass and &eaves.e#uted in 1979. #overt&y supporting !'1' s#heme and agenda in Afghanistan' *he >eagan administration in the !nited 1tates he&ped supp&y and finan#e an anti+1oviet insurgen#y in Afghanistan. &asting from 1977 to 19. thwarted any !'1' attempts to infi&trate the atomi# "om" programme' B9?C In 197@. is often regarded as a period of great purge and growth of state+ sponsored re&igious #onservatism' 6enera& Hia+u&+(a)4s &ong e&even+year+ru&e era features the #ountry4s first *e#hno#ra#y and had no po&iti#ians from any parties in his government' (is government emp&oyed professiona&s. whi&e Pa istan wor ed on its atomi# "om" pro$e#t' B9?C 2rom 197@ to 1977. with far right+wing #onservatives a&&ying with 6enera& Hia4s government and en#ouraging the mi&itary government #ra# down on the &eft+ wing e&ements in the #ountry' *he &eft+wing a&&ian#e &ed "y Bena<ir Bhutto was "ruta&i<ed "y Hia who too every mean of aggressive measures against the movement' 2urther. ranging from #entra& government to provisiona& governments' 6radua&&y.. whi#h a##used Bhutto of rigging the e&e#tion pro#ess' B9?C An intensified#ivi& disorder too p&a#e against Bhutto and #hief of army staff genera& -uhammad Hia+u&+(a).er#ise 71ee Operation Brass ta# s. mi&itary offi#ers and a&so re&igious s#ho&ars' 6enera& Hia+u&+(a) insta&&ed high+ profi&e mi&itary offi#ers of $oint for#es in #ivi&ian posts. Bhutto aggressive&y put efforts to su##essfu&&y deve&oped the atomi# pro$e#t "efore the #oming e&e#tions' B9?C As the #ountry entered 197@. after "eing #onvi#ted of authori<ing the murder of a po&iti#a& opponent.. (enry . Hia4s government revived the o&d foreign po&i#y and wor ed through to ma e a near+a&&ian#e with the !nited 1tates and the /estern wor&d' In the 19. &eading Indian Army to forma&i<e a #ontroversia& mi&itary e. engineers.(AD. in his time. s#ientists. often #ited as the #ontri"uting fa#tor in the present #&imate of se#tarianism and re&igious fundamenta&ism in Pa istan' 6enera& Hia4s government dis"anded the /estern sty&ed songs. a new system of #apita&ism was put in p&a#e under whi#h industries and e#onomi# infrastru#ture were privati<ed 7denationa&i<ed9. whi#h a&so suffered from an inf&u. the so#ia&ist po&i#ies of the previous government were dis"anded' Instead. on&y patrioti# songs were a&&owed in nationa& te&evision' Ordinan#e KK was introdu#ed to &imit the Ahmadis from misrepresenting themse&ves as -us&ims' After assuming power.tended the term of 6enera& Hia as #ountry4s administrator for ne. we have no a&ternative'= B94C + had started a strategi# pro$e#t in 197?' *his pro$e#t rea#hed a mi&estone in 197.DDD troops near 1outhern Pa istan' (owever. . who wor ed #overt&y to damage the #redi"i&ity of Bhutto in Pa istan' Bhutto.

and #a&&ed for e&e#tions in 0ovem"er 19.' &'ird democratic era (1988–1999)( )ena*ir+. supervising the #onstru#tion of 1haheen and 6hauri systems' *he mi&itary reforms and deve&opment programmes were &aun#hed "y Bena<ir Bhutto in 1994 when she su##eeded the agreement of the te#hno&ogy transfer of AIP te#hno&ogy' 1he drove her e#onomi# po&i#ies on the mode& of so#ia& demo#ra#y + &imited nationa&i<ation and deregu&ation of industries whi&e dis"anding the &a"our unionsE the e#onomy was high&y #entra&i<ed and the proponents of so#ia& demo#ra#y and nationa& pride were supported at an e.han.er#ised on tough stan#e to "ring pea#e in the #ountry. e#onomi# situation in the #ountry got worsened and the #urren#y of Pa istan &ost the #urren#y war with India' Poor e#onomi# situation and nationa& se#urity #on#erns &ed the dismissa& of Bena<ir Bhutto4s first government "y the #onservative President 6hu&am Isha) .' (owever. starting with the mi&itary for#es. "efore the e&e#tions #ou&d ever ta e p&a#e. #ame to power under a demo#rati# system under whi#h 0awa< 1harif was appointed the Prime minister' 0awa< 1harif and #onservatives inherited e#onomi# #ha&&enges and issues regarding interna& se#urity' In 0ovem"er 199D.han to resign from presiden#y "ut.tended Hia4s term as %hief of Army 1taff unti& 199D' 5une$o however gradua&&y fe&& out with Hia as his administrative independen#e grewE for instan#e.han' *he new e&e#tions were he&d in 199D and saw the su##ess of #entrist and right+wing #onservative a&&ian#e.9.. Bena<ir Bhutto formed the government and appointed a hand+pi# ed president for the presidentia& offi#e and a new #a"inet' *hen. who were ea#h e&e#ted twi#e and removed from offi#e on #harges of #orruption and issues regarding the nationa& se#urity' As a resu&t of 19.han 5une$o to "e the new Prime -inister.the %ri# et dip&oma#y to &essen the tensions "etween two #ountries "ut reported&y threatened India "y adding to >a$iv 6andhiF =If your Bfor#esC #rossed our "order an in#h ''' /e are going to annihi&ate your 7#ities9'''=' 6enera& Hia fina&&y &ifted martia& &aw in 19. it &ed to the ha&t of his po&i#ies' Institutiona& pro"&ems arose with president 6hu&am . who attempted to dismiss 1harif on the same #harges as he had pressed on Bena<ir Bhutto' Prime minister 1harif turned to 1upreme %ourt that re#onstituted his government' 1harif and Bena<ir Bhutto a&&ied together to for#e President Isha) . whi#h Hia great&y frowned upon' As reta&iation. featuring a fier#e #ompetition "etween #entre+right #onservatives &ed "y 0ava< 1harif and #entre+&eft so#ia&ists dire#ted "y Bena<ir Bhutto' *he far+&eft po&iti#s and the far+right po&iti#s had disintegrated from the po&iti#a& arena with the fa&& of g&o"a& #ommunism and the !nited 1tates &essening its interests in Pa istan' Pa istan was ru&ed "y e&e#ted #ivi&ian governments. e&e#tions.. 5une$o signed the 6eneva A##ord. 6enera& Hia dismissed the 5une$o government on severa& #harges in -ay 19. the Is&ami# Demo#rati# A&&ian#e 7IDA9 &ed "y 0awa< 1harif' *he #onservatives. the a&&ian#e with !'1' #ame to end + when the se#ret of a su##essfu& #&andestine atomi# "om" pro$e#t was revea&ed to wor&d. a&ternate&y headed "y Bena<ir Bhutto and 0awa< 1harif.9.. Prime minister 5une$o vowed to "ring to $usti#e those responsi"&e for the signifi#ant damage #aused. the new e&e#tions were he&d in 199A whi#h saw the return of Bena<ir Bhutto and the Peop&es Party for the third time' After se#uring the p&ura&ity.ara#hi and &ater in western Pa istan' 1he &aun#hed the integrated spa#e weapons programme in 199A. a&& four+star #hiefs of navy. after the genera& e&e#tions whi#h were he&d after the death of 6enera& Hia+u&+(a)' *he genera& e&e#tions saw the vi#tory and return of Peop&es Party "a# into the power po&iti#s' *his period.ara#hi 7seeOperation B&ue+2o. 1harif too was for#ed to re&in)uish offi#e &ater in wee s' !pon 1harif4s resignation. Pa istan was one of three #ountries whi#h re#ogni<ed the *a&i"an government and -u&&ah -ohammed Omar as the &egitimate ru&er of Afghanistan'B97C A&&egations were made of Pa istan and other #ountries providing e#onomi# and mi&itary aid to the group from 1994 as a part of supporting the anti+1oviet a&&ian#e' It is a&&eged that some post+invasion *a&i"an fighters were re#ruits drawn from Pa istan4s madrassahs' . air for#e. &asting unti& 1999. who readi&y e. Prime minister Bena<ir Bhutto adopted pro+Ameri#an po&i#ies and supervised the troop eva#uation of 1oviet !nion from%ommunist Afghanistan' After 1oviet withdrawa&. she ordered a mi&itary a#tion in Afghanistan that "ruta&&y fai&ed. introdu#ed the par&iamentary system and two+party demo#ra#y in the #ountry.5. army and #hairman $oint #hiefs were handpi# ed' *he interna& po&i#ies were e. it &ed to imposition of e#onomi# san#tions "y !'1' 7seePress&er amendment9' Bena<ir Bhutto responded aggressive&y after hearing the news of san#tions and re&ations with !'1' "e#ame #o&d' In 19. &eading her to depose the dire#tors of the inte&&igen#e servi#es' A&so.treme &eve&' (er a#tions earned her a ni# name =Iron 3ady= "y her riva&s' During the &ate 199Ds. starting first in . imp&i#ating severa& senior genera&s' In return..a$a* period Demo#ra#y returned again in 19. 6enera& Hia died in a mysterious p&ane #rash on 17 August 19. a #ontroversy was p&anned after a &arge+s#a&e "&ast at a munitions dump in O$hri. 1harif made a se#ret visit to !'1' and adopted a po&i#y of de&i"erate am"iguityE he announ#ed that =Pa istan doesn4t possess an atomi# "om"= "ut vowed to deve&op nu#&ear power for e#onomi# reasons' 1harif &aun#hed a &arge+s#a&e industria&i<ation programme on the #apita&ist mode&' /hen he #ontroversia&&y ordered an operation against the &i"era&s 7the -L-9 in .. ho&ding non+partisan e&e#tions and handpi# ing -uhammad . for the first time in history. Bena<ir Bhutto "e#ame the first fema&e prime minister of Pa istan and the first fema&e head of government in a -us&im ma$ority #ountry' At first.

"ut e. Bena<ir Bhutto4s younger "rother' -any pu"&i# figures and offi#ia&s suspe#ted even Bena<ir Bhutto4s invo&vement in the murder. and %hief 5usti#e 1a$$ad A&i 1hah + were put down and a&& four were for#ed to resignE %hief 5usti#e 1hah doing so after the 1upreme %ourt was stormed "y 1harif partisans' B9. 199. short&y after India tested its nu#&ear devi#es' *he ne. o"taining enough seats in par&iament to #hange the #onstitution.argi& war #ame on a "ad $un#ture for the prime minister and was fo&&owed "y At&anti)ue In#ident a&so in 1999' 1harif4s mandate had no &onger a ho&d on the #ountry as the pu"&i# support for him had #o&&apsed' &'ird military era (1999–"--7)( #us'arraf+. /ithout any e. Bena<ir Bhutto aggressive&y atta# ed India and pushed India on to ta e defensive positions on its nu#&ear programme' !nder her se#ond term. the senior #ommanders of the mi&itary &eadership ousted 1harif4s government and too over the airport'B1DAC *he p&ane &anded with on&y a few minutes of fue& to spare. the first #ountry in the -us&im wor&d. Pa istan "e#ame the seventh nu#&ear power #ountry. on -ay AD. 1harif4s popu&arity heightened up. #odename Operation Sha"ti. itse&f' *he mi&itary for#es in the #ountry were mo"i&i<ed at a war+situation &eve& on Indian "order' Internationa&&y #ondemned.ara#hi' In a #oup. #hief of nava& staff admira& 2asih Bo harie. 1harif ordered PA8% to perform a series of nu#&ear tests at the remote area of %hagai (i&&s in 199.panded despite !'1' o"$e#tions. and 6enera& -usharraf assumed #ontro& of . #ondu#ted "y India sin#e 1974 and with it India de#&ared itse&f a nu#&ear power' /hen news f&ooded in Pa istan... te&evised at P*J. and defused the internationa& pressure "y targeting India for g&o"a& nu#&ear pro&iferation whi&e gave great #riti#ism to the !nited 1tates for atomi# "om"ings on 5apanese #ities ofAtomi# "om"ings of (iroshima and 0agasa iF If BPa istanC had wanted.treme&y popu&ar at home. whi#h then #ir#&ed the s ies over . the popu&arity of Bena<ir Bhutto waned after her hus"and "e#ame a&&eged&y invo&ved in the #ontroversia& death of -urta<a Bhutto. a&though there were no proves' In 199@. she wou&d have #ondu#ted nu#&ear tests 15:?D years ago ''' "ut the a"$e#t poverty of the peop&e of the region dissuaded ''' BPa istanC from doing so' But the BwCor&d.argi& war9' Internationa&&y #ondemned. a wide s#a&e approva& for his de#ision "y the #ivi& so#iety whi#h strengthened his pu"&i# mandate' !nder 0awa< 1harif4s &eadership.C Pro"&ems with India further es#a&ated in 199.aramat.#eption. who was out of the #ountry. "oarded a #ommer#ia& air&iner to return to Pa istan' 1harif ordered the 5innah *ermina& to prevent the &anding of the air&iner.argi& atta# "y Pa istan "a# ed .>e&ations with India worsened in 1995 when Bena<ir Bhutto &earned the news of Indian attempt to #ondu#t nu#&ear tests for the se#ond time' At mu&tip&e o##asions.ashmiri mi&itants threatened to es#a&ate to a fu&&+s#a&e war B1DC and in#reased fears of a nu#&ear war in 1outh Asia' /hen this strategi# infi&tration &ed "y 1harif4s appointed %hairman $oint #hiefs 6enera& Perve< -usharraf "ruta&&y fai&ed.p&osions' It was the se#ond nu#&ear test. . "ut senior mi&itary &eadership refused to a##ept the de#ision' B1D?C -usharraf. hurt "y the Asian finan#ia& #risis and e#onomi# san#tions imposed on Pa istan after its first tests of nu#&ear devi#es in 199. #hairman $oint #hiefs genera& 5ehangir . as we&& as a de#&ared nu#&ear+weapon state' *he #onservative government a&so adopted environmenta& po&i#ies after esta"&ishing the environmenta& prote#tion agen#y' (owever this po&iti#a& a#hievement was short+&ived' 8#onomi# growth de#&ined towards the end of nineties period. instead of putting pressure on 7India9 ''' not to ta e the destru#tive road ''' imposed a&& inds of san#tions on BPa istanC for no fau&t of her'''''M If 7fe&&ow9 5apan had its own nu#&ear #apa"i&ity'' 7#ities of9 ''' (iroshima and 0agasa i wou&d not have suffered atomi# destru#tion at the hands of the ''' !nited 1tates ''' G0awa< 1harifGPrime minister. starting from #entra&i<ing the e#onomy' 1harif ordered to mo"i&i<e a&& the defen#e assets of Pa istan and #&osed a&& airspa#e routes "y giving red+a&erts orders to PA2 and Pa istan 0avy' 1harif responded fier#e&y. moderni<ed and e. #onservatives re#eived a heavy ma$ority of the vote. when the te&evision media reported the Indian nu#&ear e. Prime minister 1harif attempted to dismiss #hairman $oint #hiefs and #hief of army staff 6enera& Perve< -usharraf and insta&& Inter+1ervi#es Inte&&igen#e 7I1I9 dire#tor Hiauddin Butt in his p&a#e.*i* Period On 1? O#to"er 1999. whi#h Prime minister 1harif amended to e&iminate the forma& #he# s and "a&an#es that restrained the Prime -inister4s power' Institutiona& #ha&&enges to his authority + &ed "y the #ivi&ian President 2aroo) 3eghari. to prote#t e#onomi# assets of the #ountry. seven wee s passed this in#ident.t year. a sho# ed 1harif #a&&ed for a nationa& se#urity meeting in Is&ama"ad and vowed that =she 7Pa istan9 wou&d give a suita"&e rep&y to the Indians '''=' After reviewing the effe#ts of tests for rough&y two wee s. even though she tried to norma&i<e re&ations with the !nited 1tates and other /estern wor&d and strengthened re&ations with so#ia&ist states' (owever in 199@. Bena<ir Bhutto4s government was dismissed "y her own hand+pi# ed president on #harges of -urta<a Bhutto4s death' In the 1997 e&e#tion that returned 0awa< 1harif as Prime -inister.tensive #ontro&s in his hands. the atomi# "om" programme was aggressive&y pursued. 1harif too e. it &ed to an unde#&ared "ut fu&&+s#a&e war with India in 1999 7see . the ..

he re)uested 1hau at A<i<. instead rep&a#ing with 1emi+presidentia& system' In a vote of #onfiden#e on 1 5anuary ?DD4. whi#h esta"&ished the #onstitutiona& "asis for his #ontinuan#e in offi#e' B1D. when -usharraf and some of his par&iamentary opponents agreed upon a #ompromise. and he was near re#eiving the death senten#e "ased on the hi$a# ing #ase'B1D4C (owever. and a##ording to Arti#&e 417. though he denied government now&edge of his a#tivities' 3ater investigations e. -usharraf in#reased the ro&e of 1hau at A<i< in P-3+L. in Indian+#ontro&&ed . the 1upreme %ourt of Pa istan wou&d a#)uit 0awa< 1harif from the hi$a# ing s#anda&' *he Ameri#an President Bi&& %&inton + who had fe&t that his pressure to for#e 1harif to withdraw Pa istan for#es from . initia&&y #harged with hand&ing the day+to+day operations of government. the -i&itary Po&i#e sei<ed the Prime -inister4s 1e#retariat and &ed the arrest of the Prime -inister.ashmir.i&ed and &ived in 1audi Ara"ia for more than si. the investigations revea&ed that none of the s#ientists were a"&e to "ui&d the devi#es despite their a#ademi#Nprofessiona& #areers' Pa istan was a&so a##used of #ontri"uting to g&o"a& atomi# pro&iferationE its &eading nu#&ear s#ientist. admitted to se&&ing nu#&ear se#rets.i&e him to 1audi Ara"ia. with his assets "eing fro<en "ased on a #orruption s#anda&. 1tatisti#s. 1hau at A<i< was e&evated as Prime -inister of the #ountry. and the improvisation of edu#ationa& system whi&e -usharraf too the #ontro& of foreign affairs.posed the "enefi#iary ro&e of #ountry4s &eading po&iti#ians &eaving the wor&d governments in sho# . years "efore moving to 3ondon in ?DD5' On assuming power. Pa istan #ontinued to "e invo&ved in the dispute over .ashmiri mi&itants "eing &eve&ed against Pa istan "y IndiaG whi#h treats them as terror groupsG whi&e Pa istan &eve&s #harges that the Indian government a"uses human rights in its e. overseeing the operationa& #apa"i&ities of mi&itary. a&&eged&y "a# ed "y the I1I. senior s#ientists 1u&tan Bashiruddin -ahmood and A"du& -a$id were a##used of aiding the terror organi<ations for the purposes of nu#&ear terrorism' (owever.C *he genera& e&e#tions were he&d in O#to"er ?DD? and the #entrist. energy and e#onomi# po&i#ies. in#&uding at &east two instan#es where they had inside information from a mem"er of his mi&itary se#urity' In ?DD1:D4. and he&ped him to se#ure the party nomination for the offi#e of Prime -inister' *he -usharraf+A<i< regime featured the 1emi+ presidentia& system' In ?DD4. e. the first initiatives -usharraf too were the e#onomi# reforms and e#onomi# &i"era&i<ation' During his persona& trip to !nited 1tates in 1999. was e&e#ted to the offi#e of President'B1D9C 1oon after his presidentia& e&e#tion. proposed so#ia& reforms were met with resistan#e' -usharraf fa#ed opposition from re&igious groups who were angered "y his post+ 9N11 po&iti#a& a&&ian#e with the !nited 1tates and his mi&itary support to the Ameri#an &ed ?DD1 invasion of Afghanistan' (e survived severa& assassination attempts "y groups "e&ieved to "e part of A&+Laeda. atta# ed the Indian par&iament' In rea#tion to this.the government' In Is&ama"ad. was one of the main reasons for disagreements "etween 1harif and the Pa istan Armed 2or#es + and .argi&. in ?D1D.ashmir+mi&itants.#essive use of mi&itary for#e in the disputed region' /hat ma es this dispute a sour#e of spe#ia& #on#ern for the wor&d #ommunity is that "oth India and Pa istan possess nu#&ear weapons' It had &ed to a nu#&ear standoff in ?DD?. a #&ose a&&y and friend and former e. -usharraf he&d a #ontroversia& nationa& referendum on AD Apri& ?DD?. the government of -usharraf suffered with various s#ien#e+s#anda&s whi#h damaged the #redi"i&ity of the #ountry' In ?DD1.e#utive vi#e president of %iti Ban .9 of the %onstitution of Pa istan. -usharraf won @5. hen#e the #ontro& over the e#onomy of the #ountry' On 1? -ay ?DDD the 1upreme %ourt of Pa istan ordered the 6overnment to ho&d genera& e&e#tions "y 1? O#to"er ?DD?' In an attempt to &egitimi<e his presiden#yB1D5C and assure its #ontinuan#e after the impending e&e#tions. parties opposed to the 3ega& 2ramewor Order effe#tive&y para&y<ed the 0ationa& Assem"&y for over a year' *he dead&o# ended in De#em"er ?DDA. pro+-usharrafPa istan -us&im 3eague 7L9 7P-3+L9 won a ma$ority of the seats in Par&iament' (owever. guaranteeing that he wou&d not "e invo&ved in po&iti#s for ten years' In an agreement fa#i&itated "y 1audi Ara"ia.17D votes in the 8&e#tora& %o&&ege of Pa istan. to ta e #harge of 2inan#e. serious dip&omati# tensions had deve&oped and India and . 3ieutenant+6enera& Butt and those mem"ers of his #a"inet who too part in this assumed #onspira#y and p&a#ed him in infamous Adia&a 5ai&' *he tria& was set in 1upreme %ourt.han.ashmir. when .tended his presidentia& term to a period ending five years after the O#to"er e&e#tions'B1D7C -usharraf a&so strengthened his position "y issuing a 3ega& 2ramewor Order in August ?DD1. with a&&egations of support of separatist . instead. and his ro&e in the Ameri#an /ar on terror' /hi&e e#onomi# reforms underta en during his regime yie&ded positive resu&ts. Dr'A"du& Ladeer . and the 8#onomi# ministry. out of 1.ing 2ahd of 1audi Ara"ia pressured 6enera& -usharraf to spare the &ife of 1harif and. 0awa< 1harif was e. and pro+-usharraf &egis&ators were a"&e to muster the two+thirds ma$ority re)uired to pass the 1eventeenth Amendment. interna& se#urity. "ut they did not #ondemn any po&iti#ians due to pressure that it wou&d harm their so&idarity a&&ian#e with the #ountry4s po&iti#a& parties' At the same time. whi#h retroa#tive&y &egitimi<ed -usharraf4s 1999 #oup and many of his su"se)uent de#rees' *he amendment devo&ved the par&iamentary repu"&i# and par&iamentary demo#ra#y in the #ountry.B1D@C whi#h e. whi#h 1harif was for#ed to fa#e and he re#eived a &engthy &ife senten#e.

in sear#h of Osama "in 3aden 7the master+mind "ehind the 11 1eptem"er atta# s in ?DD19 and other heavi&y armed a&+Laeda mem"ers. as an a&&y.DDD and 1?D. the former Pun$a" #hief minister. whi#h had "een s#hedu&ed for . a&though the Pa istan -us&im 3eague 7L9 7P-3 7L99 a#tua&&y was se#ond in the popu&ar vote after PPP' On 7 August. a##ording to the revised s#hedu&e.9' B1A?CB1AAC Pa istan4s two "ig and main opposition parties. 6enera& -usharraf pro#&aimed a state of emergen#y and sa# ed the %hief 5usti#e of Pa istan. B1?ACB1?4C i&&ing ?D other peop&e and in$uring severa& more' B1?5C *he e.DDD troops to the "order respe#tive&y' B11DC /hi&e the Indo+Pa istani pea#e pro#ess made progress su"se)uent&y.. on 1.C *he Interior -inistry su"se)uent&y "a# tra# ed from its previous #&aim' B1?9C (owever. who had ta en refuge there' Dep&oyment with PA2 and 0avy support "egan #ondu#ting air and inte&&igen#e operations in ?DD?:DA' 2ina&&y. President Perve< -usharraf announ#ed in a te&evised address to the nation that he had de#ided to resign after nine years in offi#e' B1A5C . the Pa istan government.a#t se)uen#e of the events and #ause of death "e#ame points of po&iti#a& de"ate and #ontroversy. 0awa< 1harif made a se#ond attempt to return from e. 0awa< 1harif fi&ed his nomination papers for two seats in the forth#oming e&e#tions whi&st Bena<ir Bhutto fi&ed for three seats in#&uding one of the reserved seats for women' B1??C On ?7 De#em"er ?DD7. heavy fighting "ro e out at A<am /arsa 7near the 1outh /a<iristan town of /ana9. ti&& then hand&ed "y the Pa istan Army' 2ormer prime minister 0awa< 1harif attempted to return from e. dep&oyed the KI %orps with additiona& three #om"at mountaineering divisions under its %ommander 3ieutenant+6enera& A&i$an Aur <hai into the mountainous region of /a<iristan in ?DD?. "e#ause. 7who #a&&ed themse&ves the Is&ami# 8mirate of /a<iristan9. a&though ear&y reports indi#ated that Bhutto was hit "yshrapne& or the gunshots.'B11?CB11AC (owever. August ?DD. on the same day. on the imp&i#ations of the impea#hmentE he said that he was ready to rep&y to the #harges &evied upon him and see the vote of #onfiden#e from the senate and the par&iament. and with his &ega& team. a po&i#y dead&o# "etween ru&ing parties ended. on 1. it was sometimes sta&&ed "y infre)uent insurgent a#tivity in India. whi&st outside the airport there were vio&ent #onfrontations "etween 1harif4s supporters and the po&i#e' B111C *his did not deter another former prime minister. in#&uding a few &eaders of the party were detained "efore the pair arrived at 3ahore Internationa& Airport' B1?DCB1?1C *he fo&&owing day. 1hah"a< 1harif' (undreds of their supporters. supported the =hitting the sun+roof== as the #ause of her death' *he 8&e#tion %ommission.ara#hi' Bhutto es#aped unharmed "ut there were 1A@ #asua&ties and at &east 45D peop&e were in$ured' B114C On A 0ovem"er ?DD7.B1?@C the Pa istani Interior -inistry stated that she died from a s u&& fra#ture sustained when the e. who were entren#hed in severa& fortified sett&ements' It was spe#u&ated that "in 3aden4s deputy Ayman a&+ Hawahiri was among those trapped "y the Pa istan Armed 2or#es' On 5 1eptem"er ?DD@ a tru#e was signed with the mi&itants and their &o#a& re"e& supporters. due to the assassination of Bena<ir Bhutto. 2e"ruary ?DD. 0ovem"er ?DD7. 1audi Ara"ia.p&osion threw Bhutto against the sunroof of her vehi#&e' B1?7C Bhutto4s aides re$e#ted this #&aim and insisted that she suffered two gunshots prior to the "om" detonation' B1?.i&e on 1D 1eptem"er ?DD7 "ut was arrested on #orruption #harges after &anding at Is&ama"ad Internationa& Airport' 1harif was then put on a p&ane "ound for 5eddah.i&e in Du"ai and 3ondon. from returning on 1. this time a##ompanied "y his "rother. O#to"er ?DD7 after an eight year e.'. the Pa istan Peop&es Party 7PPP9 and the Pa istan -us&im 3eague 709 7P-3 7099.Pa istan dep&oyed 5DD.CB119C On ?5 0ovem"er ?DD7. aided "y the 1#ot&and Iard of !'. Bena<ir Bhutto was &eaving an e&e#tion ra&&y in >awa&pindi when she was assassinated "y a gunman who shot her in the ne# and set off a "om". in whi#h the re"e&s were to #ease supporting the mi&itants in #ross+"order atta# s on Afghanistan in return for a #easefire and genera& amnesty and a hand+over of "order+patro&&ing and #he# +point responsi"i&ities. wou&d ta e p&a#e on 1. Bena<ir Bhutto. won ma$ority of seats together in the e&e#tion and formed a #oa&ition government. 2e"ruary' B1A1C A genera& e&e#tion was he&d in Pa istan. President Perve< -usharraf "egan #onsu&tations with his a&&ies.B1ADC the e&e#tions.i&e. when the #oa&ition government of Pa istan de#ided to move for the impea#hment of the President "efore heading for the restoration of the deposed $udi#iary' -oreover.. two sui#ide "om"ers attempted to i&& Bhutto as she trave&&ed towards a ra&&y in . they de#ided that Perve< -usharraf shou&d fa#e #harges of wea ening Pa istan4s federa& stru#ture. after a meeting in Is&ama"ad. vio&ating its #onstitution and #reating e#onomi# impasse' B1A4C After that. in -ar#h ?DD4. to prepare for the par&iamentary e&e#tions to "e he&d in ?DD. announ#ed that. 5anuary ?DD. 6enera& -usharraf retired from the Army and the fo&&owing day was sworn in for a se#ond presidentia& term' B11. 5usti#e Ifti har -uhammad %houdhry a&ong with other 14 $udges of the 1upreme %ourt' B115CB11@C 3awyers &aun#hed a protest against this a#tion "ut they were arrested' A&& private media #hanne&s were "anned in#&uding foreign #hanne&s' -usharraf de#&ared that the state of emergen#y wou&d end on 1@ De#em"er ?DD7' B117C On ?. as re)uired "y the #oa&ition parties' (owever. a su"se)uent investigation.. "etween Pa istan Armed 2or#es and a&+Laeda mi&itants 7estimated to "e 4DD in num"er9. su#h as the ?@N11 -um"ai atta# s' After the !'1' invasion of Afghanistan.

ordered the armed for#es to &aun#h mi&itary #ampaigns against *a&i"an advan#ing in the #ountry' *he $oint+for#es operations &ed "y Pa istan Armed 2or#es )ue&&ed and #rushed the *a&i"an for#es in the #ountry 71ee/ar in 0orth+/est Pa istan9 "ut paid a heavy pri#e of starting these operations 7see *errorist in#idents in Pa istan sin#e ?DD19' A&though the government had ta en steps to improve re&ations with the !nited 1tates and the /est. under Peop&es Party4s government. Pa istan "&o# ed a&& ma$or 0A*O supp&y 3ines after the 0A*O atta# that resu&ted in 1a&a&a #he# post' A&so sin#e ?D11. after the se#ret trip of #ountry4s foreign minister was made' 2o&&owing end&ess pro#rastination of 1yed Iousaf >a<a 6i&&ani in pro"ing #orruption #harges as ordered "y the $udi#iary. "y the teams of e&ite 18A3s and D8J6>! #ommandos. the government made further efforts to esta"&ish strong re&ations with >ussia. "ut short&y after. par&iamentary e&e#tions.Asif A&i Hardari of the Peop&es Party was e&e#ted President of Pa istan' *he government of Peop&es Party #ontinues to fa#e the formida"&e #ha&&enges of a war on its western "order and ever+present interna& po&iti#a& "i# ering' *his #urrent period features the mu&tiparty demo#ra#y' After the e&e#tions. through a daring air"orne atta# . in ?D1D:11 the anti+ Ameri#an sentiment rea#hed a high &eve& after a %IA #ontra#tor i&&ed #ivi&ians in the #ity of 3ahore 7see >aymond A&&en Davis in#ident9' Pa istan4s re&ations with !nited 1tates graphi#a&&y and dramati#a&&y went down after a ma$or event of Internationa& importan#e o##urred on the soi& of Pa istan on ? -ay ?D11F *he A&+Laeda supremo Osama "in 3aden was #&aimed to have "een assassinated in his e&usive se#ret hideout in A""otta"ad. the Pro+>ussian &eft+wing so#ia&ists from . it prompted Peop&es Party4s government and her a&&ian#e to review the nation4s foreign po&i#y and a&&ian#e with the !nited 1tates' *he &eft+wing a&&ian#e favoured a&&ian#e with >ussiaB1A7C and the Peop&es Party4s government adopted the e&ements of foreign po&i#y of its &ate &eader Hu&fi ar A&i Bhutto + it was de#ided to enhan#e re&ationship and #ooperation with >ussia that was ha&ted in 197D. the &i"era&+se#u&ars from 1indh. after Bhutto4s remova&'B1A7C 1in#e ?D11.ander Postni ov. when President Hardari went to -os#ow.C>a$a Pervai< Ashraf of Peop&e4s Party too oath as the 17th Prime -inister of Pa istan on ?? 5une ?D1?' .ashmir and 6i&git:Ba&tistan' *his a&&ian#e made an effort to impea#h the former president. and state emergen#y had wea ened the presiden#y of 6enera& -usharraf and his a&&ies' In ?DD. suspension of #hief $usti#e. the massive vote favored the anti+-usharraf for#es + a #&ear set+"a# for its !nited 1tates po&i#ies' /ith &eft+wing so#ia&ists and right+wing #onservatives forming an a&&ian#e against -usharraf.istingsemi+presidentia& system to par&iamentary demo#ra#y ru&eE the Par&iament of Pa istan unanimous&y passed the 1.hy"er Pa htun hwa and the re&igious&y right+wing so#ia&ists fromBa&o#histan. the #entre+right #onservatives &eft the government. without the now&edge of Pa istan 6overnment' *his se#ret mission was persona&&y authori<ed "y !1+president Bara# O"ama' *he re&ations of Pa istan and the !nited 1tates have "een wea ened and #ha&&enging sin#e this operation' /hi&e senior !'1' offi#ia&s open&y "&amed the Pa istan government for supporting a networ of hiding a&+Laeda supremo. A&e.Fourt' democratic era ("--8–"-1/) *he unpopu&ar war in Afghanistan. and treating it as #ontempt of #ourt. turns the President into a #eremonia& head of state and transfers the authoritarian and e. the Peop&es Party + with its Iousaf >a<a 6i&&ani as the Prime minister 7head of the government9 + had formed a #oa&ition government. #ooperating with the !nited 1tates. inter a&ia. the 1upreme %ourt of Pa istan dis)ua&ified and ousted him and he resigned from offi#e on ?@ Apri& ?D1?'B1A. made a surprise and rare visit to Pa istan' Postni ov4s trip was the first of its ind "y any senior mi&itary offi#ia& from the former 1oviet !nion in re#ent years' B1A7C In ?D1?. aimed to remove the power of the President of Pa istan to disso&ve the par&iament uni&atera&&y' *his #onstitutiona& amendment is #onsidered a ma$or step toward the par&iamentary demo#ra#y in the #ountryE it reverses many amendments to the #onstitution #arried out sin#e 197A. the >ussian #ommander of >ussian Armed 2or#es.e#utive powers to the Prime -inister ' *he Peop&es Party4s government. the e&e#tions ensured the #ome "a# of Pa istan Peop&es Party and Pa istan -us&im 3eague+0' In the presidentia& e&e#tion that fo&&owed President Perve< -usharraf4s resignation. the first offi#ia& trip "y any head of state from Pa istan in A7 years' B1A7C In return. due to issues regarding the restoration of $udges.#&usive mandate government in . re&ations with >ussia rea#hed to a ma. whi&e the Peop&es Party had formed an e. nominating its mem"er as the 3eader of the Opposition' Pa istan.imum &eve&. $oining hands with the mem"ers of the winner parties of the provin#esF #entre+right #onservatives from Pun$a".th amendment to the%onstitution of Pa istanG a "i&& whi#h. headed "a# toward a ma$or transition from the e. and "e#ame the &argest opposition party in the par&iament.