You are on page 1of 4

Ethnic groups in Pakistan

The population comprises several main ethnic groups (2009): 1. 2. $. !. ". Punjabis = 7 .7 million (!"#) Pashtuns = 27.2 million (1"#) %in&his = 2!. million (1!#) %arai'is = 1!. million ( .!#) (uhajirs = 1$.$ million (7.)#) *aloch = ).$ million ($."#) +thers = 11.1 million (!.))#)

).
7.

%maller ethnic groups, such as -ashmiris, .in&'o/ans, -alash, *urusho, *rahui, -ho/ar, %hina, an& Tur/alis are mainl0 1oun& in the northern parts o1 the countr0. The people o1 the Potohar Plateau in 2orthern Punjab an& 3estern 45a& -ashmir (calle& Potoharis), /ere historicall0 &istinct 1rom Punjabis because o1 the &i11erence in language. .o/ever, as time has &evelope& an& both Punjabi an& Potohari have been largel0 replace& b0 the national 6r&u language 7 Potoharis are seen as Punjabi b0 the Punjabi communit0. Pa'istan8s census &oes not inclu&e the registere& 1.7 million 41ghan re1ugees 1rom neighbouring 41ghanistan, /ho are mainl0 1oun& in-h0ber Pa'htun'h/a (-P) an& 9e&erall0 4&ministere& Tribal 4reas (94T4) areas, /ith small numbers in the cities o1 -arachi an&:uetta.;2< (an0 o1 them /ere born insi&e Pa'istan in the last $0 0ears an& are counte& as citi5ens o1 41ghanistan, an& most o1 them are ethnic Pa'htuns 1rom southeastern 41ghanistan. ;$< =n 199", there /ere more than 1.) million *engalis, )"0,000 41ghans, 200,000 *urmese, 2,$20 =ranians an& 9ilipinos an& hun&re&s o1 2epalese, %ri >an'ans an& =n&ians reporte& to be living in -arachi. Punjabis Punjabis in Pa'istan are multi7ethnical group o1 people, an& can be &ivi&e& into sub7groups. Punjabis spea' the language calle& Punjabi. Punjabis have man0 &i11erent &ialects an& that &epen&s in /hat region o1 Punjab the0 are 1rom. The0 ma'e up 7 .7 million (!"#) o1 Pa'istan8s total population. ;1< Pashtuns Pashtuns or Pa'htuns (sometimes Pathans) are Pa'istan8s secon& largest ethnic group that are native to the lan& principall0 /est o1 the =n&us ?iver but can also be 1oun& in man0 major cities o1 Pa'istan. The0 ma'e up an estimate& 27.7 million (1"#) o1 Pa'istan8s total population. ;1< The largest urban population o1 Pashtuns is interestingl0 1oun& in the southern coastal cit0 o1 -arachi /ith a 1luctuating population estimate& up to 7 million. This is then 1ollo/e& b0 Pesha/er, :uetta, ?a/alpin&i, =slamaba&, an& >ahore in &escen&ing or&er. The0 ma'e up the largest ethnic group in neighboring 41ghanistan, 1orming an0/here bet/een !2 to )0# there. Pashtuns practice a uni@ue co&e o1 con&uct re1erre& to as Pashtunwali an& are 'no/n 1or their tribal structure. The0 are an in&igenous group 1rom the lan& south o1 the .in&u -ush in 41ghanistan an& /est o1 the =n&us ?iver in Pa'istan. Sindhis %in&his are ancient people principall0 inhabiting the province o1 %in&h, Pa'istan 1rom /here the river =n&us (in ancient times revere& to asSindhus) runs an& subse@uentl0, 1rom /hich the0 &erive the name %in&h 1rom. *elieve& to be the inheritors o1 the ancient =n&us Aalle0 Bivili5ation, %in&his are heavil0 in1luence& b0 the a&jacent *alochs in Pa'istan. %in&h also has consi&erable 4rabic an& Persianin1luence. %in&his can be also be 1oun& in the southern part o1 Punjab, an& there is signi1icant Punjabi in1luence in the %in&hi population. =t is estimate& !07!"# o1 Pa'istani %in&his are o1 *aloch origin. %in&his also pla0e& an in1luential role in the &evelopment o1 Pa'istan, b0 joining especiall0 government services speci1icall0 in %in&h, ho/ever a large number o1 %in&his cling to agricultural 1iel&s, lan& o/ning, politics an& establishment. The prominent personalities o1 Pa'istan that hail 1rom %in&h are Cul1i@ar 4li *hutto, Pir %ahib Pagara, *ena5ir *hutto, (uhamme& -han Dunijo (late), an& current Presi&ent 4si1 4li Car&ari. Balochs The *aloch, as an ethnic group, are principall0, scattere& almost all over Pa'istan8s 4rea/ise largest: about !!#, an& Population/ise, the smallest, about )#, o1 Pa'istan8s 2ational PopulationE Province: *aluchistan. The *aluchs,

1

that almost the entire 4&ministrative (achiner0 o1 *aluchistan8s Princel0 %tates. an& comprising the ruling 1amiliesE the 4rabic an& Persian %pea'ing 3atanees o1 the 4rab Fmirates. &ue. the Taji's. (e'ran an& -haran. to +man. hence their being 2 . *aluchs also inhabit. 1oun& in civil services o1 Pa'istan an& speciall0 in *alochistan in consi&erable number. area7speci1ic an& >ocal. spea' Bentral 4sian versions o1 Persian Hialet. such as -alat. the Jemen. an& %ea Ports. Fversince Pa'istan8s =n&epen&ence. /ho still use the -ur& su11iL to their names. 6r&u. the0 ha& K%ettle&K in. . /here their historical chie1. o1 *aluchistan Province. in an other/ise totall0 *ac'/ar& 4rea an& %ociet0. Groups. an& thus. >asbela. are the (arris.. the vast majorit0 ten&e& to settle in -arachi.ousing. &uring the 1 th. %in&hi. 4irports.istoricall0. managing /ith a >ocal >evi8s base& %0stem 1or Bon&ucting the 411airs o1 *aluchistan. ?ecor&s. an& %ibbi an& else/here. 4ctivities. /ho settle& in *aluchistan.) millionE aroun& 10 million. *ut &ue the opposition o1 the Bonservative Tribals an& their Post Partition F&ucate& sar&ars. etc. =ran an& Tur'e0). are o1 the above mentione& Fthnic Groups. *alochi. the =ranian *aluchistan. 4ll these *aluchistanis.sparsel0 inhabit the south7/estern an& the Bentral north7eastern parts. are no/ believe& to represent almost $0# o1 the local population o1 +man. the Punjabis. 4mong other smaller groups inhabiting *aluchistan. the0 are no/ 1ree Biti5ens o1 the Bountries. o1 11. an Fthnic (inorit0 inhabiting south7eastern =ran. Pushto. earlier 'no/n as Histrict (ontgomer0. their ?evenue an& ?ail/a0s. an& *rahvi etc. an& the *ritish8s Political o11ices at :uetta. such as the *a'htiaris. over hal1 a centur0 ago an& settle& in *aluchistan. an& the 6r&u spea'ing (ohajirs. (e'rani.2 million (2009). The People o1 Pa'istani *alochistan. to/ar&s a %ettle& li1e. 4lthough the term (uhajirs can also re1er to the &iaspora o1 6r&u spea'ers. an& the rest o1 *aluchistan8s total population. (ir Bha'ar -han ?in&. the %ocial an& Fconomic %ector 4ctivities an& &evelopment o1 the Province o1 *aluchistan. an& (uslim =ranians. F&ucation. b0 the Government o1 Pa'istan. to some recent stu&ies. 1orce& to migrate. the *alochs are suppose& to hail 1rom =ranic people. notabl0. belonging to the 4ssimilate& 4rab =ranians Groups. as a minorit0. Persian. /hich /as rename& Pa'istan. sub7brances o1 the >arger Tribes. o11shore 9ishing etc. the *alochs. *ugtis. an& the 64F.%0ria. ne/ =rrigation %chemes. (ining. spea' man0 ethnic languages. an& (engals. (uhajirs are generall0 unite& b0 language. the0 &i& so /hile serving their *aluch. There are also a large number o1 otherE smaller. as the %erai'i spea'ing people o1 Dacobaba& an& %ibbi etc. an& Tur'oman Hialects. /ell over a centur0 ago. or their *ritish Bolononialist (asters. inclu&ing cities li'e >ahore an& (ultan. just li'e the almost "0# 83atanees8 o1 64F. /here more than an0 other group (ujahirs hel& o11icial o11ices &uring the earl0 0ears o1 Pa'istani nation7buil&ing. in Bentral Punjab. are the -ur&s. /ho still spea' pure Persian. as earl0 as the 19th centur0. hence. 3ith the 4bolishion o1 %laver0.H.. *esi&es these. The >arger o1 *aluch an& *rahvi Tribes. =ntro&uce&. 4ccor&ing. (uhajir t0picall0 re1ers to the ethnic group o1 people /ho mostl0 migrate& to %in&h 1rom the southeastern part o1 the sub7continent /hich is no/ calle& =n&ia. These 4rabise& *aluchs are mostl0 &escen&ents o1 the *aluchs.ealth. /ith the collusion o1 Borrupt government o11icials. The 4rabise& *aluchs. has lagge& behin& the countr08s other Provinces. . /ho migrate& to *aluchistan. an& are also closel0 relate& to the -ur&ish. lies burie& in%ahi/al. sprea& all over the (i&&le7Fast (2orthern =ra@. The number o1 purel0 *aluch an& *rahvi Tribals remains un&er 2. there has been an upsurge in the *aluchs. The0 are too. ?oa&s an& Banals 2et/or'ing. %ar&ars. a multi7ethnic group. an& the Parsis. in ver0 large numbers. . have settle& in the a&jacent provinces o1 %in&h an& Punjab. /ere all being manage&. b0 an assortment o1 no7locals. 19th an& earl0 20th centuries 4. in +man. *alochs are also settle&E as *alochI4rab 4ssimilate&. in the /hole o1 (i&&le7east. /ho /ere sol& as slaves. sho/. as pri5e& labourers. inhabiting Pa'istan8s Province o1 *aluchistan. spea' their 2ative an& the >ocal Tribal >anguages. 4lthough some have settle& in other parts o1 Pa'istan. Muhajirs (uhajirs are a multi7ethnic group o1 the (uslims /ho immigrate& a1ter the partition 1rom southeastern part o1 un&ivi&e& =n&ia sub7continent to the north/estern part o1 the same region. *rahui.

bureaucrats. an& no/ 1orm a sub7group /ithin the (uhajir ethnic group. The 1amous personalities o1 Pa'istan are the FL7 presi&ent %ar&ar 9aroo@ue 4hme& -han >eghari. an& 4bul 4la (au&u&i.aripur about "0# hin&'o spea'ers are also 1oun& in *atagaram. G. spea' the &i11erent &ialect o1 Fast punjab /ith the Punjabi accent an& share the common tra&itions. %ome are citi5ens o1 Pa'istan /hile others are re1ugees. in&ustrialists. Geneticall0. The0 are also 'no/n as Punjabi Pathans. Bh. the 1irst Prime (inister o1 Pa'istan. the . natives to central 41ghanistan. 4ll the (eos come o1 major stoc's o1 -shatri0a i. an& %chon Group. teachers. *ehleem an& Ghouri.e /as electe& (>4 man0 times 1rom Gurgaon Bonstituenc0 . an& scholars. . (eo is an ancient tribe o1 =n&o Pa' subcontinent. Hazara The . The reno/ne& nationalities in the ?anghars are ?ao. 2irban Bhauhan etc.ar0anaIPunjab. The %erai'is maintain that the0 have a separate language an& culture. . Tan/ar. ?athores. but their language is o1ten vie/e& as a &ialect o1 %in&hi or Punjabi &epen&ing on /hat area o1 sarai'is the0 are. ?ao %i'an&ar =@bal an& ?ao 4b&ul ?ashee& (FL =. a large number o1 rural immigrants also consiste& o1 laborers an& artisans. are a Persian7spea'ing people mostl0 resi&ing in :uetta. Saraikis The %arai'i people or (ultani people are a linguistic group an& not an ethnic group 1rom the south7eastern areas o1 Pa'istan.%amma. 4lthough a mass o1 bourgeois merchants. an& several other institutions. -anup.Panno.a5ara are a miLture o1 Fast 4sian people an& $ . (uhajirs continue to hol& in1luential positions in a&ministration an& politics.abib *an'. 4b&ul Gha1or (inister 1or 9oo& Punjab also belongs to (eoI?anghar tribe. Da&oo. %ome o1 them /ho settle& in -arachiE have integrate& /ith (uhajirs. heritage an& culture together /ith punjabis. There have been so man0 1amous personalities 1rom ?anghar &iaspora in Pa'istan that haile& 1rom Fast Punjab. General ?ao 6mrao -han.%arai'is are also 1oun& in 4rme& 1orces. Pesha/ar8s KBit0K population has some people /ho spea's . aca&emics. ?ao %ha1at 4hma& -han /as (24 1rom Patto'i.ussain /as the prominent 1igure among the (eos. 4bbasi. (uhajirs emigrate& to this region o1 the sub7continent because the0 opte& 1or it to be their i&eological homelan& on the basis o1 the T/o7nation theor0. The0 /ere 1orce& to leave their homelan& along /ith other punjabis &uring the riots o1 Fast Punjab in conse@uence o1 the partition o1 =n&ia. *esi&es 1oun&ing several governmental organi5ations. The ?anghar. +rient 4ir/a0s. The0 belonge& to the >ahore >egislative Bouncil in the pre7partition era. la/0ers.%in&hi %ipahi (Dunejo. an& others. Ghulam (ustu1a -har.a5ara people. (inor ethnic groups Hindkowans . Jasin . .(angrio an& (ahar)are the &irect &escen&ents o1 (eos. *a& Gujars. -ach/aha. %ar&ar Tu1ail -han /as electe& (24 1rom -asur.0&eraba& &uring initiating &a0s o1 Pa'istanE have a&opte& &ialects o1 6r&u. =t is interesting to note that !9# %in&hies H24 an& genealog0 resembles /ith (eos. Punjab). The eminent business groups that shi1te& 1rom =n&ia to Pa'istan /ere . %imilar is the case /ith ?anghar an& ?ajputs.ussain 1rom Gurgaon (FL7 Governor o1 earst /hile 3est Pa'istan) General ?ao 9arman 4li. (ujahirs pla0e& an in1luential role in initiating the 4tomic Fnerg0 Bommission. (eos an& ?anghars almost belongs to the same stoc's o1 -shatri0a.in&'o an& Pathans /ho are the majorit0 o1 Pesha/ar Bit0. an& capitalists settle& there as /ell.e. The part o1 both the (eo an& ?anghar communities that settle& in -arachi an& . (uslim Bommercial *an'. =n un&ivi&e& Punjab Bh. such as the %tate *an' o1 Pa'istan.in&'o/ans are believe& to be the transitional group o1 people bet/een Punjabis an& Pashtuns. Pa'istan8s bureaucrac0. pro1essors. %0e& :asim (ahmoo&. (uslims /ho immigrate& to Pa'istan /ere /ell e&ucate& an& consiste& o1 journalists. Ranghar and Meo The ?anghar an& relate& (eo are immigrants 1rom Fastern part o1 the Punjab an& ?ajhastan. Bh. ?ana.ani1 -han (>ate) /as electe& (24 1rom -asur Pa'istan. though being part o1 the Punjabi &iaspora in the un&ivi&e& Punjab. The most prominent ones among them are -han >ia@uat 4li -han 1rom -arnal (FL Prime (inister an& 1oun&ing 1ather o1 Pa'istan). *usinesses establishe& in Pa'istan inclu&e 6nite& *an' >imite&. urban intellectuals. 41ter the partition o1 %outh 4sia in 19!7 until the =n&ian =n&epen&ence 4ct 19!7.a5ara &ivision inclu&ing (ansehra.am&ar& Pa'istan >imite&. 4bbottaba&. Their tra&itional homelan& are areas aroun& . 4'htar . Fthnicall0 the0 are all the same as the natives o1 %in&h an& Punjab namel0 that the0 are Dats an& ?ajputs. the 1oun&er o1 Damaat7e7=slami.'no/n in Pa'istan as 6r&u people /ho establishe& their tongue as Pa'istan8s national language."< Burrent an& past (uhajir politicians inclu&e >ia@uat 4li -han. an& business 1iel&s. . .

citation needed< The Pamiris loo' similar ph0siologicall0 to those o1 their neighbors.those o1 (i&&le Fast an& Bentral 4sia.. are spea'ers o1 man0 2ortheast =ranic languages.000. The tra&itional homelan& o1 the Pamiris are in eLtreme eastern 41ghanistan. ! . =n Pa'istan the0 mainl0 live in major urban centres o1 >ahore.a5aras estimate& population is believe& to be more than ""0. the Har&ic people o1 Pa'istan in Gilgit an& Bhitral in Pa'istan. The *alti language belongs to the Tibetan language 1amil0 an& is a sub7&ialect o1 >a&a'hi. . The Pa'istani . The genetic research suggests that the0 are closel0 relate& to the (ongols an& the 60gurs. %ari'uli. to inclu&e 3a'hi. Pa'istan an& >a&a'h. Ji&gha an& (unji77all &istant siblings o1 Persian but b0 no means i&entical to it. eastern Taji'istan.. Baltis The *alti are an ethnic group o1 Tibetan &escent /ith some Har&ic a&miLture locate& in Gilgit7*altistan. -arachi an& =slamaba&I?a/alpin&i. The Pa'istani Pamiris are estimate& to be over 1 million.a5aras are mostl0 in business an& have high e&ucation levels.citation needed< Pamiris The Pamiri peoples are a &iverse group o1 inter7relate& people /ho are o1ten an& erroneousl0 calle& Taji's b0 negligence. eLtreme /estern Bhina (/estern highlan&s o1 Minjiang an& northern Pa'istan.