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Gender Debates between Rainer Maria Rilke and Lou Andreas-Salomé Author(s): Dorothee Ostmeier Source: The

German Quarterly, Vol. 73, No. 3 (Summer, 2000), pp. 237-252 Published by: Wiley on behalf of the American Association of Teachers of German Stable URL: . Accessed: 04/03/2014 21:01
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and further explored by the late nineteenth.DOROTHEE OSTMEIER Universityof Washington Gender Debates between Rainer Maria Rilke and Lou Andreas-Salome RilkeandAndreas-Salom6 met in 1897.24 on Tue.but he never clearly worked out the relationship amongbiologicalcharacteristics. and Andreas-Salom6's essays "Drei Briefe an einen Knaben. although Rilke's poetic and Andreas-Salom6's essayistic work present diverse approachesto sexuality."Does the pronoun "wir"mediate between first and second person or does it establish an entirely new identity? Andreas-Salom6focuses on the differentiatingand harmonizing capacities of physiologicaland psychological processes stimulated by sex.She describes it as "Miterlebender AuBerordentlichkeit und Seltenheit des Seelenschicksals eines Einzelnen" (Lr 151)." "Anal und Sexual. Rilke and Andreas-Salom6refer to different phases of this developmentin orderto define sexual partnership. as for example Havelock Ellis and Sigmund Freud.individual psychicformationsand social interpersonalrelations.4Freud workedtowards a liberationof sex frompathologyandmoralistic concerns by outlining the dynamic process of the individualunconscious. Both authors are drivenby the question of whether and how sexuality leads to the constructionof a harmonious "we. the close friendshipwith Rilkeand the intimate experience of his physical and emotional tensions stimulate Andreas-Salo- This content downloaded from 194.5This openeda spacefor further investigation as reflected in the exchanges between Rilke and AndreasSalom6." and "Psychosexualittit"3-contribute to the destabilizationof sexual categoriesinitiated by the extensive pathologicalstudies of physicians in the nineteenth century.2Whereas Freud focuses on the development of infantile sexuality in order to define the origins of neurosis."For Rilke.""du"and "wir.6Andreas-Salom6 cites her friendshipwith Rilkeas one of the most important motivations for her encounter with Freud'spsychoanalysis.and early twentieth-century writers." "Zum Typus Weib. studied and traveled together in Russia in 1899-1900 and participated in the Psychoanalytical Congress of 1913. As Ursula Welsch. in "Liebeslied"from Neue Gedichte.rethought and revised Freud's concept of sexuality as developed in Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualmoral. these questions are intimately linked to linguistic questions about the functions of the personal pronouns "ich. These approachesof both authors-as they are presented in Rilke's poetic texts. 4 Mar 2014 21:01:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . At this time the friendship between Rilke and Andreas-Salom6 cooledbut was carriedon a through lively exchange of letters' and texts which. Examining the relevanceof the individual'ssexual experience for the partner Rilke and AndreasSalom6investigate the potentials of intercourse to conquer and/or to transgress individual differences.DuiThe GermanQuarterly73. amongother topics.218. In her autobiographicalretrospective Lebensriickblick.3 (Summer2000) 237 neser Elegien and their poetic and biographicalcontexts. MichaelaWiesnerand BiddyMartinargue. AndreasSalom6 studied with Freud in Vienna in 1912-13 and became a lay analyst.177. The letters between the authors unveil their personal friendship as stimulus for this debate.

238 THE GERMAN QUARTERLY Summer 2000 m6's study of medicine and psychoanalysis.. When his mother later suggests that "Sophie"has probablydied. He signs his tenth letter to her. in the poem "Liebeslied. Malte insists on the continIn this conuation of his femininerole-play. Lou Andreas-Salom6writes about her quicklydevelopingfriendshipwith Rainer Maria Rilke in Lebensriickblick:"Nun withrte es gar nicht mehr lange. anchor.Both studies fail to note that Rilke and Andreas-Salom6 rarelytookissue with eachothers'theoretical positionsregardinggenderidentityand thatAndreas-Salom6's essayisticproseand Rilke'spoetrydonot reflectthe genderconThe authors' cepts of their correspondence. Fantasyas the fabricating agency of sex and gender categories undermines the differentiation between sex as nature and gender as culture. Similar to Novalis. his This content downloaded from 194.9 This essay will trace such fantasies at work and will identify a split between the theoretical positions of the authors and their personal perceptions of each other. friend. no longer as Rend but.11 Malte "Sophie"and teaches him to play a feminine role. forherthebasis nineat once. in which Rilke worksthroughthe memoryof his mother's manipulative play with his gender idenIn the novel the mother calls her son tity. they are signed with his male He frees his first name of name "Rainer..8 Martin describes Andreas-Salom6'sperception of Rilke's "bisexuality"and does not address Rilke's critical investigations of his own genderedidentity. This clear construct of a gender duality. The exploration of these tensions in his and Malte novel. bis Ren6 Maria Rilke zum Rainer geworden war" (Lr 113). dated September 5. Thoughshe 1897. 4 Mar 2014 21:01:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .as Rainer. text the name "Sophie"invokes numerous literary and biographical associations: it recalls the name of Novalis's deceased bride "Sophie. II Andreas-Salom6's actual renaming precedesRilke'snovelDieAufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids Brigge.l3 Malte explores the potentials of his imagination and fantasy in regard to his sister's death. fundamentalbisexuality [.""he"and "she"as obstacles to individual identity formations." This biographical fact corresponds to issues raised in Rilke's poetic texts which view the erotic tensions between "I"and "you. changinghis full name fromRen6Wilhelm Josef Maria Rilke to Rainer Maria Rilke. analyst. individual fantasies interpret the prelinguistic or prediscursiveexperiencesof sex differently. which marks most of the letters to his friends.]. Her renaming of Rilke calls attention to a shift in Rilke's signature.exemplifying and in a primary narcissism of creativity Rilke's wasprimarily Salome washislover. Martin writes: to his sexualambiguiSalome wasdrawn andfemiboth masculine Rilke seemed ty. Malte wears dresses and fashions his voice as female.Martingoes a step furtherand arguesthat the relationship to Rilke was one of the drivingforces forSalom6'sresearchon genderdifference.This leads to distinct constructions of genderidentities and their inscriptions into what Freud refers to as biological and/orpsychoanalyticfacts.24 on Tue.7WhereasWelschandWiesnertracethe developmentof Rilke's and Andreas-Salom6's discussion about a possible psychoanalyticaltreatment for Rilke. Rilke's mother was baptized as "Sophie"12 and his deceased sister went by the same name (Simenauer 639).177."whom Novalis cherished and poeticizedespeciallyin the third of his Hymnenan die Nacht." in the first and second elegy culminate in the most explicit poetic distinction between male and female sexuality in the third elegy. is missing in letters to AndreasSalom6." the exotic feminine connotations1oand distances himself from the Catholic and literary connotations of his middle name "Maria.218. as Judith Butler recently argued.

um mir den Untergang zu ersparen. and vice versa. gut geformte Dinge 239 ausspreche.. they do not master the tensions Rilke personally experiences between these realities. 1911.] Ich weiBjetzt.eine Fassung finde. Rilke also traces the conflict between his fictional and literal realities in his everyday social relations: Wie oft geschieht es mir nicht. 4 Mar 2014 21:01:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .] Oder ist auch das wieder nur ein Stiick verschlagener Produktivitiit.. die eigentlich die seine ist und im niichsten Moment.. However. einen anderen Menschen. ceases to write novellas.218. wie die Seite in einem Schulheft [. [.nicht mehr zu schreib e n.] mir wirklich ernst wire.19 Psychoanalytic treatment would interfere with Rilke's personal and literary productivity. in der eigeHaut vorzustelnen schiibig-gewordenen len von morgen an. he expresses in a letter to Andreas-Salom6 his worries about the fusion of him and his Malte figure: Niemand als Du. oderob ich erst recht mit diesen Aufzeichnungen in die Stromung geraten bin.177. daBich. gewissermaBen..14 Rilke reflects on these issues of "gender trouble" by designing Malte's fiction of the mother.. liebe Lou. in the end he rejects therapy. wiihrend doch eben noch alles in meinem ganzen BewuBtsein vollig amorphwar [. In order not to be consumed by these social interactions he plans to withdraw from society and to confront the chaos of his amorphous consciousness. non-figurative and figurative self-perceptions. statt innerhalb einer Arbeit. starting in 1912. Malte's association and impersonation of these absent female figures--sister and youth--establish secret dialogueswith his mother. kaum etwas Gutes davon erwarten k6nnte. Although he does not give up his theoretical interest in Freud. daB die Analyse fur mich nur Sinn hitte.24 on Tue. wenn der merkwiirdigeHintergedanke.bei meiner Natur.. sich gewissermaBlen. die mich wegreiBtund hiniibertreibt. for fear of losing the capacity to write: Was mich nun betrifft.18 Here he considers psychoanalytical treatment and asks AndreasSalom6 for advice. ein Lebendiges. Rilke confronts the problems of negoti- This content downloaded from 194. Ob er.15 Rilke asks Andreas-Salom6 to evaluate the similarity between himself and his Malte figure. darin untergeht. geriumtwerden eher scheue und mir. kann unterscheiden und nachweisen. On December 28. She blurs the distinctions between feminine and masculine gender identity and obscures Malte's literal and imaginary.] und in diesem Sinn werden die Menschen immer das Falsche flir mich sein.17 Thus Rilke's identity crisis of 1911 is based on a vicious circle: once he escapes from the control of social interactions. ob und wie weit er [Malte]mir ihnlich ist..roth [sic] korrigiert. daBich gewissermal3en als ein Chaos aus meiner Stube trete. gefU"hlsmiiig. Due to this chaos he moves into the seclusion of the Duino castle.16 Rilke recognizes that he easily adjusts to the expectations of others. so schrieb ich Dir dieses Aufschon.. drauBen. [. he is controlled by his own imaginary figures. But although he initiates these multiple layers of biographical reflectivity in this novel. ein Unding.von jemandem aufgefalSt.zu meinem Staunen. der ja zum Theil aus meinen Gefahren gemacht ist.Malte identifies these intimate encounters as experiences of the "Wunderbare" and thus links this romantic concept to the enacted fantasies of gender transgression. and focuses on the new genre of elegies. Etwas wie eine desinfizierte Seele kommt dabei raus. By encouraging Malte's role play the mother actively designs Malte's physical and imaginary presence according to models of nineteenth-century femininity.Rilke and Andreas-Salom6 OSTMEIER: mother mourns the loss of her youth. his literary practice makes a commitment to therapy impossible. Wondering about the influence of his fictional character on his own biography.

they stress the musicalpathos of the questions: "Wiesoil ich meine Seele halten. the harmony of the two strings is turned into the powerful tension between the bow's arrow and string. (50-51) In this reversalof the image of the violinist. dich und mich.23 This content downloaded from 194."21In this case it can only be experienced as aesthetic enchantment. The pronoun "uns"is emptied of its sublime connotations. Love itself can be grasped neither philosophically nor linguistically." "Instrument." The theme of love in the title siMBes "Liebes-Lied" is redirected to the emphatic realization of the song's own sensuality. the harmonious image of the "uns" as the sound of the violin is gone. In the first of the "Duineser Elegien" (WerkeI: 685-88). um imAbsprung gesammelt mehrzuseinalserselbst. published in Neue Gedichte.240 THE GERMAN QUARTERLY Summer 2000 ating one's gender and social identity in various texts.24 on Tue. As Lawrence Ryan recently argued about these "Dinggedichte."The desire for independence. but the conditions for its presence are not known. for isolation.scrutinizes the tensions between the "I" and "you"of lovers and investigates the implications of the social reality of a "we.The later texts. daB/ sie nicht an deine rfihrt? Wie soll ich sie / hinheben iuberdich zu anderen Dingen?" (1-3) This aesthetic concept of the "uns" ignores gender difference. They focus on the "we"instead of the "I"and "you. The poem moves from the thematization of love to its own perception as song. was uns anriihrt.218. The text focuses exclusively on the challenge lovers face in gaining independence from each other. Its control is vaguely called "alles"and is imaged as "Bogenstrich. The poem ends by addressing itself as "Oh Lied. The song's queries call semantic fixations into question. which will be discussed.Here the problemsare not yet cast in gendered terms. but they are modified and addressed later in terms of sexuality and gender in the first Duineser Elegien."an experience of a relationshipwhich cannot be controlled. But the idea of a string is kept in the more aggressive image of bow and arrow: wirliebend Ist es nichtZeit. "Aufwelches Instrument sind wir gespannt? / Und welcher Geigerhat uns in der Hand?"(12-13)." It questions whether the autonomyof an individualsubjectis riskedby his/herlove encounter.22 The problem of the "I" is not smoothed over by aesthetic enchantment." the last questions acceptthe loss of distanceand ask for the controlling agent of the love relationship. and for otherness (likethe desireof the prodigalson inMalte) is silencedby the realityof the "uns. "I" and "you" as independent agents in the constructionof the "uns"are revoked.DennBleiben ist nirgends." Instead." The "I" and "you" are subjected to it: "Doch alles. / nimmt uns zusammen wie ein Bogenstrich"(9-10). erase this aesthetic enchantment from love poetry as soon as issues of sexual difference are stressed. A lover addressesthe belovedand asks: "Wie soll ich meine Seele halten. This relationship is not described through literal language. daB/ sie nicht an deine riihrt?Wie soll ich sie / hinheben tiber dich zu anderen Dingen?"And the poem ends: "Aufwelches Instrument sind wir gespannt? / Und welcher Geiger hat uns in der Hand?"(12-13)20Whereas the first questions ask how to establish a distance between "I"and "you." "Geiger.daB uns vomGeliebten befrein undes bebend bestehen: wie der Pfeil die Sehne besteht. Literal and metaphoric languages do not offer any possibilityto escape fromthe experience of the "uns. of its sound and melody. The "uns"can be experienced.""the 'thing' itself"-in this case love--"transcends our perceptionand is thereforeunknowable. 4 Mar 2014 21:01:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "Liebeslied" is framedby questions.177. The poem "Liebeslied" from 1907." and the speakeracceptsthat s/he does not have any control over the relation to the "you.

Here.but an interrogating"I" asks for evidence of the existence of the "uns.the elegy focuses on the kiss: "Wenn ihr einer dem andern / euch an den Mund hebt und ansetzt-: Getraink an Getrink: / o wie entgeht dann der Trinkende seltsam der Handlung" (63-65).177." and to which it refers only aesthetically by privileging the poem's musical elements over its semantics. von dem sie kam: aus ihr und dem Gegenstand.The "I" asks for the connotations and references of the personal pronoun "uns": "Liebende. the "sichinne werden"of its hands with the "sich greifen" of the lovers and asks in both cases if the subject identifies itself with its sensual experiences.Here the lover does not address the beloved. (WerkeV: 165) 241 Throughgestural contacts individualbodies lose their separateness and are unified. The arrowcan overcomethe limits of its own gravity only by facing the resistance of the string.daBmeine Hiinde einander innewerden oderdabmeingebrauchtes Gesicht in ihnensichschont. and exists in an extra-linguistic sphere. das keinen Namen hat und niemandem gehort. ein Ding mehr. ihr einander Genfigten. This metaphoric description identifies four different moments in the kiss: as each partner offers This content downloaded from 194.the bow and arrowis associated with Cupid. which "Liebeslied"calls "uns"and "wir. Habt ihr Beweise?"(45) It questions the referend of the linguistic signifier "euch" and examines the relevance of the sensual experience to its linguistic expression.OSTMEIER: Rilke and Andreas-Salom6 Traditionally. Through establishing a referential context for the use of reflexive pronouns. Dasgiebtmir einwenig Doch werwagte darum schon Empfindung.As in the Rodinessay. Rilkemodifiessome of his studies on gestural language in Rodin's sculptures.24 on Tue. As a "newthing.euch. zu sein? (46-49) The "I"compares such self-centered gestures with the caresses and embraces of lovers. In fact."It addresses the lovers and contrasts their linguistic selfperceptionwith the experienceon which it is based.26After asking "Habt ihr Beweise"(45) it puts forwarda counterargumentcomparingthe touching of oneself with the gestures of love. His meditations on Rodin's sculpture "The Kiss" underlie his argument: Eine Hand. Seht. 4 Mar 2014 21:01:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Gestural language also revokes "I" and "you" as independent agents in the construction of the "uns. In this poem."and "Umarmungen"of the lovers." and slowly subverts the evidences througha series ofcounterarguments.24 The bondposedby the experiencesof "wir"and "uns"is seen as a threat to individualidentity formation and it evokes the desire for differentiation and separation.The "I" asks: "Ihr greift euch.the "I"asks about the status of "Empfindung. it is turned into a metaphor for the liberation from such attractions. die sich auf eines anderen Schulter oderSchenkel legt. frag ich nach uns"(44). psychological or philosophical tensions and describesthe processof liberation as a mechanical technique of transgressing one's own limits by utilizing the resistance of the other.25 The second elegy (Werke I: 689-92) detects the basis for this crisis among lovers in their perceptionof their erotic and sensual encounter. entsteht ein neues Ding." it is nameless. This metaphorabstracts the love relationshipfrompersonal. emotional.geh6rtnicht mehrganz zu dem Kbrper.218. den sie beriihrt oder packt. mir geschiehts. The gesture is not emotionalized or psychologized as narcissistic or altruistic pleasure. with "Liebkosungen." The elegy refers to the individual's selfencounter and asks if an individual existence can be deducedat all from a gestural or sensual his means of causing erotic attraction. the image is condensed:it focuses on the arrowand its capacities to withstand the force of the bow's string.

As "empty" signs they are non-referentialwith respect and they disillusion all conto "reality. are now considered a (Werke distraction.. she functions for him only as catalyst for his homoeroticdesires. And in these moments one cannot tell whether the experienced pleasure is related to a narcissistic self-encounter of each partner or to the process of sharing:27"o wie entgeht dann der Trinkende seltsam der Handlung" (65). of the "euch"and the "uns" in the sentence: "euch. Positive references of this action are obscured." "wiirgend." reflexive pronoun." Mythologized as "schuldiger FluB-Gott des Blutes" or as "des Blutes Neptun" the "Jiingling" is driven by forces which are unknown to himself. ihr aneinander Geniigten. The male lover is characterized as "fiQrchterlich.And whereas the discussion of "I."29 ventional associationsand fantasies about social unity in sexual partnership. both partners lose control over the action. 4 Mar 2014 21:01:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The mother's nurturing distractsthe son from the threatening "Finsternis" and "Chaos" of his unconscious. As a controlling frees the partners of their individual boundaries. frag ich nach uns." in their relation to son or lover they are identified as naive." "heimlich. This metaphorization empowers the pronoun." "leicht."30 around 1912-13 in Duino and Paris during and after the time of Rilke's rejection of psychoanalytic treatment.du.24 on Tue. The metaphor for the kiss is complicated:the personal pronoun "euch"is imbut it functions also as aged as "Getriink.28 The second elegy disqualifies sensual eroticism from giving evidence of the "euch. und es schien wieausFreundschaft. Nicht in die Finsternis. (34-37) As a figure of enlightenment the mother conceals the son's access to the unknown. so als wii3testdu lingst. in dein Dasein nnheres hast du das Nachtlichtgestellt. The individual is consumed by his/her pleasure. ihn hitte deinleichter Auftritt also erschiittert. (18-22) Rilke plays with the connotations of the word "erschiittern:" that what appears superficially as attraction is revealed as shock and fright.But this action is only described negatively and vaguely." These pronouns are emptied of their semantic references." "verstrickt. This elegy I: 693-96) deconstructsall idealis(Werke tic concepts of partnerships." "you"and "we" in andin the earlierelegiesis not "Liebeslied" sexualized.doch iltereSchrecken stiirzten in ihn bei dem beriihrenden Anstol3." "zdirtlich. This content downloaded from 194. Nirgends ein Knistern. Rilke's mistrust in the conventional references of the pronouns is further explored in the third elegy which Otto Friedrich Bollnow calls "ein psychoanaIt was written lytisches Lehrgedicht." and "freundlich. Their aesthetic connotations evoked in "Liebes-Lied"are now radicallycalled into question. Rationalizing the child's fear she is estranged from the fear's origin and restricted to her own subjective desire to nurture."The question about the references of the pronounleads to the loss of the object of the question. Scenes which were consoling for Malte. such as the mother's visit at night VI: 797-98).218.nein.. das du nicht lichelnderklirtest." and "tierhaft. Mother and girl are stereotypically called "ffihlend. the third elegy sets up a split between male and female sexuality and examines the intersection of gender with sexuality." "menschlich.177. wann sich die Dielebenimmt. Meinstduwirklich.242 THE GERMAN QUARTERLY Summer 2000 and accepts a drink. And while the girl imagines herself the source for the lover's attraction. die wandelt wie Frdihwind? Zwardu erschrakst ihm das Herz.

the elegy introduces the belovedgirl to her partner's alienation from her and opens up the abyss between their sexes..218.Mutter. however. Since it cannot be grasped theoretically. Male lovers foster a desire for their prenatal existence. For the male lover. uns must be erotically activated. verstandigt.denn. (3-9) The narcissistic entanglement with his own unconscious disqualifies the "Jiingling" from any self-analysis. oftauchals nochlinderte. (57-66) The mythologized gender conflict is inserted into physiological relations.aufrufend Aufruhr. aus einem / einzigen Jahr. When the male body liquifies in the moment of procreation31 each male is driven by the desire to re-connect homoeroticallyto his male heritage.o sein furchtbarer Dreizack.The "wir"cannot be conceptualized. Thus."Siehewir lieben nicht wie die Blumen. Unkenntlichen triefend. Ja.. wo wir lieben."the third elegy explores the reasons for these charges.. "Liebes-Lied" confirms the empirical "wir"and demonstrates how it vigorouslysubjugatesthe individual.Vor dir hat ers geliebt. the relationships between son and mother and between lovers in general. The bodies of mother and beloved mediate between son and father. and especiallyto the physicalpresence of the father in the process of procreation. Ignoring female sexual desires.] Liebend 243 Blut. der aus demEinsamen oft. lichem Ohdes BlutesNeptun.. das Entsetzlicheliichelte.Rilke and Andreas-Salom6 OSTMEIER: er wasweiB selbst von dem Herrnder Lust.Whereasthe first and the secondelegy dismiss the conventionalreferences of "euch. ehedasMiidchen wiaesie nicht.erotic relationshipsarouse a baffling memory of the past which seems to be engrained in his body. the elegy addresses the beloved as animator and as catalyst for the male to re-establish his male heritage. The elegies link linguistic and sexual categories. [.but he is perhaps more biologicallyconcise here than in any other text. The vigor of this memory distracts from interpersonal relationships and leads men to bond with their male heritage. Rilke avoids Freudian terminology.blinzelte. It emphasizes the tensions between sensual experiencesand their linguistic expressions.vonwelchem dasGotthaupt die Nacht zu unendaufhob. The woman. 4 Mar 2014 21:01:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Rilketurns the search for male and female identity to the various aspects of love relationships. wares im Wasser gel-st. ach.32Rilke turns to these prenatal processes in order to determine sexual differences and he distinguishes men from women through the different relationship to their prenatal existence. In each of the texts discussed thus far. The elegy locates the sources for the mythological threat of the male chaos in the processesof procreation and links the mythological to a physiological vocabulary.dasdenKeimendenleichtmacht. Men exploit heterosexual partnerships in order to gain access to their paternal roots. It warns mother and beloved of their delusions aboutson andlover. Undjedes warwie kannte Schreckliche ihn.nochsatt von den Vitern. Selten Wie hast du so ziArtlich gelichelt.177./ unvordenklicher Saft in die Arme" (65-67). remains naive about this physical deception: "Und du This content downloaded from 194. wo dasFurchtbare lag. These searches examine the semantic references of the unifying pronoun "wir"/ "euch"and they ask if a sharedidentity between individualscan exist.24 on Tue. sollte er es nichtlieben. and turns into an aesthetic concept. in die stieg er hinabin das Ailtere Schluchten. da du ihn trugst schon.da es ihm lichelte.

libido. du locktest / Vorzeit empor in dem Liebenden"(76-77). These fantasies of the female other as "reines Gesicht. zum anderen Teil durch die konventionelle Verschwiegenheit und Unaufrichtigkeit der Frauen in ein nochundurchdringliches Dunkel gehiillt ist. Lou AndreasSalom6 does not ignore female sexuality. For the purpose of my argument I will first highlightthe most radicalparagraphs in which she argues against Freud'sjudgments of women's sexuality as less "konsequent.and object. The third elegy realizes that sexual relationships are exploitative:men exploit female eroticism in order to establish their own identity as a male "wir. als von dem."as "Triimmer Gebirgs." and as "Riickbilor as "Pervertierung." They precedeall and as representatives of a figurations. And wherever Freud focuses on male sexuality AndreasSalom6 stresses female sexuality.Only men gain access to their preoedipaland prediscursive heritage. 4 Mar 2014 21:01:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." "lautlose Landschaftunter dem wolkigen oder reinen Verhiingnis.177. and anal phases by focussing only on the phallic." They live up to their fantasies about women but destabilize them at the same time. As in "Liebeslied. Throughouther work-in texts which she wrote before and during her studies of psychoanalysis-she interprets the psychologicaland spiritualimplicationsof ova and spermatozoa. worin ich mich kompetenter ftihle: vom Glick" ("ZTW" 94)." "Friihwind.33The feminine role is perceived as culturally stabile."37 Andreas-Salom6 calls this "obscurity" "Gliick. Andreas-Salom6 points towards an experience which is missing in Freud's analysis. Rilke deviates from Freud's distinctions of the preoedipalas the oral.was weiBlt du-." "fithlendes Midchen. With this inscription of homoerotic into heterosexualdesires Rilke offers a very eccentricversion of Freud'sapproachto sexuality in his Abhandlungen. III In contrast to Rilke. "Nun liegt es mir eigentlich ferner." the linguistic concepts of suggest a unity between the "wir"/"euch" sexes which the elegies reveal as flawed." and "freundlicheWelt" recall the romanticizedgender constructs of Malte's mother. or pre. Men liberate themselves from the oppressivefemale culture through regressionto patriarchalpotency." She appro- This content downloaded from 194. The fathers are portrayedas "das zahllos and as Brauende. She arguesthat also the female perception of the sexual partner is controlled by a memoryof the preoedipalphase.postlinguisticspherethey are privileged over all culturally constructed gender identities. Through abstractionfromthe femalesexualdesireand his stress on male sexualityhe establishesa gender-sex dichotomy."36 Whereas dung. In fact. von Tugenden und Leistungenzu reden." as "zuginglich. Freud admits that "das [Liebesleben] des Weibes zum Teil infolge der Kulturverkiimmerung.218. women have a much more intimate relationship to this period of infantile developmentthan men. The civilizing mother frustrates the desires of her son and only the female lover grants him the possibility to overcome the mother's oppressive cultural constraints. especially the female identity.but in this case it is the memory of the harmonious oral phase which precedes the subjectformation. she interprets the ova as simultaneously active and passive."Criticizingthe simple dichotomy of female sexuality as passive and male sexuality as aggressive and active.244 THE GERMAN QUARTERLY Summer 2000 selber. Here he anticipates the primacy of the phallus which Freud introduces much later in his 1923 revision of the Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie in Die infantile Genitalorganisation. women integrate these two drives and experience "Gliick. But this concept of femininity is clearlyunderminedby male sexual ecstasy which directsits devotionto fatherfigures.24 on Tue." which is reserved solely for them."35 the male psyche is always torn between ego.

as "pers6nlich gewordenes Sprachrohr des Allebens" ("DMaW" 36).218. daB. the women remain independent of them.wo sie am 99) abgriindigstenschwankt. ("ZTW" 99) Lovemaking evokes the involuntary memory of a total unity which precedes the splits.39 But this meaning is hidden and tied to past experiences of an original totality. gibt sie ihre unmittelbare Gliicksgemeinschaft in sich auf. am psychisch undeutbarsten bleibt. wo er am korperhaftestenzugedeckt. the term "Leistung" re- 245 fers to social establishment. Here Andreas-Salom6 identifies the identity crises-which Rilke had addressed in his letter to her in 1912--clearly as a male predicament. This unity has very different connotations in the course of Andreas-Salom6's various texts. women are able to decipher the basis for this experience.OSTMEIER: Rilke and Andreas-Salom6 priates Freud's analytical results but reverses their logic:women integrate sexuality and spirituality whereas men separate them. ("ZTW" In regard to men. verliert er sich als Selbstbesitzender-wie er schon im Dienst der Fortpflanzungverliert was er besitzt. in dem der Mann als Leistender sich nachjagt.177.24 on Tue. ("ZTW" 95) Men either strive for sexual satisfaction or they project their "Ich Ideal" on to the establishment of their own social status. As Biddy Martin demonstrates. as "grol3e Stille und Sammlung. in regard to women. it refers to the construction of spiritual identity. oder aber sich selbst Konkurrenz macht." and as "in sich friedvollere. Andreas-Salom6 reintroduces idealistic concepts of spirituality. selbstherrlichere Welt" ("DMaW" 41). Although men are dependent on women. Women incorporate the processes of sublimation38 into their sexual relationships and unite energies which are irreconcilable for Freud." "festliche(n) Wege(n)"("DMaW" 18) deviating sharply from the mechanisms of male sexuality ("DMaW" 17). Ego libido and object libido exclude each other and are directed towards external objects. The early text "Der Mensch als Weib"40 from 1899 idealizes woman in contrast to men as a unity per se. On a metaphoric level the female body is perceived as fabulous castle with "Gemaecher(n)" "Schaetze(n). was dem Ichtrieb das f6rdernd H*chste erscheint" ("ZTW" 95). intaktere. and self into the debate about sexuality: so steckt dahinter doch nicht mehr oder weniger als folgende Leistung:den geistigen Sinn des Erlebten dort am geistigsten zu fassen. dem weiblich-einheitlichen Wesen nach. in den Ubertragungen der Liebe lebenslang deren urspriinglicher Ausdruck fiihlbarer gegenwirtig bleibt als dem Mann-jene uranfainglicheVerschmelzung mit dem Ganzen darin wir ruhten. whereas men are exposed to contradictions: IndemdieKraftderMannheit als sexuell und geistig in Gegensitzen auseinanderstiebt. Andreas-Salom6 attempts in this essay "to avoid both the conservative bourgeois feminist negation of women's This content downloaded from 194. They gain access to a meaning of intercourse inaccessible to men. und so der eigenen Grundeinheit am gewissesten zu werdendort. 4 Mar 2014 21:01:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." ("DMaW"28). "goldene(n) Tore(n). and these are not in competition with each other: "der passiv gerichtete Sexualtrieb kann sich dem hinhalten. Only sexual ecstasy can open up this memory: Dieses Vergeistigen und Idealisieren in seiner Unwillkiirlichkeitlli3t sich veranlasst denken dadurch. While sex agitates individual physical and psychological confinements. ehe wir selber uns gegeben waren und die Welt in Einzelgestaltungen vor uns aufging. Women's sexuality is more complex because women activate objectand ego libido simultaneously. meaning. abysses and dualities of subject formation. women solve inner paradoxes.

4 Mar 2014 21:01:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and in her novel Feniareactsto it with "inde"Fenitschka. Liebe"44 These metaphorichyperbolesexposea perspective which Andreas-Salom6had described earlier as female perception.45 individual the partner and are reducedto partial arousals.In the later text. As argued earlier.Different individual interpretations of the extra-linguistic bodily encounter signify the fluidity of the gender categories which thereforecan be appropriated by arbitrary individual interests. Andreas-Salom6attempts to reconcile at least two issues: in the traditionof Freud. wird ihnen der Partner-alsein wiederklein -deutlichals Jemand wenigdistanzierter fiur sichundvon selbstAndiger Lebendigkeit. and addresses the sexual centralization of all partialdrivesas "Hoheliedder and as celebration of all senses. In "Anal und Sexual"she writes:47 Denn auf dem sexuellen H6hepunkt spielt fiir unser bewu. Here it is not the woman per se who has access to the interpersonalharmony.48 Andreas-Salom6is aware of and committed to the illusionary effects of sexual ecstasy. gestalt.Btseinsbetdiubtes nichtsmehreine Rolleals die Verlangen Illusiongegenmoglichstunbehinderte die MomenseitigerDurchdrungenheit.ForAndreas-Salom6 the social subject of the "we" does not threaten the individual identity.246 THE GERMAN QUARTERLY Summer 2000 sexuality and 'equality arguments' at the same time."When he later poses the homoerotic unity with the paternal heritage he ironicallyignoresits fictionalstatus. She imposes this feminine perspective on to sexual experiencein generalanddefinesall other sexual interactions. while Rilke differentiates between them in orderto objectto the experience of a heterosexually shared identity of the "we. between 1899 and 1914 Andreas-Salom6 changes her approach to sexuality: with the early essay "Der Mensch als Weib" she develops a This content downloaded from 194.Andreas-Salom6acceptsthe fantasies of the interpersonal "wir" as concrete experiences. she views sexual ecstasy as revival of the original harmony between mother and child and/or of the harmony in the child's autoeroticism." scribabledisgust and scorn. Her perception of sexual ecstasy integrates fictional and literal realities.Onlyin the moments of sexual ecstasy are women able to transgress sexual differences." encoding fuses two concepts of harmony and brings together what Rilke and Freud separate when they ignore female sexualthe constitutionof ity.24 on Tue." Andreas-Salom6calls this process of sublimation "Umsetzung menschlicher Blutwairme in GeistesShe no longergendersthis issue. tekstasedes Geschlechtsaktes hebt den anderngewissermaBen auf. as undeveloped. desires. cripThese interactions ignore pled and anal. was sie mit ihm gewissermaBenfiber die Person hinaus eint" ("ZTW"100). The woman understands what unifies the sexual partnersbeyondtheir personalboundaries: "daBsie in ihm erkennt."42 She describesthe ecstasy of intercourseas "ritselhafte Geheimchiffreder Einheit"43 (an enigmatic and concealed puzzle of unity). Whereas Rilke calls such experiences into question and replaces them by male fictions of fusion with the paternal heritage.218.177."'41 narThe text "ZumTypusWeib"(1913) rows the broad concept of gender difference."'46 With these characterizationsof intercourse. The earlier text "Zum Typus Weib"characterizes such interactions solely as male. an experience which she calls "ritselhafte This threefoldhyperbolic Geheimchiffre.Andreas-Salom6 of contemwhich branches pates concepts poraryfeministtheoryexplorefurther. "Analund Sexual. solely based on objectcathexis. und indem Liebende wieder"zusich"kommen.dull. But she also focuses on the interaction between the partners and on their experience of togetherness. By introducingfantasyas the fabricatingagency anticiof gender identity. or ideals. It focuses on intercourseas a special stimulus for female perception.

the male partneruses the ecstasy of intercourse to reconnect homoerotically with his male heritage.Forhim. zutiefst gesehen. In our context these fantasies also reflect the biographicalencounter of both authors. Geheim16stsich danndiese riitselhafte chiffreder Einheit. in allem Kunstvorgangein Stiick solcher This content downloaded from 194. This harmonywas disruptedby Rilke's emerging commitment to his poetic production during their trips to Russia. The sharedexperiencescannotbe described: "Man hitte das uns Gemeinsame daran niemandem schildern kinnen" (Lr 141-42).Rilke.zu Worte The extralinguistic exprience cannot be directly captured by language. 4 Mar 2014 21:01:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."51 referentialcapacitiesof language.50 kuliert."as "raunen des UnfaBbaren in beiden gemeinsam" (Lr 139).218. projectsher concept of interpersonalunity on to the time with Rilke before 1901. an entity whichFreudas well as Rilkecallinto question.177. Anredreas-Salom6'sterm "Geheimschiffre" fers to its doubleclosure.The comparison of these two approachesindicate that the individual concepts of gender depend on the interpretationof prenatal or infantile experienceson one hand and on the experiences of intercourse on the other. in and ten 1931-32 published posthumously in die einzelnenausfiihrlicheren Liebesbezogenheiten.Rilke and Andreas-Salom6 OSTMEIER: "radicalmodel of the feminine to counter the dominant hierarchicalpriviledgingof the male pervasive duality of 'femininity' and 'masculinity'. starts out to examine criticallythe conditionsof a unity and later in the third elegy arguesfor a cutting gender duality. Rilke and Andreas-Salom6interpret the experienceof sexual ecstasy and relate it to processes of involuntary memories. Interestingly. Rilke insists on this difference. die uns aneinander schloBwie etwas. writAndreas-Salom6's Lebensriickblick.Weface an interesting reversal: whereas Andreas-Salom6in her later texts views sexuality as the undoing of sexual difference."49 In the later essays she perceivessexuality as a means to overcome this duality."and does not trust languageto representthe human experience. which she describesas "zweisames Ineinanderleben.ndlichkeit. She points to "jeneStille und Selbstversta. and it dissolves as soon as it is articulated. He questions the references of the conventional signifier "uns.Rilkerefersto the memory of a prenatal gendered identity and Andreas-Salom6 to a pre-oedipal transgendered harmony. das immerdargewesen" (Lr 138).dieallesin sichkomprimiert.24 on Tue. She presents the memories of childhood as links to a transsexual and transgendered identity of the "wir" and "Euch" and she ties the process of remembering to the constitution of a new social entity. denen sie zwar nur noch indirekt beartiaberdaftir verstindlicher schrieben. These interpretations link two extra-linguistic events by inserting the authors' arbitraryfantasies. Ohne Zweifel steckt ja. Intercourse does not overcomesexual differences. Both authors are aware that the sexual experience is not directly representable. she makes a point of mentioning her excitement when Rilke once sent her a postcardwithout text. to an androgynous union of sexual energies and to the life-affirming social reality of the Rilke is much more critical of the " contrast. Languagedoes not have access to this unconscious or preconscious relationshipand she regrets not being able to comprehendRilke'spoetry (see Lr 140). 247 IV In orderto construct a gender identity. Andreas-Salom6is not troubled by the limits of language and accepts the incomprehensibilityof the "we:" Anstattder gleichsam wiitendenIdentitaitmitihm. During this time she calls herself his wife. Thus sexual difference leads to the erasure of two sexualities. Her approach shifts.

The letters indicate that Andreas-Salom6 always argues from the perspective of hope for a unity.177. weil seine Veranlagungdaraufgerichtet war. was Dich um Deiner Leistung willen in allen Tiefen aufgerissen [.24 on Tue. und sagen und sagen." Rilke and Andreas-Salom6 decided in 1901 to break off their relationship not only by ceasing to live together but also by disrupting their habit of "Allesmiteinanderteilens. There she argues: "in dem der Mann als Leistender sich nachjagt. (Briefwechsel 333) Andreas-Salom6projects her concept of a transgendered and transpersonal harmony on to her relationship to Rilke and thus anticipates her theories of 1916.and ego-libido." Recalling definitions of maleness from "Zum Typus Weib" Andreas-Salom6 writes: Mir war das ohne Leistung in den SchoB gefallen. "in Gedanken begleiten" (Briefwechsel 326).218. die nicht aufzuhalten war.lyrischdas fast Unaussprechbarezu bewiiltigen. Later. perhaps most expressively. was Mann und Weib ineinanderschlieBt. After they meet again in 1905 Andreas-Salom6 writes: Von unserm Pfingsten an las ich. so weiter vorbereiteten. Und hieran wurde ich noch einmal Dein.-nicht weil ich viel wiiite. die unabsehbaren. In his response Rilke acknowledges Andreas-Salom6's view but rejects it: Liebe Lou. ich kaimegestirkt in meine Verstrickungen zuriick.kbnnt ich's nur von dir aus sehen eine Sekunde. auf eine zweite Weise-in einem zweiten Magdtum. der einsehende Andere sein. realizing his alienation from her perspective. In 1903 with his first letter to Andreas-Salom6. neuen..248 THE GERMAN QUARTERLY Summer 2000 der wir wie von einer Gestalt gewesen waren. nur weil ich (wenn auch ganz anders als Du.. solcher Nebenbuhlerschaft zum Leben: fiir Rainer noch unberechenbar gefihrlicher. "so ganz bei Deinen Worten und mit ihnen ganz allein [sein]" (Briefwechsel 332). (Briefwechsel 336) He points to the clash between his psychological reality and her harmonizing fictionalization of it. durch mein ganzes Wesen h6re. (Lr 146) The interpersonal conflict is based on the male tension between object.(Lr 148) Physical closeness is exchanged for literary closeness which letters call "Zuriickund Her-denken" (Briefwechsel 307). This later text applies her theoretical model of gender difference from 1914 to her relationship to Rilke. 4 Mar 2014 21:01:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." and "Unaussprechbare." and to their correspondence "es sei denn in der Stunde h6chster Not" (Lr 147). as we have seen. und nur weil man als Weibdort irgendwie angesiedelt ist) Deine Herzt6ne.] Und doch-und doch: riB es mich nicht zugleich von Dir fort? ausjener WirklichkeitDeinerAnffinge. she rejects this kind of male narcissism in "Anal und Sexual." "Stille. was Du schufst. Consistent with his This content downloaded from 194. Wer ergriindet das Dunkel der letzten Ferne und Nihe voneinander!In jenem sorgend inbriinstigen Nahesein bei Dir stand ich dennoch auBerhalbdessen. Du weift und begreifst. diese tiefen. in a letter from 24 June 1914: Und ich mochte immer weiter und weiter schreiben. The literal correspondences between the texts from 1914 and 1931-32 demonstrate that Rilke is inscribed into Andreas-Salom6's debates about gender and that he functions as a model for her concept of maleness in the earlier text. wie ich Dir's glaube.. nicht nur mit Dir..] die Wucht Deiner inneren Problematik riB mich zu Dir hin [. verliert er sich als Selbstbesitzender" ("ZTW" 95). Rilke refers to this agree- ment. ich empfing es und bejahtees wie eine Aussage ilber Deine Zukunft. (Lr 115) As a rival of life his writing competes with the shared experiences of the "Unfaf3bare. und nie mehr wurde das fiir mich anders. so.

Ingbert: Rihrig. 1953] 133. Simenauernot only im WerkRainer Maria Rilkes: Eine biograpoints to thematic parallels. Jahrhundert (Berlin: Winkel. "NarziBmus als Doppelrichtung"(1921). 1991)." Sexualbilder im rassistischen AntisemitisSimenauercalls the monologicstructureof the mus. 1994) 35. (See Erich Andreas-Salomed (Ithaca: CornellUP. Lou Andreas-Salomd (Frankfurt a.Erinnernund Versuch student of his in Vienna in 1911 and before des Erziihlens" see Judith Ryan. was mostly removed from Neue Gedichtebevon Braun. 12Stefan Schank. and SigridWeigel(K6ln:Bohlau. considers in letters to Lou Andreas-Salom6 10In spoken French there are no differwhether he should commit to psychoanalytic ences between "Rene"and "Renee. 2nded. associative structure of the elegies in the con. "ZumTypus Weib" (1913) (all further references will appear as "ZTW"). Theory.M.Simenauer Brigge. Vom "Lebensgrund" zur "Psychoanalyse" (Miinchen: Verlag Interappear as Briefwechsel. "'Hypotheworkingherself as a therapist. This process of projectionand rejection becomes the attraction of their ongoing dialogue in letters. Klaus Miiller.g.Feminist Mythos[Bern:Haupt." Jahrbuch der deutschen Schillerarguedalreadyin 1953 that the context of psy. gemifBeAusdrucksform"(136). 8Martin40-41. ed.Rilke and Andreas-Salom6 OSTMEIER: earlier poetic elaborations he calls Andreas-Salom6's constructs of a transpersonaland transgenderedidentity-of a "wir" and "euch"-into question. ed.1988). references a.Rainer Maria Rilke. (Frankfurt Insel.. 249 an excellent collection of Andreas-Salom6's texts about psychoanalysis. Nicholson 1907-08 in Paris (Simenauer 134).but also views the phisch-literaturwissenschaftliche Studie.177. Jeffrey Weeks. in the winter of nism/Postmodernism. This leads to a paradoxical relationship: Rilke and Andreas-Salom6 explore and project their individual theoretical views on each other but each rejects them.ed.. "Psychosexualitait"(1915). 14Thatwhich inspires the child's sense for 3IngeWeberand Brigitte Rempppublished This content downloaded from 194. In her texts she tisches Erzahlen': Zur Funktion von Phanredesigns some of Freud's theories focussing tasie und Einbildung.218.M: Insel. 4 Mar 2014 21:01:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."Analund Sexual" (1914). "GenderTrouble. Notes 5Weeks152-56. Gerhard Sauder and Gerhard text of Freud's metapsychologicalstudies. insisting on the difference between AndreasSalom6's and his own constructions of male and female identities and interpersonal dialogue.. Linda J. All further referencesto this workwill Rilke'sMalte Laurids especiallyon the role of the woman. Kindheitserinnerungen choanalysishas to be taken into accountforthe discussion of Rilke's texts.. 1990). 1995) the elegies the "I"gains again its voice which 15. Lou Andreas-Salomestudied Freud's texts intensely before she became a between "Sehenlernen.gesellschaft 15 (1971): 202-230.) He discusses psychoanalyticalissues with Dr."Jiidische Kultur und Weiblichkeit in der elegies "die der psychoanalytischenSituation Moderne. eds. Sabine Schilling. 1990) 324-40. Briefwechsel Most of Lou Andreas-Salom6'sletters to Rilke 7UrsulaWelschand MichaelaWiesner. In Schmidt-Henkel (St. Inge Stephan. This edition includes the following texts: "Drei Briefe an einen Knaben"(1913). 1977) 1Ernst Pfeiffer. 2Rilkewas probablyfamiliar with most of nationale Psychoanalyse. ed."ZurBedeutungder 13Christina cause of their concern about the "Ding.24 on Tue. Legende und 9JudithButler. 1991). Inge Weber and Brigitte Rempp. Politics & Society: The Regulation of Sexuality since 1800." 11Fora thorough study of the relationship therapy himself. 6Ernst Pfeiffer.Karl Richter. Lou Andreas-Salomd: Das zweideutigeLdchelnder Erotik: Textezur Psychoanalyse (Freiburg: Kore. Sex. 1989). Rilke Andreas-Salomed Lebensriickblick All further will appear as Lr. Simenauer.ed."Femithe psychiatrist of his wife. BiddyMartin.Woman lisher Hugo Heller in Vienna 1907. 4See. e.: 1979). And he (New York:Routledge. 113.Lou are lost. Aber in meinem Herzen sprach eine Stimme so laut: Homosexuelle Autobiographien und medizinische Pathographien im 19. (London:Longman. and Modernity:The (Life)StylesofLou Freud's texts since he lived with Freud's pub.von Gebsattel.and PsychoanalyticDiscourse.

16Briefwechsel 17This identity crisis is addressed in all variations throughout his correspondence with Andreas-Salome. "Rilke's Dinggedichte: The 'Thing' as 'Poem in Itself'.ist da ein Geriusch. so geb ich mich auf und bin dieses Geriusch. Rilke. wird aus dem Becher seiner selbst geleert und hat nicht mehr die Kraft der Riickkehrin sich selbst wie die This content downloaded from 194.] drauBen ist immer die gleiche Preisgegebenheit.who interprets the Elegies most extensively. nach dem. 238. aber sie geht doch gewissermaBenals meine Frau mit falscher Aufschrift herum.24 on Tue. und dann wieder.ed. and the simile of the second part suggests the liberationof a male ("derPfeil")from a female lover ("dieSehne").Rilke."The GermanicReview LXVIII. denn als Getrink ist er ins Passive verlegt.177.He writes: Es ist nichts B ses zwischen uns. 1914 he writes: Ich bin auch so heillos nach auBen gekehrt." (Briefwechsel337) 18This relationship between identity and language crisis recalls the crises of Hofmannsthal's Chandos letter.4(1993): 156-66. Clara had asked him for a divorce. Michael F Davis does not addressthis liberatingaspect of the writingwhen he arguesthat the main character's crisis with modernistculture leads him to gain access to his mother's language. Sucht man dahinter nach ihr. und da alles einmal auf Reiz eingestellte. 253." Allegoriesof Reading (New Haven:YaleUP 1979) 49. Jacob Steiner. 19Briefwechsel 20RilkeWerke. Das ist seltsam: unser Verhiltnis bestand darin. See Paul de Man. A few weeks after finishing the first elegy. wenn sie merkte.. ja Feindsdiliges sie da mit unterschrieben hatte. for example their philosophyof figuration. daB sie mich unendlich restlos bejahte. 27Inhis interpretation of these lines Jacob Steiner concentrates on the relevance of this exchange for the individual and not for the shared experience when he says: Und eben darin verliert er das MaB des Abstands (IV 77) und die Beherrschung seiner selbst. 25These poetic elaborations are closely linked to biographical experiences. 23Jacob Steiner. Both lovers need to be freed from conventional roles in heterosexual relationshipsin orderto gain their independence. 1995) 15-26. zu allem Storenden fiber. [. All further references to this edition will appearin the text as Werke. which replaces his own capacities to write and to speak. 24Thegender implications of the imagery suggests also the following reading: This love is not only conceptualized as liberation from the beloved but also as liberation from gendered relationships. "Hugo von Hofmannsthal und Rainer Maria Rilke Recondidered.. 4 Mar 2014 21:01:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . meine Sinne gehn. "Writingthe Mother in TheNotebooks ofMalte Laurids Brigge:The Rhetoric of Abjection. Cocalis Francke.. 1912). "Tropes. so will ich im Grunde gest*rt sein und bins ohne Ende." (Fe- bruary 7. in a letter to Lou Andreas-Salome. ohne mich zu fragen. was sie seit der Midchenzeit geworden ist. darum auch zerstreut von allem. 21LawrenceRyan. 15Briefwechsel 244. 22Mydiscussion of the elegies focuses on the tensions between sexual differences. I do not address their more abstract topics. Sigrid Bauschinger and Susan L.218. (Thibingen: 250 and 252."but does not considerthe possibility that "uns" refers solely to the two lovers when he writes: "Dann wiederholt sich die Frage nach uns.. ist nicht mit mir und kommt doch uiber mir zu nichts anderem. Rilkes Duineser Elegien (Miinchen:Francke. 1955) 482. 1962).] nichts Greifbares. See Egon Schwarz. (Briefwechsel259) 26Jacob Steiner also addressesthe question of the "uns.. Rilke-Archivin Verbindung mit Ruth Sieber-Rilke (Frankfurt a. Michael F Davis. The first part of the sentence suggests the liberation of a female lover from the male beloved ("vom Geliebten"). [. On June 26. nichts ablehnend. in Ablehnung verfiel. nach unserem Sein und dem Dauern nach ihm" (Steiner 49-50)." Bauschinger and Cocalis31. portrays his wife Claraas the lover who lost her identity in her relationship with him..: Insel. auch gereizt sein will. wie viel absolut Fremdes.M.250 THE GERMANQUARTERLY Summer 2000 wonder causes confusion for the adult. Malte has to write about the mother's fantasies of him as a daughterand aboutall of her stories in order to establish himself as son. acceptierte."Rilke-Rezeptionen ed. nichts als diese abwechselnde Funktion des Mich-einnehmens und Mich-ausscheidens .does not analyze the implications of this imagery. so findet sich.

an ihm selber iiberreifwirdund welk und schrecklichabgestorben. 33In a note to Lou Andreas-Salomedated June 8. ed. schmales Menschliches. 35SigmundFreud."ZTW" 37Freud 61. 1972) 112. Expressions-as for example "unmittelbar." Freud relates the reexperience of an originalunity solely to the ego libidoin his Drei Abhandlungen: Die narzistische oder Ichlibido erscheint uns als das groBeReservoir." which are associated with the beloved in the third elegy-are no longer gendered. in her essay "Der Mensch als Weib.M. (Minneapolis: Minnesota UP.auch wenn ich ihm zehnmal den Liebesstrahl breche mit der Trilbe und Dichte meiner Unterwasser-Welt-:ichwiirde doch (das weiBich nun) ein Mittel finden.""morass. und behielte die reine.: Fischer. 40Whereas Gisela Brinker-Gabler published this essay under the title "Die in sich ruhende Frau" in Zur Psychologie der Frau.1951) 65. "The Nature of Pronouns.Thushe focuses solelyon the individualactionof the partners.see Steiner 55. 32JacobSteiner interprets "Wasser"only as "Fruchtwasser"and not as sperm (Steiner 66). die narziBtischeLibidobesetzungdes Ichs als der in der ersten Kindheit realisierte Urzustand. Emile Benveniste. nach diesen Monaten Leidens.218. arguing that Andreas-Salome works in these texts "withinand against the terms of biologicaland evolutionarythought" (Martin 141)." Biddy Martin discusses this essay and puts it into its historical and critical context. Andreas-Salometakes this term up again in her essay "Narzismul3 als Doppelrichtung.(Briefwechsel 322) 34Andreas-Salom6 wrote a review of Wilhelm B6lsche's Das Liebeslebenin der Natur: Eine Entwicklungsgeschichteder Liebe (Leip- 251 zig: Friedrichs. tr. welcher durch die spiiteren Aussendungen der Libido nur verdeckt wird."and "Sexualtrieb. 1898-1903) and took issue with Haeckel'sDarwinismand his reductionof woman to her reproductivefunction and maternity.24 on Tue." 39Andreas-Salom6 uses the same vocabulary as Freud when she discusses the meaning of the sexual experienceas "physicallycovered up" (k~rperhaft zugedeckt). im Grunde hinter denselben erhalten geblieben ist. sodal3sein Beistand. 1987)." Problems in General Linguistics (CoralGables:U of Miami P. Drei Abhandlungenzur Sexualitdit.""rein. ihn in den Bereich luftleerer Lieblosigkeit einzuschlieBen. In the ninth elegy the ideal is only present as the demand: "Menschlichesmiissen" (Werke I: 717). 4 Mar 2014 21:01:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Andreas-Salome avoids the latinization of the term libido and talks about "Ichideal. 1914 Rilkeis moreradical. 29Cf. For a critique of this approach." point to the larger discussion of the term "sublimation"in Freud's Viennese circle around 1912. (Steiner 51) 28Accessto a harmonizedhumanity which Rilke genders as neutral and calls "ein reines. verhaltenes." "oceans.Rilke (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.andpaysno attentionto the processof sharing which Andreas-Salome identifies as the enigmaof sexual ecstasy. Stephen Conway.""Liebesstrahl. 98. die unbeirrteRichtungzu mir. 1971) 219.und kiimeer mit dem berechtigsten. Ernst Pfeiffer published a This content downloaded from 194." 38Inge Weber and Brigitte Rempp. daBkeiner mir helfen kann.177.But in Freud it is the individual process of cathexis and not the experience of sexual togetherness which "covers up.Rilke admits his male sadism towards any such lover: [S]o bleib ich nun. unanwendbar. Weber and Rempp 343.""slime"as Klaus Theweleit demonstrates in Male Fanatasies. ihn in der ganzen Fiille seiner immer neu nachwachsenden Hiilfe bloBzustellen. unmittelbarsten Herzen und wiese sich aus bis an die Sterne hinan und ertriige mich. wo ich mich noch so schwer und steif mache.OSTMEIER: Rilke and Andreas-Salom6 Engel. 300tto FriedrichBollnow. ganz anders gerichtet zuriick: einsehn miissend diesmal.and disqualifies not only the girl's but any lover's support of him. 1978). Studienausgabe V (Frankfurt: Fischer. keiner.""unbeirrt."(Werke I: 692) remains a utopian desire.aus welchem die Objektbesetzungenausgeschickt und in welches sie wieder einbezogen werden. 31Thisrelationship of the male to his body can serve as a counterexampleto the conventions of stereotypingfemale bodies as "floods. 36SeeAndreas-Salome. commentators on Andreas-Salome's essay "Anal und Sexual. (122) Freud refers to the "original state of things"as the autoeroticism of the infant who has not learnedthe processof objectcathexis. Gisela Brinker-Gabler (Frankfurt a.

"Anal und Sexual"121. 1990) 11. mother. 48Andreas-Salom6.Jorg Salarquarda. Andreas-Salome initially avoids addressing gender difference. and at the end of the text she associates the ecstasy of male ego-libido with Nietzche's Zarathustra who descends from the mountain with a renewed perception of femininity:"[A]lssahe er die Ewigkeit selbst in Gestalt eines jungen knieenden Weibes. In "ZumTypus Weib"she calls women without children "sozial minderes Material. "Anal 50Andreas-Salom6.M. But she does not give up her specialfocuson the problemof definingtogetherness. der Sexualtrieb seinerseits 45"Wohingegen ein Zuwenig hievon [sic] merken liilt. The discussion of Freud's concept offers a new link to the develof "Analerotik" opment of a conscious "Ich..Insofern die geschlechtliche Vermihlung wiedereinsetzt beim Einfachsten und Anfainglichsten. then triumphed over the revolutionaryGerman working class in the years immediately after WWIand later becamethe coreof Hitler's SA. 4 Mar 2014 21:01:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." Nietzsche Studien 26. Zur Psychologieder Frau [Frankfurt a. This content downloaded from 194. 49DianaBehler. ed.252 THE GERMAN QUARTERLY Summer 2000 slightly shorter version of it under the quoted title "Der Mensch als Weib"in Lou AndreasSalome. (See Gisela BrinkerGabler.: Fischer. Gisela Brinker-Gabler calls Andreas-Salom6's work regressive because it ignores the historical and social manipulationsof the perception of gender differences. 44Andreas-Salom6. In the earlytext "DerMensch als Weib. 42Andreas-Salom6. da wiederholt er im Grunde nur ein Analogon zum analen Vorgang. tr. sagt sie dariiber Deutliches nur gleichnisweise aus oder durch das Drum und Dran der Partialbetfitigungenum sie. Ernst Behler. "Nietzsche and The Feminine. um der Erde ndher oder dem Himmel williger zu sein" (Pfeiffer. Here woman turns into a symbol for the process of transcending and transgressing the boundaries of everydaylife. 43Andreas-Salom6.von dem man nicht weiB. dem ZusammenschluBvon Ei und Samen.but subverts it at the same time. Vier Aufsditze (Frankfurt/M:Ullstein. 1992) 7-44. Giinter Abel. 1978] 20." or "Schinheit" (29). Since these processes are not directly linked to gender issues.Erotik 44). Die Erotik. dann kann man mit lihnlichemRecht von einer riickstaindigen. "Analund Sexual" 124. und hinter diesem Geschehnis sich persinlich undurchsichtig vollzieht.Her shifting rhetorics indicate that she accommodated various-mainly male-scientific biological. description taryto Rilke'smetaphoric und Sexual" "Anal 120.") 41Martin155. sich auf eine sehr spezielle Sondererregung beschrainkt.ed. As a philosophically and psychologically interested thinker she does not attempt to write a social and politicalhistory. Dorothee Einstein Krahn (Lanham: UP of America. "Anal und Sexual"122. 51There are phrases and images in Andreas-Salom6 texts which caused debates about her conservatism which Biddy Martin reviews in her book Womanand Modernity." and the borders between sexuality as conception and as pleasure are still blurred. In this text Andreas-Salomeadjusts more to Freudian vocabulary.177. Such und Sexevaluationscannot be found in "Anal ual."Andreas-Salomepresents women with the symbolic gesture of kneeling instead of standing and as "Heimat.between the I and its radicalotherness.ob es kniet.) Some of Andreas-Salome'simages of women remindreaders also of Theweleit's characterizations of fascist male fantasies in his analysis of the texts and psyche of "Freikorp"soldiers who mostly fought during WWI. In "Der Mensch als Weib" Andreas-Salome characterizeswoman as the complexstructure of virgin. 121. philosophicaland psychoanalyticaldiscourses while pursuingher main interest in equalizing female sexuality."This leads me to the followingconclusion: in confrontingFreud's and Rilke's genderbias frees her rhetoricsfromidealAndreas-Salom6 istic stereotypes.and Josef Simon (Berlin:de Gruyter 1997) 501. und Sexual"121. 47Thispassage couldbe read as a commenof the kiss. (Allfurtherreferences will appearin the text as "DMaW.24 on Tue. Thus the infant is involved in two processes of objectcathexis: the loving unity/identity between mother's breast of the and sucking child and the objectification self in its physical excrement.die Person des Partners persbnlich kaum mitmeint.218." ("Anal Fenitschkaand De46Lou Andreas-Salome."In controllingthe the infant developsa sense for the "Analdrang" own personal power which separates between the I and its physicalexcrement. bruchstiickhaftenSexualerledigungreden wie und Sexual"122-23) beim Neurotiker. Fehlt es. viations. and the sexually active woman.