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Public Organiz Rev DOI 10.

1007/s11115-013-0268-1

H ! " #easure $ea%er&s I'(ac" n Organiza"i nal Per) r'ance* I'(lica"i ns )r ' "+e , '(ara"ive ,ase -"u%.
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:bs"rac" ;+e lin8 be"!een lea%ers+i( an% rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance +as been a c n"r versial issue. On "+e basis ) "+e cri"i<ue ) (revi us researc+= "+is ar"icle (u"s ) r!ar% an in"egra"ive in%ica" r= !+ic+ uses Organiza"i nal ,i"izens+i( 5e+avi r >O,5? as an in%ica" r " 'easure "+e lea%ers& i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance. : c '(ara"ive case s"u%. !as a((lie% " "es" "+e ne! a((r ac+. ;+e )in%ings s+ ! "+a" lea%ers+i( is "rans'i""e% "+r ug+ (er) r'ance 'easure'en"= a%'inis"ra"ive e"+ics= an% rganiza"i nal learning. ;+e rganiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r c ul% be e'(l .e% as in"egra"ive in%ica" r " c '(are lea%er&s i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance in "+e l ng "er'. : ' %el ) lea%ers+i( "rans'i""ing 'ec+anis' is %ra!n. @e.! r%s $ea%ers+i( . Organiza"i nal (er) r'ance . Per) r'ance 'easure'en" . Organiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r . #anage'en" c n"r l In"r %uc"i n D es lea%ers+i( 'a8e a %i))erence " rganiza"i nal (er) r'anceA I) .es= + ! " 'easure i"A ;+ese <ues"i ns +ave been +ea"e% %iscusse% in (as" )e! %eca%es. B r eCa'(le= $iebers n an% O&, nn r >1D72? asser" "+a" lea%ers+i( %i))erences +ave li""le r n i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance. ;+ 'as >1D88? +as % ne a c '(re+ensive revie! ) $iebers n 0 O&, nn r&s s"u%.. He argues "+e 'e"+ % l gical !ea8ness in $iebers n 0 O&, nn r&s researc+. 5ase% n "+e evi%ences )r ' "+e re"ailing sec" rs ) "+e E@= ;+ 'as&s ar"icle s+ !s "+a" lea%ers+i( % es 'a8e a %i))erence n
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in %e(res. . nn r >1D72? an% . :s !e 8n != (r )i" is a %. .(e " c nnec" lea%ers+i( an% rga.si n (eri %. in b 'ing s"age an% l se ' ne. clai' "+a" "rans) r'a"i nal lea%ers+i( inclu%e siC 8e. nn r >1D72? an% . I" is as sa'e as "+e s" c8 'ar8e"= !+ere ' s" (e (le earn ' ne. a vi"al r le in rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance i'(r ve'en" in %e(ressi n (eri %= bu" "+e c '(an. During "+e L l%en :ge= ' s" ) "+e c '(anies ! ul% 'a8e (r )i"s.H ! " #easure $ea%er&s I'(ac" n Organiza"i nal Per) r'ance rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance. s"e(. ) (er) r'ance 'easure'en" in . . . be"!een lea%ers+i( an% rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance= "+e in%ica" r selec"e% in "+e "! ar"icles " 'easure lea%ers& in)luences n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance is als (r ble'.&s l ng "er' %evel ('en" s"ra"eg.+ere) re= !e argue "+a" b "+ $iebers n an% O&. . In 5ass >1D85?&s (ini n= "rans) r'a"i nal lea%ers+i( is "+e i%eal ".+e )inal sec"i n %iscusses "+e li'i"a"i ns an% i'(lica.sical nee%s in re"urn ) r "+e c n"rac" service ren%ere% b. . " use (r )i" as an in%ica" rs " s+ ! lea%ers& i'(ac" n c '(an. Bur"+er' re= )r ' 'e"+ % l gical (ers(ec"ive= "+e "! (eri %s in $iebers n 0 O& . rela"e% !i"+ "+e in%ica" r an% researc+ 'e"+ %.cen"ere%= !+ic+ ) cuses n lea%ers& in)luences an% "+e " (% !n lea%ers+i( "rans'i".+e (eri % ) 1D96J1D65 Kus" )ell in" "+e L l%en :ge ) 1es"ern c un"ries a)"er 11II= !+ic+ is an ec n 'ic b 'ing (eri % in "+e 1es"ern ! rl%.+e ar"icle is s"ruc"ure% as ) ll !s. .+inese l cal g vern'en". an% "+er c n%i"i ns. :)"er!ar%s i" in"r %uces "+e researc+ 'e"+ %s in "+e c '(ara"ive case s"u%.&s (r )i" 'ig+" be s"ill ( r.+ 'as >1D88?&s c nclusi ns are )ar)e"c+e% " s+ ! "+e lea%ers& i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance. I" )irs"l. One %i'ensi n is lea%er.+is ar"icle is base% n a c '(ara"ive case s"u%.&s (r )i".niza"i nal (er) r'ance. 1e believe "+a" lea%er&s i'(ac"s n rganiza"i nal (er) r. I" !ill be arbi"rar.'ance. B r ins"ance= in 5ass >1D85? researc+= lea%ers+i( is %ivi%e% in" "ransac"i nal lea%ers+i( an% "rans) r'a"i nal lea%ers+i(.'ance are cl sel. ."ing 'ec+anis'. Regar%ing " "+e issue ) lea%ers+i(= lea%ers+i( 'ig+" (la. P %sa8 )) e" al..+ere) re= sc+ lars are )acing "+e c+allenges ) )in%ing "+e (r (er in%ica" r an% 'e"+ %s n "+is issue. 6eC"= i" anal.+ 'as >1D88?&s ar"icle are n " c '(arable.+ 'as& %a"a !ere c llec"e% in 1D65J 1D89 in "+e E@. be"!een lea%ers+i( an% rgani. %i'ensi ns >ar"icula"ing a visi nM .+e.+e (eri % ) 1D65J1D89= + !ever= caug+" "+e ec n 'ic s"ag)la"i n in "+e E@. . . Des(i"e "+e c n"r versial c nclusi n n "+e causali".ransac"i nal lea%ers+i( is a l !er level lea%ers+i(= !+ic+ 'eans "+a" "ransac"i nal lea%ers (ursue a bene)i"= ec .+e Previ us Researc+ In "+is sec"i n= !e a""e'(" " 'a8e clear "+e causali".&s (er) r'ance. In "+ese ar"icles= "+e rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance is 'easure% in c '(an. nn r&s %a"a !ere c llec"e% in 1D96J1D65 in "+e E-:= !+ile . "+e sub r%ina"es >5ass 1D85?.a"ic.za"i nal (er) r'ance an% se" u( ur "+e re"ical )ra'e! r8 s"e( b. revie!s "+e (revi us researc+ rela"e% !i"+ lea%ers+i( an% rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance an% se"s u( "+e "+e re"ical )ra'e! r8 " 'easure lea%er&s in)luences n rganiza"i nal (er) r."i ns ) "+is researc+.na'ic c nce(" rela"e% !i"+ "+e c '(an.= "+e researc+ n lea%ers+i( can be classi)ie% in" "! %i'ensi ns. 6 r'all.zes "+e )in%ings. $iebers n 0 O&. >1DD6? 'a8e )ur"+er c n"ribu"i n in "+is %irec"i n.n 'ic eCc+ange " 'ee" sub r%ina"es& curren" 'a"erial an% (+.

$iu= 1./. D ren (r vi%ing an a((r (ria"e ' %elM ) s"ering "+e acce("ance r gr u( g alsM +ig+ (er) r'ance eC(ec"a"i nsM (r vi%ing in%ivi%ual su(( r"M an% .

" !ar% rganiza"i nal g als. are 'e'bers. .ees an% rganiza"i nal )ac" rs 'ig+" be c+ange% "+r ug+ rganiza"i nal learning.+e c '(leC lea%ers+i( "+e r. $ea%ers+i( . In "+is %i'ensi n= lea%ers& i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance s+ ul% re)lec" "+e c '(re+ensive resul"s ) rganiza"i nal c '(leCi".2DD?.+e rganiza"i nal c '(leCi". 195? clai' "+a" lea%er&s i'(ac"s are s+ !n in . . In reali". ) in%ivi%ual " in)luence= ' "iva"e= an% enable "+ers " c n"ribu"e " !ar%s "+e e))ec. an% rganiza. 2007= (."i nal (er) r'ance are e'be%%e% insi%e "+e rganiza"i n= !+ic+ is %. 7J8? lis"s siC %i))eren" ) r'a"s in rganiza"i nal learning* in%ivi%ual " gr u(M gr u( " in%ivi%ualM in%ivi%ual " rgani.+e c '(leC 'an an% c '(leC rganiza"i n !ill n " 8ee( unc+ange%. '(leCi". $ea%ers+i( an% i"s i'(ac"s n rganiza.na'ic an% in"erac"ive.+e In%ivi%uals= gr u(s= an% "+e rganiza"i n in)luence eac+ "+er in 'ul"i(le !a. be"!een %i))eren" levels is c '(leC as !ell. '(are% !i"+ "+e lea%er-cen"ere% %e)ini"i n= "+e c '(leC lea%ers+i( "+e r.s+i( s+ ul% be seen n " nl. )r ' !+ic+ a c llec"ive i'(e"us ) r ac"i n an% c+ange e'erges !+en +e"er gene us agen"s in"erac" in ne"! r8s in !a. . increases "+e %i))icul". c ul% be su''arize% in" "! ca"eg . :s "+e %e' cra"ic "+ ug+"s are acce("e% b.s.les >1D85?= rganiza"i nal learning is "+e (r cess ) i'(r ving ac"i ns "+r ug+ be""er 8n !le%ge an% un%ers"an%ing. >2008= (.+e i'(lica"i n ) r (rac"ice is "+a" lea%ers& i'(ac" c ul% be 'easure% "+r ug+ "+e sub r%ina"es& (er) r'ance. ) rganiza"i nal be+avi r in 8n !le%ge age.+e c '(leC rganiza"i nal learning (r ( si"i ns ) cus n "+e rganiza"i n an% c n"eC" %i))erences= suc+ as rganiza"i nal s"ruc"ure= rganiza"i nal size= )acili"ies= an% rganiza"i nal cul"ure >-+e(ar% an% H uglan% 1D78?. H !ever= "+e (er'eabili". H use e" al.za"i nM rganiza"i n " in%ivi%ualM gr u( " rganiza"i nM an% rganiza"i n " gr u(. >2009? clai' "+a" "+e lea%ers+i( s+ !s in "! as(ec"s* )irs"= lea%ers+i( 'eans "+e ( !er in %ecisi n 'a8ingM sec n%= lea%ers+i( is "+e abili". In "+is regar%= rganiza"i nal learning (la. :ll "+ese %e)ini"i ns (u" "+e lea%er in "+e cen"er ) researc+ agen%a. re)lec"s "+e reali". as ( si"i ns an% au"+ ri". ' re an% ' re 'e'bers= "+e i'(ac"s ) lea%ers+i( n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance are "+e resul"s ) in"erac"i n be"!een lea%ers an% sub r%ina"es= ) r'al an% in) r'al gr u(s insi%e "+e rganiza"i n= an% "+e ar" ) 'anage'en" a" rganiza"i nal level.= "+e e'(l . Bi l an% $. :cc r%ing " "+e %e)ini"i n given b. an% %e' cra"ic "ren% in rganiza"i nal ( li"ics. . -essa an% $ n% n >2006= ((. . . . .+e "+er %i'ensi n can be na'e% .na'ic-a c '(leC in"er(la. s+ !s "+e la"es" %evel ('en" in rganiza"i nal "+e r. Hence= i" is %i))icul" " use a single in%ica" r " 'easure "+e lea%er& i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance. .s vi"al r le in "+e lea%ers+i( "rans'i""ing 'ec+anis'.ries* c '(leC 'an an% c '(leC rganiza"i n >-+e(ar% an% H uglan% 1D78?.+e c '(leC 'an (ers(ec"ive e'(+asizes in%ivi%ual %i))erences= suc+ as K b sa"is)ac"i n= a""i"u%e= value= an% nee%s.+e r.za"i nal c '(leCi".= bu" als e'ergen"= in"erac"ive= %.s "+a" (r %uce ne! (a""erns ) be+avi r r ne! ' %els ) (era"ing >E+l-5ien e" al. #u') r% e" al.= !+ere lea%er. )r ' an "+er as(ec"."i nal learning. I" is bvi us "+a" "+e (er'eabili"."iveness an% "+e success ) "+e rganiza"i n ) !+ic+ "+e. Organiza"i nal learning increases "+e rgani. ) c n"r lling in%ivi%ual be+avi r in acc r%ance !i"+ "+e rganiza"i nal "arge"s.H ! " #easure $ea%er&s I'(ac" n Organiza"i nal Per) r'ance in"ellec"ual s"i'ula"i n?= !+ic+ c ul% s+ ! "+e lea%er&s i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance. #ean!+ile= lea%ers& i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance is a 'ul"i 'eaning c nce(". Br ' "+e s"a"ic (ers(ec"ive= "+e lea%er&s i'(ac"s are re)lec"e% in + ! " c n"r l "+e rganiza"i nal c '(leCi".

$iu= 1./. (u" ) r!ar% . D ren "+ree as(ec"s* ) ll !er ' "iva"i n= e))ec"ive gr u( in"erac"i n= an% sa"is)ac"i n !i"+ b "+ "+e lea%er an% "+e sub r%ina"es. In 1il%er ' e" al& e'(irical researc+= "+e.

an% 'easure "+e lea%ers& i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance c '(re+ensivel. H ! " av i% "+e c '(leCi". 85? argues "+a" i" in"en%e% " increase cen"ral c n"r l ver service %eliver. >2an D ren e" al. Bur"+er' re= ' s" ) "+e in%ica" rs are ai'e% a" business sec" r= suc+ as (r )i"= 'ar8e" ( si"i n= an% re(u"a"i n. In "+e r. is <ues"i ne% b. In (ublic sec" r= "+e general acce("e% cri"eria ) r 'easuring g vern'en" (er) r'ance are "+ree Gs >e))icienc. in "+e lea%er-sub r%ina"e "rans.= e<uali".= e))ec"iveness= r ec n '. ) "ransac"i nal lea%ers+i( an% "rans) r'a"i nal lea%ers+i(. . 622?.+e be+avi r a((r ac+es als )in% "+e c '(leCi".= "+ese in%ica" rs c ul% nl.= ec n '. 2012= (.anis'. ) rganiza"i nal be+avi r an% "+e learning (r cess s+ ! "+a" "+ere is s"ill 'uc+ " be %isc vere% in un%ers"an%ing "+e (r cess >-essa an% $ n% n 2006M Hernan%ez e" al. Dienesc+ 0 $i%en c nclu%e "+a" "+e rela"i n be"!een (er) r'ance an% $#/ ' %el is s"ill "enu us >Dienesc+ an% $i%en 1D86= (. H !ever= li'i"e% b.= "+e lea%er al!a. an% service <uali"..ar"er >1DD1= (.= c n"ac" !i"+ clien"s= 'ar8e" ( si"i n= an% re(u"a"i n >1il%er ' e" al. 2012= (. 5u" "+ese in%ica" rs !ere (r %uc"s ) "+ree %eca%es ag . rganiza"i nal 'e'bers.+e c '(leCi". sc+ lars >see Dienesc+ an% $i%en 1D86?. H ! " )in% "+e in"egra"ive in%ica" rA 6 r% >1D70? asser"s "+a" g % 'anage'en" is "+a" !+ic+ lea%s " "+e %esire% be+avi r b. 896?. are crucial issues )ace% b.= an% e))ec"iveness?. 5u" s 'e in%ica.+e eig+" cri"eria eC(an% "+e in%ica" rs in 'easuring "+e rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance. B r eCa'(le= "+e lea%er-'e'ber eCc+ange >$#/? "+e r. Per) r'ance 'easure'en" researc+ gives us s 'e ins(ira"i ns n "+is issue.s c 'bines "+e "ransac"i nal lea%ers+i( an% "rans) r'a"i nal lea%ers+i( " ge"+er." rs are c n"r versial= suc+ as e))icienc. In reali". "+e "+er researc+ers +ave %i))eren" in%ica" rs " 'easure rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance >e."i n 'e"+ %s= "+e ra"i in%ica" rs c ul% nl. 'an.'i""ing (r cess.uals= gr u(s= an% rganiza"i ns are c '(leC= "+e be+avi r c n"ingenc. c+allenge n "+is issue is " un%ers"an% "+e lea%ers+i( "rans'i""ing 'ec+.= <uali".. B r eCa'(le= 5ass >1D85? (u"s ) r!ar%s "+e ". "ell us ne as(ec" ) rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance= suc+ as e))icienc."i n= 'anagerial be+avi r= (r )essi nal be+avi r= service <uali". H !ever= "+is "+e r.H ! " #easure $ea%er&s I'(ac" n Organiza"i nal Per) r'ance eig+" cri"eria " evalua"e "+e rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance* e))icienc. 2011?.( l g. .+e <ues"i ns range )r ' "+e )un%a'en"al c nce("= suc+ as r le'a8ing (r cess= " "+e 'e"+ % l g..= cus" 'er sa"is)ac. sc+ lars. .+ere) re= !e nee% " re"+in8 "+e vali%i". :s !e 8n != (er) r'ance 'easure'en" is a resul".= "+ere are %i))eren" (ers(ec"ives ab u" "+e "rans'i""ing 'ec+anis'.= "+e resul"s can be 'easure% b. re)lec" "+e s+ r" "er' in)luences ) lea%ers+i( n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance= suc+ as 'ar8e" ( si"i n an% re(u"a"i n= !+ic+ !ill c+ange c ns"an"l. "+e s+ r"c 'ings ) %a"a c llec.+ree %eca%es la"er= ' re an% ' re in%ica" rs +ave been a%%e% in" "+e g vern'en" (er) r'ance 'easure. I" is %i))icul" " s+ ! "+e resul"s ) in"erac"i n be"!een lea%ers an% sub r%ina"es c '(re+ensivel.'en"= suc+ as acc un"abili". 2010?..+e .+a" 'ig+" be "+e reas n !+.rien"e% a((r ac+. . 981?. . In lea%ers+i( "+e r. . B r eCa'(le= "+e in"erac"i n be"!een in%ivi%. . .+e 8e. 1il%er ' e" al.+ese cri"eria 'ig+" be g % a" 'easuring "+e verall (er) r'ance ) g vern'en" rganiza"i ns. . In aca%e'ic )iel%= "+e sc+ lars are s"ill )acing s 'e %i))icul"ies in eC(laining "+e "rans'i""ing 'ec+anis'. as 'uc+ as i" !as " cu" c s".= an% s n >1u e" al.g. . # s" i'( r"an"l. increases "+e ins"abili". ) "+e in%ica" rs ) 3Gs in 8n !le%ge age. ra"i in%ica" rs. clai's "+a" r le eCc+ange is "+e 'ec+anis' ) lea%ers+i( "rans'i""ing. ) be+avi r bserva"i n= s n an% s ) r"+. . 2011?.

rganiza"i nal /. $iu= 1. D ren .

are be%ience= l .5 %i'en.si ns inclu%e al"ruis'= c nscien"i usness= s( r"s'ans+i(= c ur"es. 133J151? su''arize "+e reas ns ) !+. 767?. In "+is sense= (er) r. relevan" be+avi rs ) in%ivi%ual rganiza"i n 'e'bers >2an D.+e narr ! %e)ini"i n n r'all.+e 'anagers se" u( "+e g al an% c n"r l "+e sub r%ina"es "+r ug+ (er) r'ance 'ea. Organiza"i nal be+avi r ' %i)ica"i n "+e r.5 inclu%es all ( si"ive rganiza. >2009= ((. 2009= ((. .= s cial !el)are (ar"ici(a"i n= sel) "raining an% s ) r"+ >Ba+r e" al. P %sa8 )) an% #ac8enzie >1DD7= ((.ne= Lra+a' 0 Dienesc+ als give u" a si'(l. 1DD9= (.= in"er (ers nal +ar' n."i nall. re)ers " "+e s(eci)ic be+avi rs in%i))eren" %i'ensi ns. 291J253?. 1?..+us= !e se" u( a "+e re"ical )ra'e! r8 " 'easure "+e lea%er&s i'(ac" n rgani. %evel ( "+ese "+ ug+"s.5?.al".'en" in rganiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r >O.= an% (ar"ici(a"i n. s+ !s "+a" lea%ers 'ig+" use (er) r'ance in) r'a"i n as 'eans in 'anage'en" c n"r l an% a 'eans " ' ni" r "+e sub r%ina"es& be+avi r >$u"+ans an% @rei"ner 1D75M $iu an% 2an D ren 2013?.sure'en" an% "+e use ) (er) r'ance in) r'a"i n >see Big.+e. In "+e br a% sense= O. classi)ica"i n ) O.5 ca"eg r. an% 'anage'en" c n"r l "+e r. .M )reeing u( "+e res urces #anager L al Per) r'ance #easure'en" Per) r'ance #easure'en" EPI -ub r%ina"es O5 Per) r'ance #easure'en" PI . .= civic vir"ue= )unc.+e O.al". #ean!+ile= "+e rganiza"i nal be+avi r als s+ !s "+e in)luences ) in"ernal an% eC"ernal c n"eC".za"i nal (er) r'ance. . :s !e 8n != "+e sub r%ina"es& rganiza"i nal be+avi r re(resen"s "+e in"erac"i n be"!een lea%ers an% sub r%ina"es.5s 'ig+" in)luence rganiza"i nal e))ec"iveness in" eig+" as(ec"s= !+ic+ inclu%e "+e ) ll !ing* en+ancing c ! r8er r 'anagerial (r %uc"ivi". 1e 'ig+" 'easure "+e lea%ers& i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance "+r ug+ rganiza"i nal be+avi r. 291J253? su''arize "+e (revi us researc+es n O. In "+is sense= "+e rganiza"i nal be+avi r c ul% be e'(l . 2an D.= (ar"ici(a"i n= l . In "+is )ra'e! r8= "+e rganiza"i nal be+avi r c ul% 'a8e u( "+e s+ r"c 'ings ) s"a"ic r single %i'ensi n in%ica" rs in (revi us researc+.e% as an in"egra"ive in%ica" r " 'easure lea%er&s i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance. O.5 %i'ensi ns."i nal (ar"ici(a"i n= a%v cac. .'ance 'easure'en" is "+e bri%ge " c nnec" lea%ers+i( an% rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance. I" 'ee"s ur an"ici(a"i n ab u" "+e lea%er&s i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance. Organiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r is a 8in% ) (r s cial rganiza"i nal be+avi r !+ic+ c ul% c n"ribu"e " rganiza"i nal e))ec"iveness >Organ 1D88?. "+e la"es" %evel (.ne e" al.H ! " #easure $ea%er&s I'(ac" n Organiza"i nal Per) r'ance be+avi r ' %i)ica"i n "+e r. Ba+r e" al. . 'a8e "+is "+e re"ical )ra'e! r8 ' re c ncre"e= !e e'(l .

+il%&s >1D89? ' %el ) 'anage'en" c n"r l. D Big. O5 'eans rganiza"i nal be+avi r= PI 'eans (er) r'ance in) r'a"i n= EPI re)ers " "+e use ) (er) r'ance in) r'a"i n ./. 1 . 1.+is ' ren %el is base% n .+e (r cess ) 'anage'en" c n"r l "+r ug+ (er) r'ance 'easure'en" an% EPI. 6$iu= "e* .

'a8ing i" a ' re a""rac"ive (lace " ! r8M en+ancing "+e s"abili".135M 5 r'an an% # " !i%l 1DD3M Le rge an% 5e""en+ausen 1DD0M @ara'ba. . H !ever= "+e %e'eri" 'ig+" be re'e%ie% b.= i" c ul% be use% as an in%ica" r in b "+ (riva"e an% (ublic sec" rs !+erever "+e lea%ers an% sub r%ina"e rela"i ns+i( eCis"s. 'ain"ain )unc"i nsM serving as an e))ec"ive 'eans ) c r%ina"ing ac"ivi"ies be"!een "ea' 'e'ber an% acr ss ! r8 gr u(sM en+ancing "+e rganiza"i ns abili".e% as an in"egra"ive in%ica" r " s+ ! "+e lea%ers& i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance. 1DD1= 1DD3M Organ 1D88= 1DD0M P %sa8 )) an% #ac8enzie 1DD9M P %sa8 )) e" al. ) rganiza"i nal (er) r'anceM en+ancing an rganiza"i n&s abili".+e (revi us s"u%ies n lea%ers+i( an% rganiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r >O. rela"e% !i"+ rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance >c).5 a((r ac+ in 'easuring lea%ers& i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance. P %sa8 )) 0 #ac8enzie 1DD7= (.+e 'eri" ) O. B r eCa'(le= "+e researc+ +as %e' ns"ra"e% "+a" "rans) r'a. :s !e +ave %iscusse%= "+e O. .) r ' re (r %uc"ive (ur( seM re%ucing "+e nee% " %ev "e scarce res urces " (urel.+a" is " sa. 5ase% n "+e e'(irical evi%ences= s 'e sc+ lars clai' "+a" O.+e s+ r"c 'ing ) O. " a%a(" " envir n'en"al c+anges.5 c ul% be e'(l .5 %i'ensi ns= suc+ as al"ruis'= c nscien"i usness= civic vir"ue= an% s( r"s'ans+i( >@i' 2012= ((. # re i'( r"an"l. " a""rac" an% re"ain "+e bes" (e (le b. 1DD3M -'i"+ e" al. # re i'( r"an"l.875J876?.= "+e lea%ers realize rganiza"i nal bKec"ives "+r ug+ "+e sub r%ina"es& (er) r'ance.5 c ul% s+ ! "+e c '(leC resul"s ) "+e in"erac"i ns a" in%ivi%ual= gr u(= an% rganiza"i nal level= !+ic+ als in"egra"e in"ernal an% eC"ernal in)luences. !as c n%uc"e% in /i&an= a sub-(r vincial . ) rganiza"i nal be+avi r= !+ic+ 'ig+" increase "+e reliabili". ( in" in 'easuring lea%ers& i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance. 1D83?. 1e +ave n "ice% "+e 'eri"s an% %e'eri"s ) O.5 a((r ac+ is s+ !n in "+e in"egra"ive c+arac"eris"ic.. as(ec"s= suc+ as rganiza"i nal cul"ure= a%'inis"ra"ive e"+ics= rgani. ) rganiza"i nal be+avi r is 'ainl.= "+e lea%ers can % n "+ing " rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance !i"+ u" "+e sub r%ina"es& c (era"i n.5? als give us s 'e insig+"s. .a 1DD0M #ac@enzie e" al. . s+ !n in "+e in"erac"i n be"!een %i))eren" levels= suc+ as in%ivi%ual= gr u(= an% rganiza"i nal level.+e c '(leCi". .+e c '(ara"ive case s"u%.+ese be+avi rs are "+e %esire% be+avi rs s+ ! "+e )inal resul"s ) lea%ers& i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance. s+ !s ur e)) r"s in "+is %irec"i n.5 gras(s "+e 8e. ) (er) r'ance 'easure'en" in .+e be+avi r c n"ingenc. . (ers(ec"ive= "+e verall (er) r'ance ) O. be re)lec"e% in sub r%ina"es& be+avi r. Br ' "+e rganiza"i nal be+avi r "+e r. .+e case s"u%. O. #e"+ %s . .= O. an% "+e c '(leCi". Gssen"iall.5 a((r ac+ is s+ !n in be+avi r c n"ingenc. !ill %ecrease "+e re(resen"a"iveness ) bserva"i n resul"s. :l"+ ug+ "+e lea%ers& i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance 'ig+" be s+ !n in 'an.+e (a(er is %erive% )r ' a (r Kec" ) c '(ara"ive s"u%. "+e %elibera"e% researc+ %esign.+inese l cal g vern'en"."i nal lea%ers+i( +as %irec" ( si"ive e))ec"s n s 'e O.za"i nal bKec"ives= an% s n= "+ese e)) r"s !ill )inall.5s are ( si"ivel.5 a((r ac+ in"egra"es "+e eC"ernal an% in"ernal in)luences in" "+e bservable be+avi r= !+ic+ c ul% re)lec" "+e lea%ers& in)luences n in%ivi%uals. In "+is regar%= O. ) "+e researc+ )in%ings. .5 s+ !s us "+e e)) r"s ) i'(r ving (er) r'ance )r ' rganiza"i nal be+avi r (ers(ec"ive.

en"er !as selec"e% as "+e bes" (rac"ice in (er) r'ance 'easure'en"= !+ic+ +as ac+ieve% %ra'a"ic ac+ieve'en"s in (as" "+ree .. 5ecause ) "+e evi%ence-base% (er) r'ance 'easure'en"= !e are eas.ci". g %?. 5ase% n "+e evi%ence ) % cu'en" researc+= "+e case ) -ervice . . .+e O. #ean!+ile= in-%e("+ in"ervie!s +el( us " un%ers"an% "+e lin8 be"!een lea%ers+i( an% rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance )r ' an "+er %i'ensi n."i n.5 . In r%er " re%uce "+e ris8 ) be+avi r c n"ingenc.5? +ave been i'(r ve% bvi usl. an% e))ec"iveness. 1e +ave c+ec8e% "+e ))icial % cu'en"s rela"e% !i"+ rganiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r in "+e bes" (rac"ice an% ( r (rac"ice= suc+ as absence= rganiza"i nal ac"ivi"ies (ar"ici(a"i n= v lun"eer ) r ver"i'e ! r8= 'a8e c ns"ruc"ive sugges"i ns/inn va"i ns= an% (r ' "e rganiza"i n i'age " u"si%ers.= %irec" bserva"i ns !ere c n%uc"e% a" leas" "+ree "i'es in eac+ rganiza. B ll !ing "+is s"e(= !e a""e'(" " )in% u" "+e rela"i ns+i( be"!een lea%ers+i( an% rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance. are "+e -ervice . in "+e bes" (rac"ice. . 1e can )in% "+a" rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance an% rganiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r are i'(r ve% si'ul"ane usl.e% in "+is researc+= inclu%ing % cu'en" researc+= bserva"i n 'e"+ %= an% in"ervie!s res(ec"ivel. ( r= 5 N ver. Resul"s .en"er +as ac+ieve% bvi us (r gress in e))icienc. "es" "+e "+e re"ical )ra'e! r8= a %elibera"e% researc+ %esign !as s+ !n in researc+ 'e"+ %s. Gac+ "i'e= "+e bserva"i n n "es !ere 'a%e.+e lea%ers c n"r l sub r%ina"es& rganiza"i nal be+avi r "+r ug+ (er) r.5 %i'ensi ns are 'easure% in 5 ( in" ra"ing scale >1 N ver.. " Ku%ge "+e bes" (er) r'ance )r ' ( r (er) r'ance.+e.= !e use "+e % cu'en" researc+ " i%en"i).+a" is a vir"u us circle in "+e 'anage'en" c n"r l (r cess.za"i nal (er) r'ance= an% rganiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r.i"izens+i( 5e+avi rs >O.+e O.+e bserva"i n 'e"+ % als su(( r"s "+e ( si"ive lin8 be"!een lea%ers+i(= rgani. "+e bes" an% ( r (er) r'ance !i"+in "+e l cal g vern. Here= "+e -ervice . in -+aanCi Pr vince= .ears. bureau= an% urban a%'inis"ra"i n an% la! en) rce'en" bureau. . .+e researc+ resul"s s+ ! "+a" lea%ers+i( an% rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance +as a ( si"ive lin8 in "+e bes" (rac"ice. .5?.+e )in%ings als s+ ! "+a" "+e sub r%ina"es& Organiza"i nal . .'ance 'easure'en".'en" agencies.= bserva"i n= % cu'en" researc+= an% in"ervie! 'e"+ % c ns"ruc" "riangula"i n in %a"a c llec"i n an% resul"s veri)ica"i n= !+ic+ ! ul% increase "+e reliabili".anis' c '(re+ensivel.en"er= l cal "aCa"i n bureau= ) res"r.+ina.+r ug+ "+e se'i-s"ruc"ure% in"ervie!= !e +ave reveale% "+e )ac" rs in)luencing "+e lea%ers+i( "rans'i""ing 'ec+. Birs"l. .5 is "+e average sc re ) %irec" bserva"i n.+e )inal sc re ) eac+ %i'ensi n ) O.+e <uali"a"ive 'e"+ %s !ere e'(l . ) %a"a !e g " an% "es" "+e "+e re"ical )ra'e! r8 !i"+ %i))eren" 'e"+ %s. B ur g vern'en"al agencies !ere selec"e% )r ' 86 %e(ar"'en"s. . # re i'( r"an"l.. . .+e ra"ing is base% n "+e %irec" bserva"i n. . . 1+ile "+e "+er "+ree rganiza"i ns re(resen" "+e ( r (er) r'ance rela"e% !i"+ %i))eren" reas ns.+e %irec" bserva"i n ) cuses n rganiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r >O.

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5 c ul% be e'(l .g.+e O. Is i" Kus"iceA Is ever.5 -ervice cen"er B res"r. Br ' "+e rganiza"i nal learning "+e r.a8e n eC"ra res( nsibili"ies -ave "+e rganiza"i nal res urces >e.g. i'( r"an" in "+e rganiza"i n.g. In "+e " (% !n (er) r'ance 'easure'en" (r cess= lea%ers are ver.+e sub r%ina"es learn )r ' (er) r'ance 'easure'en" (r ce%ure.? Hel( c lleagues in ! r8-rela"e% 'a""ers #ain"ain +ar' ni us rela"i ns+i( an% %i))use c n)lic"s Pr +ibi" be+avi r +ar')ul " 5e (a"ri "ic -u' rganiza"i n -+are use)ul ! r8-rela"e% in) r'a"i n 5 9 5 3 5 5 5 5 5 9 9 9 5 5 5 3 72 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 9 2 3 39 9 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 92 a%'inis"ra"ive e"+ics.= ga'es= ( li"ical learning? #a8e c ns"ruc"ive sugges"i ns/inn va"i ns Pr ' "e rganiza"i n i'age " u"si%ers Hel( c ! r8ers in n n! r8 'a""ers >e. bureau $ cal "aCa"i n bureau 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 3 2 3 37 E:$G bureau Obe. .sure'en" als in)luences "+e lea%ers+i( "rans'i""ing.+e c n"r l )unc"i n is realize% "+r ug+ "+e re!ar%s an% (unis+'en" 'ec+anis'. '(aris n ) O.able 1 .+e O. . ne e<ual in "+e re!ar%s an% (unis+'en"sA H ! % "+e.e% as an in"egra"ive in%ica" r " 'easure "+e lea%ers& i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance. :nal."i n in (ursuing ) r +ig+ (er) r'ance. (ers(ec"ive= (er) r'ance 'ea. ge" "+e (er) r'ance in) r'a"i nA H ! % es "+e lea%er % in "+e (er) r'ance 'easure'en" (r ce%ureA . :s !e 8n != (er) r'ance 'easure'en" is al!a.. gr u( an% rganiza"i n >e.5 in ) ur cases I"e's ) O. sic8= %ea"+= 'arriage e"c.rans'i""ing #easure'en" an% $ea%ers+i( .ses Per) r'ance .? @ee( ! r8(lace clean an% nea" Par"ici(a"e in ac"ivi"ies rganize% b.+e ans!ers ) . rganiza"i nal rules Gngage in sel)-"raining/sel)-%evel ('en" 2 lun"eer ) r ver"i'e ! r8 . B r eCa'(le= "+e sub r%ina"es !ill bserve "+e lea%er n + ! " use "+e (er) r'ance in) r'a"i n. .+e resul"s s+ ! "+a" (er) r'ance 'easure'en" (la.s use% as an eC"ernal ins"ru'en" " c n"r l "+e sub r%ina"es& be+avi r in 'anage'en" c n"r l >als see Big.? . 1?.g.= e<ui('en"= elec"rici". n"ribu"e " (ublic !el)are >e.= % na"e bl % r ' ne.5 s+ !s "+e resul"s ) l ng "er' e)) r"s ) "+e rganiza.s a vi"al r le in "+e lea%ers+i( "rans'i""ing (r cess. .

'bine% !i"+ "+e O. . .5 ( si"ivel."ivel. Gver. .'ance in) r'a"i n. in "+e %a. .+e ' re "rans(arenc. " %a.5 resul"s= !e can )in% "+a" "+e (er) r'ance 'easure'en" (r ce%ure +as casual lin8 !i"+ sub r%ina"es& be+avi r. In )ac"= "+e case s"u%.nance.s "+e r le ' %el in "+e rganiza"i n.bine% in "+e (er) r'ance in) r'a"i n c llec"i n (r cess. "+e lea%ers. :s a resul"= "+e sub r%ina"es begin " sus(ec" "+e Kus"ice ) (er) r. #ean!+ile= (er) r'ance 'easure'en" is nl.+e (er) r'ance is 'easure% b. In "+is regar%= lea%ers in)luence sub r%ina"es& be+avi r 'ainl. . "+e sub r%ina"e& (er) r'ance in) r'a"i n= bu" als "+e lea%er& (er) r. . a% (" "+e "ra%i"i nal (er) r'ance 'easure'en" 'e"+ %. carrie% u" a" "+e sub r%ina"es& level.+e lea%er&s (er) r'ance 'easure'en" is c+arge% b..ees. .'ance in) r'a"i n an% "+e (er) r'ance 'easure'en" (r ce%ure.+e )inal use ) (er) r'ance in) r'a"i n is %e"er'ine% b.'ance 'easure'en" an% lea%ers+i( "rans'i""ing clearl.+r ug+ "+e c '(ara"ive case s"u%. . 6 subKec"ive assess'en" is inv lve%. an% $a!" n >2006? clai' "+a" vir"u us lea%ers an% vir"u us sub r%ina"es are "+e basic re<uire'en"s ) g % g ver.+e e))ec"iveness ) 'anage. In "+e ( r cases= !e see %i))eren" si"ua"i ns."+ese <ues"i ns !ill in)luence "+e rganiza"i nal Kus"ice an% sub r%ina"es& a""i"u%e. .. In "+e bes" (rac"ice= "+e lea%ers c ul% use "+e (er) r'ance in) r'a"i n e))ec. c llec" n " nl. $ea%ers are al!a. In "urn= i" !ill resul" in "+e %i))eren" rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance.'en" c n"r l an% "+e in)luences ) lea%ers+i( are s+ !n in "+e rganiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r. "+r ug+ r le ' %el an% "+e a%'inis"ra"ive e"+ics in "+e rganiza"i n. :%'inis"ra"ive G"+ics :%'inis"ra"ive e"+ics (la.+a" is "+e 8e. . "+e u((er level %e(ar"'en"s. an% Kus"ice "+e (er) r'ance 'easure'en" (r ce%ure is= "+e ' re sa"is)ac"i n "+e sub r%ina"es !ill be. s+ !s "+a" a%'inis"ra"ive e"+ics ! ul% in)luence b "+ lea%ers an% sub r%ina"es& be+avi r in u(!ar% s(iral 'eans. I" is an eC"ernal 'ec+anis' " in)luence an% c n"r l "+e sub r%ina"es& be+avi r. ( in" ) r "+e lea%ers+i( "rans'i""ing.+e.s "+e in"ernal )unc"i n in lea%ers+i( "rans'i""ing.= "+e (er) r'ance in) r'a"i n !ill be sen" " all "+e e'(l .+a" is a )un%a'en"al 'easure " ensure "+e Kus"ice in (er) r'ance 'easure'en". .+e sus(ici ns als resul" in l ! evalua"i n n "+e lea%ers+i(.+e lea%ers& (er) r'ance !ill in)luence sub r%ina"es& a""i"u%e an% be+avi r. .+e. .+e in"ervie!s s+ ! "+a" ' s" ) "+e sub r%ina"es are sa"is)ie% !i"+ "+e (er) r'ance 'easure'en" (r ce%ure an% give +ig+ evalua"i n " "+eir lea%ers. . . . 'anage'en".%a. In "+e l ng "er'= "+e sub r%ina"es !ill a%Kus" "+eir be+avi r acc r%ing " learning resul"s. #acaula.+e sub r%ina"es are eCclu%e% )r ' %ecisi n 'a8ing (r cess.+a" is an "+er 'ec+anis' " s"reng"+en "+e e))ec"iveness ) 'anage'en" c n"r l. Ouan"i"a"ive 'e"+ %s an% "+e subKec"ive assess'en" are c '. In "+is sense= "+e (er) r'ance 'easure'en" (r ce%ure !ill in)luence "+e O. In "+e bes" (rac"ice= "+e (er) r'ance 'easure'en" (r cess is "rans(aren". #ean!+ile= "+e use ) (er) r'ance in) r'a"i n 8ee(s "rans(aren".= !e can )in% "+e 'ec+anis' be"!een (er) r. <uan"i"a"ive in%ica" rs.+e sub r%ina"es learn . .

.)r ' "+e lea%ers& be+avi r in re)lec"s "+e basic re<uire'en"s in"ervie!s in bes" (rac"ice s+ ! lea%ers& ' rali"...+e "+a" "+e sub r%ina"es give +ig+ c ''en"s n "+e r cases= "+e g % c ''en"s are vanis+e%. 1+ile in "+e ( rganiza"i nal r u"ine. . .+e a%'inis"ra"ive e"+ics n b "+ lea%ers an% sub r%ina"es& ' rali".

. ' re an% ' re (e (le in (ublic sec" r= "+e "ra%i"i nal lea%ers+i( "+e r. Per) r'ance 'easure'en" regula"i ns +ave re!ar%s an% (unis+'en"s 'ec+anis' " s"reng"+en "+e resul"s ) rganiza"i nal learning.+e %e' cra"ic %ecisi n 'a8ing (r cess !ill s"reng"+en "+e rganiza"i nal c ''i"'en".+e a%'inis"ra"ive e"+ics i'(r ve'en" +as been s"reng"+ene% b.+e.'en"s " e'(+asis n c llec"ive ac+ieve'en"s= s cial ne"! r8= an% s+are% acc un"abil.s+i( be"!een lea%ers an% sub r%ina"es. . s 'e eC"en"= lea%ers+i( %e(en%s n crea"ing a learning envir n'en" >Ble"c+er 2009?. Organiza"i nal learning is "+e 8e. 1+ile in "+e ( r cases= !e c ul% n " )in% suc+ lin8. .ence= ( li"ical learning= an% s n. . In "+is sense= "+e case s"u%.+e bes" (rac"ice s+ !s us "+e c+anges )r ' "ra%i"i nal (a"riarc+.le " c llec"ive lea%ers+i( s". +ave "+e %esigne% rganiza"i nal learning (r gra's an% un%esigne% rganiza"i nal learning 'easures. (er) r'ance 'easure'en". s 'e sc+ lars sugges" "+a" "rans) r'a"i nal lea%ers+i( is a reci(r cal (r cess in !+ic+ lea%ers an% ) ll !ers are "rans) r'e% b. . . I'(r ve% b. c ul% eC(lain + ! "+e lea%ers in)luence sub r%ina"es& inner ! rl% "+r ug+ (er) r'ance 'easure'en" an% a%'inis"ra"ive e"+ics. Ble"c+er >2009= (. . In "+e bes" (rac"ice= !e +ave ) un% "+e vir"u us circle n a%'inis"ra"ive e"+ics i'(r ve'en". In "+e rganiza"i nal r u"ine= "+e lea%er&s r le ' %el ! r8s n " nl.+e %esigne% rganiza"i nal learning inclu%es (er) r'ance 'easure'en" regula"i ns= regular c n)er. (er) r'ance 'easure'en"= ) ll !er&s ' ral %evel ('en" !ill (u" ) r!ar% +ig+er re<uire'en"s " lea%ers "+an be) re.+is (r ( si"i n is su(( r"e% b. In "+is regar%= i" is an in"erac"i n an% c n"inu us learning be"!een lea%ers an% sub r%ina"es. . .+e. 1i"+ gl baliza"i n an% %e' cra"ic values acce("e% b. 698? s"a"es "+a" lea%ers+i( "+e r.+ese 'easures c (era"e !i"+ "+e (er) r'ance 'easure'en" (r ce%ure."ra"ive e"+ics. -ince "+e ec n 'ic re) r' in 1D78= "+ere +ave been s 'e )un%a'en"al c+anges in . is )acing "+e c+allenges.+e regular c n)erences +ave i'(r ve% "+e c ''unica"i n be"!een lea%ers an% sub r%i. .le. s+i)" )r ' "+e single-'in%e% ) cus n in%ivi%ual ac+ieve.+e lea%ers nee% " c nsi%er sub r%ina"es& i%ea in i'( r"an" %ecisi n 'a8ing (r cess. .#ean!+ile= "+e researc+ s+ !s "+a" "+e lea%er&s r le ' %el is s"reng"+ene% b. .na"es.'e researc+ers +ave cri"icize% "+a" ne s+ r"c 'ing ) "rans) r'a"i nal lea%ers+i( is "+e lea%er-cen"ere% 'e"+ % >#ein%l 1DD0M @lein an% H use 1DD5?.na"es& inner ! rl%= suc+ as r le ' %el ) lea%ers an% (er) r'ance. .+ese ac+ieve'en"s are s"reng"+ene% b. eac+ "+er >Dvir an% -+a'ir 2003?.+e un-%esigne% rganiza"i nal learning 'easures !ill in)luence "+e sub r%i. ur e'(irical researc+. Br ' rganiza"i nal learning (ers(ec"ive= "+ese c+anges are re)lec"e% n %ecisi n 'a8ing (r cess an% "+e rela"i n. lea%ers+i( s".+e +ig+ (er) r'ance cul"ure +as been c ns"ruc"e% in "+e bes" (rac"ice.+inese l cal g vern'en".na"es. (er) r'ance 'easure'en". (er) r'ance 'easure'en".rien"e% rganiza."i nal cul"ure. n "+e sub r%ina"es& be+avi r= bu" als i'(r ves "+e re<uire'en"s n lea%ers& a%'inis. +ave ign re% "+e 'u"ual in)luences be"!een lea%ers an% sub r%i. .+a" is !+. In "+e bes" (rac"ice= "+e vir"u us circle ) rganiza"i nal learning +as been c ns"ruc"e%. $ea%ers an% sub r%ina"es +ave clear 'issi n n s"riving ) r +ig+ (er) r'ance. . ( in" " un%ers"an% "+ese c+anges. .+r ug+ (er) r'ance 'easure'en"= "+e general a%'inis"ra"ive e"+ics +as been i'(r ve% in "+e bes" (rac"ice. . Organiza"i nal $earning . .i".

.le. . lea%ers+i( s".+e lea%ers a""e'(" " ac+ieve +ig+ (er) r'ance "+r ug+ s"ric" c n"r l. . '(are% !i"+ "+e bes" case= "+e ( r cases s"ill 8e(" "+e "ra%i"i nal (a"riarc+.

2.+inese l cal g vern'en".+a" is a vici us circle. O. 5ase% n "+e li"era"ure revie!= !e argue "+a" lea%er&s in)luences n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance s+ ul% be 'easure% b. 1e a""e'(" " 'easure i" )r ' "+e sub r%ina"es& rganiza"i nal be+avi r.'ance i'(r ve'en" an% rganiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r. 1e can classi).za"i nal (er) r'ance c '(re+ensivel.= !e "a8e "+e 'u"ual in)luences ) lea%ers an% sub r%ina"es in" c nsi%era"i n. an% (r ce%ure Kus"ice are (r ble'a"ic in "+e ( r cases. (er) r'ance 'easure'en"= a%'inis"ra"ive e"+ics= an% "+e rganiza"i nal learning. I" is als an rganiza"i nal be+avi r ' %i)ica"i n (r cess.+e )in%ings su(( r" "+e (r ( si"i n "+a" O. .+e nega"ive e))ec"s are a'(li)ie% b.+e )inal resul"s are s+ !n in rganiza"i nal (er) r. Organiza"i nal learning c nnec"s "+e lea%ers an% sub r%ina"es in "+is (r cess. . Bur"+er' re= in) r'a"i n "rans(arenc. 1e als (u" ) r!ar% "+e rganiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r >O. nclusi n . Leadership I'(r ve'en" Organizational Citizenship Behavior Organiza"i nal $earning Organiza"i nal $earning . I" is s+ !n in Big.+ese 'easures ! r8 n sub r%ina"es "+r ug+ "+e 'anage'en" c n"r l= !+ic+ is realize% "+r ug+ (er) r'ance 'anage'en". 1i"+ u" "+e r le ' %el ) lea%ers= "+e e))ec"iveness ) rganiza"i nal learning !ill be % ub"e%. . .+e c '(ara"ive s"u%. .+is ar"icle eC(l res "+e issue ) + ! " 'easure "+e lea%er&s i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance.5 c ul% re)lec" "+e lea%ers& i'(ac" n rgani. 5e+avi r # %i)ica"i n Pr cess/Per) r'ance #anage'en" Organiza"i nal Per) r'ance Big.Subordinates Organiza"i nal GC"ernal a((r ac+* Per) r'ance #ea. s+ !s "+a" lea%ers+i( "rans'i""ing is s"reng"+ene% b. "+r ug+ "+e c '(ara"ive case s"u%.+a" is a c n"inu us learning circle in "+e rganiza"i n. In "+e l ng "er'= lea%ers+i( "rans'i""ing 'ec+anis' is als an rganiza"i nal be+avi r ' %i)ica"i n (r cess. (er) r'ance 'easure'en" as an eC"ernal a((r ac+ an% a%'inis"ra"ive e"+ics as an in"ernal a((r ac+. 2 $ea%ers+i( an% rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance i'(r ve'en" . In ur "+e re"ical )ra'e! r8= lea%ers+i(= (er) r'ance 'easure'en"= rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance= an% sub r%ina"es& rganiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r +ave l gical c nnec"i n.. 1e +ave "es"e% "+is "+e r. . Re!ar%s an% (unis+'en"s c ul% n " be eCecu"e% e<uall. . # re i'( r"an"l. . an in"egra"ive in%ica" r an% ne! 'e"+ %s. In"ernal a((r ac+* :%'inis"ra"ive G"+. (er) r'ance 'easure'en" an% a%'inis"ra"ive e"+ics.ence% b..5= as an rganiza"i nal be+avi r= is in)lu.5? " 'easure lea%er&s i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal in)luences. Discussi ns an% . "+e rganiza"i nal learning. In "+e l ng "er'= (er) r'ance 'easure'en" is a c n"inu us learning (r cess in g vern'en" rganiza"i n. 1+en "+e rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance bec 'es ! rse= "+e lea%er !ill s"reng"+en c n"r l.= "+e lea%er&s i'(ac" n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance is a lea%ers+i( "rans'i""ing 'ec+anis'.+is 'easure +as c n)lic"s !i"+ "+e c+anging si"ua"i n.+ese )ac" rs resul" in ( r rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance. Gssen"iall. in .

+il%= I. Dienesc+= R. .= #. In .'en" in rganiza"i nal r u"ine."i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r as an in%ica" r " 'easure "+e resul"s. In 6. >1DD0?. 5. >1DD1?.5 'easure'en". $ n% n* Har(er R !. Organiza"i nal -cience= 15>2?= 291J253. $ea%ers+i( an% (er) r'ance be.. >1D89?. 'e"+ % is als (r ble'a"ic >e. Organiza"i n. $ea%er-'e'ber eCc+ange ' %el ) lea%ers+i(* a cri"i<ue an% )ur"+er %evel ('en". Bur"+er researc+ 'ig+" ) ll ! "+is %irec"i n an% "es" "+e "+e r.s+i(* a l ngi"u%inal )iel% s"u%.ar"er= 6. $earning " 'easure (er) r'ance* "+e use ) in%ica" rs in rganiza"i ns. 71JD8?. :ca%e'.+a" is "+e reas n !+...= P+ang= . In "+e e'(irical case s"u%. ) bserva"i n %a"a. >1D85?. @.= 22= 1165J . $ea%ers+i( Ouar"erl.= "+e in"ervie!ees 8n ! "+e eC(ec"a"i n ) inves"iga" rs r "+e %esire% ans!er.+ina.. 'e"+ % n O. >2009?.. . !e use 'ul"i <uali"a"ive researc+ 'e"+ %s n "+is " (ic. ) #anage'en" Revie!= 11= 618J639. I.les= #.+e :ca%e'.= 0 Organ= D. ) bserva"i n resul"s. Organiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r in Pe (le&s Re(ublic ) . Le rge= I. 1e als s"resse% "+e in"erac"i n be"!een lea%ers an% sub r%ina"es in rganiza"i nal learning (r cess an% a""e'("e% " e'(l . Bi l= . I" is %i))icul" " use "+e <uan"i"a"ive 'e"+ %s n "+is issue. 5 r'an an% :ss cia"es >G%s. Ble"c+er= I. >2009?. $ea%ers+i( Ouar"erl. 6 r'all. .' us POR revie!ers. D. " ensure "+e reliabili".= 19= 327J399.+e "+e re"ical ' %el ! ul% +ave i'(lica"i ns ) r (riva"e rganiza"i ns as !ell.+e 'ul"i researc+ 'e"+ %s 'a8e a "riangula"i n= !+ic+ c ul% 'a8e u( "+e s+ r"c 'ings ) single 'e"+ %..+e au"+ rs are gra"e)ul ) r valuable c ''en"s n earlier %ra)"s )r ' "+e 6IL annual c n)erence >5elgiu'= 2012? an% an n.= 0 I +ns n= #. >1DD3?..= Gberl. ...g. $ea%ers+i( Ouar"erl. >1D85?.= 0 # " !i%l = -.+e (ara% C ) ( s"+e ric lea%ers+i(* an eas.?= Pers nnel selec"i n in rganiza"i ns >((. Re)erences 5ass= 5. Dvir= . 5ase% n "+e c '(aris n ) bes" (rac"ice an% ( r cases= !e +ave genera"e% a ' %el ) + ! "+e lea%ers in)luence rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance "+r ug+ (er) r'ance 'easure. (r (agan%a an% "+e ( li"ical (ressure in (ublic rganiza"i n. Ba+r= I.= 15= 697J661. Organiza"i nal learning. 6e! 7 r8* Bree Press. >2011?.= 6ie+ )) an% # r'an 1DD3?. ) #anage'en" Revie!= 10>9?= 803J813. #. n gen%er= ( !er= an% "rans) r'a"i nal c+ange.= :v li = 5.. . 1. :. ) :n"!er(.s in)luence% b. -an Brancisc * I sse.sis in a service c n"eC". -(ecial "+an8s " "+e sc+ lars+i( ) Gras'us #un%us ) r su(( r"ing ur researc+ (r Kec" a" De(ar"'en" ) P li"ical -cience= Eniversi".+e l ci an% 'ec+anis's ) lea%ers+i(* eC(l ring a ' re c '(re+ensive vie! ) lea%ers+i( "+e r. resul"s are al!a.c+ l g.= 0 -+a'ir= 5. ) rganiza"i nal be+avi r ! ul% re%uce "+e reliabili". >1D86?. >2003?. #. #. I urnal ) :((lie% Ps. . . 1e ac8n !le%ge "+a" "+e bserva"i n 'e"+ % is a bi" r ug+ c '(are% !i"+ "+e surve. I. Hernan%ez= #. n% eC(ec"a"i ns. in %i))eren" c n"eC". Public :%'inis"ra"i n= 6D>1?= 85J101. En%ers"an%ing (r s cial be+avi r= sales (er) r'ance= an% "urn ver* a gr u(-level anal.= 0 $i%en= R. . :c8n !le%g'en"s .= 0 5e""en+ausen= @. su' u(= !e +ave %iscusse% "+e lea%ers+i( "rans'i""ing 'ec+anis' in "+is ar"icle.= !e increase "+e bserva"i n )re<uenc. .+inese c n"eC"= "+e surve.= 75= 6D8J70D. GC(an%ing "+e cri"eri n % 'ain " inclu%e ele'en"s ) c n"eC"ual (er) r'ance. . -c+'i"" 0 1. 5 r'an= 1. #. #ean!+ile= i" s+ ul% be n "ice% "+a" "+e general acce("e% surve.-5ass.= 0 $. B ll !er %evel ('en"al c+arac"eris"ics as (re%ic"ing "rans) r'a"i nal lea%er. "+e rganiza.'e sc+ lars 'ig+" argue "+a" "+e c '(leCi". .

H use= R. . I. ) 62 s cie"ies. .= e" al..+ usan% Oa8s* -age. .ul"ure= lea%ers+i( an% rganiza"i ns* "+e gl be s"u%.1185. @ara'ba.ing uni"s +ave be""er Qci"izensR >! r8ing (a(er?.a= R.. . 6 r"+ 7 r8* 7 r8 Eniversi". >1DD0?. >2009?. n"eC"s ) r rganiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r* % +ig+ (er) r'ance an% sa"is).

-"a"e -c+ l ) in%us"rial an% lab r rela"i ns= Re+abili"a"i n= s+el"ere% ! r8s+ (s an% "+e %isa%van"ages* an eC(l ra"i n in 'an( !er ( lic.. #anage'en" Revie!= 9= D9JD8. Organiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r* i"s na"ure an% an"ece%en"s. $eCing" n* $eCing" n.+e r 'ance ) lea%ers+i( as ) ll !er-cen"ric "+e r. P. On )ire* c+aris'a"ic lea%ers+i( an% levels ) anal.* I:I. >1DD0?.u"+ @ rea* "+e 'e%ia"ing r le ) a))ec"ive c ''i"'en". P %sa8 ))= #. #.= #ac8enzie= -. P %sa8 ))= #.= 0 6ear= I. >2006?. ) #anage'en" Revie!= 3>3?= 913J927. P %sa8 ))= #.. I urnal ) #ar8e"ing Researc+= 31= 351J363. . >2013?. I'(ac" n rganiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r n rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance* a revie! an% sugges"i ns ) r )u"ure researc+. P. #.= P %sa8 ))= P. In L. 5.= 0 Be""er= R. P.= 0 #ac8enzie= -. Hu'an Per) r'ance= 10>2?= 131J151.= 0 5 ''er= 1. Organiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r an% sales uni" e))ec"iveness.* Qc '(leC 'anR r Qc '(leC rganiza.= 33>3?= 388J900. D es lea%ers+i( 'a8e a %i))erence " rganiza"i nal (er) r'anceA :%'inis"ra"ive -cience Ouar"erl. $ea%ers+i( Ouar"erl. #. >1D70?. Ese ) (er) r'ance in) r'a"i n as an rganiza"i nal r u"ine in 'anage'en" c n"r l. Organiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r as %e"er'inan"s ) 'anagerial evalua"i ns ) e'(l . P %sa8 ))= #. 5. . >1DD5?. rnell Eniversi". #acaula. :'erican . I. . '(an. >1DD3?. #ac@enzie= -. Public :%'inis"ra"i n Revie!= 5= 702J710. $iebers n= -. >((. I. B.+e sub"le signi)icance ) K b sa"is)ac"i n. 5.R. $iu= /. ) #anage'en" I urnal= 36>3?= 527J 556.ee (er) r'ance* a revie! an% sugges"i ns ) r )u"ure researc+. >1DD0?. P.= #. R !lan% >G%s. #u') r%= #. 1. -'i"+= . >1D75?. >1DD1?. . I"+aca 67* .n%r 'e. . $ea%ers+i( an% rganiza"i nal (er) r'ance* a s"u%. nn r= I. >1D72?.= 0 H uglan%= I. H.. I. >1DD6?. $ cal L vern'en" -"u%ies= 38>6?= 867J8D2. $u"+ans= B. #a+!a+* $a!rence Grlbau' :ss cia"es. #. Press. >1DD3?.= 0 # r'an= R. >1DD3?.sis.= e" al. .= 0 Be""er= R. 6 r%= 1. H.7. R. Organiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r an% bKec"ive (r %uc"ivi". . Llenvie!* -c ""= B res'an an% . .= 0 @rei"ner= R. 5. Ius"ice as a 'e%ia" r ) "+e rela"i ns+i( be"!een 'e"+ %s ) ' ni" ring an% rganiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r. >1DD7?.= Organ= D. 5. Br ' vir"ue " c '(e"ence* c+anging "+e (rinci(les ) (ublic service.ee sa"is)ac"i n= c ''i"'en"= "rus" an% rganiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r.= #ac8enzie= -. L.= 6= 32DJ391.= 68= 655J663. . >1DD9?. 6ie+ ))= 5. n"inu us learning in rganiza"i n* in%ivi%ual= gr u(= an% rganiza.+e :ca%e'. Organiza"i nal 5e+avi r an% Hu'an Decisi n Pr cess= 50= 123J150. >2008?. #ac@enzie= -. 1. In* Re+abili"a"i n researc+ ins"i"u"e ) "+e 6. #ein%l= I. 11= ((.+e )aul" %ear Dru"us lies n " in urselves bu" in ur c n"ingencies* "+e a((lica"i n ) eCc+ange "+e r."i nRA .+aris'a"ic= i%e l gical an% (rag'a"ic lea%ers+i(* 'ul"i-level in)luences n e'ergence an% (er) r'ance.ci l gical Revie!= 37>2?= 117J130. P. >1D88?.= 1D= 199J160.+ 'as= :.linical $ab ra" r. Lreen!ic+= .?= Researc+ in (ers nnel an% +u'an res urces 'anage'en" >2 l.+e :ca%e'.c+ l g. Organ= D. . Berri 0 @.= 0 $a!" n= :. D. I urnal ) #ar8e"ing= 57= 70J80. Per) r'ance I'(r ve'en" I urnal= 52>10?= 25J33.rans) r'a"i nal lea%ers+i( an% rganiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r in "+e (ublic sec" r in ."i nal (ers(ec"ive.= 0 #ac8enzie= -.* a s cial c ns"ruc"i nis" a((r ac+. 1. >2006?. . $ea%ers+i( Ouar"erl. -essa= 2.= 6= 183J1D8.= Ir.= 0 H use= R. I urnal ) :((lie% Ps. >1D78?.rans) r'a"i nal lea%er be+avi r an% subs"i"u"es ) r lea%ers+i( as %e"er'inan"s ) e'(l . 5. @lein= @. " re+abi"a"i n an% "+e %isa%van"ages. Organ= D. -+e(ar%= I. Organiza"i nal be+avi r ' %i)ica"i n. $ea%ers+i( Ouar"erl. ) large c r( ra"i ns.= 0 Hui= . P. n"ingenc. .= P %sa8 ))= P. . R. :.= 0 2an D ren= 1.= 0 O&. 1J 90?.= 0 $ n% n= #. >1D88?.. >2012?. >1D83?. Organiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r* "+e g % s l%ier s.@i'= H. 5. D5J193?.+e i'(ac" ) rganiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r n evalua"i n ) sales(ers n (er) r'ance. I urnal ) #anage'en"= 22>2?= 25DJ288. as %e"er'inan"s ) 'anagerial evalua"i ns ) sales(ers ns& (er) r'ance. "+e r.

= 5. >2010?.+e :ca%e'. 1.= #ari n= R.ne= $. ) #anage'en" I urnal= 37>9?= 765J802.= 0 #c@elve.= 0 Halligan= I.= 0 Dienesc+= R.= Lra+a'= I. Organiza"i nal ci"izens+i( be+avi r* c ns"ruc" re%e)ini"i n= 'easure'en"= an% vali%a"i n. Per) r'ance 'anage'en" in "+e (ublic sec" r. . . 2an D ren= 1. >1DD9?.* s+i)"ing lea%ers+i( )r ' "+e in%us"rial age " "+e 8n !le%ge era. $ n% n* R u"le%ge.E+l-5ien= #. lea%ers+i( "+e r. .= 5 uc8aer"= L. '(leCi". #. 2an D.= 18>9?= 2D8J318. $ea%ers+i( Ouar"erl. >2007?.

+inese l cal g vern'en". : l ngi"u%inal s"u%.. 1 u"er 2an D ren= P+D= is a (r )ess r in "+e ( li"ical science %e(ar"'en" a" "+e Eniversi".rien"e% g vern'en".= e" al. /uan+ui $iu= P+D= is a lec"urer in "+e Gc n 'ics an% #anage'en" -c+ l a" /i&an .= e" al.1il%er '= .. He receive% +is P+D in s cial science )r ' "+e Eniversi". ! r8ing n a b 8 ab u" (er) r'ance 'anage'en" in . ) :n"!er(. . /ia nengKians+e in "+e c '(ara"ive (ers(ec"ive* (er) r'ance i'(r ve'en"= inn va"i n= an% service. His 'ain researc+ in"eres"s are (er) r'ance= (er) r'ance 'easure'en"= an% 'anage'en" in "+e (ublic sec" r. $ea%ers+i( Ouar"erl.ec+n l gical Eniversi". ) :n"!er(. He is curren"l.. . >2012?. >2011?. #.+inese Public :%'inis"ra"i n= 3= 35J90 >in .+inese?. ) "+e e))ec"s ) c+aris'a"ic lea%ers+i( an% rganiza"i nal cul"ure n bKec"ive an% (erceive% c r( ra"e (er) r'ance. His researc+ in"eres"s inclu%e (er) r'ance 'anage'en"= rganiza"i nal be+avi r= an% (ublic a%'inis"ra"i n "+e r.= 23>3?= 835J898. 1u= I. P.