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GEO2242

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/Weather : behavior of atmosphere at particular place for a short period of time Climate: generalization of weather conditions over a long span of time (avg) “climate = what you expect; weather = what you get”    Pakistan Monsoon Philippine Floods 2012 – Typhoon Saola, Typhoon Haikui, SE Asian Monsoon Cyclone Gonu – 1st in Arabian Sea

Meteorologist: Weather Climatologist: climate 1/8 Colorado Floods Hurricane Katrina  One of five deadliest of hurricanes in the US  Landfall in FL as category 1 Aug 25 2005 killing 14 ppl   2nd Landfall LA category 3

Tornado Outbreak 2011 April 25-28  Swept thru Midwest US, Southern, US, NE US, S Ontario, Canada  359 confirmed tornados  over 300 deaths  Waterspouts on Lake Michigan     Tornados on water Fair weather or tornadic FL Keys Not always dangerous

Atmospheric Composition

Atmosphere: gaseous portion of a planet planet’s envelope of air one of traditional subdivisions of Earth’s physical environment Mostly a mixture of gases o Includes: Clouds and Aerosols (suspended particles) o Permanent Gases of Atm – Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon, Neon, Helium, Krypton, Xenon, Hydrogen o Variable Gases – Water Vapor(greenhouse gas, absorbs heat), Carbon Dioxide, Ozone (absorbs UV radiation) Water Vapor o Most important and abundant variable gas o Absorbs IR radiation (greenhouse) o Added or removed from the atm thru the hydrologic cycle. o Concentration varies from place to place (0% in deserts and polar regions; over 4% tropics) Aerosols o Tiny solid and liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere o Originate from many natural and human sources   Volcanic eruptions Soil blown into the air

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Ozone o Chemical composition o UV goes thru atm then combines with O2 o Cl+O3 => ClO + O2 o ClO+O3 => Cl +2O2  (catalytic reaction? ) o Most occur between 10-50 km above the Earth’s surface in the stratosphere o Absorbs much of the UV radiation from the sun Atmospheric Thickness o Top of atm is undefined o Thin layer when compared to solid earth o Atm Mass = 5.14 x 10^15 kg o Earth’s Mass = 5.98 x 10^24 kg o

coldest temp o Thermosphere: Inversion. higher latitude   . but 90% of Ozone Mesosphere and Thermosphere o Combined 0.5 deg C/km  Normal Lapse rate o Thinnest layer contains 85% of atmospheric mass o Tropopause is .Layers of the Atmosphere  Tropo (bottom) . normal lapse rate.1% of atm mass o Ionosphere: a layer in Eath’s atmosphere 100 km above the surface where the atm is significantly ionized and conducts electricity (optimum magnetic field)  Discharge from Ni and O2 = Sky glowing  Neon gas – light shows o Mesosphere: 50-80 km high.12 km over the tropics about half that at the poles o Most of the weather occurs Stratosphere o 12-50km from surface of Earth o Temperatures increase with height (inversion) o Ozone absorbs UV radiation from the sun o 15% of atm mass.Tropopause  Strato – Stratopause  Meso– Mesopause  Thermo   Troposphere o Heated from the Eath’s surface o The ground warms the air not the light passing through o Temperature decrease with height  6. temp reach 1500 deg C 1/13 Earth is curved sunlight coming in.

higher and souther. America – Rainforest Antarctic high albedo Absorption  Incoming solar radiation (absorb) .24 hrs daylight.28 Albedo    Very light surfaces – high albedo o Desert – sand is light colored surface ( N.June 21 Sub solar point – tropic of cancer 20.5 deg north December 21 – winter solstice South pole. north pole – night change seases Tilt of axis Path around the sun Rotation of earth Scattering-difference in size of molecules  Raleigh o (See p. sept. then not 90 deg Explain       Causes     what is going on at each point in the diagram – solstice/eequinox Equinox.Angle of sun hitting earth at 90 deg angle. Africa) Darker surfaces – more absorption o Center of S. Summer solstice.28)  Mie Reflection – transfer of energy  Light hits surface then goes back in same angle & same amount of energy  Can’t be used Transfer heat  Albedo (reflectivity ) – p.

37    Sensible heat – what you feel & meas. Car and heat Enhanced greenhouse effect o (Natural – millions of years ) o Climate change due to human activity = inc warming effect o REVIEW  Major atm gases    o Ni.infrared) – thermal infrared Why sun and earth emit deff type of radiation o Wien’s law – hotter body = shorter wavelength TEMPERATURE p. O2. Latent heat is an important factor when studying weather. with thermometer Latent Heat – locked away when a change of state occurs o Water evaporating In the atm water is constantly changing state. CO2. Argon Type of radiation from sun o Short wavelength (Visible and IR – infrared ) Type of radiation emit from earth o Long wave (IR. o Hurricanes = take all energy from latent heat exchange o Transfers heat into dynamic/motion energy . traps heat 78% of atm does not absorb o Ozone absorbs a lot of UV  Does not stop short wavelength o Water vapor and CO2 traps a lot of outgoing radiation Green house effect  Sunlight hits planet hits plant and soil then plant and soil radiate   more wavel of light Sunlight comes through atm and trap outgoing heat o Ie.    Hot body = shorter wavel Cold body = longer Atm lets incoming radiation.

liquid to gas.38 Questions (Latent Heat)  Body covered in droplets of water o Starts to evaporate  o Takes energy from body Hotter in Miami than Phoenix. both are in mid 90s o Lots of humidity/moisture in air o Phoenix – dry air. cant feel o What is constantly changing state Where latent energy stored o In bonds Energy required when ice melts Energy Released when water vapor condenses Energy required when liquid water evaporates      What controls temperature . Why latent is important o Sensible – What you feel &measure o Latent – Energy stored in bonds .  This energy NOT registered by a change in temp o Change from sub does not change avg kinetic energy (temp) o Alters molecular bonds  Potential ENERGY is changed  KE – movement (temp.38 see diagram drawing Latent Heat  See p.Phase change of water  Energy is required to change from solid to liquid. and takes energy from body and cool off more effectively Difference between sensible and latent heat. or solid to gas (going up in energy state)  Energy is Released when gas changed to liq or solid or when liq is changed to solid. of sub)  PE – stored inside of bonds o P.

18 J/g k  Soil = . location o Altitude  While in troposphere (normal) o Ocean currents  Warm and cold  Florida – warm  Gulf coast stream  o Albedo Ca. 40 World Latitutde Zones  2 zones o Tropic of Cancer o Trop of cap Land & Water  See p. – cold  From Alaska to ca. P. See p.  4.41  Water 4 charac. to equator Latitude see p.  .39 o Latitude o Continentality (geography)  Mtn ranges . water bodies . 40  MOST IMPORTANT CONTROL OF TEMP. Sun Angles see. Allows to redistribute E effectively o Transparent and Fluid One sq ft of H2o not the same as Land bc there’s depth to H2O o Specific Heat – water has HIGH sh.85 J/g k o Evap – more latent heat exchange with atm over water than over land so water is cooled more by evap than land is.

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Gulf Stream o Take warm water from equator up to artic then taking cold water down    East side of basin is cold West side is warm Thermohaline o Thermo – heat. upward/windward from east Altitude  Affects temp and precip  Inc Altitude. condensation. south America.salt o Driven by temp and salinity Keys to Remmeber .1/24/2014 1:50:00 PM 1/15 CONTROL IN TEMPERATURE Continentality  Don’t see extremes in southern hemispheres – water is keeping it warmer in winter time  More extremes in northern hemispheres because more land Topography  Mountain – windward (wind against) . Atlantic . precipitation => lush vegetation Downward – dry air. hemisphere counterclockise  Know general direction: o N. cloud development. farther away from heat source/ground o Incoming solar radiation absorbed by ground Ocean Circulation  Currents driven by prevailing winds – explains direction birds go  Northern hemisphere water circulates clockwise around continents  S. leeward (wind over mountain sinking down far side)    Upward – autographic lightning/precipitation? . warm up rapidly i.e. haline.

FL =gulf stream Reflect incoming radiation (high albedo) Trap outgoing radiation Composed of GREENHOUSE GAS Temperature Controls Review  Latitude – MOST IMPORTANT CONTROL o Affects angles of incidence  Continentality – proximity to water. = cold .   Clouds    West side of ocean/east side of continent = warmer waters (from equator) East side of ocean/west side of continent = colder waters (from polar) Ca. surrounding topography  Altitude  Ocean Currents – transport warmer and cooler water around world  Albedo – over cast days have lower highs and higher lows  Why land heat and cool more rapidly  Transparent  Fluid  Evaporation  Specific Heat Temperature  Daily Mean     Daily Range Monthly Mean Annual Mean Annual Range Highest temperature in middle of land mass Subsolar points are 20 degrees north Around equator – small temp range .

o Max/Min Thermometer – range o Constriction – max o Index – min  Surface tension  Review  1. cold – down o Continuous measure temp throughout the day .Over continents in Northern Hemispher – big difference in ranges of temp When coolest time of day  Middle of night – right before sun comes back up When is warmest time of day  Noon – angle of instance 90deg Remember – see slide  Aborb short wave from sun . specific heat water higher  F      1/17 F F F T T . F . earth emits longwave radiation  Short wave get it only daylight     Peak amount of energy – noon Temp lag between noon and the warmest time of the day Temp lag between sunset and coldest time of the day Microwave Temperature Gauges  Thermograph o Two different alloys – expand and contract differently o Hot – up.

e.Review   Sensible heat: feel. thermometer aka KE Latent heat: What is trapped in bonds of a substance can’t be measured Take in energy for liq water evaporate Windward – rain shadow effect Global oceanic circulation: Thermohaline Temp higher on clear day than cloudy day Sub solar point on March 21st – spring equinox : at the Equator Continental is more variable in terms of temp than maritime locations       MOISTURE  Hydrologic cycle p.53 o Water evaporate o Condense in upper atmosphere o Falls back to surface Water Balance o As global atm warms up. then can hold more moisture o Global total is constant but it is a variable gas  i. concentration varies from place to place Humidity o Absolute humidity o Mixing ratio o Vapor P o Relative humidity o Dew point o   .

clouds and precip. dew point temp is a measure of air’s actual moisture . Covers the ground Night – cold ground surface Thin layer of warm air near surface Condense point and humidity Relative h : how close we are to dew point     o Unlike relative humidity which is a measure of how near the air is to being saturated. . comfort Absolute Humidity o DENSITY OF WATER VAOPR IN A parcel of air o D=mass of water vapor (grams) /Volume (cubic meter) o Not commonly used in forecasting Mixing Ratio o Mass of wator v/mass of dry air (kg) Vapor Pressure o Saturated Vapor P. # of molecules evaporation = # of molecules condensing – balance Rwelative Humidy o Always % o Measure of how near a parcel of air is to being saturated o RH: wator vapor content/water vapor capacity at the current temp  Change temp => change relative humidity o Change in moisture contenct and/dor temp  o Dew o o o o o Dew o Easily samled and used in forecasting Point Never be greater than air temp.   o Water is important in terms of weather: Energy exchange. Dew point o Cool air below causes condensation o Requires a surface to condense o Map of dew point is usefule bc it identifies wet and dry areas quickly .

 o Two methods measure relative humidity o Hair hygrometer  Hair contract and expand .humidity o Sling Psychrometer  Wet bulb and dry bulb  Water evaporates – take in energy  Cools thermometry down more  2 thermometers – how dry and how wet .

20 o 10g/20 (vapor)  If parcel of air at 35 deg C contains 5 g of water vapor per kg of air what is its relative humidity? Atm Stability Q. Calc.  Formula : If a parcel of air at 25 deg C contains 10 g of water vaper per kg of air. Instablitiy III.10deg C/ 1000m If unsaturated air at 20 deg C were to rise what would its temp be at a height of 800 m? IF the dew point temp at the condensation  .compress o Rel humidity will decrease o Warm at DALR as it sinks II.78  If unsaturated air at 20 deg C were to rise what would its temp be at a height of 500 m? if the dew point temp at the lifting condensation level were 11 deg C at what elevation would clouds begin to form? o Unsaturated air . Abs. what is rel hum? o Chart – left 25 C  Vapor per kg of dry air . p. Stable Air p70  Dry rate  Wet rate  Compare rates to environmental rate  Parcel (bubble) wants to sink o Warm. Conditional Instability Relative Hum.1/24/2014 1:50:00 PM 1/24 Test Beg – Atm moisture MONDAY REVIEW SESSION! I.

1100 m IV.lifting level were 9 deg C.plain stratus or cumulus. stability  Cumulus. no liquid water  Point one direction-indicates wind Cirrostratus  Thin sheet  Halos  Broad layer of convergence  Milky Cirrocumulus . or a combination stratocumulus Nimbo rain producing Cirrus Clouds  High white and thin. at what elevation would clouds begin to form? 12deg C .vertically – unstable     Cirro – high clouds (above 6m) Alto – mid clouds (2-6m) Low clouds . Clouds  Form and elevation – name o Nimb – rain producing o Stratus – horizontal dev + lower level o Cumulo – vertical  Stratus – horizontal dev .

What are layers of atm? And what lapse rates are associated with ea layer?  Tropo – normal  Strato.5 deg noth o     Tropic of Cancer – 23.5 deg N Equator -0 = subsolar point (90 deg angle) moves around and it changes the seasons Tropic of Capricorn – 23. P. What is the difference bet weather and climate:   Climate – what you expect. Troposphere (up to 12 km in altitude) The thinnest layer of the atm. Name each of these lines of latitude(5) p. What variable GG is added/removed from the atm by the hydrologic cycle?  Water Vapor 3.9  Aerosols 4.12 7. contains 85% of the atm mass. Top of the atm is well defined and is part of the thermosphere – FALSE p 10 5.EXAM 1 REVIEW 1. bc loads of ozone (absorbs energy)   Meso – normal Thermo – inverse 6.24 .5 S o Antarctic Circle – 66. avg conditions Weather – what you get 1/24/2014 1:50:00 PM 2. What are 3 reasons for Earth’s changing seasons? P.inverse .5 S 8.18  Top – arctic circle 66. What tiny atm particles act as a surface on which water vapor condenses to produce clouds and fog? P.

29 .tropic of cancer. white light 14.27  Rayleigh Scattering (Blue tone of sky)  Mei Scattering (white clouds) – large particles . Albedo? Earth’s avg elbedo? P. 23  Tropic of Cancer 23. How many hrs of daylight do the poles receive during the Autumnal Equinox  12 hrs How many hours of daylight does S pole receive during Winter Solstice  24 hrs 11.5 S 10. S none 12. thermal fluid movement  Radiation  Conduction – touch. 2 main types of scattering that can occur when incoming solar radiation enters the atm. Picture of rotations around sun ??  March 21 (10 o clock position – clockwise) – Spring Equinox o Sub polar at equator  Dec 21 – N pole no daylight.  June 21 .5 N Where are OR during winter solstice  Tropic of Capricorn 23. metal is hot and transfers from pot to hand 13. longest day o N p 24 hrs. S p 24 hrs  Sept 23 – Equinox at equator . What are they? What does each type of scattering cause? P. 24  Convection – cold water sinking to bottom of ocean. Tilt of earth’s axis  Rotation of earth on its axis  Path of the earth around the sun 9. Where are overhead rays during the summer solstice p. Name three types of ENERGY transport processes and give an ex of each. ??? p.

Hottest part of the day  just after noon – highest angle of incidence Coldest? . 17. IN northern Hemisphere water circulates CLOCKWISE S hemisphere water circulates COUNTERCLOCKWISE 23. two of the GG. Cold body – long waves) 16. ON a Temp map. what are lines of equal temp called  Isotherms o Black line = joining points of equal Temp 19. Greenhouse effect is a nat process that warms the Earth 18.  Reflective quality of a surface About 31% 15. Water Vapor and CO. Not aborb any short . absorb what type of radiation?  Long wave radiaiton (thermal infrared) This radiation is emitted from what source?  Earth  Wien’s displacement law (Hot body – short waves. Diagram  Ni. Land heats and cools more rapidly than Water 21. 5 controls of Temp (COALA)  Latitude  Continentality – land and H2O  Altitude  Ocean Currents  Albedo 20. Windward side of mtn gets most rain 22.

diagram – temp and rel humidity diagram Seasons    p. Diagram – Solid.59  Air becomes saturated and condensation begins 28. diagram – rep where saturation is  T.18 – Tina Plays Rugby…in all seasons Tilt Path Rotation Insolation  Scattering  Reflection  Absorption Water Characteristics – STEF  Specific Heat  Transparency . 25 C = 50% rel hum 29. L. Gas / heat added  no change in T. Relative humidity  A percentage relating the amount of water vapor present to the amout the air can hold at a given Temp 27. 26. 5 C . is latent heat rel or abs during condensation?  Released Evap?  Absorbed 25. What is dew point? P. Just after midnight (just before sunrise) 24.

  Evaaporation Fluidity Humidity measures – MAD RV  Mixing Ration  Absolute Humidity  Dew Point  Relative Humidity  Vapor Pressure .

HAND IT IN CLASS Noci Clouds  Form in July and August  Ice at boundary of earth’s atm and space  Shine bc so high they remain lit even when sun goes down Billow Clouds (Kelvin Helmholtz waves) Lenticular Clouds  UFO  Form over mtn ranges Shelf Clouds (type of arcus clouds)  Low at horizontal cloud associated with thunderssorm fronts Roll Clouds (type of arcus) Stratocumulus streets  High up on troposphere Contrails  Can affect temperature Fog   Radiation Valley o Air sinks down o During night. fog forms in valley Upslope Advection = Horizontal Mvmnt o Cold surface.1/24/2014 1:50:00 PM 2/7 EXTRA CREDIT – DUE FEB 24. then reaches dew point   . warmer air blow off surface.

  Evaporation o Oppsite from advection o Steam from water o Warm water. Stab. some droplets are evap in air = cooling process o Droplets take energy from air and also adding moisture to the air o Move air to close to dew point = saturation o EXAM DESCRIBE SCENE AND TELL WHAT TYPE OF FOG Go up 100 m => cool down 1 deg C Clouds named based on –Form and Hieght Highly vertically dev rain producing cloud – cumulonimbus 2 ways fog form – cool to dew point and add moisture fog formed when warm air moves horiz over a colder surface – advection See picture in phone for ELR DALR AND WALR II. PRECIPITATION FORMATION  WAGS – Winds Atm. Shear o Collision and calescent – W  o The Bergeron process – C Formation )see phone pic 2/10/14 Drop must be larger than the other rops to be an efficient collider . cool air o Common in early fall Preciptation o Light drizzle rain fallin in cool air. Gravity.

o Rain result from liq droplets or ice crystals (origin from Bergeron ) o Virga – evap on way down . hail  Caused by profile of temperature  Liquid Prec.Too big will be less efficient bc it creates high pressure that pushes smaller drops out of the way. usually in summertime (warm air) .  (wrt) with respect to Review – see phone pic Types of Precipitation: rain. warm air holds a lot of moisture o Shower/Cloudburst = *EXTREME  High all rate (>or equal to 5 in/hr)  Highly vert dev cloud formations (usually cumulonimbus) with high moisture content  Can result in disastrous floods – short duration  India/Asia during Monsoons . graupel.snow. ice crystal sucks moisture out of air (droplet) . sleet. then becomes snow crustal  Ice formation requires ice nuclei  Coexist of ice and supercooled water = ice crystals  KEY : Saturation vapor Pressure of ice is < that of supercooled water at the same temp  See phone pic.freezing rain. supercoold droplets. Cold and Cool Clouds  Cold – temp below 0 troughout o Entirely ice crystals. mix of 2  Cool – temp above 0 in lower reaches of clouds Cool clouds – Collision Coalescence  Only in temp above freezing Bergeron Ice Crustal Process  Cold clouds  Small droplets hit ice crystal structure. does not hit ground.

it does it outside of the cloud o Freezing Rain  Similar to sleet. or seeding smilar to cloud seeding o Ineffective above freezing o Airports Frost P Hail suppression – hail cannons o Big funnel . larger it becomes o Graupel  Snow flakes collide with others / cold liq droplets . mixing. air pockets  Spongy texture = dots icecream o Sleet  Start as frozen prec – melts.  Frozen Prec o Snow – originate Bergeron  Temp profile that never goes above freezing *EXAM  Shape depend on temp and vapor pressure Freezing Prec o Hail – vertical develp cloud – lots of mixing  Melt and refreezing = more . refreezes  Unlike hail. shockwave thru funnel to cloud     . but it doesn’t refreeze when it comes down it super cools = freeze onto any solid surface Human Alteration to Prec  Weather mod o Cloud seeding – more rain o Fog dispersal – airports / visibility o Hail suppression – farmers o Frost prevention – farmer CS – inject material into non precipitating cloud – rocket/plane o Dry ice/silver iodide o Olympics Fog D o See phone pic o Heaters.