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Mara Magda Maftei!

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The Asian Conference on Literature and Librarianship 2012 Official Conference Proceedings Osaka. Romania The Asian Conference on Literature and Librarianship 2012 Official Conference Proceedings 2012 143 . Japan The legionarism of Emil Cioran and Mircea Eliade Mara Magda Maftei 1041 University of Bucharest.

regardless of his ethnicity. to whom Cioran and Eliade belonged to. The historical conditions generated by the unification of all Romanian provinces and by the fact that the King Carol the 2nd courted Germany in order to obtain its help so as to put an end to the domestic political instability. adopting thus the 1923 Constitution which gave. by the false and erroneous approach to Germany (stimulated by both the King Carol the 2nd and the Marchal Ion Antonescu). anti-Semitism had been thoughtfully cultivated by the Iron Guard. then to the nationalism of the extreme-right. from democracy to the royal dictatorship of Carol the 2nd. for the first time. stopping finally in communism. the Iron Guard’s aim was to maintain the same program sustained by liberals so as to consolidate the Romanian nation. economic advantages. which invoked the poverty of youngsters. We can conclude that the Romanian national state was created by the most important liberal intellectuals and politicians. In fact. The interwar democracy was not. The Romanian interwar liberalism. as the Iron Guard pretended to act in the name of God. by the extent of unemployment. because it rather appeared as a consequence of the import of the ideology of liberalism and it was not nourished by real domestic needs. followed by the military dictatorship of Antonescu. formed by the professor Nae Ionescu. which had had a good intellectual tradition. passed laws favoring the universal suffrage. rights to minorities. Osaka. therefore in a very short period. apparently. But authoritarianism began to gain more and more importance because of the magnitude taken by the problem of managing the rights of Jews. Japan Japa The Romanian Political Climate of the Interwar Period The modern Romania passed from the year 1918 (the year when all its provinces were unified for the first times) till the instauration of communism. who had never proved before racial feelings. Authoritarianism. the important economic positions held by Jews to the detriment of Romanians. were aware that the consolidation of a very young and poorly homogeneous state represented a vital priority. that is the unexpected enrichment of few persons at the expense of most of the population. through revolt and messianism. The country experienced a concentration of ideologies and economic policies that transformed it into one of the most unstable actor on the international political scene. but also by antiSemitism. was encouraged by the European context. and it could not have been a genuine democracy. it became famous by using as argument the threat represented by both Jews and communists. the right to enjoy private property. they actually gave a lot of power to minorities and therefore a good reason for the Iron Guard to increase its popularity. The generation was obsessed with getting Romania out of its isolation. through a national revolution. Because of its immediate consequence. later even totalitarianism. Democracy gave to the individual. nourishing with anti-Semitism the young generation of intellectuals. generated by himself. although it strongly tended towards dirigisme. to benefit from education. democracy was not well received at the time. 144 . the increased number of Jewish students in universities. of bringing nationalism.The Asian Conference on Literature and Librarianship 2012 Official Conference Proceedings Osaka. The democratic parties that had been at power till the beginning of the King Carol the 2nd’ dictatorship in 1938. but the reactionary nationalism succeeded in disarticulating the country recently unified. but through the reforms they passed. Nae Ionescu’s sympathy for the Iron Guard and his rebellion against the King Carol the 2nd created a generation fanatical of transforming Romania. In reality. in order to impose a false Romanian resentment against Jews. to the extreme. both created an environment favorable to the development of anti-Semitic reactions to a people.

Mircea Eliade. Noica. Traian Herseni. 1993. Japan Japa The Iron Guard represented the movement which perfectly harmonized the revolt of the “young generation”. Ionescu. sincerely interested in all cultural events. Mihail Sebastian. Emil Cioran. Most of these names (the list not being completed) are still unknown. half Romanians. many researchers are disputing over the political choices made at that time by Cioran and Eliade. Codreanu wanted a lot to develop the spiritual character of the movement.317). closer to the “Romanian model of existence”. when being ignored. deeply involved in politics and social movements. An Extremist Cioran 145 . Dan Botta. Paul Comarnescu. organized in different associations. of writers such as Cioran. In the name of God. despite many previous trials. insisting that the movement was based on Christian theology. four members of the famous “young generation”. generated by the power of the cross” (Veiga. The “young generation” included many names. The young generation Researchers are quite familiarized with the names of Cioran. orthodox orientation. Constantin Noica. Petre Tutea. the Guard pretended to defend the interests of the Romanian people by means of a national revolution. who tried. Paul Sterian. they also failed when not being able to accomplish their mission. The Iron Guard militated for a spiritual elite. Even if they had good and promising careers at the time. Nicolae Rosu and many others. according to all social standards. usually denying their earlier adhesion to the Iron Guard. arguing later that: “the solution to the problems of Romania is embodied by the establishment of a new order in Europe. Eugen Ionescu. the most cultural productive and lively generation in the Romanian history. Arsavir and Haig Acterian. This false spiritual orientation represented a dimension actually imposed by Nae Ionescu. Ionescu. etc. antiSemitic and anti-democratic program. with a nationalist. the chief of the Legionary Movement. few managed to leave the country and turn themselves into “exiled writers”. Noica. Osaka. some preferred the anonymity to the compromise. Mihail Polihroniade. Eliade. p. Sandu Tudor. from different artistic domains. Even if they all meant something as a group. were always migrating from one political commitment to another. had initially declared that the Iron Guard was anti-fascist. Since then. No other generation had been previously aware of the importance of making the Romanian culture known worldwide. using as a starting point a spiritual. religious and national democracy. initiating various debates and conferences. together with the “young generation”. Eliade. etc. the others failed.The Asian Conference on Literature and Librarianship 2012 Official Conference Proceedings Osaka. half French or Americans. Ionel Jianu. from the same standards’ point of view. they did not manage to survive to the political pressure and changes. later on condemned and wrongly justified. for a moral. Mircea Vulc!nescu. only few of them succeeded in turning themselves into winners. on the belief in God. Corneliu-Zelea Codreanu. to change the “physiognomy” of his country. Vasile Bancila. they died in communist prisons. this generation meant the very moment when Romania finally managed “to advertise” itself internationally.. Paul Costin Deleanu.

standing on different positions.The Asian Conference on Literature and Librarianship 2012 Official Conference Proceedings Osaka. Fascism and Bolshevism. to be the best solution. especially because initially the movement promised just an ideological refreshment. which was We enumerate some Romanian personalities assassinated by the legionaries: I. When he returned home. Nevertheless. very dear to him. He sent articles to the legionary review Vremea. N. where nepotism was impossible to be reduced. Eliade. publicistic! 1931 – 1944 (Solitude and destiny…). p. In this context. All the intellectuals supported a national revolution. Japan Japa The teachings of the professor Nae Ionescu are to be found in the doctrine of the Iron Guard and in the early writings of Cioran and Eliade. but he did not rely on the illusion according to which the Iron Guard would be a completely spiritual movement. which was not meant to get out of the religious framework. while its faithful members were atheists. a very intelligent man. where he confessed his sympathy for Nazism. We are wondering why the Guard insisted on transforming Romania and on the latter’s reconciliation with God. 153). of force even. Revela$iile durerii (The revelations of pain). the terror will install among ex-democratic politicians. Cioran showed very clearly. very involved in 1936 (see the chapter National Collectivism included in Transfiguration of Romania. Some of Cioran’s articles. The Iron Guard ended up in assassinating many Romanian intellectuals. such as Cioran. he encouraged the youth involvement in politics. written during the Romanian period are to be found in the neutral volume made up by Mariana Vartic and Aurel Sasu. who had touched universality by means of spiritual strength” (Cioran. towards which Cioran sent his thoughts tormented by revolutionary passions. a commitment latter proved to be false. p. 1934c. Ac"iunea. embraced the Iron Guard’s doctrine? Mostly because of the hopelessness to live in a very corrupted country. Singur!tate %i destin. He wrote two texts about them. Iamandi in November 1940. on the spiritual connotation of the Legionary Movement. Journal de guerre. Researchers are wondering what was the reason for which Cioran. Cioran showed that the Iron Guard encouraged the heroic death. Hitler in the German consciousness). his revolutionary intentions: Romania in fata str!in!t!"ii (Romania exposed to strangers).. G. Cioran left Romania in 1933 with a scholarship and he went to Germany. which tried to limit its actions1. seemed to Cioran. Printemps 2001) 1 146 . 1936. Iorga. V. Osaka. Cioran’s totalitarianism became even more intransigent when he expressed his opinions about Jews. but not in the volume revised by Cioran himself. in his articles. sustaining in the same time that “there are no people. gathered under the title of Letters from Germany. the general Arge"anu in the massacre from Jilava in November 1940. Gândirea but especially Vremea. especially Cioran. anti-Semitic writers and journalists (for more details see Rene de Weck. Un diplomate suisse à Bucharest (1939 -1945). Noica etc. critical edition by Simon Roth. Cioran discovered in the Iron Guard the irrationality. the promise of the Iron Guard to make a national revolution that would restructure the anarchic society. 2001. Revolta s!tuilor (The revolt of the dissatisfied). Impresii din Munchen. writing here: “what did mankind lose if some idiots are dead?”(Cioran. Madgearu and V. Armand C!linescu in 1939. the idea of heroism. a desideratum harshly applauded in his philosophical discourse. who writes that he cannot love but a Romania in delirium. As soon as the national-legionary state was formed (on the 6 of September 1940) and once the legionaries arrived at power. Cioran continued to publish articles in the same style. most of his articles are still dissipated in the reviews of the time Acta. preface by Francis Python. for example. He became enthusiastic about the Nazi policy. 2). Hitler în con#tiin"a german! (Impressions of Munich. in the article entitled În preajma dictaturii (In the approach of the dictatorship). Duca in 1933. and not only. Calendarul.

to prepare the revolution and push the country towards dictatorship. Cioran began to hate being born in a country unable to make history and he tried everything possible to leave his country forever. Cioran did not make the apology of legionary heroism through his articles. Cioran was enthusiastic of both fascism and communism and he supported the rise of a traditionalist Romanian nationalism. considered orthodoxy responsible for maintaining the Romanian people in a status of subordination to great cultures. as it represented the most rapid solution to immediately create a European capitalist civilization. Cioran resorted to the totalitarian solution. He never returned back. Also. as a complete edition (which includes also the chapter National Collectivism. where Cioran expressed his hate against Jews and Hungarians). Cioran. personified by the extreme-right. Although he did not join the Iron Guard in its assassinates. Cioran insisted so much on the evil done to Romanians by Jews that he really seemed to deploy strong personal beliefs in this direction. Cioran still believed in the Iron Guard as being the last chance of assertion the Romanian people had. but he admitted that liberalism was not able to inculcate to the Romanian people the will to power. who appreciated the national values given by the orthodoxy. Japan Japa eliminated when his book was republished in 1990 at Humanitas) 2 and the laudatory text produced in 1956. Cioran has in common with the legionary doctrine the need for a reactionary revolution. In 1937. The theory of Cioran was somehow specious. Actually he reclaimed the necessity of force in order to change the typical mediocrity and resignation of Romanians. Unlike his colleagues of generation. the revolution represents the only resolution. He even hesitated at one moment between the solutions suggested by the left-wing politics and those proposed by the right-wing extremism. he 2 Transfiguration of Romania was translation for the first time in French. values that were meant to form “the new man”. anti-democratic. most autochthonic. by using dictatorial measures. in 2009. thinks Cioran. Osaka. anti-liberal. Cioran acknowledged the historical merits of liberal politicians. Neither the French Revolution nor before it. During his Romanian period. but. the Christian one achieved “to improve the material condition of man”. the only solution for Romania to put an end to fraud and nepotism.The Asian Conference on Literature and Librarianship 2012 Official Conference Proceedings Osaka. he looked up to it. as different from his generation. The temptation to exist. Having this in mind. once he installed forever in France in 1947. Cioran appreciated thus the Bolshevik Revolution because of its contribution to the awakening of “mass consciousness”. at l’Herne. Even if he followed Nae Ionescu in his support given to the Iron Guard. No other representative of his generation showed so much hate against his own people. fascism and communism have all justification. such as Polihroniade or even Eliade. not fully liberal nor overall legionary. Cioran supported dictatorship. Cioran did not do it blindly and he did not enroll himself properly in the movement as some colleagues of generation did it. included later in the volume published in French. which to take into account social issues. unlike his colleagues of generation. He excused himself pathetically later. Because democracy revealed an entire corrupted political class. translation made by Alain Paruit 147 . on the contrary. late enough. As the revolution failed. so much he admired and praised him. For countries which confront themselves with a high degree of poverty. He supported a messianic nationalism. the latter accompanying the professor Nae Ionescu in prison at Miercurea-Ciuc (where he was sent by the King Carol the 2nd).

January 29. according to whom Catholicism represents the religion of great civilizations. 50 de conferin"e radiofonice 1932-1938. (1996) consider that Eliade became in 1948 the president of the legionary party. history. Eliade was not a full member of the Legionary movement. 341. no. while orthodoxy keeps people in a subcultural status. which risked completely burying it. Eliade – a Supporter of the Iron Guard The articles published by Eliade during the Romanian period were collected in volumes such as: Profetism românesc. set up in exile. Eliade was obsessed with another legionary theme. Japan Japa repeated the assertions of the national poet Mihai Eminescu. The same as Cioran. Mircea Eliade la Radio (Mircea Eliade. After having excused himself for the mistakes done during his youth. The main obvious obsession of the “young generation” was the need to push the Romanian culture from its Lilliputian status. September 22. writing many articles where he developed it. Glosse pentru omul nou (Glosses for the new man) in Convorbiri literare. 1938 etc.The Asian Conference on Literature and Librarianship 2012 Official Conference Proceedings Osaka. Gh. But. a mature Cioran. vol. istorie. 1932 – 1938). Fragmentarium (Fragmentarium). as Cioran. We come across at Eliade the same obsession of making history. because of the influence of his professor Nae Ionescu. O convertire la românism (A conversion to "Romanism") in Cuvântul. even candidating on the list of the legionary party Totul pentru Tara (All for the Country) in 1937. to offer his support even after leaving the country. denounced Marxism as the doctrine that does not correspond to the program of the “young generation”. politics) in Vremea. In the article Reabilitarea spiritualit!"ii (Rehabilitation of spirituality). Eliade became more and more involved in ideologically supporting the Movement. 16. Buzatu et al. We may say that Transfiguration of Romania was the utmost veritable anatomy of the defects of the Romanian society a Romanian writer had ever written. that of “the new man”. 477. But Eliade’s nationalism differs somehow from Cioran’s. especially by political force. The philosopher. 434. 1937. thought Cioran. I #i II (Romanian Prophetism). Textele “legionare” %i despre “românism” (The “legionary” texts and the texts on “ romanism”) etc. politic!. De unde începe misiunea României ? (Where does the mission of Romania start?) in Vremea. Osaka. 1933). no. no. obsession manifested most strongly in Cioran’s case. June 10. Oceanografie (Oceanography). Eliade. no. In all these articles 148 . April 1934. no. 3021. 1934. Libertate %i crea$ie în literatura legionar! (Freedom and Creation in the legionary literature) in Sânzana. pro-Bolshevik. turned himself finally in the 1960s into an “intractable liberal” and an “honest democrat”. among which we mention: Reabilitarea spiritualit!$ii. February 28. unlike Cioran. subsequent to many historical failures. Totul pentru Tara (All for the Country). Câteva cuvinte mari (Rehabilitation of spirituality. April 26. (Deliverance. will complain about the harsh measures adopted by the dictator Ceausescu. a few important words) in Vremea. tackled by Cioran in his philosophical discourse. Mântuire. 1936. Mircea Eliade. installed in Paris. Romania fell into the trap of a real deep mistake. 50 radio conferences. who admired so long revolutions. continuing. 4. no.

social. always under the domination of an empire and they tried to find a national identity for this people. considered capable of providing a new image to history. therefore to its own value (…)” (Eliade. As regarding Eliade. respectively of the power of the historical mission of the Iron Guard and of its leader and he wrote in the article Popor f!r! misiune (People without mission): “a political leader of the youngsters said that the purpose of his mission was to reconcile Romania with God” (Eliade.) the Romanian messianism can begin only by our awareness as chosen people. Eliade really believed in the messianism promoted by the Iron Guard.. with which Eliade gets involved in supporting the spiritual and cultural mission of the Iron Guard. until exhaustion. is given by the need for every Romanian to become megalomaniac” (Ibidem). The passion. like Cioran. as “an act of spiritual creation. surpassing its history. Eliade really attached importance to the force of the Iron Guard to change the destiny of his country. the only chance for national affirmation is by means of a revolution. as he writes it in the article Na"ionalismul (Nationalism). did not fully believe in the historical mission of the movement. once they arrived in the West. The latter admired Nazism and Bolshevism.The Asian Conference on Literature and Librarianship 2012 Official Conference Proceedings Osaka. stating: “the messianism of a people means fighting against its fate. once leaving Romania. They wondered about its fate. In general. Cioran. such as the Soviet one. p. Emil Cioran said that the only chance Romania has. acquired by the deepening. of the local. political) are annihilated (. Eliade was animated.. but moreover the nonchalance with which they begin to deny their Romanian political preferences. always engulfed by a new empire. 136). continuing its history in a very submissive manner. Japan Japa Eliade insisted on the idea of the historical transformation the society needed by means of the new man’ ideology. civil and state-run . Researcher such as Leon Volovici (1995) or Alexandra Laignel-Lavastine (2002) persists in attacking Cioran and Eliade by ignoring the historical context which produced the political commitments to the extreme-right of both Romanian writers. the Romanian nation may impose itself. always at the crossroads of great civilizations. independent of the existence of the Iron Guard. the failure was more than predictable. 1990. made Cioran laughing. to change the old social order. neither Cioran nor Eliade had the strength to resist in transforming themselves into devoted admirers of what they had once judged.. in his patriotic articles 149 . For Cioran. Osaka. for Eliade the chance is given by both culture and orthodox philosophy. If according to Cioran. or it disappeared. on the contrary. It has a destiny: to impose its universalism. overnight. Unfortunately. Both Cioran and Eliade were concerned with the misfortune of the Romanian people. crushing its geography. it also means an apocalyptic tension of the community. but rather it is defined by finding a sense to its historical existence.but especially creative in the sense of producing spiritual and cultural values. 1990. What may surprise us today is not the fact they Cioran and Eliade did not manage to achieve their target. tension where the individual disappears and his immediate interests (economic. p.193). According to Eliade. that is to say of creative people. The nation is not necessarily built by force. Eliade was convinced of the unique chance the Romanian extreme-right had to change history. Creator of life forms. the problem of Romania was simple: either it made history. a universal nation. This is the fate of small nations. of the specific. by the need to impose a messianic revolution that annihilates completely the Romanian background and creates. of the particular. his political commitment differed from the one of Cioran.

and other thirty young intellectuals) necessary for achieving success. Noua aristocra$ie legionar! (The new legionary aristocracy). (where he collaborated from 1932 until 1940) and in Bunavestire. Eliade. materialized by publications in favor of the Iron Guard. and in 1937 he discovered a movement.The Asian Conference on Literature and Librarianship 2012 Official Conference Proceedings Osaka. The event that completely triggered Eliade’s enthusiasm. Osaka. before demonizing us. a spiritual revolution that fights firstly against sin and worthlessness is not a political movement. that could replace the old. he even published the article Ion Mo"a #i Vasile Marin dedicated to this event: “the voluntary death of Ion Mo#a and of Vasile Marin has a mystical sense. Cioran. a Christian one.74). included in the responses to the survey initiated by one of the reviews of the Iron Guard. that militated. able of acting in the name of a historical mission. 138). “the feeling that we were born to accomplish a single revolution in the history of our people” (Ibidem. all corrupted. Eliade wrote many articles so as to defend the Iron Guard. the professor provided to the Guard high quality human material (such as Noica. was the death during the Spanish Civil War of Ion Mo#a and Vasile Marin. A sacrifice that verifies the 150 . outdated aristocracy. through the doctrine of “the new man”. and which. two legionary leaders. but with defining itself from the cultural point of view. Buna Vestire. West researchers are wondering whether Eliade really supported or not the Legion. considering the chief of the Iron Guard. the other political. Eliade maintained his cultural opinion according to which the Romanian people should not necessarily be obsessed with becoming important politically.73). but he was rather overwhelmed by its spiritual promises and eradication of Romanian democratic politicians. that is to say before making us become Bolsheviks?” (Eliade. p. p. it was about the replacement of “the aristocracy of blood with the new aristocracy created by the Legion. into “a new one” (according to the totalitarian doctrine). A movement fueled by Christian spirituality. As we have mentioned above. Japan Japa published in Vremea. Maybe his friend and colleague of generation. I believe in the victory of the Christian spirit. both wanting to transform man. p. Corneliu-Zelea Codreanu as being the only political figure able to save the country from the Bolshevik danger. p. 64). the sacrifice for Christianity. Eliade had betted in 1927 on the spiritual force of his generation. one didactic. would ensure the accomplishment of the mission of his generation. he thought. the Iron Guard. 2001. 1990. Eliade wrote a whole article on the new aristocracy. but especially because of the cooperation between the two "institutions". the aristocracy of mind” (Ibidem. Mihail Sebastian wrote in his Diary that Eliade really suffered because of the death of these two legionaries. In 1938. a legionary one. that is to say national. Here he argued: “I believe in this victory because. for the triumph of a new type of nationalism. a combination which had success because of the professor Nae Ionescu and of the Iron Guard. in the name of the Devil. Eliade appropriated more the legionary doctrine than Cioran. regarding their death in a mystical sense. as he states it in the article Destinul culturii române#ti (The destiny of the Romanian culture): “if the Russian troops enter our country and if they win. above all. who can believe and where is it this person who claims they are going to leave our country. such as the article De ce cred in biruinta Miscarii legionare (Why do I believe in the victory of the Legionary movement?). But nationalism at the time meant anti-Semitism and anti-capitalism. It is certain that the Iron Guard increased its popularity because Nae Ionescu supported it. It is a Christian revolution” (Eliade. Mihail Sebastian was right when he wrote that he was convinced Eliade had never anticipated the brutal force of the Legion.

If the Communist Party had been better represented in the interwar period. as at the time. but also by the belief that the Legionary Movement would succeed in creating a spiritual revolution. p. At the disappointment related to the insignificance of his people.7).]. as he liked. He wrote in the article Pilo$i orbi (The blind pilots) that: “We have stood worthlessly and we watched how Jews are becoming stronger in the cities of Transylvania [. Romanians. p. but we have been waiting to be done by history” (Ibidem. 1996.. 151 . we have not made. just as the West. Cioran added his contextual hate against Jews. all his political philosophy is based on his aversion to the mediocrity of the Romanian people.35). making reference to his country mostly rural at the beginning of the 20th century and insisting on the helplessness and insignificance of his own people: “we. Obviously.42). Jews enjoyed more opportunities than Romanians. A sacrifice intended to give results. in the article.. maybe the Romanian politicians would have concentrated all their efforts in fighting later against the soviet danger. Eliade is considered as being an ardent defender of the extreme-right because of his commitment to his professor Nae Ionescu. nor Marxists very motivated” (Stolojan. Romanians did not have the slightest idea about the atrocities of communism until its instauration in 1944. which expressed Communist sympathies. he wrote.1918]. However. had not been aware of the horrors of it until the publication of Solzhenitsyn's book on the misery of the communist gulag. The same conception over the ideal political regime is to be found in his work published in 1942.The Asian Conference on Literature and Librarianship 2012 Official Conference Proceedings Osaka. as regarding Eliade’s alliance with Codreanu. p. anti-Semitic articles. where was well implemented because Russia had the propitious political and social terrain. in the Transfiguration of Romania. Cioran was right.254). 2001. “with farmers we can only enter by the back door of history. dedicated to the dictator Salazar. Eliade published. for example. p. p. that it had no Communist Party before 1944. until now history.. Communism is actually the ideological product of the West. the type of political regime Eliade dreams at and expressed. the Jews have invaded the villages of Maramures and Bucovina and have obtained an absolute majority in all the cities of Bessarabia” (Eliade. Japan Japa heroism and faith of an entire generation. to strengthen Christianity. as well as Cioran. p. energize the youngsters” (Ibidem. 2006. 2001. ethnic state” (Ibidem. but his hate against Jews was also contextual. 263).256). Salazar and the revolution from Portugal. Osaka. Mission of the “young generation” The illusion of the “young generation” was to put an end to Romania’s cultural and political isolation. this one was induced mostly by the sympathy he had for Nae Ionescu. the combination being explosive. Cioran confessed himself to Sanda Stolojan that the misfortune of Romania “was given by the fact that it was of right at the time when it should have been of left. Compromiterea românismului (The compromise of the Romanian nation) is given by “the requirement of an organic unitary. As concerning Cioran. Romania feels of earth” (Cioran. In 1936. experienced by the East. p.36) which happened in the end. admired by Eliade because he made “a totalitarian and Christian state” (Eliade.Starting with the war [1914 .

Bucharest: Humanitas. Cioran. 1990. E. 1st ed. 2002. M. 1st ed..1996.. Mântuire. E. 1994. C. no 346. but the cultural and political effervesce will be remembered forever. L. Stolojan. 4. Bucharest: Humanitas. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France – PUF. Eliade. Bibliography: Gheorghe Buzatu. 28 February. 1934. which proved to be exclusive reciprocally. 152 . Cioran. M. project number PN-II-RU-PD-2011-3-0012. Schimbarea la fa#! a Romaniei. Ideologia na$ionalist! "i “problema evreiasc!”. The 20th century was the century of multiple doctrines and ideologies. Ionesco: L'Oubli du fascisme. 50 de conferinte radiofonice 1932-1938. Vremea. no. Bucarest: Humanitas. thanks to their international success. Mircea. 2nd ed. Cultur! "i na$ionalism în România Mare. 1936. Osaka. 1st ed. Cioran.. Cluj-Napoca : Editura Echinoc$iu. Cioran.Z. A. but they succeeded in getting their country out of its cultural obscurity. 6th ed. Singur!tate "i destin. E. 349. Weck. Japan Japa Cioran. Codreanu. 29 January. 2001. Eliade and their generation failed to impose a different rhythm to the Romanian history. De unde începe misiunea României ?. M.. E. Nori peste balcoane. Oceanografie. Cuvântul. Fragmentarium. 10 June. no. Jurnal din exilul parizian. Impresii din Munchen. 1918 – 1930. 1919 – 1941. F. 1942. 1938. Profetism românesc. Textele „legionare” "i despre „românism”. 5 August. Paris: Printemps. Bucharest: Humanitas. Eseu despre formele antisemitismului intelectual în România anilor ’30. vol. Salazar "i revolu$ia din Portgalia. 2001. M. 15 July. 2nd ed. 22 September. Bucharest: F. M. E... S. 1991. 2nd ed. 2001. Convorbiri literare. Cioran. Libertate "i crea$ie în literatura legionar!.. Laignel-Lavastine. 2nd ed. translated by Marian %tef!nescu. 341. 1934. Veiga. Cioran.. 1998. 2nd ed. istorie. Eliade. 1995. Mistica ultrana$ionalismului. Revela$iile durerii. Bucharest: Humanitas. Pentru legionari. 1933. no. E. Journal de guerre. Vremea. M. Bucharest: Humanitas. Istoria G!rzii de Fier. 434... I. politic!. Volovici. 1934b. Eliade. Eliade. Cluj-Napoca: Dacia Eliade. Press. M. Cioran. publicistic! 1931 – 1944. 26 April. translated by Vlad Russo. Mircea. 2nd ed.. 1937. 1st ed. et al.. 1936. Vremea. R. nr. Eliade.. 2nd ed.. Eliade.. Un diplomate suisse à Bucharest (1939 -1945). Vremea.UEFISCDI. no 335. Bucharest: Humanitas. Vremea.. 1st ed. Mircea Eliade la Radio. I. 1st ed. 1991. Eliade. Bucharest: Humanitas.. Sânzana. Revolta s!tuilor..F.. M. no. Eliade.. 1934a. Eliade. Sibiu:Totul pentru $ar! Livezeanu. 3021. Eliade.. M. Eliade. O convertire la românism. Bucharest: Humanitas. 2001.. 1st ed. 477. Vremea. Acknowledgements This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research. 29 April. 1993. 1st ed. 1934c. România în fa$a str!in!t!$ii. CNCS . Eliade. Reabilitarea spiritualit!$ii.. Câteva cuvinte mari. Hitler în con"tiin$a german!.The Asian Conference on Literature and Librarianship 2012 Official Conference Proceedings Osaka. no. April. 1996. 16. M. Bucharest: Gorjan. 1990. no. Glosse pentru omul nou. 1st ed. Radiografia dreptei românesti (1927-1941). Bucharest: Roza Vânturilor.

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