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A Spectrum Analyser provides a display of amplitude verses frequency. The spectrum analyser resolves the spectral make up of the signal and displays it in a wide amplitude and frequency range. The modern spectrum analyser has analysis capabilities from a few kHz to well over 100 GHz in frequency and an amplitude range well over 100 dB. The block diagram of a swept superhetrodyne spectrum analyser is shown in fig. 1. It is made up of a wide band input mixer driver with a swept local oscillator and the resolution capability of the instrument is determined as a fixed intermediate frequency (IF).

Fig. 1 Simplified block diagram of Spectrum Analyser Relating Front Panel Control to Analyser Circuits. Details of various blocks of swept superhetrodyne instrument is given below :Input Attenuator : The first block is the input attenuator. Its purpose is to limit the power of the incoming signal. Most spectrum analyser can handle - 99 dBm to 30 dBm (1 W) level at its input. The attenuator itself is usually in 0.5 to 1W power handling range. This sets the maximum input level that the instrument can handle without damage. Input filter : The next block is a filter for image rejection or preselection. These are electronically tunable filters which continuously adjust to track the tuned frequency of the spectrum analyser. A marker or cursor is placed upon the unknown signal and the signal analyser displays the true frequency of the response.

STI(T) Publication



Warm-up the analyser for 30 min.10 dBm. Connect 'CAL output' to 'RF INPUT' by the cable supplied with equipment. The CAL pulse in this case should touch the top line of the graticule otherwise use the LEVEL CAL preset for proper calibration. . These filters allow some post filtering or averaging of the detected output. STI(T) Publication 188 007/2003 . Enter 'FREQUENCY SPAN/DIV' to 1 kHz. Turn the power switch 'ON'. the other should also be accordingly changed so that the equipment remains in calibrated form. Calibration information may be stored in the read only memory of the instrument to be accessed. The resolution bandwidth is one measure of the resolving power of the instrument. 5. the narrower the filter the closer two signals may be seen as separate responses. In case of markers the micro processors will handle reading the data stored at a given frequency and displaying the information to the user in appropriate resolution. 6. Video filters : Video filters follow the envelop detectors. Enter 'REFER LEVEL' as . Enter 'CENTER FREQ' as 100 MHz. crystal filters and digital filters. Markers and many other functions are provided through this central microprocessor. corrected or aligned by the microprocessor. Swept Local Oscillator : The S. Its gain varies with signal amplitude.O. Resolution bandwidth filters are usually realized in a combination of LC filters. 2. The stability and spectral purity of the swept local oscillator can be a limiting factor in many performances areas. Cal signal is 100 MHz. Microprocessor : Much of the instrument is calibrated. 4. is a very element in the total signal analyser. In the normal analyser with very narrow resolution bandwidth. The primary function is to provide a wide selection of resolution bandwidth filters. 3.10 dBm.Spectrum Analyser Intermediate frequency stage (IF) : This is the stage where the real analysis is done in the signal analyser. Calibration 1. The ideal local oscillator would be exactly stable and have no frequency modulation. The stability of the oscillator can be obtained by using frequency lock loops or phase locked loops. The inclusion of micro processor also gives the remote capability.L. At small signal level the gain may be 10 dB while at larger amplitude the gain drops to 0 dB. The microprocessor tracks all instrument settings and make adjustments to remain calibrated. a few Hz of FM can cause the signal to smear. When any of the coupled function such as resolution bandwidth or sweep time is changed. Video filters are generally set to the same bandwidth diagram or larger than the resolution bandwidth unless the measurement needs averaging. Detector : The detector in most basic spectrum analyser is a linear envelope detector similar to those found in AM radios. Cascading several stages of this type of amplifier is necessary to obtain the desired log. Log Amplifier : The log amplifier processes the incoming signal in a logarithmic fashion which allows a large range of incoming signal to be measured and compared.

Used to change value of selected parameter. Enables to enter centre frequency of measurement. i. For shifting to special functions in blue colour. 10 kHz . 14. 8. 15. 21. Selects vertical scale (10 dB/div or 5 dB/div or 2 dB//div or 1 dB/div) (i) Specifies signal level at top horizontal line to graticule. 9. Sets attenuation of input attenuator from 0 to 70 db in 10 db steps. 13. 6. 5. FREQ BAND CENTER FREQ FREQ SPAN START STOP LOG REFERENCE LEVEL PEAK > CTR << >> ↑ OFF TITLE SHIFT MARKER : : ↓ : : : : : : : : : : : Selects Freq. Shifts the display to right or left of the screen. 19. Band in two ranges. VBW. Four coupled functions (RBW. To increase or to decrease frequency span. 2. 16. 17. Determines resolution BANDWIDTH of IF stage. 12. (ii) Activates peak marker in marker mode. 10 11.7 GHz to 23 GHz. Adjusts sweep time between 2 micro sec/div and 10 s/div. 22. 'MARKER' mode.FM Transmitter Panel Controls 1. 4. Also Also activates Delta marker in To enter starting frequency of a band. 189 007/2003 NUMBER KEYS : UNIT KEYS CURSOR AUTO INPUT ATTEN SWEEP TIME VIDEO B/W RES. To enter end frequency of the band. Brings highest peak signal to the centre of the screen. Determines unit and ends data entry. Disables the selected parameter. For numeric value input. 18. Sets frequency span/div. activates Normal marker in MARKER mode. 7.2 GHz and 1. 20. Sweep time & Input atten) are set to most appropriate condition in auto mode. 3. Determines post detection filter bandwidth between 1 Hz and 3 MHz.e. Displays MARKER menu from which desired marker can be selected. For displaying Alpha Numeric character on top field of CRT. B/W : : : : : : : STI(T) Publication .

2. 100 MHz RF signal. Adjust 'SPAN' to spread or compress the waveform horizontally. 30. With shift 'OFF'. For checking/adjusting deviation of FM carrier. 3. 5. Enables to display all parameters in memories 0 to 9. 3. 6. 29. Connect signal at 'RF INPUT'. Makes copy of CRT display on printer or plotter on connecting GPIB cable. 2. Select the frequency band covering frequency of signal being measured and enter the centre frequency by pressing 'CENTRE FREQUENCY' key. current measurement conditions are stored in selected memory. PROCEDURE FOR USING A SPECTRUM ANALYSER 1. To freeze the frame. 25. 4. 26. At RN terminal or Earth Station it can be used for measuring level and frequency of downlink carriers and carrier to noise density. With shift 'ON' copies signal traces and graticule. USE COPY RF INPUT CAL O/P READ/WRITE (A/B) RUN SINGLE : : : : : : In AIR & DD network spectrum analyser can be mainly used for :1. Optimisation of PDA. To start sweeping. 27. 28. adjust if required. RECALL SAVE : : Enables to display all parameters stored in memory 0 to 9. [SAVE] [3] Saves in memory 3 [SAVE] [-4] Clears memory 4. To read or write to the memories of channel A/B. 5. Check the calibration of the spectrum analyser. Measurement of level and frequency of carrier and its side bands. By selecting one of memory addresses. copies all display. 190 007/2003 STI(T) Publication . 4. Adjust 'REF LEVEL' and 'VERTICAL SCALE' to increase/decrease the amplitude of waveform on the screen. 24. Adjust 'Video Band Width' (VBW) to reduce the post detection noise in the waveform.Spectrum Analyser 23. Measurement of Harmonics level. To connect Input signal power (should not be more than +30 dBm) -10 dBm.

10. Video. Connect and enter the downlink frequency of transponder. 11. 5. SS and E/D Signal). Get smooth waveform of downlink carrier with RBW = 10 kHz. 4. Check the calibration of spectrum analyser. Bring the main marker on peak of the waveform and delta marker on grass noise level. Use 'TITLE' to give any short title to the waveform. 3. to the analyser. With the help of 'GPIB' cable use 'COPY' to get the print of the waveform. 9. 6.FM Transmitter 7. 8. 7. Uplink pure carrier to the transponder of interest (Disconnect. PROCEDURE FOR MEASURING C/No WITH THE HELP OF SPECTRUM ANALYSER 1. Note the level-difference of main marker and delta marker displayed on top of the screen. Use 'MARKER' to find frequency separation and difference of level of two different waveforms. STI(T) Publication 191 007/2003 . Adjust if required. Add 10 log (10 kHz) (= 40 dB) to the level obtained at point no. 6 above. Use 'SINGLE FREE/RUN' switch to disable/able the sweeping of screen. Use 'MEMORY' to save data of any desired waveform. 2. Sum of these two readings will be C/No (Carrier to noise density).